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Man

and his Symbols


conceived and edited by

Carl G.Jung
The first and only work in which C a r l
G. Jung, the world-famous Swiss psy-
chologist, explains to the general reader
his greatest contribution to our knowl-
edge of the human mind: the theory of
the importance of symbolismparticu-
larly as revealed in dreams.

Man and his


Symbols
Carl G.Jung
But for a dream, this book would never
have been written. That dream de-
scribed by John Freeman in the Fore-
wordconvinced Jung that he could,
indeed should, explain his ideas to those
who have no special knowledge of psy-
chology. At the age of eighty-three,
Jung worked out the complete plan for
this book, including the sections that
he wished his four closest associates to
write. He devoted the closing months
of his life to editing the work and writ-
ing his own key section, which he com-
pleted only ten days before his death.
Throughout the book, Jung empha-
sizes that man can achieve wholeness
only through a knowledge and accept-
ance of the unconsciousa knowledge
acquired through dreams and their
symbols. Every dream is a direct, per-
sonal, and meaningful communication
to the dreamera communication that
uses the symbols common to all man-
kind but uses them always in an entire-
ly individual way, which can be inter-
preted only by an entirely individual
key.
(Continued on back flap)
i

Man and his Symbols


Man and his Symbols

Carl G.Jung

and M.-L. von Franz, Joseph L. Henderson, Jolande J a c o b i , Aniela Jaffe'

Anchor Press
Doubleday
New York London Toronto Sydney Auckland
Editor: Carl G. Jung

and after his death M.-L. von Franz

Co-ordinating Editor: John Freeman

Aldus Editors

Text: Douglas Hill

Design: Michael Kitson

Assistants: Marian Morris, Gilbert Doel, Michael Lloyd


Research: Margery MacLaren
Advisers: Donald Berwick, Norman MacKenzie

An Anchor Press book


Published by Doubleday, a division of Bantam Doubleday Dell
Publishing Group, Inc., 666 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10103
Anchor Press and the portrayal of an anchor are trademarks
of Doubleday, a division of Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing
Group, Inc.

1964 J.G. FERGUSON PUBLISHING


except chapter 2 entitled Ancient myths and modern
man by Dr. Joseph L. Henderson, where copyright in
this chapter within the United States of America is
expressly disclaimed.

Library of Congress Catalog Card No: 64-18631

ISBN 0 - 3 8 5 - 0 5 2 2 1 - 9

First published in the United States of America in 1964


Reprinted in 1 9 6 8 , 1 9 7 0 , 1 9 7 1 , 1 9 7 2 , 1 9 7 4 , 1 9 7 5 , 1 9 7 6 , 1 9 7 9 , 1 9 8 3 , 1 9 8 8

Printed and bound in Spain by TONSA, San Sebastian


Introduction: John Freeman

T h e origins of this book a r e sufficiently u n u s u a l to be of interest, a n d


they b e a r a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n to its c o n t e n t s a n d w h a t it sets o u t to d o . So
let me tell y o u j u s t h o w it c a m e to b e w r i t t e n .
O n e d a y in t h e s p r i n g of 1959 t h e British B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n
invited m e to i n t e r v i e w for British television D r . C a r l G u s t a v J u n g .
T h e interview w a s to b e d o n e " i n d e p t h . " I k n e w little e n o u g h a t t h a t
time a b o u t J u n g a n d his w o r k , a n d I a t o n c e w e n t to m a k e his a c q u a i n t -
ance at his beautiful lakeside h o m e n e a r Z u r i c h . T h a t was t h e b e g i n n i n g
of a friendship t h a t m e a n t a g r e a t d e a l to m e a n d , I h o p e , g a v e some
pleasure to J u n g in t h e last years of his life. T h e television i n t e r v i e w
has no further p l a c e in this story, e x c e p t t h a t it was a c c o u n t e d successful
and t h a t this b o o k is by a n o d d c o m b i n a t i o n of c i r c u m s t a n c e s a n e n d -
product of t h a t success.
O n e m a n w h o saw J u n g o n t h e screen was W o l f g a n g Foges, m a n a g -
ing director of A l d u s Books. Foges h a d b e e n keenly interested in t h e
d e v e l o p m e n t of m o d e r n psychology since his c h i l d h o o d , w h e n h e lived
near the F r e u d s in V i e n n a . A n d as h e w a t c h e d J u n g t a l k i n g a b o u t his
life a n d w o r k a n d ideas, Foges s u d d e n l y reflected w h a t a pity it was
that, while the g e n e r a l o u t l i n e of F r e u d ' s work was well k n o w n to
educated r e a d e r s all over t h e W e s t e r n w o r l d , J u n g h a d n e v e r m a n a g e d
to break t h r o u g h to t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c a n d was a l w a y s c o n s i d e r e d too
difficult for p o p u l a r r e a d i n g .
Foges, in fact, is the c r e a t o r of Man and his Symbols. H a v i n g sensed
from t h e T V screen t h a t a w a r m p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n existed b e t w e e n
J u n g a n d myself, he asked m e w h e t h e r I w o u l d j o i n h i m in t r y i n g to
persuade J u n g to set o u t s o m e of his m o r e i m p o r t a n t a n d basic ideas in
language a n d a t a l e n g t h t h a t w o u l d b e intelligible a n d i n t e r e s t i n g to
non-specialist a d u l t r e a d e r s . I j u m p e d a t t h e i d e a a n d set off o n c e m o r e
to Z u r i c h , d e t e r m i n e d t h a t I c o u l d c o n v i n c e J u n g of the v a l u e a n d
i m p o r t a n c e of s u c h a work. J u n g listened to m e in his g a r d e n for two
hours a l m o s t w i t h o u t i n t e r r u p t i o n a n d t h e n said n o . H e said it in t h e
nicest possible w a y , b u t w i t h g r e a t firmness; h e h a d n e v e r in the past
tried to p o p u l a r i z e his w o r k , a n d h e w a s n ' t sure t h a t h e c o u l d success-
fully d o so n o w ; a n y w a y , h e was old a n d r a t h e r tired a n d n o t keen to
take on such a l o n g c o m m i t m e n t a b o u t w h i c h h e h a d so m a n y d o u b t s .
J u n g ' s friends will all a g r e e w i t h m e t h a t h e was a m a n of most
positive decision. H e w o u l d w e i g h u p a p r o b l e m w i t h c a r e a n d w i t h o u t

9
h u r r y ; b u t w h e n h e did give his a n s w e r , it was usually final. I r e t u r n e d
to L o n d o n g r e a t l y d i s a p p o i n t e d , b u t c o n v i n c e d t h a t J u n g ' s refusal was
the e n d of t h e m a t t e r . So it m i g h t h a v e b e e n , b u t for two i n t e r v e n i n g
factors t h a t I h a d not foreseen.
O n e was the p e r t i n a c i t y of Foges, w h o insisted o n m a k i n g o n e m o r e
a p p r o a c h to J u n g before a c c e p t i n g defeat. T h e o t h e r was a n e v e n t t h a t ,
as I look back on it, still astonishes m e .
T h e television p r o g r a m was, as I h a v e said, a c c o u n t e d successful. It
b r o u g h t J u n g a g r e a t m a n y letters from all sorts of p e o p l e , m a n y of
t h e m o r d i n a r y folk w i t h no m e d i c a l or psychological t r a i n i n g , w h o h a d
b e e n c a p t i v a t e d by the c o m m a n d i n g p r e s e n c e , the h u m o r , a n d the
modest c h a r m of this very g r e a t m a n , a n d w h o h a d g l i m p s e d in his
view of life a n d h u m a n p e r s o n a l i t y s o m e t h i n g t h a t could b e helpful to
t h e m . A n d J u n g was very pleased, n o t simply at g e t t i n g letters (his
mail was e n o r m o u s a t all times) b u t a t g e t t i n g t h e m from p e o p l e w h o
would normally have no contact with him.
I t was a t this m o m e n t t h a t he d r e a m e d a d r e a m of the greatest
i m p o r t a n c e to h i m . ( A n d as you r e a d this book, you will u n d e r s t a n d
j u s t h o w i m p o r t a n t t h a t c a n be.) H e d r e a m e d t h a t , instead of sitting
in his s t u d y a n d t a l k i n g to the g r e a t d o c t o r s a n d psychiatrists w h o used
to call on h i m from all over the w o r l d , h e was s t a n d i n g in a p u b l i c
p l a c e a n d a d d r e s s i n g a m u l t i t u d e of p e o p l e w h o w e r e listening to h i m
with r a p t a t t e n t i o n a n d understanding what he said. . . .
W h e n , a week or t w o later, Foges r e n e w e d his request t h a t J u n g
should u n d e r t a k e a n e w book d e s i g n e d , n o t for the clinic or the philo-
s o p h e r ' s s t u d y , b u t for the p e o p l e in the m a r k e t p l a c e , J u n g allowed
himself to be p e r s u a d e d . H e laid d o w n two c o n d i t i o n s . First, t h a t the
book s h o u l d n o t be a s i n g l e - h a n d e d book, b u t the collective effort of
himself a n d a g r o u p of his closest followers, t h r o u g h w h o m he h a d
a t t e m p t e d to p e r p e t u a t e his m e t h o d s a n d his t e a c h i n g . S e c o n d l y , t h a t I
s h o u l d b e e n t r u s t e d w i t h the task of c o - o r d i n a t i n g the work a n d resolv-
ing a n y p r o b l e m s t h a t m i g h t arise b e t w e e n the a u t h o r s a n d the
publishers.
Lest it s h o u l d seem t h a t this i n t r o d u c t i o n transgresses the b o u n d s of
r e a s o n a b l e m o d e s t y , let m e say at o n c e t h a t I was gratified by this
second c o n d i t i o n b u t w i t h i n m e a s u r e . F o r it very soon c a m e to m y
k n o w l e d g e t h a t J u n g ' s reason for selecting m e was essentially t h a t he

I ()
regarded m e as b e i n g of r e a s o n a b l e , b u t n o t e x c e p t i o n a l , intelligence
and w i t h o u t t h e slightest serious k n o w l e d g e of psychology. T h u s I was
to J u n g t h e " a v e r a g e r e a d e r " of this b o o k ; w h a t I could u n d e r s t a n d
would be intelligible to all w h o w o u l d b e i n t e r e s t e d ; w h a t I boggled
at m i g h t possibly b e too difficult or o b s c u r e for s o m e . N o t u n d u l y flat-
tered by this e s t i m a t e of m y role, I h a v e n o n e t h e less s c r u p u l o u s l y in-
sisted (sometimes, I fear, to the e x a s p e r a t i o n of t h e a u t h o r s ) o n h a v i n g
every p a r a g r a p h w r i t t e n a n d , if necessary, r e w r i t t e n to a d e g r e e of
clarity a n d directness t h a t e n a b l e s m e to say w i t h confidence t h a t this
book in its e n t i r e t y is d e s i g n e d for a n d a d d r e s s e d to the g e n e r a l r e a d e r ,
and t h a t t h e c o m p l e x subjects it deals w i t h a r e t r e a t e d w i t h a r a r e a n d
e n c o u r a g i n g simplicity.
After m u c h discussion, t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e subject of this book was
agreed to b e M a n a n d his S y m b o l s ; a n d J u n g himself selected as his
collaborators in t h e w o r k D r . M a r i e - L o u i s e v o n F r a n z of Z u r i c h , per-
haps his closest professional c o n f i d a n t e a n d f r i e n d ; D r . J o s e p h L. H e n -
derson of S a n F r a n c i s c o , o n e of the most p r o m i n e n t a n d t r u s t e d of
A m e r i c a n J u n g i a n s ; M r s . A n i e l a Jaffe of Z u r i c h , w h o , in a d d i t i o n to
being a n e x p e r i e n c e d a n a l y s t , was J u n g ' s confidential p r i v a t e secretary
and his b i o g r a p h e r ; a n d D r . J o l a n d e J a c o b i , w h o after J u n g himself
is the most e x p e r i e n c e d a u t h o r a m o n g J u n g ' s Z u r i c h circle. T h e s e four
people w e r e chosen p a r t l y b e c a u s e of t h e i r skill a n d e x p e r i e n c e in the
p a r t i c u l a r subjects a l l o c a t e d to t h e m a n d p a r t l y b e c a u s e all of t h e m
were c o m p l e t e l y trusted b y J u n g to w o r k unselfishly to his instructions
as m e m b e r s of a t e a m . J u n g ' s p e r s o n a l responsibility was to p l a n the
structure of t h e w h o l e book, to supervise a n d d i r e c t the w o r k of his
collaborators, a n d himself to w r i t e t h e k e y n o t e c h a p t e r , " A p p r o a c h i n g
the U n c o n s c i o u s . "
T h e last y e a r of his life was d e v o t e d a l m o s t e n t i r e l y to this book, a n d
when he d i e d in J u n e 1961, his o w n section was c o m p l e t e (he finished
it, in fact, o n l y s o m e 10 days before his final illness) a n d his colleagues'
chapters h a d all b e e n a p p r o v e d by h i m in draft. After his d e a t h , D r .
von F r a n z a s s u m e d over-all responsibility for the c o m p l e t i o n of the
book in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h J u n g ' s express i n s t r u c t i o n s . T h e subject m a t t e r
of Man and his Symbols a n d its o u t l i n e w e r e therefore laid d o w n
a n d in d e t a i l b y J u n g . T h e c h a p t e r t h a t b e a r s his n a m e is his work
a n d ( a p a r t from s o m e fairly extensive e d i t i n g to i m p r o v e its intelligi-

11
bility to t h e g e n e r a l r e a d e r ) n o b o d y else's. I t was w r i t t e n , i n c i d e n t a l l y ,
in English. T h e r e m a i n i n g c h a p t e r s w e r e w r i t t e n b y t h e v a r i o u s a u t h o r s
to J u n g ' s d i r e c t i o n a n d u n d e r his supervision. T h e final e d i t i n g of the
c o m p l e t e w o r k after J u n g ' s d e a t h has b e e n d o n e by D r . von F r a n z w i t h
a p a t i e n c e , u n d e r s t a n d i n g , a n d good h u m o r t h a t leave the p u b l i s h e r s
a n d myself g r e a t l y in h e r d e b t .
Finally as to t h e c o n t e n t s of t h e book itself:
J u n g ' s t h i n k i n g has colored t h e w o r l d of m o d e r n psychology m o r e
t h a n m a n y of those w i t h casual k n o w l e d g e realize. S u c h familiar t e r m s ,
for i n s t a n c e , as " e x t r a v e r t , " " i n t r o v e r t , " a n d " a r c h e t y p e " a r e all
J u n g i a n c o n c e p t s b o r r o w e d a n d s o m e t i m e s misused b y o t h e r s . B u t his
o v e r w h e l m i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n to psychological u n d e r s t a n d i n g is his con-
c e p t of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s n o t (like t h e u n c o n s c i o u s of F r e u d ) m e r e l y
a sort of glory-hole of repressed desires, b u t a w o r l d t h a t is j u s t as m u c h
a vital a n d real p a r t of the life of a n i n d i v i d u a l as the conscious,
" c o g i t a t i n g " w o r l d of the ego, a n d infinitely w i d e r a n d richer. T h e
l a n g u a g e a n d t h e " p e o p l e " of the u n c o n s c i o u s a r e symbols, a n d the
m e a n s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n s d r e a m s .
T h u s a n e x a m i n a t i o n of M a n a n d his S y m b o l s is in effect a n e x a m i -
n a t i o n of m a n ' s r e l a t i o n to his o w n u n c o n s c i o u s . A n d since in J u n g ' s
view the u n c o n s c i o u s is the g r e a t g u i d e , friend, a n d adviser of t h e
conscious, this book is r e l a t e d in the most direct t e r m s to the s t u d y of
h u m a n beings a n d their s p i r i t u a l p r o b l e m s . W e k n o w t h e u n c o n s c i o u s
a n d c o m m u n i c a t e w i t h it (a t w o - w a y service) p r i n c i p a l l y by d r e a m s ;
a n d all t h r o u g h this book ( a b o v e all in J u n g ' s o w n c h a p t e r ) you will
find a q u i t e r e m a r k a b l e e m p h a s i s p l a c e d o n the i m p o r t a n c e of d r e a m -
ing in the life of the i n d i v i d u a l .
I t w o u l d b e a n i m p e r t i n e n c e o n m y p a r t to a t t e m p t to i n t e r p r e t
J u n g ' s w o r k to r e a d e r s , m a n y of w h o m will surely b e far b e t t e r q u a l i -
fied to u n d e r s t a n d it t h a n I a m . M y role, r e m e m b e r , was m e r e l y to
serve as a sort of "intelligibility filter" a n d by n o m e a n s as a n inter-
p r e t e r . Nevertheless, I v e n t u r e to offer two g e n e r a l points t h a t seem
i m p o r t a n t to m e as a l a y m a n a n d t h a t m a y possibly b e helpful to o t h e r
n o n - e x p e r t s . T h e first is a b o u t d r e a m s . T o J u n g i a n s the d r e a m is n o t a
kind of s t a n d a r d i z e d c r y p t o g r a m t h a t c a n be d e c o d e d by a glossary
of s y m b o l m e a n i n g s . I t is a n i n t e g r a l , i m p o r t a n t , a n d p e r s o n a l expres-
sion of the i n d i v i d u a l u n c o n s c i o u s . It is j u s t as " r e a l " as a n y o t h e r

I 2
p h e n o m e n o n a t t a c h i n g to the i n d i v i d u a l . The, d r e a m e r ' s i n d i v i d u a l
unconscious is c o m m u n i c a t i n g w i t h t h e d r e a m e r a l o n e a n d is selecting
symbols for its p u r p o s e t h a t h a v e m e a n i n g to the d r e a m e r a n d to
n o b o d y else. T h u s t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of d r e a m s , w h e t h e r b y the analyst
or by the d r e a m e r himself, is for the J u n g i a n psychologist a n entirely
personal a n d i n d i v i d u a l business ( a n d s o m e t i m e s a n e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d
very l e n g t h y o n e as well) t h a t c a n by n o m e a n s b e u n d e r t a k e n by
rule of t h u m b .
T h e converse of this is t h a t the c o m m u n i c a t i o n s of the unconscious
are of the highest i m p o r t a n c e to the d r e a m e r n a t u r a l l y so, since the
unconscious is a t least half of his total b e i n g a n d frequently offer h i m
advice or g u i d a n c e t h a t c o u l d be o b t a i n e d from n o o t h e r source. T h u s ,
when I d e s c r i b e d J u n g ' s d r e a m a b o u t a d d r e s s i n g the m u l t i t u d e , I was
not d e s c r i b i n g a piece of m a g i c or suggesting t h a t J u n g d a b b l e d in
fortune telling. I was r e c o u n t i n g in the s i m p l e t e r m s of daily e x p e r i e n c e
how J u n g was " a d v i s e d " by his o w n u n c o n s c i o u s to reconsider a n
i n a d e q u a t e j u d g m e n t he h a d m a d e w i t h t h e conscious p a r t of his m i n d .
N o w it follows from this t h a t t h e d r e a m i n g of d r e a m s is not a m a t t e r
that the well-adjusted J u n g i a n c a n r e g a r d as simply a m a t t e r of
chance. O n t h e c o n t r a r y , the ability to establish c o m m u n i c a t i o n s with
the u n c o n s c i o u s is a p a r t of t h e w h o l e m a n , a n d J u n g i a n s " t e a c h "
themselves (I c a n t h i n k of n o b e t t e r t e r m ) to be r e c e p t i v e to d r e a m s .
1
W h e n , therefore, J u n g himself was faced w i t h the critical decision
w h e t h e r or not to w r i t e this book, he was a b l e to d r a w on the resources
of both his conscious a n d his u n c o n s c i o u s in m a k i n g u p his m i n d . A n d
all t h r o u g h this book you will find the d r e a m t r e a t e d as a direct, per-
sonal, a n d m e a n i n g f u l c o m m u n i c a t i o n to the d r e a m e r a c o m m u n i c a -
tion t h a t uses the symbols c o m m o n to ajl m a n k i n d , b u t t h a t uses t h e m
on every occasion in a n entirely i n d i v i d u a l w a y t h a t c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d
only by a n entirely i n d i v i d u a l " k e y . "
T h e second p o i n t I wish to m a k e is a b o u t a p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
of a r g u m e n t a t i v e m e t h o d t h a t is c o m m o n to all the writers of this book
p e r h a p s to all J u n g i a n s . T h o s e w h o h a v e limited themselves to living
entirely in the w o r l d of the conscious a n d w h o reject c o m m u n i c a t i o n
with the u n c o n s c i o u s b i n d themselves by the laws of conscious, formal
life. W i t h t h e infallible ( b u t often meaningless) logic of t h e a l g e b r a i c
e q u a t i o n , they a r g u e from a s s u m e d premises to i n c o n t e s t a b l y d e d u c e d

'3
conclusions. J u n g a n d his colleagues seem to m e ( w h e t h e r they k n o w it
or not) to reject the l i m i t a t i o n s of this m e t h o d of a r g u m e n t . It is not
t h a t t h e y i g n o r e logic, b u t t h e y a p p e a r all t h e t i m e to be a r g u i n g to the
u n c o n s c i o u s as well as to t h e conscious. T h e i r dialectical m e t h o d is itself
symbolic a n d often devious. T h e y c o n v i n c e not by m e a n s of t h e n a r -
rowly focused spotlight of the syllogism, b u t by skirting, by r e p e t i t i o n ,
b y p r e s e n t i n g a r e c u r r i n g view of the s a m e subject seen e a c h t i m e from
a slightly different a n g l e until s u d d e n l y the r e a d e r w h o has never
b e e n a w a r e of a single, conclusive m o m e n t of p r o o f finds t h a t he has
u n k n o w i n g l y e m b r a c e d a n d t a k e n i n t o himself some w i d e r t r u t h .
J u n g ' s a r g u m e n t s ( a n d those of his colleagues) spiral u p w a r d over
his subject like a b i r d circling a tree. At first, n e a r the g r o u n d , it sees
only a confusion of leaves a n d b r a n c h e s . G r a d u a l l y , as it circles h i g h e r
a n d h i g h e r , the r e c u r r i n g aspects of t h e tree form a wholeness a n d
r e l a t e to their s u r r o u n d i n g s . S o m e r e a d e r s m a y find this " s p i r a l i n g "
m e t h o d of a r g u m e n t o b s c u r e or even confusing for a few p a g e s b u t
not, I t h i n k , for long. I t is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of J u n g ' s m e t h o d , a n d very
soon the r e a d e r will find it c a r r y i n g h i m w i t h it o n a persuasive a n d
profoundly absorbing j o u r n e y .
T h e different sections of this book speak for themselves a n d r e q u i r e
little i n t r o d u c t i o n from m e . J u n g ' s o w n c h a p t e r i n t r o d u c e s t h e r e a d e r
to the u n c o n s c i o u s , to t h e a r c h e t y p e s a n d symbols t h a t form its l a n g u -
age a n d to t h e d r e a m s by w h i c h it c o m m u n i c a t e s . D r . H e n d e r s o n in
the following c h a p t e r illustrates the a p p e a r a n c e of several a r c h e t y p a l
p a t t e r n s in a n c i e n t m y t h o l o g y , folk l e g e n d , a n d p r i m i t i v e r i t u a l . D r .
von F r a n z , in the c h a p t e r e n t i t l e d " T h e Process of I n d i v i d u a t i o n , "
describes the process by w h i c h t h e conscious a n d t h e unconscious
w i t h i n a n i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n to k n o w , respect, a n d a c c o m m o d a t e o n e
a n o t h e r . I n a c e r t a i n sense this c h a p t e r c o n t a i n s n o t only the c r u x of
t h e w h o l e book, b u t p e r h a p s the essence of J u n g ' s p h i l o s o p h y of life:
M a n b e c o m e s w h o l e , i n t e g r a t e d , c a l m , fertile, a n d h a p p y w h e n ( a n d
only w h e n ) t h e process of i n d i v i d u a t i o n is c o m p l e t e , w h e n t h e con-
scious a n d t h e u n c o n s c i o u s h a v e l e a r n e d to live a t p e a c e a n d to com-
p l e m e n t o n e a n o t h e r . M r s . Jaffe, like D r . H e n d e r s o n , is c o n c e r n e d
w i t h d e m o n s t r a t i n g , in the familiar fabric of the conscious, m a n ' s
r e c u r r i n g interest i n a l m o s t obsession w i t h the symbols of the u n -
conscious. T h e y h a v e for him a p r o f o u n d l y significant, almost a nour-

14
ishing a n d s u s t a i n i n g , i n n e r a t t r a c t i o n w h e t h e r t h e y o c c u r in the
myths a n d fairy tales t h a t D r . H e n d e r s o n a n a l y z e s or in the visual arts,
which, as M r s . Jaffe shows, satisfy a n d d e l i g h t us b y a c o n s t a n t a p p e a l
to the u n c o n s c i o u s .
Finally, I m u s t say a brief w o r d a b o u t D r . J a c o b i ' s c h a p t e r , w h i c h
is s o m e w h a t s e p a r a t e from the rest of the book. It is in fact a n a b b r e -
viated case history of o n e i n t e r e s t i n g a n d successful analysis. T h e value
of such a c h a p t e r in a b o o k like this is o b v i o u s ; b u t two w o r d s of w a r n -
ing are nevertheless necessary. First, as D r . v o n F r a n z points o u t , t h e r e
is no such t h i n g as a typical J u n g i a n analysis. T h e r e c a n ' t b e , because
every d r e a m is a p r i v a t e a n d i n d i v i d u a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d n o t w o
d r e a m s use t h e symbols of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s in t h e s a m e w a y . So every
J u n g i a n analysis is u n i q u e a n d it is m i s l e a d i n g to consider this o n e ,
taken from D r . J a c o b i ' s clinical files (or a n y o t h e r o n e t h e r e has ever
been), as " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e " or " t y p i c a l . " All o n e c a n say of the case of
H e n r y a n d his s o m e t i m e s l u r i d d r e a m s is t h a t t h e y form o n e t r u e
example of t h e w a y in w h i c h t h e J u n g i a n m e t h o d m a y b e a p p l i e d to
a p a r t i c u l a r case. S e c o n d l y , t h e full history of even a c o m p a r a t i v e l y
u n c o m p l i c a t e d case w o u l d t a k e a w h o l e book to r e c o u n t . I n e v i t a b l y , the
story of H e n r y ' s analysis suffers a little in c o m p r e s s i o n . T h e references,
for instance, to t h e / Ching h a v e b e e n s o m e w h a t o b s c u r e d a n d lent a n
u n n a t u r a l ( a n d to m e unsatisfactory) flavor of the occult b y b e i n g p r e -
sented o u t of t h e i r full c o n t e x t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , we c o n c l u d e d a n d I a m
sure the r e a d e r will a g r e e t h a t , w i t h the w a r n i n g s d u l y given, the
clarity, to say n o t h i n g of the h u m a n interest, of H e n r y ' s analysis
greatly e n r i c h e s this b o o k .
I b e g a n b y d e s c r i b i n g h o w J u n g c a m e to w r i t e Man and his Symbols.
I end by r e m i n d i n g t h e r e a d e r of w h a t a r e m a r k a b l e p e r h a p s u n i q u e
p u b l i c a t i o n this is. C a r l G u s t a v J u n g was o n e of the g r e a t d o c t o r s of
all time a n d o n e of t h e g r e a t t h i n k e r s of this c e n t u r y . His object always
was to h e l p m e n a n d w o m e n to k n o w themselves, so t h a t b y self-know-
ledge a n d t h o u g h t f u l self-use they c o u l d lead full, rich, a n d h a p p y lives.
At the very e n d of his o w n life, w h i c h was as full, rich, a n d h a p p y as
any I h a v e e n c o u n t e r e d , he d e c i d e d to use the s t r e n g t h t h a t was
left him to a d d r e s s his message to a w i d e r p u b l i c t h a n h e h a d ever
tried to r e a c h before. H e c o m p l e t e d his task a n d his life in t h e s a m e
m o n t h . T h i s b o o k is his legacy to t h e b r o a d r e a d i n g p u b l i c .

'5
Contents

Part 1 Approaching the unconscious 18


Carl G. J u n g

Part 2 Ancient myths and modern man 104

Joseph L. Henderson

Part 3 The process of individuation 158


M.-L. von Franz

Part 4 Symbolism in the visual arts 230


Aniela Jaffe

Part 5 Symbols in an individual analysis 272

Jolande Jacobi

Conclusion: Science and the unconscious 304

M.-L. von Franz

Notes 311

Index 316

Illustration credits 319


Approaching the unconscious

Carl G. J u n g

The entrance to the tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh Rameses III


Approaching the unconscious

T h e i m p o r t a n c e of d r e a m s

M a n uses the spoken or w r i t t e n word to express d o u b l e a d z e . T h i s is a n object t h a t we know,


the m e a n i n g of w h a t he w a n t s to convey. His b u t w e d o not k n o w its symbolic implications.
l a n g u a g e is full of symbols, but he also often For a n o t h e r e x a m p l e , take t h e case of the
e m p l o y s signs or i m a g e s t h a t a r e not strictly I n d i a n w h o , after a visit to E n g l a n d , told his
descriptive. S o m e a r c m e r e a b b r e v i a t i o n s or friends at h o m e t h a t the English w o r s h i p a n i -
strings of initials, such as U N , U N I C E F , or mals, because he h a d found eagles, lions, a n d
U N E S C O ; o t h e r s a r e familiar t r a d e m a r k s , the oxen in old c h u r c h e s . H e was not a w a r e (nor
n a m e s of p a t e n t m e d i c i n e s , b a d g e s , or insignia. a r e m a n y Christians) t h a t these a n i m a l s a r e
A l t h o u g h these a r e m e a n i n g l e s s in themselves, symbols of the Evangelists a n d a r e derived from
they h a v e a c q u i r e d a r e c o g n i z a b l e m e a n i n g the vision of Ezekiel, a n d t h a t this in t u r n has
t h r o u g h c o m m o n usage or d e l i b e r a t e intent. a n a n a l o g y to the E g y p t i a n sun god H o r u s a n d
Such things a r e n o t symbols. T h e y a r e signs, his four sons. T h e r e a r e , m o r e o v e r , such objects
a n d they d o no m o r e t h a n d e n o t e t h e objects as t h e wheel a n d the cross t h a t a r e k n o w n all
to w h i c h they a r e a t t a c h e d . over t h e w o r l d , yet t h a t h a v e a symbolic signi-
W h a t w e call a s y m b o l is a t e r m , a n a m e , or ficance u n d e r c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s . Precisely w h a t
even a p i c t u r e t h a t m a y be familiar in daily they symbolize is still a m a t t e r for controversial
life, yet t h a t possesses specific c o n n o t a t i o n s in speculation.
a d d i t i o n to its c o n v e n t i o n a l a n d o b v i o u s m e a n - T h u s a w o r d or a n i m a g e is symbolic w h e n it
ing. It implies s o m e t h i n g v a g u e , u n k n o w n , or implies s o m e t h i n g m o r e t h a n its obvious a n d
h i d d e n from us. M a n y C r e t a n m o n u m e n t s , for i m m e d i a t e m e a n i n g . It has a w i d e r " u n c o n -
instance, a r c m a r k e d with t h e design of the s c i o u s " aspect t h a t is never precisely defined or
fully explained. N o r c a n o n e h o p e to define or It is not easy to g r a s p this p o i n t . But the
explain it. As the m i n d explores the s y m b o l , it point must be g r a s p e d if we a r e to k n o w m o r e
is led to ideas t h a t lie b e y o n d the g r a s p of a b o u t the ways in w h i c h the h u m a n m i n d
reason. T h e wheel m a y lead o u r t h o u g h t s to- works. M a n , as we realize if we reflect for a
ward the concept of a " d i v i n e " sun, b u t at this m o m e n t , never perceives a n y t h i n g fully or c o m -
point reason must a d m i t its i n c o m p e t e n c e ; m a n p r e h e n d s a n y t h i n g c o m p l e t e l y . H e c a n see, h e a r ,
is unable to define a " d i v i n e " b e i n g . W h e n , t o u c h , a n d t a s t e ; b u t h o w far he sees, h o w well
with all our intellectual l i m i t a t i o n s , we call he h e a r s , w h a t his t o u c h tells h i m , a n d w h a t he
something " d i v i n e , " we h a v e merely given it a tastes d e p e n d u p o n the n u m b e r a n d q u a l i t y of
name, which m a y be based on a creed, b u t his senses. T h e s e limit his p e r c e p t i o n of the
never on factual e v i d e n c e . world a r o u n d h i m . By using scientific instru-
Because there a r e i n n u m e r a b l e things b e y o n d m e n t s he can p a r t l y c o m p e n s a t e for the defici-
the range of h u m a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g , we con- encies of his senses. F o r e x a m p l e , he c a n e x t e n d
stantly use symbolic t e r m s to represent c o n c e p t s the r a n g e of his vision by b i n o c u l a r s or of his
that we c a n n o t define or fully c o m p r e h e n d . h e a r i n g by electrical amplification. But the most
This is one reason w h y all religions e m p l o y sym- elaborate a p p a r a t u s cannot do more than bring
bolic language or i m a g e s . But this conscious use d i s t a n t or small objects w i t h i n r a n g e of his eyes,
of symbols is only o n e aspect of a psychological or m a k e faint s o u n d s m o r e a u d i b l e . N o m a t t e r
fact of great i m p o r t a n c e : M a n also p r o d u c e s w h a t i n s t r u m e n t s he uses, at some point he
symbols unconsciously a n d s p o n t a n e o u s l y , in r e a c h e s the e d g e of c e r t a i n t y b e y o n d w h i c h con-
the form of d r e a m s . scious k n o w l e d g e c a n n o t pass.

Left, three of the four Evangelists


(in a relief on Chartres Cathedral)
appear as animals: The lion is Mark,
the ox Luke, the eagle John. Also
animals are three of the sons of the
Egyptian god Horus (above, c. 1 250
B.C.), Animals, and groups of four,
are universal religious symbols.

24
In many societies, representations
of the sun express man's indefinable
religious experience. Above, a
decoration on the back of a throne
belonging to the 14th-century B.C.
Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamen is
dominated by a sun disk; the hands
at the end of the rays symbolize
the sun's life-giving power. Left,
a monk in 20th-century Japan prays
before a mirror that represents the
divine Sun in the Shinto religion.

Right, tungsten atoms seen with a


microscope that magnifies 2,000,000
times. Far right, the spots in center
of picture are the farthest visible
galaxies. No matter how far man
extends his senses, limits to his
conscious perception remain.
T h e r e are, m o r e o v e r , u n c o n s c i o u s a s p e c t s of w h e r e it a p p e a r s n o t a s a r a t i o n a l t h o u g h t b u t
o u r p e r c e p t i o n o f r e a l i t y . T h e first is t h e f a c t a s a s y m b o l i c i m a g e . A s a m a t t e r o f h i s t o r y , it
that e v e n w h e n o u r s e n s e s r e a c t t o r e a l p h e n o - was the study of d r e a m s that first enabled
mena, sights, a n d s o u n d s , t h e y a r e somehow psychologists to investigate the unconscious
translated from t h e r e a l m of r e a l i t y i n t o that a s p e c t of c o n s c i o u s p s y c h i c e v e n t s .
of t h e m i n d . W i t h i n the mind they become It is o n such evidence that psychologists
psychic e v e n t s , w h o s e u l t i m a t e n a t u r e is u n - a s s u m e t h e e x i s t e n c e of a n u n c o n s c i o u s p s y c h e
k n o w a b l e (for t h e p s y c h e c a n n o t k n o w its o w n t h o u g h m a n y scientists a n d philosophers d e n y
psychical s u b s t a n c e ) . T h u s every experience its e x i s t e n c e . T h e y a r g u e n a i v e l y t h a t s u c h a n
contains a n i n d e f i n i t e n u m b e r of u n k n o w n fac- a s s u m p t i o n i m p l i e s t h e e x i s t e n c e of t w o " s u b -
tors, n o t t o s p e a k o f t h e f a c t t h a t e v e r y c o n c r e t e j e c t s , " o r ( t o p u t it i n a c o m m o n p h r a s e ) two
object is a l w a y s u n k n o w n i n c e r t a i n respects, personalities within the same individual. But
because w e c a n n o t k n o w t h e u l t i m a t e n a t u r e o f t h i s is e x a c t l y w h a t it d o e s i m p l y q u i t e cor-
m a t t e r itself. r e c t l y . A n d it is o n e o f t h e c u r s e s o f m o d e r n
T h e n t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n e v e n t s of w h i c h we m a n t h a t m a n y p e o p l e suffer from this d i v i d e d
have n o t c o n s c i o u s l y t a k e n n o t e ; t h e y h a v e r e - p e r s o n a l i t y . I t is b y n o m e a n s a pathological
m a i n e d , so t o s p e a k , b e l o w t h e t h r e s h o l d o f c o n - s y m p t o m ; it is a n o r m a l f a c t t h a t c a n b e o b -
sciousness. T h e y h a v e h a p p e n e d , b u t t h e y h a v e s e r v e d a t a n y t i m e a n d e v e r y w h e r e . I t is n o t
been a b s o r b e d s u b l i m i n a l l y , w i t h o u t o u r c o n - merely the neurotic whose right h a n d does not
scious k n o w l e d g e . W e can become aware of k n o w w h a t t h e left h a n d is d o i n g . T h i s p r e d i c a -
such h a p p e n i n g s o n l y i n a m o m e n t o f i n t u i t i o n m e n t is a s y m p t o m o f a g e n e r a l u n c o n s c i o u s n e s s
or by a p r o c e s s o f p r o f o u n d t h o u g h t t h a t l e a d s t h a t is t h e u n d e n i a b l e c o m m o n i n h e r i t a n c e o f
to a l a t e r r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e y m u s t h a v e h a p - all m a n k i n d .
pened; a n d though we m a y have originally M a n has d e v e l o p e d consciousness slowly a n d
ignored t h e i r e m o t i o n a l a n d v i t a l i m p o r t a n c e , it laboriously, in a process t h a t took u n t o l d ages to
later w e l l s u p f r o m t h e u n c o n s c i o u s a s a s o r t r e a c h t h e c i v i l i z e d s t a t e ( w h i c h is a r b i t r a r i l y
of a f t e r t h o u g h t . dated from the invention of s c r i p t in about
It m a y a p p e a r , for i n s t a n c e , in t h e f o r m o f a 4 0 0 0 B . C ) . A n d t h i s e v o l u t i o n is f a r f r o m c o m -
dream. As a general rule, the unconscious p l e t e , for l a r g e a r e a s o f t h e h u m a n m i n d are
aspect o f a n y e v e n t is r e v e a l e d t o u s i n d r e a m s , still s h r o u d e d in d a r k n e s s . W h a t w e call the
" p s y c h e " is b y n o m e a n s i d e n t i c a l w i t h our
c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d its c o n t e n t s .
W h o e v e r d e n i e s t h e e x i s t e n c e of t h e u n c o n -
s c i o u s is i n f a c t a s s u m i n g t h a t o u r p r e s e n t k n o w -
l e d g e o f t h e p s y c h e is t o t a l . A n d t h i s b e l i e f is
c l e a r l y j u s t a s false a s t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t w e
k n o w a l l t h e r e is t o b e k n o w n a b o u t t h e n a t u r a l
u n i v e r s e . O u r p s y c h e is p a r t o f n a t u r e , a n d its
e n i g m a is a s l i m i t l e s s . T h u s w e c a n n o t define
either the psyche or nature. W e can merely
state w h a t w e believe t h e m to be a n d describe,
as best w e c a n , h o w they function. Q u i t e a p a r t ,
therefore, from the evidence that medical
research has accumulated, there are strong
g r o u n d s o f l o g i c for r e j e c t i n g s t a t e m e n t s like
" T h e r e is n o u n c o n s c i o u s . " T h o s e w h o s a y s u c h
things merely express an age-old "misoneism"
a fear of t h e n e w a n d t h e u n k n o w n .

23
T h e r e a r e h i s t o r i c a l r e a s o n s for t h i s r e s i s t a n c e that an individual m a y have such an uncon-
to t h e i d e a of a n u n k n o w n p a r t of t h e human scious identity with s o m e o t h e r person or object.
p s y c h e . C o n s c i o u s n e s s is a v e r y r e c e n t a c q u i s i - T h i s i d e n t i t y takes a v a r i e t y of forms a m o n g
t i o n o f n a t u r e , a n d it is still i n a n "experimen- p r i m i t i v e s . I f t h e b u s h s o u l is t h a t o f a n a n i m a l ,
t a l " s t a t e . I t is f r a i l , m e n a c e d b y s p e c i f i c d a n - t h e a n i m a l i t s e l f is c o n s i d e r e d a s s o m e s o r t of
gers, a n d easily i n j u r e d . As a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s h a v e b r o t h e r t o t h e m a n . A m a n w h o s e b r o t h e r is a
n o t e d , o n e of t h e m o s t c o m m o n mental de- c r o c o d i l e , for i n s t a n c e , is s u p p o s e d t o b e safe
rangements that occur a m o n g primitive people w h e n s w i m m i n g a crocodile-infested river. If
is w h a t t h e y c a l l " t h e loss o f a s o u l " w h i c h t h e b u s h s o u l is a t r e e , t h e t r e e is p r e s u m e d t o
m e a n s , as the n a m e indicates, a n o t i c e a b l e dis- h a v e s o m e t h i n g like p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y o v e r t h e
r u p t i o n (or, m o r e t e c h n i c a l l y , a dissociation) of i n d i v i d u a l c o n c e r n e d . I n b o t h cases a n injury
consciousness. t o t h e b u s h s o u l is i n t e r p r e t e d a s a n i n j u r y t o
A m o n g s u c h p e o p l e , w h o s e c o n s c i o u s n e s s is the m a n .
a t a different level of d e v e l o p m e n t from o u r s , I n s o m e t r i b e s , it is a s s u m e d t h a t a m a n h a s
t h e " s o u l " ( o r p s y c h e ) is n o t felt t o b e a u n i t . a n u m b e r o f s o u l s ; t h i s b e l i e f e x p r e s s e s t h e feel-
Many primitives assume that a man has a ing of s o m e p r i m i t i v e individuals that they each
" b u s h s o u l " as well as his o w n , a n d t h a t this consist of several linked b u t d i s t i n c t units. T h i s
b u s h s o u l is i n c a r n a t e i n a w i l d a n i m a l o r a t r e e , m e a n s t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s p s y c h e is f a r from
with which the h u m a n individual has some kind b e i n g safely s y n t h e s i z e d ; o n the contrary, it
o f p s y c h i c i d e n t i t y . T h i s is w h a t the distin- t h r e a t e n s to f r a g m e n t o n l y too easily u n d e r t h e
guished French ethnologist Lucien Levy-Briihl o n s l a u g h t of u n c h e c k e d e m o t i o n s .
called a "mystical p a r t i c i p a t i o n . " H e later re- W h i l e t h i s s i t u a t i o n is f a m i l i a r t o u s f r o m t h e
tracted this term under pressure of adverse s t u d i e s o f a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , it is n o t so i r r e l e v a n t
criticism, but I believe that his critics were t o o u r o w n a d v a n c e d c i v i l i z a t i o n as it might
w r o n g . I t is a w e l l - k n o w n psychological fact s e e m . W e t o o c a n b e c o m e d i s s o c i a t e d a n d lose

" D i s s o c i a t i o n " m e a n s a s p l i t t i n g in
the psyche, causing a neurosis. A
f a m o u s f i c t i o n a l e x a m p l e of t h i s
state is Dr Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
( 1 8 8 6 ) by t h e S c o t s a u t h o r R. L
S t e v e n s o n . In t h e s t o r y J e k y l l ' s
" s p l i t " t o o k t h e f o r m of a p h y s i c a l
c h a n g e , rather t h a n (as in r e a l i t y )
an inner, p s y c h i c state. Left, M r .
H y d e ( f r o m t h e 1 9 3 2 f i l m of t h e
story) J e k y l l ' s "other half."

P r i m i t i v e p e o p l e call d i s s o c i a t i o n
" l o s s of a s o u l " ; t h e y b e l i e v e t h a t
a m a n has a " b u s h s o u l " as w e l l as
his o w n . R i g h t , a N y a n g a t r i b e s m a n
of w e s t c e n t r a l A f r i c a w e a r i n g a m a s k
of the h o r n b i l l t h e b i r d t h a t h e
i d e n t i f i e s w i t h his b u s h s o u l .

Far r i g h t , t e l e p h o n i s t s o n a b u s y
s w i t c h b o a r d h a n d l e m a n y c a l l s at
o n c e . In s u c h j o b s p e o p l e " s p l i t
o f f " parts of t h e i r c o n s c i o u s m i n d s
t o c o n c e n t r a t e . B u t t h i s split is
controlled and temporary, not a
spontaneous, abnormal dissociation.

2 I
our i d e n t i t y . W e c a n b e p o s s e s s e d a n d altered "loss of a s o u l , " or e v e n t h e p a t h o l o g i c a l c a u s e
by m o o d s , o r b e c o m e u n r e a s o n a b l e a n d u n a b l e of a neurosis.
to r e c a l l i m p o r t a n t facts about ourselves or Thus, even in o u r day the unity of con-
o t h e r s , so t h a t p e o p l e a s k : " W h a t t h e d e v i l h a s s c i o u s n e s s is still a d o u b t f u l a f f a i r ; it c a n too
got i n t o y o u ? " W e t a l k a b o u t b e i n g a b l e "to e a s i l y b e d i s r u p t e d . A n a b i l i t y to c o n t r o l o n e ' s
control o u r s e l v e s , " b u t s e l f - c o n t r o l is a r a r e a n d e m o t i o n s that m a y be very desirable from o n e
remarkable virtue. W e m a y think we have our- point of view w o u l d b e a q u e s t i o n a b l e a c c o m -
selves u n d e r c o n t r o l ; y e t a f r i e n d c a n e a s i l y tell p l i s h m e n t f r o m a n o t h e r , for it w o u l d deprive
us t h i n g s a b o u t o u r s e l v e s o f w h i c h w e h a v e n o social i n t e r c o u r s e of v a r i e t v . color, a n d w a r m t h .
knowledge. It is a g a i n s t t h i s b a c k g r o u n d that we must
Beyond d o u b t , e v e n in w h a t w e call a high r e v i e w the i m p o r t a n c e of d r e a m s t h o s e flimsy,
level of c i v i l i z a t i o n , h u m a n c o n s c i o u s n e s s has evasive, unreliable, vague, a n d uncertain fan-
not yet a c h i e v e d a r e a s o n a b l e d e g r e e o f c o n t i - tasies. T o e x p l a i n m y p o i n t of view, I s h o u l d
nuity. It is still v u l n e r a b l e a n d l i a b l e t o f r a g - l i k e t o d e s c r i b e h o w it d e v e l o p e d o v e r a p e r i o d
mentation. T h i s c a p a c i t y to isolate p a r t of o n e ' s of y e a r s , a n d h o w I w a s led to c o n c l u d e that
m i n d , i n d e e d , is a v a l u a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . It d r e a m s are the most frequent a n d universally
e n a b l e s us to c o n c e n t r a t e u p o n o n e t h i n g a t a a c c e s s i b l e s o u r c e for t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f m a n ' s
time, e x c l u d i n g e v e r y t h i n g else t h a t m a y c l a i m symbolizing faculty.
our a t t e n t i o n . B u t t h e r e is a w o r l d o f d i f f e r e n c e Sigmund Freud was the pioneer who first
b e t w e e n a c o n s c i o u s d e c i s i o n t o s p l i t off a n d tried to e x p l o r e empirically the unconscious
temporarily s u p p r e s s a p a r t of o n e ' s p s y c h e , a n d b a c k g r o u n d of consciousness. H e w o r k e d on the
a c o n d i t i o n in w h i c h this h a p p e n s spontane- general assumption that d r e a m s are not a matter
ously, w i t h o u t o n e ' s k n o w l e d g e o r c o n s e n t a n d of c h a n c e but are associated with conscious
even a g a i n s t o n e ' s i n t e n t i o n . T h e f o r m e r is a thoughts and problems. This assumption was
civilized a c h i e v e m e n t , the latter a primitive n o t in t h e least a r b i t r a r y . It w a s b a s e d u p o n t h e

25
c o n c l u s i o n o f e m i n e n t n e u r o l o g i s t s (for i n s t a n c e , a s t h m a : H e " c a n ' t b r e a t h e the a t m o s p h e r e at
Pierre J a n e t ) t h a t neurotic s y m p t o m s are re- h o m e . " A t h i r d suffers f r o m a p e c u l i a r para-
lated to s o m e conscious e x p e r i e n c e . T h e y even lysis o f t h e l e g s : H e c a n ' t w a l k , i . e . " h e can't
appear to b e split-off a r e a s of t h e conscious go on a n y m o r e . " A fourth, w h o vomits w h e n
m i n d , w h i c h , at a n o t h e r t i m e a n d u n d e r differ- h e e a t s , " c a n n o t d i g e s t " s o m e u n p l e a s a n t fact.
ent conditions, c a n be conscious. I c o u l d cite m a n y e x a m p l e s of this k i n d , but
Before the b e g i n n i n g of this c e n t u r y , Freud such physical reactions are only one form in
and Josef Breuer had recognized that neurotic w h i c h t h e p r o b l e m s t h a t t r o u b l e us u n c o n s c i -
s y m p t o m s h y s t e r i a , c e r t a i n t y p e s of p a i n , a n d ously m a y express t h e m s e l v e s . T h e y m o r e often
a b n o r m a l b e h a v i o r a r e in fact symbolically find e x p r e s s i o n in o u r d r e a m s .
m e a n i n g f u l . T h e y a r e o n e w a y in w h i c h the A n y psychologist w h o h a s listened to n u m -
unconscious mind expresses itself, j u s t as it bers of p e o p l e d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r d r e a m s knows
m a y in d r e a m s ; a n d t h e y a r e e q u a l l y s y m b o l i c . that d r e a m symbols have m u c h greater variety
A p a t i e n t , for i n s t a n c e , w h o is c o n f r o n t e d with t h a n the p h y s i c a l s y m p t o m s of neurosis. They
an intolerable situation m a y develop a spasm o f t e n consist of e l a b o r a t e a n d p i c t u r e s q u e fan-
w h e n e v e r h e tries to s w a l l o w : H e " c a n ' t swal- t a s i e s . B u t if t h e a n a l y s t w h o is c o n f r o n t e d by
low i t . " U n d e r s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s of p s y c h o l o - this d r e a m m a t e r i a l uses F r e u d ' s o r i g i n a l t e c h -
gical stress, a n o t h e r p a t i e n t h a s a n a t t a c k of n i q u e o f " f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n , " h e finds t h a t d r e a m s

1 S i g m u n d Freud ( V i e n n a ) 5 Max Eitingon (Berlin) 9 Eugen Bleuler (Zurich)


2 Otto Rank (Vienna) 6 James J. Putnam (Boston) 10 Emma J u n g (Kusnacht)
3 Ludwig Binswanger (Kreuzlingen) 7 Ernest J o n e s ( T o r o n t o ) 11 S a n d o r F e r e n c z i ( B u d a p e s t )
4 A A Brill 8 W i l h e l m Stekel (Vienna) 12 C. G J u n g (Kusnacht)

26
can e v e n t u a l l y b e r e d u c e d to c e r t a i n basic p a t - of " f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n . " B u t after a t i m e I b e g a n to
terns. T h i s t e c h n i q u e p l a y e d a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t feel t h a t t h i s w a s a m i s l e a d i n g a n d inadequate
in t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of p s y c h o a n a l y s i s , for it use of t h e rich fantasies t h a t t h e unconscious
enabled Freud to use d r e a m s as t h e starting p r o d u c e s in sleep. M y d o u b t s r e a l l y b e g a n w h e n
point from w h i c h t h e u n c o n s c i o u s p r o b l e m of a c o l l e a g u e told m e of a n e x p e r i e n c e he had
the p a t i e n t m i g h t b e e x p l o r e d . d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e of a long t r a i n j o u r n e y in
Freud m a d e the simple but penetrating obser- Russia. T h o u g h he did not k n o w the l a n g u a g e
v a t i o n t h a t if a d r e a m e r is e n c o u r a g e d t o g o o n a n d could not even d e c i p h e r the Cyrillic script,
talking a b o u t his d r e a m i m a g e s a n d t h e t h o u g h t s he found himself m u s i n g over the strange letters
that these p r o m p t in his m i n d , h e will give in w h i c h the r a i l w a y notices w e r e w r i t t e n , a n d
himself a w a y a n d r e v e a l t h e u n c o n s c i o u s b a c k - h e fell i n t o a r e v e r i e i n w h i c h h e i m a g i n e d a l l
g r o u n d of his a i l m e n t s , in b o t h w h a t h e s a y s s o r t s o f m e a n i n g s for t h e m .
and w h a t he d e l i b e r a t e l y o m i t s s a y i n g . His ideas O n e i d e a l e d t o a n o t h e r , a n d in h i s r e l a x e d
may seem i r r a t i o n a l a n d i r r e l e v a n t , b u t after a m o o d h e found t h a t this "free a s s o c i a t i o n " h a d
t i m e it b e c o m e s r e l a t i v e l y e a s y t o s e e w h a t it is stirred u p m a n y old m e m o r i e s . A m o n g them
t h a t h e is t r y i n g to a v o i d , what unpleasant h e w a s a n n o y e d t o find s o m e l o n g - b u r i e d d i s -
thought or experience h e is s u p p r e s s i n g . No agreeable topics t h i n g s h e h a d w i s h e d t o for-
matter h o w he tries to c a m o u f l a g e it, e v e r y - get a n d had forgotten consciously. He had in
thing he says p o i n t s to t h e c o r e of his p r e d i c a - fact a r r i v e d at w h a t p s y c h o l o g i s t s w o u l d call
m e n t . A d o c t o r s e e s so m a n y t h i n g s f r o m the h i s " c o m p l e x e s " t h a t is, r e p r e s s e d emotional
s e a m y s i d e o f life t h a t h e is s e l d o m f a r f r o m t h e themes that can cause constant psychological
truth when he interprets the hints that his d i s t u r b a n c e s o r e v e n , in m a n y c a s e s , t h e s y m p -
patient p r o d u c e s as s i g n s o f a n uneasy con- t o m s of neurosis.
science. W h a t h e e v e n t u a l l y d i s c o v e r s , unfor- T h i s e p i s o d e o p e n e d m v e v e s to t h e f a r ! thai
tunately, c o n f i r m s his e x p e c t a t i o n s . T h u s far, it w a s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o u s e a d r e a m a s t h e p o i n t
nobody c a n say a n y t h i n g a g a i n s t F r e u d ' s t h e o r y o f d e p a r t u r e for t h e p r o c e s s o f " f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n "
of r e p r e s s i o n a n d w i s h f u l f i l l m e n t as a p p a r e n t if o n e w i s h e d to d i s c o v e r the c o m p l e x e s of a
causes of d r e a m s y m b o l i s m . p a t i e n t . It s h o w e d m e t h a t o n e c a n r e a c h the
Freud attached particular importance to c e n t e r d i r e c t l y from a n y p o i n t of t h e c o m p a s s .
d r e a m s as t h e p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e for a p r o c e s s One could begin from Cyrillic letters, from

Left, m a n y of t h e great p i o n e e r s of
modern p s y c h o a n a l y s i s , p h o t o -
graphed at a C o n g r e s s o f
Psychoanalysis in i 9 1 1 at W e i m a r ,
Germany. T h e key, b e l o w left,
identifies s o m e of t h e m a j o r f i g u r e s .

Right, the " i n k b l o t " test d e v i s e d


by the S w i s s p s y c h i a t r i s t H e r m a n n
Rorschach. T h e s h a p e of t h e b l o t
can serve as a s t i m u l u s f o r free
association; in fact, a l m o s t a n y
irregular free s h a p e c a n spark off
the associative p r o c e s s . L e o n a r d o
da Vinci w r o t e in his Notebooks:
"It should not b e hard f o r y o u t o
stop s o m e t i m e s a n d l o o k i n t o t h e
stains of w a l l s , or ashes of a fire,
or clouds, or m u d or like p l a c e s ,
in w h i c h . . . y o u m a y f i n d really
marvelous i d e a s . "
meditations u p o n a crystal ball, a p r a y e r wheel, n i q u e w a s o n e t h a t c o u l d t a k e a c c o u n t o f all
or a m o d e r n p a i n t i n g , or even from casual c o n - the v a r i o u s w i d e r aspects of a d r e a m . A story
versation a b o u t s o m e q u i t e trivial event. T h e told by t h e conscious m i n d has a b e g i n n i n g , a
d r e a m w a s n o m o r e a n d n o less useful in t h i s d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d a n e n d , b u t t h e s a m e is n o t
respect t h a n a n y o t h e r possible starting point. t r u e of a d r e a m . Its d i m e n s i o n s in t i m e and
N e v e r t h e l e s s , d r e a m s h a v e a p a r t i c u l a r signifi- s p a c e a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t ; t o u n d e r s t a n d it y o u
cance, even though they often arise from an m u s t e x a m i n e it f r o m e v e r y a s p e c t j u s t as y o u
e m o t i o n a l u p s e t in w h i c h t h e h a b i t u a l c o m p l e x e s m a y t a k e a n u n k n o w n o b j e c t in y o u r h a n d s a n d
a r e also involved. ( T h e h a b i t u a l c o m p l e x e s a r e turn it o v e r a n d o v e r u n t i l y o u a r e familiar
t h e t e n d e r spots of t h e p s y c h e , w h i c h r e a c t most w i t h e v e r y d e t a i l o f its s h a p e .
quickly to a n external stimulus or d i s t u r b a n c e . ) P e r h a p s I h a v e n o w said e n o u g h to s h o w h o w
T h a t is w h y free a s s o c i a t i o n c a n l e a d o n e f r o m I came increasingly to disagree with "free"
a n y d r e a m to t h e critical secret t h o u g h t s . a s s o c i a t i o n a s F r e u d first e m p l o y e d i t : I w a n t e d
A t t h i s p o i n t , h o w e v e r , it o c c u r r e d t o m e t h a t t o k e e p a s c l o s e a s p o s s i b l e t o t h e d r e a m itself,
(if I w a s r i g h t so f a r ) it m i g h t r e a s o n a b l y f o l l o w a n d t o e x c l u d e all t h e i r r e l e v a n t i d e a s a n d a s s o -
that d r e a m s h a v e s o m e special a n d m o r e signi- c i a t i o n s t h a t it m i g h t e v o k e . T r u e , t h e s e c o u l d
ficant function of their o w n . V e r y often d r e a m s lead one t o w a r d the c o m p l e x e s of a patient,
have a definite, evidently purposeful structure, b u t I h a d a m o r e f a r - r e a c h i n g p u r p o s e in m i n d
indicating an underlying idea or intention than the discovery of c o m p l e x e s that cause
t h o u g h , a s a r u l e , t h e l a t t e r is n o t i m m e d i a t e l y neurotic disturbances. There are m a n y other
c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . I t h e r e f o r e b e g a n to c o n s i d e r m e a n s by which these can be identified: The
w h e t h e r o n e s h o u l d p a y m o r e a t t e n t i o n to t h e p s y c h o l o g i s t , for i n s t a n c e , c a n g e t a l l t h e h i n t s
a c t u a l form a n d c o n t e n t of a d r e a m , r a t h e r t h a n h e n e e d s b y u s i n g w o r d - a s s o c i a t i o n tests ( b y ask-
allowing ""free" association to lead one off ing t h e p a t i e n t w h a t h e associates to a given
t h r o u g h a train of ideas to c o m p l e x e s that could set of w o r d s , a n d b y s t u d y i n g h i s r e s p o n s e s ) .
as easily b e r e a c h e d by o t h e r m e a n s . B u t t o k n o w a n d u n d e r s t a n d t h e p s y c h i c life-
T h i s n e w t h o u g h t w a s a t u r n i n g p o i n t in t h e
d e v e l o p m e n t of m y p s y c h o l o g y . It m e a n t t h a t I
gradually gave u p following associations that
l e d far a w a y f r o m t h e t e x t o f a d r e a m . I c h o s e
to c o n c e n t r a t e r a t h e r o n t h e associations to t h e
d r e a m itself, b e l i e v i n g t h a t t h e l a t t e r e x p r e s s e d
s o m e t h i n g specific that the unconscious was
trying to say.
T h e c h a n g e in m y a t t i t u d e t o w a r d dreams
involved a c h a n g e of m e t h o d ; the new tech-

T w o different possible stimuli of


free a s s o c i a t i o n : t h e w h i r l i n g
prayer w h e e l of a T i b e t a n b e g g a r
( l e f t ) , or a f o r t u n e teller's c r y s t a l
ball ( r i g h t , a m o d e r n c r y s t a l gazer
at a B r i t i s h f a i r ) .
process of a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s w h o l e p e r s o n a l i t y , it f o r m itself tells u s w h a t b e l o n g s t o it a n d w h a t
is i m p o r t a n t t o r e a l i z e t h a t h i s d r e a m s a n d t h e i r leads a w a y from it. W h i l e " f r e e " association
symbolic images h a v e a m u c h m o r e i m p o r t a n t l u r e s o n e a w a y f r o m t h a t m a t e r i a l i n a k i n d of
role to p l a y . z i g z a g l i n e , t h e m e t h o d I e v o l v e d is m o r e l i k e a
A l m o s t e v e r y o n e k n o w s , for e x a m p l e , that circumambulation w h o s e c e n t e r is t h e d r e a m
t h e r e is a n e n o r m o u s v a r i e t y o f i m a g e s b y w h i c h p i c t u r e . I w o r k all a r o u n d t h e d r e a m picture
the s e x u a l a c t c a n b e s y m b o l i z e d ( o r , o n e m i g h t and disregard every attempt that the d r e a m e r
say, r e p r e s e n t e d in t h e f o r m o f a n allegory). m a k e s t o b r e a k a w a y f r o m it. T i m e a n d t i m e
E a c h of t h e s e i m a g e s c a n l e a d , b y a p r o c e s s o f a g a i n , in m y p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k , I h a v e h a d t o
association, to t h e i d e a of s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e a n d repeat the words: "Let's get back to your
to specific c o m p l e x e s t h a t a n y i n d i v i d u a l m a y d r e a m . W h a t d o e s t h e dream say?"
h a v e a b o u t his o w n s e x u a l a t t i t u d e s . B u t o n e F o r i n s t a n c e , a p a t i e n t of m i n e d r e a m e d of
could j u s t a s w e l l u n e a r t h s u c h c o m p l e x e s b y a d r u n k e n a n d disheveled vulgar w o m a n . In
d a y - d r e a m i n g o n a set o f i n d e c i p h e r a b l e R u s s i a n t h e d r e a m , it s e e m e d t h a t t h i s w o m a n w a s his
letters. I w a s t h u s l e d t o t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a wife, t h o u g h in r e a l life h i s w i f e w a s t o t a l l y
dream can contain some message other than the different. O n the surface, therefore, the d r e a m
sexual a l l e g o r y , a n d t h a t it d o e s s o for d e f i n i t e was shockingly untrue, a n d the patient i m m e -
reasons. T o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t : d i a t e l y r e j e c t e d it a s d r e a m n o n s e n s e . I f I, a s his
A m a n m a y d r e a m o f i n s e r t i n g a k e y in a d o c t o r , h a d let h i m s t a r t a p r o c e s s o f a s s o c i a -
lock, of w i e l d i n g a h e a v y s t i c k , o r o f b r e a k i n g t i o n , h e w o u l d i n e v i t a b l y h a v e t r i e d t o g e t a s far
down a d o o r w i t h a b a t t e r i n g r a m . E a c h of a w a y as possible from (he u n p l e a s a n t suggestion
these c a n b e r e g a r d e d a s a s e x u a l a l l e g o r y . B u t of his d r e a m . In t h a t case, he w o u l d h a v e e n d e d
the fact t h a t h i s u n c o n s c i o u s for its o w n pur- w i t h o n e o f his s t a p l e c o m p l e x e s a complex,
poses h a s c h o s e n o n e o f t h e s e s p e c i f i c i m a g e s p o s s i b l y , t h a t h a d n o t h i n g t o d o w i t h his w i f e
it m a y b e t h e k e y , t h e s t i c k , o r t h e b a t t e r i n g and we should have learned nothing about the
ram is a l s o o f m a j o r significance. The real s p e c i a l m e a n i n g of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r d r e a m .
task is to u n d e r s t a n d why t h e k e y h a s been
preferred t o t h e s t i c k , o r t h e s t i c k t o t h e r a m .
And s o m e t i m e s t h i s m i g h t e v e n l e a d o n e t o d i s -
cover t h a t it is n o t t h e s e x u a l a c t a t all t h a t is
represented, b u t s o m e q u i t e different psycholo-
gical p o i n t .
F r o m this l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g , I c o n c l u d e d t h a t
only t h e m a t e r i a l t h a t is c l e a r l y a n d v i s i b l y p a r t
of a d r e a m s h o u l d b e u s e d i n i n t e r p r e t i n g it.
T h e d r e a m h a s its o w n l i m i t a t i o n . I t s s p e c i f i c

One of the c o u n t l e s s s y m b o l i c or
allegorical i m a g e s of t h e s e x u a l
act isa deer h u n t : R i g h t , a d e t a i l
from a p a i n t i n g b y t h e 1 6 t h - c e n t u r y
German artist C r a n a c h . T h e s e x u a l
implication of t h e deer h u n t is
underlined b y a m e d i e v a l E n g l i s h
folk song called " T h e K e e p e r " :
The first doe that he shot at he
missed.
And the second doe he trimmed he
kissed,
And the third ran away in a young
man's heart.
She's amongst the leaves of the
green 0
A key in a l o c k may be a s e x u a l
s y m b o l b u t n o t i n v a r i a b l y . Left,
a s e c t i o n of an a l t a r p i e c e b y t h e
1 5 t h - c e n t u r y F l e m i s h artist C a m p i n .
The door was intended to symbolize
hope, the lock to symbolize charity,
a n d t h e k e y to s y m b o l i z e t h e d e s i r e
for G o d . B e l o w , a British b i s h o p
d u r i n g the consecration of a c h u r c h
carries o u t a t r a d i t i o n a l c e r e m o n y
by k n o c k i n g o n t h e c h u r c h d o o r w i t h
a s t a f f w h i c h is o b v i o u s l y n o t a
p h a l l i c s y m b o l b u t a s y m b o l of
authority and the shepherd's crook.
N o i n d i v i d u a l s y m b o l i c i m a g e c a n be
said t o h a v e a d o g m a t i c a l l y f i x e d ,
generalized m e a n i n g .

The " a n i m a " is t h e f e m a l e e l e m e n t


in t h e m a l e u n c o n s c i o u s . (It a n d t h e
" a n i m u s " in t h e f e m a l e u n c o n s c i o u s
are d i s c u s s e d in C h a p t e r 3.) T h i s
i n n e r d u a l i t y is o f t e n s y m b o l i z e d
by a h e r m a p h r o d i t i c f i g u r e , like
the c r o w n e d hermaphrodite, above
right, from a 1 7 t h - c e n t u r y alchemical
manuscript. Right, a physical image
of m a n ' s p s y c h i c " b i s e x u a l i t y " : a
h u m a n cell w i t h its c h r o m o s o m e s .
A l l o r g a n i s m s h a v e t w o sets of
c h r o m o s o m e s o n e f r o m each parent.

,30
W h a t , t h e n , w a s his u n c o n s c i o u s t r y i n g to f e m a l e e l e m e n t s in all o f u s , it w a s s a i d that
convey by s u c h a n o b v i o u s l y u n t r u e s t a t e m e n t ? "every m a n carries a w o m a n within himself
C l e a r l y , it s o m e h o w expressed the idea of a It is t h i s f e m a l e e l e m e n t i n e v e r y m a l e t h a t I
degenerate female w h o w a s closely c o n n e c t e d have called the "anima." This "feminine"
with t h e d r e a m e r ' s l i f e ; b u t s i n c e t h e p r o j e c t i o n a s p e c t is e s s e n t i a l l y a c e r t a i n i n f e r i o r k i n d of
of this i m a g e o n t o h i s w i f e w a s u n j u s t i f i e d and relatedness to the s u r r o u n d i n g s , a n d particu-
factually untrue, I had to look elsewhere l a r l y t o w o m e n , w h i c h is k e p t c a r e f u l l y con-
before I f o u n d o u t w h a t t h i s r e p u l s i v e image cealed from others as well as from oneself.
represented. I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h o u g h a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s visible-
In t h e M i d d l e A g e s , l o n g b e f o r e t h e p h y s i o - personality m a y seem quite n o r m a l , he may
logists d e m o n s t r a t e d that by reason of our well b e c o n c e a l i n g f r o m o t h e r s or even from
glandular structure there are both male and himselfthe deplorable condition of "the
woman within."
That was the case with this particular
patient: His female side w a s not nice. His
d r e a m w a s a c t u a l l y s a y i n g t o h i m : " Y o u a r e in
some respects behaving like a degenerate
female," and thus gave him an appropriate
shock. ( A n e x a m p l e of this k i n d , of c o u r s e , m u s t
n o t be t a k e n as e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e u n c o n s c i o u s
is c o n c e r n e d with "moral" injunctions. The
d r e a m was not telling the p a t i e n t to "behave
b e t t e r , " b u t w a s s i m p l y t r y i n g to b a l a n c e the
l o p s i d e d n a t u r e of his c o n s c i o u s m i n d , which
was maintaining the fiction that he was a
perfect g e n t l e m a n throughout.)
I t is e a s y t o u n d e r s t a n d w h y d r e a m e r s tend
to i g n o r e a n d e v e n d e n y t h e m e s s a g e of t h e i r
dreams. Consciousness naturally resists any-
thing unconscious and unknown. I have already
pointed out the existence among primitive
peoples of w h a t anthropologists call "miso-
n c i s m , " a d e e p a n d s u p e r s t i t i o u s fear of n o v e l t y .
T h e p r i m i t i v e s m a n i f e s t all t h e r e a c t i o n s o f t h e
wild animal against untoward events. But
" c i v i l i z e d " m a n r e a c t s to n e w i d e a s in much
t h e s a m e w a y , e r e c t i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a r r i e r s to
p r o t e c t himself from the shock of facing s o m e -
t h i n g n e w . T h i s c a n easily b e o b s e r v e d in a n y
i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e a c t i o n to his o w n d r e a m s when
obliged to a d m i t a surprising t h o u g h t . Many
p i o n e e r s in p h i l o s o p h y , s c i e n c e , a n d e v e n l i t e r a -
ture h a v e b e e n victims of t h e i n n a t e conserv-
atism of t h e i r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . Psychology is
o n e o f t h e y o u n g e s t o f t h e s c i e n c e s ; b e c a u s e it
a t t e m p t s to d e a l w i t h t h e w o r k i n g of t h e u n c o n -
s c i o u s , it h a s i n e v i t a b l y e n c o u n t e r e d m i s o n e i s m
in a n e x t r e m e f o r m .

:5>
Past and future in the unconscious

S o far, I h a v e b e e n s k e t c h i n g s o m e of t h e p r i n - c o n t e n t s of t h e m i n d a r e l i n k e d t o g e t h e r . T a k e
ciples o n w h i c h I a p p r o a c h e d the p r o b l e m of a n e x a m p l e w i t h w h i c h e v e r y o n e is f a m i l i a r .
d r e a m s , for w h e n w e w a n t t o i n v e s t i g a t e m a n ' s S u d d e n l y y o u find y o u c a n n o t r e m e m b e r w h a t
faculty to p r o d u c e s y m b o l s , d r e a m s p r o v e to b e y o u w e r e g o i n g to say next, t h o u g h a m o m e n t
t h e m o s t b a s i c a n d a c c e s s i b l e m a t e r i a l for t h i s ago the t h o u g h t was perfectly clear. O r p e r h a p s
p u r p o s e . T h e t w o f u n d a m e n t a l p o i n t s in d e a l - y o u w e r e a b o u t t o i n t r o d u c e a f r i e n d , a n d his
ing w i t h d r e a m s a r e t h e s e : First, the dream n a m e e s c a p e d y o u a s y o u w e r e a b o u t t o u t t e r it.
s h o u l d be t r e a t e d as a fact, a b o u t w h i c h one Y o u say y o u c a n n o t r e m e m b e r ; in fact, t h o u g h ,
must m a k e no previous assumption except that the thought has become unconscious, or at
it s o m e h o w m a k e s s e n s e ; a n d s e c o n d , t h e d r e a m least momentarily separated from conscious-
is a s p e c i f i c e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s . n e s s . W e find t h e s a m e p h e n o m e n o n w i t h o u r
O n e could scarcely put these principles m o r e s e n s e s . If w e l i s t e n t o a c o n t i n u o u s n o t e o n t h e
m o d e s t l y . N o m a t t e r h o w low a n y o n e ' s o p i n i o n fringe of a u d i b i l i t y , t h e s o u n d s e e m s to stop
of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s m a y b e , h e m u s t concede at r e g u l a r intervals a n d then start again. Such
t h a t it is w o r t h i n v e s t i g a t i n g ; t h e u n c o n s c i o u s oscillations a r e d u e to a p e r i o d i c d e c r e a s e a n d
is a t l e a s t o n a l e v e l w i t h t h e l o u s e , w h i c h , a f t e r i n c r e a s e in o n e ' s a t t e n t i o n , n o t to a n y change
all, e n j o y s t h e h o n e s t i n t e r e s t of t h e e n t o m o l o - in t h e n o t e .
gist. If s o m e b o d y with little e x p e r i e n c e and But w h e n s o m e t h i n g slips o u t o f o u r con-
k n o w l e d g e of d r e a m s t h i n k s t h a t d r e a m s arc- s c i o u s n e s s it d o c s n o t c e a s e t o e x i s t , a n y more
just c h a o t i c o c c u r r e n c e s w i t h o u t m e a n i n g , he than a car that has disappeared r o u n d a corner
is a t l i b e r t y t o d o s o . B u t if o n e a s s u m e s that h a s v a n i s h e d i n t o t h i n a i r . I t is s i m p l y o u t o f
t h e y a r e n o r m a l e v e n t s ( w h i c h , as a m a t t e r of s i g h t . J u s t a s w e m a y l a t e r see t h e c a r again,
f a c t , t h e y a r e ) , o n e is b o u n d t o c o n s i d e r that so w e c o m e across thoughts that were tem-
they arc either causal i.e. that there is a p o r a r i l y lost t o u s .
r a t i o n a l c a u s e for t h e i r e x i s t e n c e o r in a c e r - T h u s , p a r t o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s c o n s i s t s of a
tain way purposive, or both. m u l t i t u d e of t e m p o r a r i l y obscured thoughts,
L e t us n o w l o o k a l i t t l e m o r e c l o s e l y a t t h e i m p r e s s i o n s , a n d i m a g e s t h a t , in s p i t e o f b e i n g
w a y s in w h i c h t h e c o n s c i o u s a n d unconscious lost, c o n t i n u e t o i n f l u e n c e o u r c o n s c i o u s m i n d s .
A m a n w h o is d i s t r a c t e d o r "absent-minded"" b e h a v i o r b e c a u s e t h e i r c o n s c i o u s n e s s is l i a b l e
will w a l k a c r o s s t h e r o o m t o f e t c h something. to u n p r e d i c t a b l e eclipse by a n i n t e r f e r e n c e from
He s t o p s , s e e m i n g l y p e r p l e x e d ; h e h a s f o r g o t t e n t h e u n c o n s c i o u s . E v e n their skin s e n s a t i o n s m a y
what he was after. His hands grope about reveal similar f l u c t u a t i o n s of a w a r e n e s s . At o n e
a m o n g t h e o b j e c t s o n t h e t a b l e a s if h e were m o m e n t t h e h y s t e r i c a l p e r s o n m a y feel a n e e d l e
sleepwalking; he is o b l i v i o u s of his original p r i c k in t h e a r m ; a t t h e n e x t it m a y p a s s u n n o -
p u r p o s e , yet h e is u n c o n s c i o u s l y g u i d e d b y it. t i c e d . If h i s a t t e n t i o n c a n b e f o c u s e d o n a c e r -
T h e n h e r e a l i z e s w h a t it is t h a t h e w a n t s . H i s tain point, the whole of his body can be
unconscious has p r o m p t e d him. completely anesthetized until the tension that
If y o u o b s e r v e the b e h a v i o r of a neurotic c a u s e s this b l a c k o u t of t h e senses h a s b e e n re-
person, y o u c a n s e e h i m doing many things laxed. Sense perception is t h e n immediately
that h e a p p e a r s t o b e d o i n g c o n s c i o u s l y and r e s t o r e d . All t h e t i m e , h o w e v e r , h e h a s been
p u r p o s e f u l l y . Y e t if y o u a s k h i m a b o u t them, u n c o n s c i o u s l y a w a r e of w h a t w a s h a p p e n i n g .
you will d i s c o v e r t h a t h e is e i t h e r u n c o n s c i o u s The physician can see this process quite
of t h e m o r h a s s o m e t h i n g q u i t e different in clearly w h e n he hypnotizes such a patient. It
mind. H e h e a r s a n d does not h e a r ; h e sees, is e a s y t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e p a t i e n t h a s b e e n
yet is b l i n d ; h e k n o w s a n d is i g n o r a n t . Such a w a r e o f e v e r y d e t a i l . T h e p r i c k in t h e a r m o r
e x a m p l e s a r e so c o m m o n t h a t t h e s p e c i a l i s t s o o n the remark made during an eclipse of c o n -
realizes t h a t u n c o n s c i o u s c o n t e n t s o f t h e m i n d s c i o u s n e s s c a n b e r e c a l l e d as a c c u r a t e l y as if
b e h a v e as if t h e y w e r e c o n s c i o u s a n d t h a t y o u there had been no anesthesia or "forgetfulness."
can never be sure, in such cases, whether I recall a w o m a n w h o w a s o n c e a d m i t t e d to t h e
t h o u g h t , s p e e c h , o r a c t i o n is c o n s c i o u s o r n o t . c l i n i c in a s t a t e of c o m p l e t e s t u p o r . W h e n s h e
It is this k i n d of b e h a v i o r that makes so r e c o v e r e d consciousness next d a y . she k n e w w h o
many physicians d i s m i s s s t a t e m e n t s by h y s t e r i - she was but did not k n o w w h e r e she was. how
cal p a t i e n t s as u t t e r lies. S u c h p e r s o n s c e r t a i n l y or w h y she h a d c o m e there, or even the d a t e .
produce m o r e u n t r u t h s t h a n m o s t of us, b u t Yet after I h a d h y p n o t i z e d h e r , she told m e w h y
" l i e " is s c a r c e l y t h e r i g h t w o r d t o u s e . I n f a c t , s h e h a d f a l l e n ill. h o w s h e h a d g o t t o t h e c l i n i c ,
their m e n t a l state causes an uncertainty of and who had admitted h e r . All t h e s e details

" M i s o n e i s m . " an u n r e a s o n i n g fear


a n d h a t r e d of n e w ideas, w a s a m a j o r
b l o c k to p u b l i c a c c e p t a n c e of m o d e r n
p s y c h S t o g y It also o p p o s e d D a r w i n ' s
t h e o r i e s of e v o l u t i o n as w h e n an
American schoolteacher named
S c o p e s w a s t r i e d in 1 9 2 5 for t e a c h i n g
e v o l u t i o n . Far left, at t h e trial, t h e
lawyer Clarence Darrow defending
S c o p e s ; c e n t e r left, S c o p e s h i m s e l f
E g u a l l y a n t e D a r w i n is t h e c a r t o o n ,
left, f r o m an 1 8 6 1 issue of B r i t a i n ' s
m a g a z i n e Punch Right, a light-
h e a r t e d l o o k at m i s o n e i s m by t h e
American humorist James Thurber,
w h o s e aunt (he w r o t e ) w a s afraid
t h a t e l e c t r i c i t y w a s "leaking all
over the place.''

33
c o u l d b e v e r i f i e d . S h e w a s e v e n a b l e t o tell t h e But t h e f o r g o t t e n ideas h a v e not ceased io
t i m e at w h i c h s h e h a d b e e n a d m i t t e d , because exist. A l t h o u g h t h e y c a n n o t be r e p r o d u c e d al
s h e h a d s e e n a c l o c k in t h e e n t r a n c e h a l l . U n d e r w i l l , t h e y a r e p r e s e n t in a s u b l i m i n a l s t a t e just
hypnosis, her m e m o r y w a s as c l e a r a s if s h e beyond the threshold of recall from which
h a d b e e n c o m p l e t e l y c o n s c i o u s all t h e t i m e . t h e y c a n rise a g a i n s p o n t a n e o u s l y a t a n y t i m e ,
When we discuss such m a t t e r s , we usually often alter many years of apparently total
h a v e to d r a w on e v i d e n c e s u p p l i e d b y clinical oblivion.
observation. For this reason, many critics I a m s p e a k i n g h e r e of t h i n g s w e h a v e c o n -
a s s u m e t h a t t h e u n c o n s c i o u s a n d all its s u b t l e sciously seen or h e a r d , a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y forgot-
manifestations b e l o n g solely to the s p h e r e of t e n . B u t w e all s e e , h e a r , s m e l l , a n d t a s t e m a n y
psychopathology. T h e y consider any expression things w i t h o u t n o t i c i n g t h e m at the t i m e , either
of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s as s o m e t h i n g neurotic or b e c a u s e o u r a t t e n t i o n is d e f l e c t e d o r because
psychotic, w h i c h has n o t h i n g to d o with a nor- t h e s t i m u l u s t o o u r s e n s e s is t o o s l i g h t t o l e a v e
m a l m e n t a l state. But n e u r o t i c p h e n o m e n a a r e a conscious impression. The u n c o n s c i o u s , h o w -
b y n o m e a n s t h e p r o d u c t s e x c l u s i v e l y of d i s e a s e . e v e r , h a s t a k e n n o t e of t h e m , a n d s u c h s u b l i m i -
They a r e in fact no more than pathological n a l s e n s e p e r c e p t i o n s p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t in
e x a g g e r a t i o n s o f n o r m a l o c c u r r e n c e s ; it is o n l y our everyday lives. W i t h o u t our realizing it,
because they are exaggerations that they are they influence t h e w a y in w h i c h w e r e a c t to
more obvious t h a n their n o r m a l counterparts. both events and people.
Hysterical symptoms can be observed in all A n e x a m p l e of t h i s t h a t I f o u n d particularly
n o r m a l p e r s o n s , b u t t h e y a r e so s l i g h t t h a t t h e y r e v e a l i n g was p r o v i d e d by a professor w h o h a d
usually pass u n n o t i c e d . b e e n w a l k i n g in t h e c o u n t r y w i t h o n e o f his
F o r g e t t i n g , for i n s t a n c e , is a n o r m a l p r o c e s s , p u p i l s , a b s o r b e d in s e r i o u s c o n v e r s a t i o n . Sud-
in w h i c h c e r t a i n c o n s c i o u s i d e a s lose t h e i r s p e c i - d e n l y h e n o t i c e d t h a t his t h o u g h t s w e r e b e i n g
fic e n e r g y because one's attention has been i n t e r r u p t e d b y a n u n e x p e c t e d flow of m e m o r i e s
deflected. When interest turns elsewhere, it from his e a r l y c h i l d h o o d . H e c o u l d not a c c o u n t
l e a v e s in s h a d o w t h e t h i n g s w i t h w h i c h o n e w a s for t h i s d i s t r a c t i o n . N o t h i n g in w h a t h a d been
-
p r e v i o u s l y c o n c e r n e d , just as a s e a r c h l i g h t lights said s e e m e d to have a n y c o n n e c t i o n w i t h these
up a new area by leaving another in dark- m e m o r i e s . O n looking back, he saw that he had
n e s s . This is u n a v o i d a b l e , for c o n s c i o u s n e s s c a n b e e n w a l k i n g p a s t a f a r m w h e n t h e first o f t h e s e
k e e p o n l y a few i m a g e s in full c l a r i t y at one childhood recollections had surged u p in his
time, a n d even this clarity fluctuates. mind. He suggested to his pupil that they

In cases of e x t r e m e m a s s h y s t e r i a
( w h i c h w a s in t h e past c a l l e d
" p o s s e s s i o n " ) , the consci ous m i n d
a n d o r d i n a r y sense p e r c e p t i o n s e e m
e c l i p s e d . Left, t h e f r e n z y of a B a l i n e s e
s w o r d dance causes the dancers to
fall i n t o t r a n c e s a n d , s o m e t i m e s ,
t o t u r n their w e a p o n s a g a i n s t
t h e m s e l v e s . R i g h t , rock a n d roll
m u s i c in its h e y d a y s e e m e d t o
i n d u c e an a l m o s t c o m p a r a b l e
t r a n c e - like e x c i t e m e n t .
A m o n g primitives, " p o s s e s s i o n "
i m p l i e s t h a t a g o d or d e m o n has
t a k e n o v e r a h u m a n b o d y A b o v e left,
a H a i t i a n w o m a n c o l l a p s e s in a
religious ecstasy A b o v e center
a n d right, H a i t i a n s p o s s e s s e d by
t h e g o d G h e d e , w h o is i n v a r i a b l y
m a n i f e s t e d in this p o s i t i o n , legs
c r o s s e d , c i g a r e t t e in m o u t h .

Left, a r e l i g i o u s c u l t in T e n n e s s e e .
U.S.A., t o d a y , w h o s e c e r e m o n i e s
i n c l u d e t h e h a n d l i n g of p o i s o n o u s
s n a k e s . H y s t e r i a is i n d u c e d b y
music, singing, and hand clapping;
t h e n t h e p e o p l e pass t h e s n a k e s
f r o m h a n d to h a n d . ( S o m e t i m e s
p a r t i c i p a n t s are f a t a l l y b i t t e n )
s h o u l d walk b a c k to the point w h e r e t h e fan- it, s h e h a s h e a r d t h e f o g h o r n o f a d i s t a n t s h i p ,
tasies h a d b e g u n . O n c e t h e r e , h e n o t i c e d the a n d t h i s h a s u n c o n s c i o u s l y r e m i n d e d h e r of a n
s m e l l o f g e e s e , a n d i n s t a n t l y h e r e a l i z e d t h a t it unhappy p a r t i n g with a lover w h o m she has
w a s t h i s s m e l l t h a t h a d t o u c h e d off t h e flow o f b e e n d o i n g h e r best to forget.
memories. Aside from normal forgetting, Freud has
In his y o u t h h e h a d lived o n a f a r m where d e s c r i b e d several cases t h a t involve the "for-
geese w e r e kept, a n d their characteristic smell g e t t i n g " of d i s a g r e e a b l e m e m o r i e s memories
h a d left a l a s t i n g t h o u g h f o r g o t t e n impression. t h a t o n e is o n l y t o o r e a d y t o l o s e . A s N i e t z s c h e
As h e p a s s e d the farm o n his w a l k , he had remarked, where pride is i n s i s t e n t enough,
n o t i c e d t h e smell s u b l i m i n a l l y , a n d this u n c o n - m e m o r y prefers to give way. T h u s , a m o n g the
scious p e r c e p t i o n h a d called b a c k long-forgot- lost m e m o r i e s , w e e n c o u n t e r n o t a few t h a t o w e
t e n e x p e r i e n c e s of his c h i l d h o o d . The p e r c e p t i o n their s u b l i m i n a l state ( a n d their i n c a p a c i t y to
was subliminal, because the attention was en- be v o l u n t a r i l y r e p r o d u c e d ) to their d i s a g r e e a b l e
gaged elsewhere, and the stimulus was not a n d i n c o m p a t i b l e n a t u r e . T h e p s y c h o l o g i s t calls
s t r o n g e n o u g h t o d e f l e c t it a n d t o r e a c h con- t h e s e repressed contents.
s c i o u s n e s s d i r e c t l y . Y e t it h a d b r o u g h t u p t h e A case in p o i n t m i g h t b e t h a t of a s e c r e t a r y
"forgotten" memories. w h o is j e a l o u s o f o n e o f h e r e m p l o y e r ' s a s s o c i -
S u c h a " c u e " o r " t r i g g e r " effect c a n e x p l a i n ates. S h e h a b i t u a l l y forgets to invite this person
the o n s e t of n e u r o t i c s y m p t o m s as well as m o r e t o m e e t i n g s , t h o u g h t h e n a m e is c l e a r l y m a r k e d
benign m e m o r i e s w h e n a sight, smell, or sound o n t h e list s h e is u s i n g . B u t , if c h a l l e n g e d o n t h e
r e c a l l s a c i r c u m s t a n c e in t h e p a s t . A g i r l , for point, she simply says she "forgot" or was
i n s t a n c e , m a y b e b u s y in h e r office, a p p a r e n t l y "interrupted." She never admits not even to
in g o o d h e a l t h a n d spirits. A m o m e n t l a t e r she h e r s e l f t h e r e a l r e a s o n for h e r o m i s s i o n .
develops a blinding h e a d a c h e a n d shows other Many people mistakenly overestimate^the
s i g n s of d i s t r e s s . W i t h o u t c o n s c i o u s l y noticing r o l e of w i l l p o w e r a n d t h i n k t h a t n o t h i n g can

T h e t o y cars f o r m i n g t h e V o l k s w a g e n
t r a d e - m a r k in t h i s a d v e r t i s e m e n t
may have a " t r i g g e r " effect o n a
reader's m i n d , s t i r r i n g u n c o n s c i o u s
m e m o r i e s of c h i l d h o o d . If t h e s e
m e m o r i e s are p l e a s a n t , t h e p l e a s u r e
m a y be a s s o c i a t e d ( u n c o n s c i o u s l y )
w i t h the product and brand name.

36
h a p p e n to t h e i r m i n d s t h a t t h e y d o n o t d e c i d e I n t h i s t y p e o f c a s e t h e r e is g e n u i n e , if u n r e -
and i n t e n d . B u t o n e m u s t l e a r n to d i s c r i m i n a t e alized, r e c o l l e c t i o n . M u c h t h e s a m e sort of t h i n g
carefully b e t w e e n i n t e n t i o n a l a n d u n i n t e n t i o n a l may happen to a musician w h o has h e a r d a
c o n t e n t s of t h e m i n d . T h e f o r m e r a r e d e r i v e d p e a s a n t t u n e o r p o p u l a r song in c h i l d h o o d a n d
from t h e e g o p e r s o n a l i t y ; t h e l a t t e r , however, f i n d s it c r o p p i n g u p as t h e t h e m e of a sym-
arise from a s o u r c e t h a t is n o t i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e p h o n i c m o v e m e n t t h a t h e is c o m p o s i n g i n a d u l t
ego, b u t is its " o t h e r s i d e . " I t is t h i s " o t h e r s i d e " life. A n i d e a o r a n i m a g e h a s m o v e d b a c k f r o m
that w o u l d h a v e m a d e t h e s e c r e t a r y f o r g e t t h e the unconscious into the conscious mind.
invitations. What I h a v e so f a r s a i d a b o u t t h e uncon-
There are m a n y reasons w h y w e forget things s c i o u s is n o m o r e t h a n a c u r s o r y s k e t c h o f t h e
t h a t w e h a v e n o t i c e d o r e x p e r i e n c e d ; a n d there- n a t u r e a n d f u n c t i o n i n g of this c o m p l e x p a r t of
are j u s t as m a n y w a y s i n w h i c h t h e y m a y be t h e h u m a n p s y c h e . B u t it s h o u l d h a v e i n d i c a t e d
recalled to m i n d . A n i n t e r e s t i n g e x a m p l e is t h a t the k i n d of s u b l i m i n a l m a t e r i a l from w h i c h the
of c r y p t o m n e s i a , o r " c o n c e a l e d recollection." symbols of o u r d r e a m s m a y be s p o n t a n e o u s l y
An a u t h o r m a y b e w r i t i n g s t e a d i l y t o a p r e c o n - p r o d u c e d . T h i s s u b l i m i n a l m a t e r i a l c a n consist
ceived p l a n , w o r k i n g o u t a n a r g u m e n t o r d e - o f all u r g e s , i m p u l s e s , a n d i n t e n t i o n s : a l l p e r -
veloping the line of a story, w h e n h e s u d d e n l y c e p t i o n s a n d i n t u i t i o n s ; all r a t i o n a l o r i r r a t i o n a l
r u n s off a t a t a n g e n t . P e r h a p s a f r e s h i d e a h a s thoughts, conclusions, inductions, deductions,
occurred to h i m , o r a different image, or a a n d p r e m i s e s ; a n d all v a r i e t i e s of feeling. A n y
whole n e w sub-plot. If y o u ask him what o r a l l o f t h e s e ca n t a k e t h e f o r m
# of p a r t i a l ,
prompted the digression, h e will n o t b e a b l e to temporary, or constant unconsciousness.
tell y o u . H e m a y n o t e v e n h a v e n o t i c e d the Such material has mostly become uncon-
change, t h o u g h he has n o w p r o d u c e d material scious b e c a u s e in a manner of s p e a k i n g
t h a t is e n t i r e l y fresh a n d a p p a r e n t l y unknown t h e r e is n o r o o m for it i n t h e c o n s c i o u s mind.
to h i m b e f o r e . Y e t it c a n s o m e t i m e s b e s h o w n S o m e of o n e ' s t h o u g h t s lose t h e i r emotional
convincingly t h a t w h a t h e h a s w r i t t e n b e a r s a e n e r g y a n d b e c o m e s u b l i m i n a l ( t h a t is t o s a y ,
striking s i m i l a r i t y t o t h e w o r k o f a n o t h e r a u t h o r t h e y n o l o n g e r r e c e i v e so m u c h o f o u r c o n s c i o u s
a w o r k t h a t h e b e l i e v e s h e h a s n e v e r s e e n . a t t e n t i o n ) b e c a u s e they h a v e c o m e to seem u n -
I myself f o u n d a f a s c i n a t i n g e x a m p l e o f t h i s i n t e r e s t i n g o r i r r e l e v a n t , o r b e c a u s e t h e r e is
in N i e t z s c h e ' s book Thus Spake arathustra, s o m e r e a s o n w h y w e w i s h t o p u s h t h e m o u t of
where the a u t h o r r e p r o d u c e s a l m o s t w o r d for sight.
word a n i n c i d e n t r e p o r t e d i n a s h i p ' s l o g for I t is, i n f a c t , n o r m a l a n d n e c e s s a r y for u s t o
the y e a r 1686. By s h e e r c h a n c e I h a d r e a d t h i s " f o r g e t " in this fashion, in o r d e r to m a k e r o o m
seaman's y a r n in a b o o k p u b l i s h e d a b o u t 1835 i n o u r c o n s c i o u s m i n d s for n e w i m p r e s s i o n s a n d
(half a c e n t u r y b e f o r e N i e t z s c h e w r o t e ) ; and i d e a s . If this d i d n o t h a p p e n , e v e r y t h i n g we
when I f o u n d t h e s i m i l a r p a s s a g e i n Thus Spake experienced would remain above the threshold
^arathuslra, I w a s s t r u c k b y its p e c w l i a r s t y l e , of consciousness a n d o u r m i n d s w o u l d become
which w a s d i f f e r e n t from Nietzsche's usual impossibly cluttered. This p h e n o m e n o n is so
language. I was c o n v i n c e d t h a t N i e t z s c h e m u s t widely recognized today that most people who
also h a v e s e e n t h e o l d b o o k , t h o u g h h e made know anything about psychology t a k e it for
no r e f e r e n c e t o it. I w r o t e t o h i s s i s t e r , w h o w a s granted.
still alive, a n d s h e c o n f i r m e d t h a t s h e a n d h e r But just as c o n s c i o u s c o n t e n t s can vanish
brother had in f a c t read the book together into the unconscious, new contents, which have
when h e w a s 11 y e a r s o l d . I t h i n k , f r o m the never yet b e e n conscious, can arise from it.
context, it is i n c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t N i e t z s c h e h a d O n e m a y h a v e a n i n k l i n g , for i n s t a n c e , that
any i d e a t h a t h e w a s p l a g i a r i z i n g t h i s s t o r y . I s o m e t h i n g is o n t h e p o i n t o f b r e a k i n g i n t o c o n -
believe t h a t fifty y e a r s l a t e r it h a d u n e x p e c t e d l y s c i o u s n e s s t h a t " s o m e t h i n g is i n t h e a i r , " o r
slipped i n t o focus i n h i s c o n s c i o u s m i n d . that one "smells a rat." T h e discovery that the

37
u n c o n s c i o u s is n o m e r e d e p o s i t o r y o f t h e p a s t , mathematician Poincarc and the chemist
b u t is a l s o full o f g e r m s o f f u t u r e p s y c h i c s i t u a - K c k u l c o w e d i m p o r t a n t s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r i e s (as
tions and ideas, led me to my own new they themselves a d m i t i to s u d d e n pictorial " r e -
a p p r o a c h t o p s y c h o l o g y . A g r e a t d e a l ol c o n t r o - v e l a t i o n s " from the u n c o n s c i o u s . T h e so-called
versial discussion h a s arisen a r o u n d this p o i n t . "mystical" cxpcrienceofthc French philosopher
B u t it is a fact t h a t , in a d d i t i o n t o memories Descartes involved a similar sudden revelation
from a l o n g - d i s t a n t c o n s c i o u s past, c o m p l e t e l y in w h i c h h e s a w in a flash t h e " o r d e r o f all
new t h o u g h t s a n d creative ideas can also pre- sciences." The British author Robert Louis
sent t h e m s e l v e s from the u n c o n s c i o u s thoughts S t e v e n s o n h a d s p e n t y e a r s l o o k i n g for a s t o r y
a n d ideas that have never been conscious before. t h a t w o u l d lit his " s t r o n g s e n s e o f m a n ' s d o u b l e
They grow up from the dark d e p t h s of the being," when t h e p l o t of Dr. Jfkyll and Mr.
m i n d like a l o t u s a n d f o r m a m o s t important Hyde w a s s u d d e n l y r e v e a l e d to h i m in a d r e a m .
p a r t ol t h e s u b l i m i n a l p s y c h e . I . a t e r I s h a l l d e s c r i b e in m o r e d e t a i l h o w s u c h
W e find t h i s in e v e r y d a y life, w h e r e d i l e m m a s m a t e r i a l arises from the u n c o n s c i o u s , a n d I shall
are sometimes solved by the most surprising new e x a m i n e t h e f o r m in w h i c h it is e x p r e s s e d . At
propositions; m a n y artists, philosophers, and t h e m o m e n t I s i m p l y w a n t to p o i n t o u t t h a t the
e v e n s c i e n t i s t s o w e s o m e o f t h e i r best i d e a s t o c a p a c i t y of t h e h u m a n p s y c h e to p r o d u c e such
inspirations that appear suddenly from the new material is p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t when
unconscious. The a b i l i t y to t e a c h a rich vein one is d e a l i n g with dream symbolism, for I
o f s u c h m a t e r i a l a n d to t r a n s l a t e it effectively h a v e f o u n d a g a i n a n d a g a i n in my professional
i n t o p h i l o s o p h y , l i t e r a t u r e , m u s i c , o r scientific work that the images a n d ideas that dreams
discovery is o n e of t h e h a l l m a r k s o f w h a t is c o n t a i n c a n n o t p o s s i b l y b e e x p l a i n e d solely in
commonly called genius. t e r m s of m e m o r y . T h e y e x p r e s s n e w thoughts
We can find c l e a r p r o o f ol t h i s fact in the lint h a v e n e v e r vet r e a c h e d the threshold ol
h i s t o r y ol s c i e n c e itself, f o r e x a m p l e , t h e F r e n c h consciousness.

The 19th century German chemist


Kekule, researching into the
m o l e c u l a r s t r u c t u r e of b e n z e n e ,
d r e a m e d of a s n a k e w i t h its tail
in its m o u t h ( T h i s is an a g e - o l d
s y m b o l : left, a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f
it f r o m a t h i r d - c e n t u r y B . C . G r e e k
m a n u s c r i p t . ) He i n t e r p r e t e d t h e
d r e a m to m e a n that t h e s t r u c t u r e
w a s a closed carbon ring as o n t h e
p a g e , far left, f r o m his Textbook
of Organic Chemistry (1861)

R i g h t , an o r d i n a r y E u r o p e a n h i g h w a y
w i t h a familiar sign that means
"look o u t f o r a n i m a l s c r o s s i n g . "
But the motorists (their s h a d o w s
a p p e a r In t h e f o r e g r o u n d as t h e y
leave t h e i r c a r ) see an e l e p h a n t , a
rhinoceros, even a dinosaur. This
p a i n t i n g of a d r e a m ( b y t h e m o d e r n
S w i s s artist Erhard J a c o b y )
accurately depicts the apparently
i l l o g i c a l , i n c o h e r e n t n a t u r e of
dream imagery.

|8
The function of dreams

I have gone into s o m e detail a b o u t the origins c a n i m p o s e o n o u r t h o u g h t s in w a k i n g life. Y e t


of o u r d r e a m life, b e c a u s e it is t h e soil from anyone w h o s t o p s for a m o m e n t to recall a
which most s y m b o l s o r i g i n a l l y g r o w . Unfor- d r e a m w i l l b e a w a r e o f t h i s c o n t r a s t , w h i c h is
tunately, d r e a m s a r e difficult to u n d e r s t a n d . As in f a c t o n e o f t h e m a i n r e a s o n s w h y t h e o r d i n a r y
I h a v e a l r e a d y p o i n t e d o u t , a d r e a m is q u i t e person finds dreams so h a r d to understand.
unlike a s t o r y t o l d b y t h e c o n s c i o u s m i n d . In T h e y d o n o t m a k e s e n s e in t e r m s o f h i s n o r m a l
e v e r y d a y life o n e t h i n k s o u t w h a t o n e w a n t s t o w a k i n g e x p e r i e n c e , a n d t h e r e f o r e h e is i n c l i n e d
say, selects t h e m o s t t e l l i n g w a y o f s a y i n g it, a n d e i t h e r to d i s r e g a r d t h e m or to confess t h a t t h e y
tries to m a k e o n e ' s r e m a r k s l o g i c a l l y c o h e r e n t . baffle h i m .
For i n s t a n c e , a n e d u c a t e d p e r s o n will s e e k t o P e r h a p s it m a y b e e a s i e r t o u n d e r s t a n d this
avoid a m i x e d m e t a p h o r b e c a u s e it m a y g i v e a p o i n t if w e first r e a l i z e t h e fact t h a t t h e i d e a s
m u d d l e d i m p r e s s i o n of his p o i n t . B u t dreams w i t h w h i c h w e d e a l in o u r a p p a r e n t l y disci-
have a different t e x t u r e . I m a g e s t h a t s e e m c o n - p l i n e d w a k i n g life a r e b y n o m e a n s a s p r e c i s e
tradictory and ridiculous crowd in on the as w e like to b e l i e v e . O n the contrary, their
d r e a m e r , t h e n o r m a l s e n s e o f t i m e is l o s t , a n d m e a n i n g (and their emotional significance for
commonplace things can assume a fascinating us) b e c o m e s m o r e i m p r e c i s e t h e m o r e closely
or t h r e a t e n i n g a s p e c t . w e e x a m i n e t h e m . T h e r e a s o n for t h i s is t h a t
It m a y s e e m s t r a n g e t h a t the unconscious anything we have heard or experienced can
mind s h o u l d o r d e r its m a t e r i a l so differently become subliminal t h a t is t o s a y , c a n p a s s i n t o
from t h e s e e m i n g l y d i s c i p l i n e d p a t t e r n t h a t w e t h e u n c o n s c i o u s . A n d e v e n w h a t w e r e t a i n in

39
o u r c o n s c i o u s m i n d a n d c a n r e p r o d u c e a t will p s y c h i c e v e n t a n d as s u c h p a r t l y unknowable.
has acquired an unconscious undertone that T h e v e r y n u m b e r s y o u u s e in c o u n t i n g a r e m o r e
w i l l c o l o r t h e i d e a e a c h t i m e it is r e c a l l e d . O u r t h a n you t a k e t h e m to be. T h e y a r e at t h e s a m e
c o n s c i o u s i m p r e s s i o n s , in f a c t , q u i c k l y assume time mythological elements (for the Pytha-
an element of u n c o n s c i o u s meaning that is goreans, they were even divine); but you are
p s y c h i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t for u s , t h o u g h w e a r e n o t c e r t a i n l y u n a w a r e of this w h e n y o u use n u m b e r s
consciously a w a r e of the existence of this s u b - for a p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e .
l i m i n a l m e a n i n g o r o f t h e w a y in w h i c h it b o t h Every concept in o u r conscious mind, in
e x t e n d s a n d confuses the c o n v e n t i o n a l m e a n i n g . s h o r t , h a s its o w n p s y c h i c a s s o c i a t i o n s . While
O f course, such psychic undertones differ such associations m a y v a r y in intensity (accord-
f r o m o n e p e r s o n t o a n o t h e r . E a c h of us r e c e i v e s i n g to t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e c o n c e p t to
a n y a b s t r a c t o r g e n e r a l n o t i o n in t h e c o n t e x t o f o u r w h o l e p e r s o n a l i t y , or a c c o r d i n g to t h e o t h e r
the individual m i n d , a n d we therefore under- i d e a s a n d e v e n c o m p l e x e s t o w h i c h it is a s s o -
stand and apply it in o u r individual ways. c i a t e d in o u r u n c o n s c i o u s ) , t h e y a r e c a p a b l e of
W h e n , in c o n v e r s a t i o n , I u s e a n y s u c h t e r m s a s
"'state," " m o n e y , " "health," or "society," I
assume that m y listeners u n d e r s t a n d more or
less t h e s a m e t h i n g a s I d o . B u t t h e p h r a s e " m o r e
or less" m a k e s m y point. Each word means
s o m e t h i n g slightly different to e a c h p e r s o n , even
a m o n g those w h o share the s a m e cultural back-
g r o u n d . T h e r e a s o n for t h i s v a r i a t i o n is t h a t a
g e n e r a l n o t i o n is r e c e i v e d i n t o a n individual
c o n t e x t a n d is t h e r e f o r e u n d e r s t o o d a n d a p p l i e d
in a slightly i n d i v i d u a l w a y . A n d t h e d i f f e r e n c e
o f m e a n i n g is n a t u r a l l y g r e a t e s t w h e n people
h a v e widely different social, political, religious
or psychological experiences.

As l o n g as c o n c e p t s a r e i d e n t i c a l w i t h mere
w o r d s , t h e v a r i a t i o n is a l m o s t i m p e r c e p t i b l e a n d
plays n o p r a c t i c a l role. But w h e n a n e x a c t defi-
n i t i o n o r a c a r e f u l e x p l a n a t i o n is n e e d e d , o n e
can occasionally discover the most amazing
v a r i a t i o n s , n o t o n l y in t h e p u r e l y intellectual
u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e t e r m , b u t p a r t i c u l a r l y in
its e m o t i o n a l t o n e a n d its a p p l i c a t i o n . A s a r u l e ,
these variations are subliminal a n d therefore
v
never realized.
O n e m a y t e n d t o d i s m i s s s u c h d i f f e r e n c e s as
r e d u n d a n t o r e x p e n d a b l e n u a n c e s of m e a n i n g
t h a t h a v e little r e l e v a n c e to e v e r y d a y n e e d s . But
t h e fact t h a t t h e y e x i s t s h o w s t h a t e v e n t h e m o s t
matter-of-fact c o n t e n t s of consciousness h a v e a
p e n u m b r a of u n c e r t a i n t y a r o u n d t h e m . Even
the most carefully defined philosophical or
m a t h e m a t i c a l concept, which we are sure does
n o t c o n t a i n m o r e t h a n w e h a v e p u t i n t o it, is
nevertheless more than we assume. It is a

4"
Le temps n'a p o i n t d e r i v e . 1 9 3 0 - 3 9 . O i l o n c a n v a s , 3 9 | " x 3 2 " . Collection. The Museum ol Modem Art New York

On these pages, f u r t h e r e x a m p l e s D r a g o n s or s i m i l a r m o n s t e r s are A b o v e , a p a i n t i n g e n t i t l e d Time is


of the irrational, f a n t a s t i c n a t u r e c o m m o n d r e a m i m a g e s Left, a d r a g o n , a River without Banks b y t h e m o d e r n
of dreams. A b o v e left, o w l s a n d p u r s u e s a d r e a m e r in a w o o d c u t artist M a r c C h a g a l l . T h e u n e x p e c t e d
bats s w a r m over a d r e a m i n g m a n f r o m The Dream of Poliphilo, a a s s o c i a t i o n of t h e s e i m a g e s f i s h ,
in an e t c h i n g by the 1 8 t h - c e n t u r y fantasy written by a 1 5th-century v i o l i n , c l o c k , l o v e r s h a s all t h e
Spanish artist G o y a . Italian m o n k , F r a n c e s c o C o l o n n a . s t r a n g e n e s s of a d r e a m .

, 4'
T h e m y t h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t of o r d i n a r y
n u m b e r s a p p e a r s in M a y a n reliefs
( t o p of p a g e , c. A D 7 3 0 ) , w h i c h
p e r s o n i f y n u m e r i c a l d i v i s i o n s of
t i m e as g o d s T h e p y r a m i d of d o t s ,
a b o v e , represents t h e tetraktys of
Greek P y t h a g o r e a n p h i l o s o p h y ( s i x t h
c e n t u r y B.C.). It i n c l u d e s f o u r n u m b e r s
1 , 2. 3, 4 m a k i n g a t o t a l of 1 0
Both four and 10 were w o r s h i p e d
as d i v i n i t i e s by the P y t h a g o r e a n s .

I-
c h a n g i n g t h e " n o r m a l " c h a r a c t e r ol t h a t c o n - c o u l d n o t sec t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h i s fact
cept. It may even become something quite a n d h i s a t t e m p t in t h e d r e a m t o j u m p o n m e .
different as it d r i f t s below t h e level of con- In m y professional life, h o w e v e r , it h a s often
sciousness. happened that someone has misrepresented
These s u b l i m i n a l a s p e c t s of e v e r y t h i n g that what I have said so often t h a t I h a v e s c a r c e l y
h a p p e n s t o us m a y s e e m t o p l a y v e r y l i t t l e p a r t b o t h e r e d to w o n d e r w h e t h e r this k i n d of mis-
in o u r d a i l y l i v e s . B u t in d r e a m a n a l y s i s , w h e r e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n m a k e s m e a n g r y . N o w t h e r e is a
the p s y c h o l o g i s t is d e a l i n g w i t h e x p r e s s i o n s of certain value in k e e p i n g a c o n s c i o u s control
the u n c o n s c i o u s , t h e y a r c v e r y r e l e v a n t , for t h e y over one's e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s : a n d this. I soon
arc the a l m o s t i n v i s i b l e roots of o u r c o n s c i o u s r e a l i z e d , w a s t h e p o i n t t h e d r e a m h a d m a d e . It
t h o u g h t s . T h a i is w h y c o m m o n p l a c e o b j e c t s o r had taken an Austrian colloquialism and trans-
ideas c a n a s s u m e s u c h p o w e r f u l p s y c h i c s i g n i f i - lated it i n t o a p i c t o r i a l image. This phrase,
c a n c e in a d r e a m t h a t w e m a y a w a k e s e r i o u s l y common enough in ordinary speech, is Ihi
d i s t u r b e d , in s p i t e o f h a v i n g d r e a m e d o f n o t h i n g kannst mir auj den Bucket steigen (You can
worse t h a n a l o c k e d r o o m o r a m i s s e d train. climb on my back), which m e a n s "I don't care
The images produced in d r e a m s a r e much w h a t you say a b o u t m e . " A n A m e r i c a n equiva-
more p i c t u r e s q u e a n d vivid t h a n t h e c o n c e p t s lent, w h i c h could easily a p p e a r in a similar
and experiences t h a t a r c their w a k i n g c o u n t e r - d r e a m , w o u l d b e " G o j u m p in t h e l a k e . "
p a r t s . O n e ol t h e r e a s o n s for t h i s is t h a t , in a O n e c o u l d say t h a t this d r e a m p i c t u r e was
dream, such concepts c a n express their u n c o n - symbolic, for it did not state the situation
scious m e a n i n g . I n o u r c o n s c i o u s t h o u g h t s , w e directly but expressed the point indirectly l>v
restrain o u r s e l v e s w i t h i n t h e limits of r a t i o n a l m e a n s of a m e t a p h o r t h a t I c o u l d not at first
statements s t a t e m e n t s t h a t a r e m u c h less c o l o r - u n d e r s t a n d . W h e n this h a p p e n s as it so o f t e n
ful b e c a u s e w e h a v e s t r i p p e d t h e m of m o s t of d o e s i it is n o t d e l i b e r a t e " d i s g u i s e " by a d r e a m ;
their p s y c h i c a s s o c i a t i o n s . it s i m p l v r e f l e c t s t h e d e f i c i e n c i e s in o u r under-
I r e c a l l o n e d r e a m ol i m own that I found standing ofcmotionally charged pictorial langu-
difficult to i n t e r p r e t . In this d r e a m , a c e r t a i n a g e . F o r in o u r d a i l y experience we need to
m a n w a s t r y i n g t o get b e h i n d m e a n d j u m p o n state t h i n g s as a c c u r a t e l y as possible, a n d we
m\ b a c k . I k n e w n o t h i n g of this m a n except have learned to discard the trimmings of
that I w a s a w a r e t h a t h e h a d s o m e h o w picked fantasy both in our language and in our
u p a r e m a r k I h a d m a d e a n d h a d t w i s t e d it i n t o thoughts thus losing a quality that is still
a grotesque travesty o f mv meaning. But I c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ol t h e p r i m i t i v e m i n d . M o s t o f us

Not o n l y n u m b e r s b u t s u c h f a m i l i a r
objects as s t o n e s a n d trees c a n
have s y m b o l i c i m p o r t a n c e f o r m a n y
people Left, r o u g h s t o n e s p l a c e d
on the roadside by travelers in
India represent t h e linyam, t h e
Hindu phallic s y m b o l of c r e a t i v i t y .
Right, a tree in W e s t A f r i c a t h a t
the t r i b e s m e n call a "|u j u " or
spirit tree, a n d t o w h i c h t h e y
ascribe m a g i c a l p o w e r .

43
14
have c o n s i g n e d t o t h e u n c o n s c i o u s all t h e fan- a s s u m e d t h a t n o o n e w h o is i n a s o u n d s t a t e o f
tastic p s y c h i c a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t e v e r y o b j e c t o r m i n d c o u l d suffer from s u c h t h i n g s , a n d that
idea possesses. T h e p r i m i t i v e , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , anyone who actually sees a vision must be
is still a w a r e o f t h e s e p s y c h i c p r o p e r t i e s ; he p a t h o l o g i c a l l y d i s t u r b e d . A t h e o l o g i a n o n c e told
endows a n i m a l s , plants, or stones w i t h p o w e r s m e t h a t Ezekiel's visions w e r e n o t h i n g more
t h a t w e find s t r a n g e a n d unacceptable. than morbid symptoms, and that, when Moses
A n A f r i c a n j u n g l e d w e l l e r , for i n s t a n c e , s e e s a n d o t h e r p r o p h e t s h e a r d " v o i c e s " s p e a k i n g to
a n o c t u r n a l c r e a t u r e b y d a y l i g h t a n d k n o w s it t h e m , they w e r e suffering from hallucinations.
to b e a m e d i c i n e man who has temporarily Y o u c a n i m a g i n e t h e p a n i c h e felt w h e n s o m e -
t a k e n its s h a p e . O r h e m a y r e g a r d it a s t h e b u s h t h i n g of this k i n d " s p o n t a n e o u s l y " h a p p e n e d to
soul o r a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t o f o n e o f h i s t r i b e . A h i m . W e a r e so a c c u s t o m e d t o t h e a p p a r e n t l y
tree m a y p l a y a v i t a l p a r t i n t h e life o f a p r i m i - rational nature of o u r world that we can
tive, a p p a r e n t l y p o s s e s s i n g for h i m its o w n s o u l scarcely i m a g i n e a n y t h i n g h a p p e n i n g that can-
a n d v o i c e , a n d t h e m a n c o n c e r n e d w i l l feel t h a t not be e x p l a i n e d by c o m m o n sense. T h e p r i m i -
he s h a r e s its f a t e . T h e r e a r e s o m e I n d i a n s i n tive m a n confronted b y a s h o c k of this kind
South A m e r i c a w h o will assure you t h a t they w o u l d n o t d o u b t his s a n i t y ; h e w o u l d t h i n k of
are R e d A r a r a p a r r o t s , t h o u g h t h e y a r e well fetishes, spirits, or g o d s .
aware that they lack feathers, wings, a n d beaks. Y e t t h e e m o t i o n s t h a t a f f e c t us a r e j u s t the
For in t h e p r i m i t i v e ' s w o r l d t h i n g s d o n o t h a v e s a m e . I n fact, t h e t e r r o r s t h a t s t e m from our
the s a m e sharp boundaries they do in our e l a b o r a t e c i v i l i z a t i o n m a y b e far m o r e t h r e a t e n -
" r a t i o n a l " societies. ing t h a n those that primitive people attribute
W h a t psychologists call p s y c h i c i d e n t i t y , or to d e m o n s . T h e a t t i t u d e of m o d e r n civilized
" m y s t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , " h a s b e e n s t r i p p e d oir man sometimes reminds me of a psychotic
o u r w o r l d of t h i n g s . B u t it is e x a c t l y t h i s h a l o p a t i e n t in m y clinic w h o w a s himself a d o c t o r .
of u n c o n s c i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t g i v e s a c o l o r f u l One morning I asked him h o w he was. He
and fantastic a s p e c t to t h e p r i m i t i v e ' s world. replied t h a t he h a d h a d a wonderful night dis-
W e h a v e lost it t o s u c h a d e g r e e t h a t w e d o n o t infecting t h e w h o l e of h e a v e n w i t h mercuric
r e c o g n i z e it w h e n w e m e e t it a g a i n . W i t h us c h l o r i d e , b u t t h a t in t h e c o u r s e of this t h o r o u g h -
such t h i n g s a r e k e p t b e l o w t h e t h r e s h o l d ; w h e n g o i n g s a n i t a r y p r o c e s s h e h a d f o u n d n o t r a c e of
they o c c a s i o n a l l y r e a p p e a r , w e e v e n i n s i s t t h a t God. Here we see a neurosis or something
s o m e t h i n g is w r o n g . w o r s e . I n s t e a d of G o d or t h e " f e a r of G o d , "
I have more t h a n once been consulted by t h e r e is a n a n x i e t y n e u r o s i s o r s o m e k i n d of
well-educated a n d intelligent people w h o h a v e phobia. T h e emotion has r e m a i n e d the same,
had p e c u l i a r d r e a m s , f a n t a s i e s , o r e v e n v i s i o n s , b u t its o b j e c t h a s c h a n g e d b o t h its n a m e and
which h a v e s h o c k e d t h e m d e e p l y . T h e y have n a t u r e for t h e w o r s e .

Left, a w i t c h d o c t o r f r o m
Cameroon w e a r i n g a l i o n m a s k . V
He isn't p r e t e n d i n g to b e a l i o n ;
he is c o n v i n c e d t h a t he is a l i o n .
Like the N y a n g a t r i b e s m a n a n d his
bird mask (p. 2 5 ) , he shares a
"psychic identity"' w i t h t h e a n i m a l
an identity that exists in t h e r e a l m
of myth and s y m b o l i s m . M o d e r n
"rational" m a n has tried t o c u t
himself off f r o m s u c h p s y c h i c
associations ( w h i c h n e v e r t h e l e s s
survive in the u n c o n s c i o u s ) ; t o
him, a spade is a s p a d e a n d a l i o n
is only w h a t the d i c t i o n a r y ( r i g h t )
says it is.

45
4 6
Left, St. Paul s t r u c k d o w n by t h e A b o v e , Javanese farmers sacrifice a A b o v e , in a m o d e r n s c u l p t u r e by
impact of his v i s i o n of Christ ( i n c o c k t o p r o t e c t their f i e l d s f r o m B r i t a i n ' s J a c o b E p s t e i n , m a n is seen
a painting by the 1 6 t h - c e n t u r y spirits. S u c h b e l i e f s a n d p r a c t i c e s as a m e c h a n i z e d m o n s t e r p e r h a p s
Italian artist C a r a v a g g i o ) . are f u n d a m e n t a l in p r i m i t i v e life an i m a g e of t o d a y ' s "evil s p i r i t s . "

I recall a professor of p h i l o s o p h y w h o o n c e a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the s y m b o l - m a k i n g pro-


c o n s u l t e d m e a b o u t h i s c a n c e r p h o b i a . H e suf- pensities of m a n , a n d of t h e p a r t t h a t dreams
fered from a c o m p u l s i v e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t h e h a d play in e x p r e s s i n g them. F o r o n e finds that
a malignant tumor, although n o t h i n g of t h e m a n y dreams present images and associations
kind w a s e v e r f o u n d in d o z e n s o f X - r a y pic- t h a t a r c a n a l o g o u s to p r i m i t i v e i d e a s , m y t h s ,
tures. " O h . I k n o w t h e r e is n o t h i n g . ' " h e w o u l d and rites. T h e s e dream images were called
say. " b u t t h e r e might be s o m e t h i n g . " W h a t was " a r c h a i c r e m n a n t s " by F r e u d ; the phrase sug-
it that p r o d u c e d t h i s i d e a ? It o b v i o u s l v tame g e s t s t h a t t h e y a r e p s y c h i c e l e m e n t s s u r v i v i n g in
from a fear t h a t w a s n o t i n s t i l l e d b y c o n s c i o u s the h u m a n m i n d from ages long a g o . I b i s point
deliberation. The morbid though) suddenly o f v i e w is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h o s e w h o r e g a r d t h e
o v e r c a m e h i m . a n d it h a d a p o w e r o f its o w n u n c o n s c i o u s a s a m e r e a p p e n d i x of c o n s c i o u s -
that he c o u l d n o t c o n t r o l . ness (or, m o r e p i c t u r e s q u e l y , as a trash c a n that
I I w a s far m o r e d i l l i c u l t lor this educated c o l l e c t s all t h e r e f u s e o f t h e c o n s c i o u s m i n d I .
man to m a k e a n a d m i s s i o n o f t h i s k i n d t h a n it F u r t h e r investigation suggested to m e that
would h a v e b e e n l o r a p r i m i t i v e t o s a y t h a t h e t h i s a t t i t u d e is u n t e n a b l e a n d s h o u l d be dis-
was p l a g u e d by a g h o s t . T h e m a l i g n influence c a r d e d . I f o u n d t h a t a s s o c i a t i o n s a n d i m a g e s of
ol evil s p i r i t s is at least a n a d m i s s i b l c h y p o t h c s i s this kind a r c a n integral part of t h e uncon-
in a p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e , b u t il is a s h a t t e r i n g e x - scious, and can be observed everywhere
p e r i e n c e lor a c i v i l i z e d p e r s o n to a d m i t t h a i h i s w h e t h e r t h e d r e a m e r is e d u c a t e d o r i l l i t e r a t e ,
troubles a n n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n a f o o l i s h p r a n k i n t e l l i g e n t o r s t u p i d . T h e y a r e n o t in a n y s e n s e
ol the i m a g i n a t i o n . T h e p r i m i t i v e p h e n o m e n o n lifeless o r m e a n i n g l e s s " r e m n a n t s . " T h e y still
ol obsession h a s n o t v a n i s h e d : il is t h e s a m e a s f u n c t i o n , a n d they a r e especially valuable as
ever, li is only interpreted in a d i f f e r e n t and D r . H e n d e r s o n s h o w s in a l a t e r c h a p t e r o f t h i s
more o b n o x i o u s w a v . b o o k I j u s t b e c a u s e of t h e i r " h i s t o r i c a l " n a t u r e .
I have m a d e several c o m p a r i s o n s of this kind T h e y f o r m a b r i d g e b e t w e e n t h e w a y s in w h i c h
between m o d e r n a n d p r i m i t i v e m a n . S u c h c o m - we consciously express our thoughts a n d a more
p a r i s o n s , as I s h a l l s h o w l a t e r , a r e e s s e n t i a l t o p r i m i t i v e , m o r e colorful a n d p i c t o r i a l form of

17
e x p r e s s i o n . It is t h i s f o r m , a s w e l l , t h a t a p p e a l s f r i e n d s a r e h e r e , a n d t h e y a r e w a i t i n g for y o u . "
directly to feeling a n d e m o t i o n . T h e s e " h i s t o r i - T h e hostess t h e n led h e r to t h e d o o r a n d o p e n e d
cal" associations are the link between the it, a n d t h e d r e a m e r s t e p p e d t h r o u g h i n t o a
rational w o r l d of c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d t h e w o r l d cowshed!
of instinct". T h i s d r e a m l a n g u a g e w a s s i m p l e e n o u g h to
I have already discussed the interesting con- be understood even by a blockhead. The
trast b e t w e e n t h e " c o n t r o l l e d " t h o u g h t s w e h a v e w o m a n w o u l d n o t a t first a d m i t t h e p o i n t o f a
in w a k i n g life a n d t h e w e a l t h o f i m a g e r y p r o - d r e a m t h a t s t r u c k so d i r e c t l y a t h e r s e l f - i m p o r t -
d u c e d in d r e a m s . N o w y o u c a n see another a n c e ; b u t its m e s s a g e n e v e r t h e l e s s w e n t h o m e ,
reason for this difference: Because, in our a n d a f t e r a t i m e s h e h a d t o a c c e p t it b e c a u s e
civilized life, w c h a v e s t r i p p e d so m a n y ideas she c o u l d not h e l p seeing t h e self-inflicted joke.
of t h e i r e m o t i o n a l energy, we d o not really S u c h m e s s a g e s from t h e u n c o n s c i o u s a r e of
respond t o t h e m a n y m o r e . W e u s e s u c h i d e a s greater i m p o r t a n c e than most people realize.
in o u r s p e e c h , a n d w e s h o w a c o n v e n t i o n a l r e - I n o u r c o n s c i o u s life, w e a r e e x p o s e d t o all k i n d s
action w h e n o t h e r s u s e t h e m , b u t t h e y d o n o t of i n f l u e n c e s . O t h e r p e o p l e s t i m u l a t e o r d e p r e s s
make a very d e e p i m p r e s s i o n o n us. S o m e t h i n g u s , e v e n t s a t t h e office o r i n o u r s o c i a l life d i s -
more is n e e d e d t o b r i n g c e r t a i n t h i n g s h o m e t o t r a c t us. S u c h t h i n g s s e d u c e us i n t o following
us effectively e n o u g h t o m a k e u s c h a n g e our w a y s t h a t a r e u n s u i t a b l e to o u r individuality.
attitude a n d b e h a v i o r . T h i s is w h a t "dream W h e t h e r o r n o t w e a r e a w a r e o f t h e effect t h e y
l a n g u a g e " d o e s ; its s y m b o l i s m h a s so much h a v e o n o u r c o n s c i o u s n e s s , it is d i s t u r b e d by
psychic e n e r g y t h a t w e a r e f o r c e d t o p a y a t t e n - a n d e x p o s e d to t h e m a l m o s t w i t h o u t defense.
tion to it. T h i s is e s p e c i a l l y t h e c a s e w i t h a p e r s o n w h o s e
T h e r e w a s , for i n s t a n c e , a l a d y w h o w a s w e l l e x t r a v e r t e d a t t i t u d e of m i n d lays all t h e e m -
known for h e r s t u p i d p r e j u d i c e s a n d h e r s t u b - phasis u p o n external objects, or w h o harbors
born r e s i s t a n c e to r e a s o n e d argument. One f e e l i n g s o f i n f e r i o r i t y a n d d o u b t c o n c e r n i n g his
could h a v e a r g u e d with h e r all n i g h t to no own innermost personality.
effect; s h e w o u l d h a v e t a k e n n o t t h e s l i g h t e s t T h e m o r e t h a t c o n s c i o u s n e s s is i n f l u e n c e d b y
notice. H e r d r e a m s , h o w e v e r , t o o k a different prejudices, errors, fantasies, and infantile
line of a p p r o a c h . O n e n i g h t , s h e d r e a m e d s h e w i s h e s , t h e m o r e t h e a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g g a p will
was a t t e n d i n g a n important social occasion. w i d e n i nto a n e u r o t i c dissociation a n d lead to
She was g r e e t e d b y t h e h o s t e s s w i t h t h e w o r d s : a m o r e o r less a r t i f i c i a l life, f a r r e m o v e d from
"How nice t h a t you could come. All your healthy instincts, n a t u r e , a n d truth.

Left, t w o further v i s u a l i z a t i o n s
of spirits: Top, hellish d e m o n s
descend on St. A n t h o n y (a p a i n t i n g
by the 1 6 t h - c e n t u r y G e r m a n artist
Grunewald). B e l o w , in t h e c e n t e r
panel of a 1 9 t h - c e n t u r y J a p a n e s e
triptych, the g h o s t of a m u r d e r e d
man strikes d o w n his killer.

Ideological c o n f l i c t b r e e d s m a n y
of modern m a n ' s " d e m o n s . " R i g h t , a
cartoon by A m e r i c a ' s G a h a n W i l s o n
depicts the s h a d o w of t h e f o r m e r
Russian leader K h r u s h c h e v as a
monstrous d e a t h - m a c h i n e . Far r i g h t ,
a cartoon from the Russian m a g a z i n e
Krokodilshows " c o l o n i a l i s m " as
a demonic w o l f b e i n g d r i v e n i n t o
the sea by the flags of v a r i o u s
independent A f r i c a n n a t i o n s .

49
T h e g e n e r a l f u n c t i o n o f d r e a m s is t o t r y t o s h a d o w e d h i s d e a t h in a m o u n t a i n a c c i d e n t . I t
restore o u r psychological b a l a n c e by p r o d u c i n g w a s in v a i n . Six m o n t h s l a t e r h e " s t e p p e d off
d r e a m m a t e r i a l t h a t r e - e s t a b l i s h e s , in a s u b t l e into space." A m o u n t a i n guide watched him
w a y , t h e t o t a l p s y c h i c e q u i l i b r i u m . T h i s is w h a t a n d a friend letting themselves d o w n on a rope
I call t h e c o m p l e m e n t a r y (or compensatory) in a d i f f i c u l t place. T h e friend had found a
role of d r e a m s in o u r p s y c h i c m a k e - u p . It e x - temporary foothold on a ledge, and the
plains w h y people w h o have unrealistic ideas d r e a m e r was following him d o w n . S u d d e n l y he
o r t o o h i g h a n o p i n i o n of t h e m s e l v e s , o r w h o let g o o f t h e r o p e , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e g u i d e , " a s
m a k e g r a n d i o s e p l a n s o u t of p r o p o r t i o n to t h e i r if h e w e r e j u m p i n g i n t o t h e a i r . " H e fell u p o n
real c a p a c i t i e s , h a v e d r e a m s of flying o r falling. his f r i e n d , a n d b o t h w e n t d o w n a n d w e r e k i l l e d .
T h e d r e a m c o m p e n s a t e s for t h e d e f i c i e n c i e s o f A n o t h e r t y p i c a l case w a s t h a t of a l a d y w h o
their personalities, and at the same time il was living a b o v e herself. S h e w a s high and
warns them of t h e d a n g e r s in their present m i g h t y i n h e r d a i l y life, b u t s h e h a d shocking
c o u r s e . If t h e w a r n i n g s of t h e d r e a m a r e dis- d r e a m s , r e m i n d i n g h e r of all sorts of u n s a v o r y
regarded, real accidents m a y take their place. things. When I discovered them, she indig-
T h e v i c t i m m a y fall d o w n s t a i r s o r m a y h a v e a nantly refused to acknowledge them. The
motor accident. dreams then became menacing, and full of
I r e m e m b e r t h e c a s e of a m a n w h o w a s i n e x - r e f e r e n c e s to t h e w a l k s s h e u s e d to t a k e b y h e r -
t r i c a b l y i n v o l v e d in a n u m b e r of s h a d y affairs. self i n t h e w o o d s , w h e r e s h e i n d u l g e d i n s o u l f u l
He developed an almost morbid passion for fantasies. I saw her d a n g e r , b u t she w o u l d not
d a n g e r o u s m o u n t a i n c l i m b i n g , as a sort of c o m - listen to m y m a n y w a r n i n g s . S o o n afterwards,
pensation. H e w a s seeking " t o get a b o v e h i m - she w a s s a v a g e l y a t t a c k e d in t h e w o o d s b y a
self." I n a d r e a m one night, he saw himself s e x u a l p e r v e r t ; b u t for t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f s o m e
s t e p p i n g off t h e s u m m i t o f a h i g h mountain people w h o heard her screams, she would have
i n t o e m p t y s p a c e . W h e n he told m e his d r e a m , b e e n killed.
I i n s t a n t l y s a w his d a n g e r a n d tried to e m p h a - There was no magic in this. What her
size t h e w a r n i n g a n d p e r s u a d e h i m t o r e s t r a i n d r e a m s h a d told m e was t h a t this w o m a n had
himself. I e v e n told h i m t h a t t h e d r e a m fore- a s e c r e t l o n g i n g for s u c h a n a d v e n t u r e j u s t a s

50
Left, t w o i n f l u e n c e s t o w h i c h an
individual's c o n s c i o u s n e s s is
subjected: A d v e r t i s i n g (a 1 9 6 0 s
American a d v e r t i s e m e n t s t r e s s i n g
"sociability") a n d p o l i t i c a l
propaganda (a F r e n c h p o s t e r f o r
a 1962 r e f e r e n d u m , u r g i n g a v o t e
of " y e s " but plastered w i t h t h e
opposition's " n o " ) . T h e s e a n d o t h e r
influences m a y c a u s e us t o live
in ways u n s u i t e d t o o u r i n d i v i d u a l
natures: and the p s y c h i c i m b a l a n c e
that can f o l l o w m u s t be c o m p e n s a t e d
for by the u n c o n s c i o u s .

The l i g h t h o u s e keeper, r i g h t ( i n
a cartoon by A m e r i c a ' s R o l a n d B
Wilson), has a p p a r e n t l y b e c o m e
a little d i s t u r b e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y
by his isolation H i s u n c o n s c i o u s ,
in its c o m p e n s a t o r y f u n c t i o n , h a s
produced a h a l l u c i n a t o r y c o m p a n i o n ,
to w h o m the keeper c o n f e s s e s ( i n
thecartoon c a p t i o n ) : " N o t only
that, Bill, but I c a u g h t m y s e l f
talking to m y s e l f a g a i n y e s t e r d a y I "

the m o u n t a i n climber unconsciously sought the


The Delphic o r a c l e , b e l o w , b e i n g
s a t i s f a c t i o n of finding a d e f i n i t e w a y o u t o f his
consulted by K i n g A e g e u s o f A t h e n s
(from a vase p a i n t i n g ) . " M e s s a g e s " difficulties. O b v i o u s l y , n e i t h e r of t h e m e x p e c t e d
from the u n c o n s c i o u s are o f t e n as
t h e stiff p r i c e i n v o l v e d : S h e h a d s e v e r a l b o n e s
cryptic and a m b i g u o u s as w e r e t h e
oracle's u t t e r a n c e s . b r o k e n , a n d h e p a i d w i t h h i s life.
T h u s d r e a m s m a y sometimes a n n o u n c e cer-
tain situations long before they actually h a p p e n .
T h i s is n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a m i r a c l e o r a f o r m of
p r e c o g n i t i o n . M a n y crises in o u r lives h a v e a
long unconscious history. We move toward
t h e m step by step, u n a w a r e of t h e d a n g e r s t h a t
a r e a c c u m u l a t i n g . B u t w h a t w e c o n s c i o u s l y fail
t o s e e is f r e q u e n t l y perceived by our uncon-
scious, which can pass the information on
through dreams.
D r e a m s m a y o f t e n w a r n u s in t h i s w a y ; b u t
j u s t a s o f t e n , it s e e m s , t h e y d o n o t . T h e r e f o r e ,
a n y a s s u m p t i o n of a b e n e v o l e n t h a n d r e s t r a i n -
i n g us i n t i m e is d u b i o u s . O r , t o s t a t e it m o r e
p o s i t i v e l y , it s e e m s t h a t a b e n e v o l e n t a g e n c y is
sometimes at work and sometimes not. The
mysterious h a n d m a y even point the way to
p e r d i t i o n ; d r e a m s sometimes prove to be traps,
o r a p p e a r to b e so. T h e y s o m e t i m e s b e h a v e like
the D e l p h i c oracle t h a t told K i n g Croesus that
if h e c r o s s e d t h e H a l y s R i v e r h e w o u l d d e s t r o y
a large k i n g d o m . It was only after he h a d b e e n
c o m p l e t e l y d e f e a t e d in b a t t l e after t h e crossing
that he discovered that the k i n g d o m m e a n t by n o t i c e d o r u n c o m p r e h e n d e d . I n n o r m a l life, t h e
t h e o r a c l e w a s his o w n ! understanding o f d r e a m s is o f t e n considered
One cannot afford to b e n a i v e in dealing superfluous. I c a n illustrate this by m y experi-
w i t h d r e a m s . T h e y o r i g i n a t e i n a s p i r i t t h a t is e n c e w i t h a p r i m i t i v e t r i b e in E a s t Africa. To
not quite human, but is r a t h e r a breath of my amazement, these tribesmen denied that
n a t u r e a spirit of t h e beautiful a n d generous t h e y h a d a n y d r e a m s . But t h r o u g h p a t i e n t , in-
as w e l l a s o f t h e c r u e l g o d d e s s . If w e w a n t t o direct talks with t h e m I soon found that they
c h a r a c t e r i z e this spirit, we shall certainly get h a d d r e a m s just like e v e r y o n e else, b u t that
c l o s e r t o it i n t h e s p h e r e o f a n c i e n t m y t h o l o g i e s , they were convinced their dreams had no
o r t h e f a b l e s o f t h e p r i m e v a l f o r e s t , t h a n in t h e meaning. "Dreams of o r d i n a r y men mean
c o n s c i o u s n e s s of m o d e r n m a n . I a m n o t d e n y - nothing,"' they told m e . T h e y t h o u g h t t h a t the
ing that great gains have resulted from the o n l y d r e a m s t h a t m a t t e r e d w e r e those of chiefs
e v o l u t i o n of civilized s o c i e t y . B u t t h e s e gains a n d medicine m e n ; these, which concerned the
h a v e b e e n m a d e a t t h e p r i c e o f e n o r m o u s losses, welfare of t h e t r i b e , w e r e h i g h l y appreciated.
w h o s e e x t e n t w e h a v e scarcely b e g u n to esti- T h e only d r a w b a c k was that the chief a n d the
m a t e . P a r t of t h e p u r p o s e of m y comparisons medicine man both claimed that they had
b e t w e e n t h e p r i m i t i v e a n d t h e civilized s t a t e s of ceased having meaningful dreams. T h e y dated
man has been to s h o w t h e b a l a n c e of these this c h a n g e from the t i m e t h a t the British c a m e
losses a n d g a i n s . to their c o u n t r y . T h e district commissioner
the British official in charge of t h e m had
Primitive m a n w a s m u c h m o r e g o v e r n e d by
t a k e n o v e r t h e f u n c t i o n of t h e " g r e a t dreams"
his i n s t i n c t s t h a n a r e his " r a t i o n a l * " m o d e r n d e -
that had hitherto guided the tribe's behavior.
s c e n d a n t s , w h o h a v e l e a r n e d to " c o n t r o l " t h e m -
selves. In this civilizing process, we have W h e n these tribesmen c o n c e d e d that they did
increasingly divided o u r consciousness from the have dreams, but thought them meaningless,
d e e p e r i n s t i n c t i v e s t r a t a of t h e h u m a n psyche, t h e y w e r e like t h e m o d e r n m a n w h o t h i n k s t h a t
a n d even u l t i m a t e l y from the s o m a t i c basis of a d r e a m h a s n o s i g n i f i c a n c e for h i m s i m p l y b e -
the psychic p h e n o m e n o n . Fortunately, we have cause he does not understand it. B u t e v e n a
n o t lost t h e s e b a s i c i n s t i n c t i v e s t r a t a ; t h e y r e - civilized man can sometimes observe that a
main part of t h e unconscious, even though d r e a m (which he m a y not even r e m e m b e r ) can
t h e y m a y e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s o n l y in t h e form of a l t e r h i s m o o d for b e t t e r o r w o r s e . T h e d r e a m
d r e a m images. These instinctive phenomena-
one may not, incidentally, always recognize
t h e m for w h a t t h e y a r e , for t h e i r c h a r a c t e r is
symbolic play a vital part in w h a t I have
called the c o m p e n s a t i n g function of d r e a m s .
F o r t h e sake of m e n t a l stability a n d even
physiological health, the unconscious a n d the
conscious must be integrally connected a n d thus
m o v e o n p a r a l l e l lines. If t h e y a r e split a p a r t
o r " d i s s o c i a t e d , " p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e fol-
lows. In this r e s p e c t , d r e a m s y m b o l s a r e the
essential message c a r r i e r s from the instinctive to
the r a t i o n a l p a r t s of the h u m a n m i n d , a n d their
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n e n r i c h e s t h e p o v e r t y of c o n s c i o u s -
ness so t h a t it l e a r n s t o u n d e r s t a n d a g a i n the
forgotten l a n g u a g e of t h e instincts.
Of course, people are b o u n d to q u e r y this
function, s i n c e its s y m b o l s s o o f t e n pass un-

52
has b e e n " c o m p r e h e n d e d , " b u t o n l y i n a s u b - t h a t a r e typical a n d often occur. A m o n g s u c h
liminal w a y . A n d t h a t is w h a t u s u a l l y h a p p e n s . motifs a r e falling, flying, b e i n g p e r s e c u t e d by
It is o n l y o n t h e r a r e o c c a s i o n s w h e n a d r e a m d a n g e r o u s a n i m a l s o r h o s t i l e m e n , b e i n g insuffi-
is p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p r e s s i v e o r r e p e a t s itself a t c i e n t l y o r a b s u r d l y c l o t h e d in p u b l i c places,
regular intervals t h a t m o s t p e o p l e c o n s i d e r a n b e i n g in a h u r r y o r lost i n a m i l l i n g crowd,
interpretation desirable. fighting w i t h useless w e a p o n s o r b e i n g w h o l l y
Here I ought to a d d a word of warning defenseless, r u n n i n g h a r d yet g e t t i n g n o w h e r e .
against unintelligent or incompetent dream A t y p i c a l i n f a n t i l e m o t i f is t h e d r e a m o f g r o w -
analysis. T h e r e a r e s o m e p e o p l e w h o s e m e n t a l ing infinitely small or infinitely big, or being
c o n d i t i o n is so u n b a l a n c e d t h a t t h e i n t e r p r e t a - t r a n s f o r m e d from o n e to t h e o t h e r a s y o u find
tion of t h e i r d r e a m s c a n b e e x t r e m e l y r i s k y ; i n it, for i n s t a n c e , i n L e w i s C a r r o l l ' s Alice in Won-
such a c a s e , a v e r y o n e - s i d e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s is derland. B u t I m u s t stress a g a i n t h a t t h e s e a r e
cut off f r o m a correspondingly irrational or motifs t h a t m u s t b e c o n s i d e r e d in t h e c o n t e x t of
"crazy" unconscious, a n d the two should not t h e d r e a m itself, n o t a s s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y c i p h e r s .
be b r o u g h t together without taking special T h e r e c u r r i n g d r e a m is a n o t e w o r t h y p h e n o -
precautions. m e n o n . T h e r e a r e cases in w h i c h p e o p l e h a v e
A n d , s p e a k i n g m o r e g e n e r a l l y , it is p l a i n fool- d r e a m e d the s a m e d r e a m from c h i l d h o o d into
ishness to b e l i e v e in ready-made systematic t h e l a t e r y e a r s of a d u l t life. A d r e a m of t h i s
guides t o d r e a m i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a s if o n e c o u l d k i n d is u s u a l l y a n a t t e m p t t o c o m p e n s a t e for a
simply buy a r e f e r e n c e b o o k a n d look u p a p a r - p a r t i c u l a r defect in t h e d r e a m e r ' s a t t i t u d e to
ticular s y m b o l . N o d r e a m s y m b o l c a n b e s e p a - l i f e ; o r it m a y d a t e f r o m a t r a u m a t i c moment
r a t e d f r o m t h e i n d i v i d u a l w h o d r e a m s it, a n d t h a t h a s left b e h i n d s o m e s p e c i f i c p r e j u d i c e . I t
t h e r e is n o d e f i n i t e o r s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d interpre- m a y also sometimes anticipate a future event
t a t i o n of a n y d r e a m . E a c h i n d i v i d u a l v a r i e s s o of i m p o r t a n c e .
m u c h in t h e w a y t h a t h i s u n c o n s c i o u s c o m p l e - I myself d r e a m e d of a m o t i f o v e r several
ments or c o m p e n s a t e s his c o n s c i o u s m i n d that y e a r s , in w h i c h I w o u l d " d i s c o v e r " a p a r t of m y
it is i m p o s s i b l e t o b e s u r e h o w f a r d r e a m s a n d house that I did not k n o w existed. Sometimes
their s y m b o l s c a n b e c l a s s i f i e d a t a l l . it w a s t h e q u a r t e r s w h e r e m y l o n g - d e a d p a r e n t s
It is t r u e t h a t t h e r e a r e d r e a m s a n d single l i v e d , in w h i c h m y f a t h e r , t o m y s u r p r i s e , h a d
symbols (I s h o u l d p r e f e r t o c a l l t h e m "motifs") a laboratory w h e r e he studied the c o m p a r a t i v e

Left, a p h o t o g r a p h of J u n g ( f o u r t h
from the r i g h t ) in 1 9 2 6 w i t h t h e
tribesmen of M t . E l g o n , K e n y a .
Jung's f i r s t h a n d s t u d y of p r i m i t i v e
societies led t o m a n y of his m o s t
valuable p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n s i g h t s .

Right, t w o d r e a m b o o k s o n e f r o m
20th-century Britain and the other
from ancient E g y p t ( t h e latter is
among the o l d e s t w r i t t e n d o c u m e n t s
extant, c. 2 0 0 0 B.C.). S u c h r e a d y -
made, r u l e - o f - t h u m b interpretation
of dreams is w o r t h l e s s ; dreams are
highly i n d i v i d u a l i z e d , a n d t h e i r
symbolism c a n n o t be p i g e o n h o l e d .

53
a n a t o m y o f f i s h a n d m y m o t h e r r a n a h o t e l for
ghostly visitors. U s u a l l y this u n f a m i l i a r guest
wing was an ancient historical building, long
forgotten, yet m y i n h e r i t e d p r o p e r t y . It con-
tained interesting antique furniture, and toward
t h e e n d of this series of d r e a m s I d i s c o v e r e d a n
old library whose books w e r e u n k n o w n to m e .
F i n a l l y , in t h e last d r e a m , I o p e n e d o n e of t h e
b o o k s a n d f o u n d i n it a p r o f u s i o n o f t h e m o s t
marvelous symbolic pictures. W h e n I awoke,
my heart was palpitating with excitement.
S o m e t i m e before I h a d this p a r t i c u l a r last
d r e a m of t h e series, I h a d p l a c e d a n o r d e r w i t h
a n a n t i q u a r i a n b o o k s e l l e r for o n e o f t h e c l a s s i c
compilations of m e d i e v a l alchemists. I had
found a q u o t a t i o n in l i t e r a t u r e t h a t I t h o u g h t
might have some connection with early Byzan-
t i n e a l c h e m y , a n d I w i s h e d t o c h e c k it. S e v e r a l
weeks after I h a d h a d the d r e a m of t h e un-
k n o w n book, a parcel arrived from the book-
seller. I n s i d e w a s a p a r c h m e n t v o l u m e d a t i n g
from the 16th c e n t u r y . It was illustrated by
fascinating symbolic pictures that instantly re-
m i n d e d m e of t h o s e I h a d seen in m y dream.
As t h e r e d i s c o v e r y of t h e p r i n c i p l e s of a l c h e m y
c a m e to b e a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t of m y w o r k as a
p i o n e e r of p s y c h o l o g y , t h e m o t i f of m y recur-
ring dream can easily be understood. The
h o u s e , of c o u r s e , w a s a s y m b o l of m y person-
a l i t y a n d its c o n s c i o u s field o f i n t e r e s t s ; a n d t h e
u n k n o w n a n n e x r e p r e s e n t e d t h e a n t i c i p a t i o n of
a n e w field o f i n t e r e s t a n d r e s e a r c h o f w h i c h m y
conscious m i n d was at that time u n a w a r e . F r o m
that moment, 30 years ago, I never h a d the
dream again.

T o p of p a g e , a f a m o u s e x a m p l e o f
t h e c o m m o n d r e a m of g r o w i n g larger:
a d r a w i n g f r o m Alice in Wonderland
(1 8 7 7 ) s h o w s A l i c e g r o w i n g t o fill
a house. Center, the equally c o m m o n
d r e a m o f f l y i n g , in a 1 9 t h - c e n t u r y
d r a w i n g ( b y t h e B r i t i s h artist
William Blake) entitled: " 0 , H o w
I D r e a m t of T h i n g s I m p o s s i b l e . "

54
The analysis of dreams

I began this essay by n o t i n g t h e difference b e - the king died. Other common examples are
t w e e n a s i g n a n d a s y m b o l . T h e s i g n is a l w a y s those of a m i r r o r t h a t b r e a k s , or a p i c t u r e t h a t
less t h a n t h e c o n c e p t it r e p r e s e n t s , w h i l e a s y m - falls, w h e n a d e a t h o c c u r s ; o r m i n o r b u t u n e x -
bol a l w a y s s t a n d s for s o m e t h i n g m o r e t h a n its p l a i n e d b r e a k a g e s i n a h o u s e w h e r e s o m e o n e is
obvious and immediate meaning. Symbols, passing through a n e m o t i o n a l crisis. E v e n if
moreover, are n a t u r a l a n d s p o n t a n e o u s pro- skeptics refuse to c r e d i t s u c h r e p o r t s , stories of
ducts. N o g e n i u s h a s e v e r sat d o w n w i t h a p e n this kind a r e a l w a y s c r o p p i n g u p , a n d this a l o n e
or a b r u s h in his h a n d a n d s a i d : " N o w I a m s h o u l d s e r v e as a m p l e p r o o f of t h e i r psycho-
going to i n v e n t a s y m b o l . " N o o n e c a n t a k e a logical i m p o r t a n c e .
m o r e o r less r a t i o n a l t h o u g h t , r e a c h e d a s a l o g i - T h e r e are m a n y symbols, however (among
cal c o n c l u s i o n o r b y d e l i b e r a t e i n t e n t , a n d t h e n them the most i m p o r t a n t ) , that are not indi-
give it " s y m b o l i c " f o r m . N o m a t t e r w h a t fan- v i d u a l b u t collective in their n a t u r e a n d origin.
tastic t r a p p i n g s o n e m a y p u t u p o n a n i d e a o f T h e s e a r e chiefly religious i m a g e s . T h e believer
this k i n d , it w i l l still r e m a i n a s i g n , l i n k e d t o assumes that t h e y a r e of d i v i n e origin t h a t
the c o n s c i o u s t h o u g h t b e h i n d it, n o t a s y m b o l they h a v e been revealed to m a n . T h e skeptic
that hints at something not yet known. In says flatly t h a t t h e y h a v e b e e n i n v e n t e d . B o t h
dreams, symbols occur spontaneously, for a r e w r o n g . I t is t r u e , a s t h e s k e p t i c n o t e s , t h a t
dreams h a p p e n and are not invented; they are, r e l i g i o u s s y m b o l s a n d c o n c e p t s h a v e for cen-
therefore, t h e m a i n s o u r c e of all o u r k n o w l e d g e turies b e e n t h e object of careful a n d q u i t e c o n -
about symbolism. s c i o u s e l a b o r a t i o n . I t is e q u a l l y t r u e , a s t h e b e -
But s y m b o l s , I m u s t p o i n t o u t , d o n o t o c c u r l i e v e r i m p l i e s , t h a t t h e i r o r i g i n is s o f a r b u r i e d
solely in d r e a m s . T h e y a p p e a r in a l l k i n d s o f in t h e m y s t e r y of t h e p a s t t h a t t h e y s e e m to
psychic manifestations. There are symbolic have no h u m a n source. But they are in fact
thoughts a n d feelings, s y m b o l i c acts a n d situa- "collective representations," e m a n a t i n g from
tions. I t o f t e n s e e m s t h a t e v e n i n a n i m a t e o b j e c t s primeval dreams and creative fantasies. As
c o - o p e r a t e w i t h t h e u n c o n s c i o u s in t h e a r r a n g e - such, these images are involuntary spontaneous
m e n t of s y m b o l i c p a t t e r n s . T h e r e a r c n u m e r o u s manifestations and by no m e a n s intentional
well-authenticated stories of clocks s t o p p i n g at inventions.
the m o m e n t of t h e i r o w n e r ' s d e a t h ; o n e was T h i s fact, as I shall l a t e r e x p l a i n , h a s a direct
the p e n d u l u m c l o c k i n t h e p a l a c e o f F r e d e r i c k and important bearing upon the interpretation
the G r e a t a t S a n s S o u c i , w h i c h s t o p p e d when o f d r e a m s . I t is o b v i o u s t h a t if y o u a s s u m e t h e

Inanimate o b j e c t s s o m e t i m e s s e e m
to " a c t " s y m b o l i c a l l y : left, t h e
clock of Frederick t h e Great, w h i c h
stopped w h e n its o w n e r d i e d in 1 7 8 6 .

Symbols are p r o d u c e d s p o n t a n e o u s l y
from the u n c o n s c i o u s ( t h o u g h t h e y
may later be c o n s c i o u s l y e l a b o r a t e d ) .
Right, the ankh, a n c i e n t E g y p t ' s
symbol of life, t h e u n i v e r s e , a n d
man. By c o n t r a s t , t h e a i r w a y s
insignia (far r i g h t ) are c o n s c i o u s l y
contrived signs, n o t s y m b o l s .

55
d r e a m t o b e s y m b o l i c , y o u w i l l i n t e r p r e t it dif- furniture d a t i n g from the 16th c e n t u r y or even
ferently from a person w h o believes that the earlier. M y surprise a n d curiosity increased. I
essential energizing thought or emotion is w a n t e d to see m o r e of t h e w h o l e s t r u c t u r e of
k n o w n a l r e a d y a n d is m e r e l y " d i s g u i s e d " b y t h e this h o u s e . So I w e n t d o w n to t h e cellar, w h e r e
'dream. In the latter case, d r e a m interpretation I f o u n d a d o o r o p e n i n g o n t o a flight of s t o n e
m a k e s l i t t l e s e n s e , for y o u f i n d o n l y w h a t y o u s t e p s t h a t l e d t o a l a r g e v a u l t e d r o o m . T h e floor
already know. c o n s i s t e d of l a r g e s l a b s of s t o n e a n d t h e walls
I t is for t h i s r e a s o n t h a t I h a v e a l w a y s s a i d seemed very ancient. I examined the mortar
to m y pupils: "Learn as m u c h as y o u can a n d f o u n d it w a s m i x e d w i t h s p l i n t e r s o f b r i c k .
a b o u t s y m b o l i s m ; t h e n f o r g e t it a l l w h e n you O b v i o u s l y the walls w e r e of R o m a n origin. I
a r e a n a l y z i n g a d r e a m . " T h i s a d v i c e is o f s u c h b e c a m e increasingly excited. In one corner, I
p r a c t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e t h a t I h a v e m a d e it a r u l e saw an iron ring on a stone slab. I pulled up
to r e m i n d myself t h a t I c a n n e v e r understand t h e s l a b a n d s a w yet a n o t h e r n a r r o w flight of
s o m e b o d y else's d r e a m well e n o u g h to i n t e r p r e t steps l e a d i n g to a k i n d of c a v e , w h i c h s e e m e d
il c o r r e c t l y . I h a v e d o n e t h i s in o r d e r t o c h e c k to b e a p r e h i s t o r i c t o m b , c o n t a i n i n g t w o skulls,
t h e flow o f m y o w n a s s o c i a t i o n s a n d r e a c t i o n s , s o m e b o n e s , a n d b r o k e n s h a r d s of p o t t e r y . T h e n
which might otherwise prevail over my patient's I woke up.
uncertainties and h e s i t a t i o n s . A s it is o f the If F r e u d , w h e n h e a n a l y z e d this d r e a m , h a d
g r e a t e s t t h e r a p e u t i c i m p o r t a n c e for a n a n a l y s t followed my m e t h o d o f e x p l o r i n g its s p e c i f i c
to get t h e p a r t i c u l a r m e s s a g e of a d r e a m (that associations a n d context, he would have heard
is, t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n t h a t t h e u n c o n s c i o u s is m a k - a far-reaching story. But I a m afraid he would
i n g to t h e c o n s c i o u s m i n d ) as a c c u r a t e l y as pos- have dismissed it a s a m e r e e f f o r t to escape
s i b l e , it is e s s e n t i a l for h i m t o e x p l o r e t h e c o n - from a p r o b l e m t h a t w a s really his o w n . The
tent of a d r e a m w i t h the u t m o s t t h o r o u g h n e s s . d r e a m is i n f a c t a s h o r t s u m m a r y o f m y life,
I had a dream when I was working with m o r e specifically of the d e v e l o p m e n t of my
F r e u d t h a t illustrates this p o i n t . I d r e a m e d t h a t m i n d . I g r e w u p in a h o u s e 2 0 0 years old, o u r
I w a s in " m y h o m e , " a p p a r e n t l y o n t h e first f u r n i t u r e c o n s i s t e d m o s t l y of p i e c e s a b o u t 3 0 0
floor, in a cosy, p l e a s a n t s i t t i n g r o o m f u r n i s h e d years old, a n d mentally m y hitherto greatest
in t h e m a n n e r o f t h e 1 8 t h c e n t u r y . I w a s a s t o n - spiritual a d v e n t u r e h a d b e e n to s t u d y t h e philo-
ished t h a t I h a d n e v e r seen this r o o m before, sophies of K a n t a n d S c h o p e n h a u e r . The great
a n d b e g a n to w o n d e r w h a t the g r o u n d floor n e w s of t h e d a y w a s t h e w o r k of C h a r l e s Dar-
w a s like. I w e n t d o w n s t a i r s a n d f o u n d t h e p l a c e win. S h o r t l y before this, I h a d b e e n living with
was rather dark, with paneled walls a n d heavy t h e still m e d i e v a l c o n c e p t s o f m y p a r e n t s , for

Right, J u n g ' s mother and father.


J u n g ' s interest in a n c i e n t r e l i g i o n
and m y t h o l o g y d r e w him away from
t h e r e l i g i o u s w o r l d of his p a r e n t s
(hisfather w a s a p a s t o r ) a s
s h o w n by the dream, discussed
o n t h i s p a g e , t h a t he h a d w h i l e
w o r k i n g w i t h F r e u d . Far r i g h t ,
J u n g at B u r g h b l z l i H o s p i t a l , Z u r i c h ,
w h e r e he w o r k e d in 1 9 0 0 as a
psychiatrist.

56
w h o m t h e w o r l d a n d m e n w e r e still p r e s i d e d my own inner world, which, I surmised, would
over b y d i v i n e o m n i p o t e n c e a n d providence. look very q u e e r to h i m . Feeling q u i t e u n c e r t a i n
This world h a d b e c o m e a n t i q u a t e d a n d obso- about my own psychology, I almost automati-
lete. M y C h r i s t i a n f a i t h h a d b e c o m e relative c a l l y t o l d h i m a lie a b o u t m y " f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n s "
through its e n c o u n t e r with Eastern religions in o r d e r to e s c a p e t h e i m p o s s i b l e task of e n l i g h t -
a n d G r e e k p h i l o s o p h y . I t is for t h i s r e a s o n t h a t ening him about my very personal and utterly
the g r o u n d floor w a s so still, d a r k , a n d obvi- different constitution.
ously u n i n h a b i t e d . I m u s t a p o l o g i z e for t h i s r a t h e r l e n g t h y n a r -
M y then historical interests h a d developed r a t i o n of t h e j a m I got into t h r o u g h telling
from a n o r i g i n a l p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h c o m p a r a - F r e u d m y d r e a m . B u t it is a g o o d e x a m p l e o f
tive a n a t o m y and paleontology while I was t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s in w h i c h o n e g e t s i n v o l v e d in
w o r k i n g as a n assistant a t t h e A n a t o m i c a l In- t h e c o u r s e of a real d r e a m analysis. So much
s t i t u t e . I w a s f a s c i n a t e d b y t h e b o n e s o f fossil d e p e n d s u p o n the personal differences b e t w e e n
man, particularly by the m u c h discussed Nean- the analyst a n d the analyzed.
derthalensis and the still more controversial I s o o n r e a l i z e d t h a t F r e u d w a s l o o k i n g for
skull o f D u b o i s ' Pithecanthropus. As a matter s o m e i n c o m p a t i b l e w i s h o f m i n e . A n d so I s u g -
of f a c t t h e s e w e r e m y r e a l a s s o c i a t i o n s t o t h e gested t e n t a t i v e l y t h a t t h e skulls I h a d d r e a m e d
d r e a m ; b u t I did not d a r e to m e n t i o n the s u b - of m i g h t refer to c e r t a i n m e m b e r s of m y family
ject of skulls, s k e l e t o n s , o r c o r p s e s t o Freud, w h o s e d e a t h , for s o m e r e a s o n , I m i g h t d e s i r e .
because I h a d l e a r n e d t h a t this t h e m e w a s not T h i s p r o p o s a l m e t w i t h his a p p r o v a l , b u t I w a s
popular with him. H e cherished the peculiar n o t satisfied w i t h s u c h a " p h o n e y " s o l u t i o n .
idea t h a t I a n t i c i p a t e d his e a r l y d e a t h . A n d h e W h i l e I w a s t r y i n g t o find a s u i t a b l e a n s w e r
d r e w this c o n c l u s i o n from t h e fact t h a t I h a d to F r e u d ' s q u e s t i o n s , I w a s s u d d e n l y confused
shown m u c h i n t e r e s t in t h e m u m m i f i e d corpses by a n intuition a b o u t the role that t h e subjec-
in t h e s o - c a l l e d B l e i k e l l e r i n B r e m e n , w h i c h w e tive f a c t o r p l a y s in p s y c h o l o g i c a l understand-
visited t o g e t h e r i n 1 9 0 9 o n o u r w a y t o t a k e t h e i n g . M y i n t u i t i o n w a s so o v e r w h e l m i n g t h a t I
boat to A m e r i c a . t h o u g h t o n l y of h o w to get o u t of this i m p o s -
T h u s I felt r e l u c t a n t t o c o m e o u t w i t h my sible snarl, a n d I took the easy w a y o u t by a
own t h o u g h t s , since t h r o u g h r e c e n t e x p e r i e n c e lie. T h i s w a s n e i t h e r e l e g a n t n o r m o r a l l y d e f e n -
I was d e e p l y i m p r e s s e d by t h e a l m o s t u n b r i d g e - sible, b u t o t h e r w i s e I s h o u l d h a v e risked a fatal
able g a p b e t w e e n F r e u d ' s m e n t a l o u t l o o k a n d r o w w i t h F r e u d a n d I d i d n o t feel u p t o t h a t
b a c k g r o u n d a n d m y o w n . I w a s afraid of losing for m a n y r e a s o n s .
his f r i e n d s h i p if I s h o u l d o p e n u p t o h i m a b o u t My intuition consisted of t h e s u d d e n and
m o s t u n e x p e c t e d insight i n t o t h e fact t h a t my
d r e a m m e a n t myself, my life a n d my w o r l d , my
whole reality against a theoretical structure
e r e c t e d b y a n o t h e r , s t r a n g e m i n d for reasons
and p u r p o s e s o f its o w n . It w a s n o t Freud's
d r e a m , it w a s m i n e ; a n d I u n d e r s t o o d s u d d e n l y
i n a flash w h a t m y d r e a m meant.
T h i s conflict illustrates a vital p o i n t about
d r e a m a n a l y s i s . It is n o t so m u c h a t e c h n i q u e
t h a t c a n be l e a r n e d a n d a p p l i e d a c c o r d i n g to
t h e r u l e s a s it is a d i a l e c t i c a l e x c h a n g e b e t w e e n
t w o p e r s o n a l i t i e s . I f it is h a n d l e d a s a m e c h a n i -
cal t e c h n i q u e , the individual psychic person-
a l i t y o f t h e d r e a m e r g e t s lost a n d the thera-
p e u t i c p r o b l e m is r e d u c e d t o t h e s i m p l e q u e s -

57
t i o n : W h i c h of t h e t w o p e o p l e c o n c e r n e d t h e The problem of types
analyst or the dreamerwill dominate the
o t h e r ? I g a v e u p h y p n o t i c t r e a t m e n t for t h i s
very reason, because I did not w a n t to impose
m y will o n o t h e r s . I w a n t e d t h e h e a l i n g p r o -
cesses t o g r o w o u t o f t h e p a t i e n t ' s o w n p e r s o n - I n a l l o t h e r b r a n c h e s o f s c i e n c e , it is l e g i t i m a t e
ality, not from suggestions by m e t h a t would to a p p l y a h y p o t h e s i s to a n i m p e r s o n a l subject.
h a v e o n l y a p a s s i n g effect. M y a i m w a s t o p r o - Psychology, however, inescapably confronts
tect a n d p r e s e r v e m y p a t i e n t ' s d i g n i t y a n d free- you with the living relations b e t w e e n two indi-
d o m , s o t h a t h e c o u l d l i v e h i s life a c c o r d i n g t o v i d u a l s , n e i t h e r of w h o m c a n b e d i v e s t e d of his
h i s o w n w i s h e s . I n t h i s e x c h a n g e w i t h F r e u d , it subjective personality, nor, indeed, depersonal-
d a w n e d o n m e for t h e first t i m e t h a t b e f o r e w e ized in a n y o t h e r w a y . T h e analyst and his
construct general theories about m a n and his p a t i e n t m a y set o u t b y a g r e e i n g t o d e a l w i t h a
p s y c h e w e s h o u l d l e a r n a lot m o r e a b o u t the c h o s e n p r o b l e m in a n i m p e r s o n a l a n d o b j e c t i v e
real h u m a n b e i n g w e h a v e to d e a l w i t h . manner; but once they are engaged, their
T h e i n d i v i d u a l is t h e o n l y r e a l i t y . T h e f u r t h e r w h o l e personalities a r e i n v o l v e d in their discus-
we m o v e a w a y from the individual t o w a r d a b - s i o n . A t t h i s p o i n t , f u r t h e r p r o g r e s s is. p o s s i b l e
s t r a c t i d e a s a b o u t Homo sapiens, t h e m o r e likely o n l y if m u t u a l a g r e e m e n t c a n b e r e a c h e d .
w e a r e t o fall i n t o e r r o r . I n t h e s e t i m e s o f s o c i a l C a n w e m a k e a n y sort of o b j e c t i v e j u d g m e n t
u p h e a v a l a n d r a p i d c h a n g e , it is d e s i r a b l e t o a b o u t t h e final r e s u l t ? O n l y if w e m a k e a c o m -
know m u c h more than we do about the indi- parison between our conclusions and the stan-
v i d u a l h u m a n b e i n g , for so m u c h d e p e n d s u p o n dards that are generally valid in t h e social
h i s m e n t a l a n d m o r a l q u a l i t i e s . B u t if w e a r e milieu to w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l s b e l o n g . Even
to see t h i n g s in t h e i r r i g h t p e r s p e c t i v e , w e n e e d then, we must take into account the mental
to u n d e r s t a n d t h e p a s t of m a n as w e l l as his e q u i l i b r i u m (or " s a n i t y " ) of t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n -
p r e s e n t . T h a t is w h y a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f m y t h s cerned. For the result c a n n o t be a completely
a n d s y m b o l s is o f e s s e n t i a l i m p o r t a n c e . collective leveling out of t h e individual to

A n assertive e x t r a v e r t o v e r p o w e r s
a w i t h d r a w n i n t r o v e r t in a c a r t o o n
b y A m e r i c a ' s J u l e s Feiffer. T h e s e
J u n g i a n terms for h u m a n " t y p e s "
are n o t d o g m a t i c : For i n s t a n c e ,
G a n d h i , r i g h t , w a s b o t h an a s c e t i c
( i n t r o v e r t ) a n d a p o l i t i c a l leader
(extravert). A n i n d i v i d u a l a n y face
in t h e c r o w d (far r i g h t ) c a n o n l y
more or less be c a t e g o r i z e d .
adjust h i m to t h e " n o r m s " o f his society. T h i s formulate a n y psychological theory, or to teach
would amount to a m o s t unnatural condition. it, b y d e s c r i b i n g l a r g e n u m b e r s o f s e p a r a t e c a s e s
A sane a n d n o r m a l s o c i e t y is o n e i n which without a n y effort to see w h a t they have in
people habitually disagree, because general common a n d h o w they differ. A n y general
a g r e e m e n t is r e l a t i v e l y r a r e o u t s i d e t h e s p h e r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c a n b e chosen as a basis. O n e
of i n s t i n c t i v e h u m a n q u a l i t i e s . c a n , for i n s t a n c e , m a k e a r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e dis-
Disagreement functions as a vehicle of tinction between individuals w h o have "extra-
m e n t a l life i n s o c i e t y , b u t it is n o t a g o a l ; a g r e e - verted" personalities a n d others w h o a r e "intro-
m e n t is e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t . B e c a u s e p s y c h o l o g y verted." This is o n l y o n e of m a n y possible
basically d e p e n d s u p o n b a l a n c e d o p p o s i t e s , n o g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , b u t it e n a b l e s o n e t o s e e i m m e -
judgment can be considered t o b e final in d i a t e l y t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t c a n a r i s e if t h e a n a -
w h i c h its r e v e r s i b i l i t y h a s n o t b e e n t a k e n i n t o lyst s h o u l d happen to be one type a n d his
a c c o u n t . T h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s p e c u l i a r i t y lies i n patient the other.
t h e fact t h a t t h e r e is n o s t a n d p o i n t a b o v e o r Since a n y d e e p e r analysis of d r e a m s leads to
outside p s y c h o l o g y that would enable us to the confrontation of t w o individuals, it w i l l
form an ultimate judgment of what the obviously m a k e a great difference w h e t h e r their
p s y c h e is. types of a t t i t u d e a r e t h e s a m e o r n o t . If both
In s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t d r e a m s d e m a n d i n d i - b e l o n g t o t h e s a m e t y p e , t h e y m a y sail a l o n g
vidual t r e a t m e n t , s o m e generalities a r e neces- h a p p i l y for a l o n g t i m e . B u t if o n e is a n e x t r a -
sary i n o r d e r t o classify a n d c l a r i f y t h e m a t e r i a l vert a n d t h e o t h e r a n introvert, their different
that t h e p s y c h o l o g i s t collects b y s t u d y i n g m a n y a n d c o n t r a d i c t o r y standpoints m a y clash right
individuals. It w o u l d obviously b e impossible to a w a y , p a r t i c u l a r l y w h e n they a r e u n a w a r e of

59
their own t y p e of p e r s o n a l i t y , o r w h e n they a m o u n t to m o r e t h a n m e r e a d v a n t a g e s on the
a r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e i r o w n is t h e o n l y r i g h t side of t h e a n a l y s t . They do not keep him out-
t y p e . T h e e x t r a v e r t , for i n s t a n c e , w i l l choose s i d e t h e f r a y , i n w h i c h h e is b o u n d t o b e t e s t e d
t h e m a j o r i t y v i e w ; t h e i n t r o v e r t w i l l r e j e c t it j u s t as m u c h as his p a t i e n t . T h u s it m a t t e r s a
s i m p l y b e c a u s e it is f a s h i o n a b l e . S u c h a m i s - good deal whether their personalities are har-
u n d e r s t a n d i n g is e a s y e n o u g h b e c a u s e t h e v a l u e m o n i o u s , in c o n f l i c t , o r c o m p l e m e n t a r y .
of t h e o n e is t h e n o n - v a l u e of t h e o t h e r . Freud Fxtravcrsion and introversion a r e just two
h i m s e l f , for i n s t a n c e , i n t e r p r e t e d t h e i n t r o v e r t e d a m o n g m a n y p e c u l i a r i t i e s of h u m a n behavior.
t y p e as a n i n d i v i d u a l m o r b i d l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h But t h e y a r c often rather obvious and easily
himself. But i n t r o s p e c t i o n a n d self-knowledge recognizable. If o n e studies e x t r a v e r t e d indi-
c a n j u s t as well b e of t h e g r e a t e s t v a l u e and v i d u a l s , for i n s t a n c e , o n e s o o n d i s c o v e r s that
importance. t h e y differ in m a n y w a y s f r o m one another,
It is v i t a l l y n e c e s s a r y t o t a k e a c c o u n t o f s u c h a n d t h a t b e i n g e x t r a v e r t e d is t h e r e f o r e a s u p e r -
differences of p e r s o n a l i t y in d r e a m interpreta- ficial and too general criterion to be really
t i o n . I t c a n n o t b e a s s u m e d t h a t t h e a n a l y s t is a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . T h a t is w h y , l o n g a g o , I t r i e d t o
s u p e r m a n w h o is a b o v e s u c h d i f f e r e n c e s , j u s t find s o m e f u r t h e r b a s i c p e c u l i a r i t i e s peculiari-
because h e is a d o c t o r w h o has acquired a ties t h a t m i g h t s e r v e t h e p u r p o s e o f g i v i n g s o m e
psychological theory and a corresponding tech- o r d e r t o t h e a p p a r e n t l y l i m i t l e s s v a r i a t i o n s in
nique. He can only imagine himself to be human individuality.
s u p e r i o r i n so f a r a s h e a s s u m e s t h a t h i s t h e o r y I h a d a l w a y s b e e n i m p r e s s e d b y t h e fact t h a t
a n d t e c h n i q u e a r e a b s o l u t e t r u t h s , c a p a b l e of t h e r e a r e a s u r p r i s i n g n u m b e r of i n d i v i d u a l s
embracing t h e w h o l e of the human psyche. w h o n e v e r u s e t h e i r m i n d s if t h e y c a n a v o i d it,
S i n c e s u c h a n a s s u m p t i o n is m o r e t h a n d o u b t - a n d a n e q u a l n u m b e r w h o d o use their m i n d s ,
ful, h e c a n n o t r e a l l y b e s u r e o f it. C o n s e q u e n t l y , b u t in a n a m a z i n g l y s t u p i d w a y . I was also
h e w i l l b e a s s a i l e d b y s e c r e t d o u b t s if h e c o n - surprised to find m a n y intelligent a n d wide-
fronts t h e h u m a n w h o l e n e s s of his p a t i e n t w i t h a w a k e p e o p l e w h o lived (as far as o n e could
a t h e o r y o r t e c h n i q u e ( w h i c h is m e r e l y a h y p o - m a k e o u t ) a s if t h e y h a d n e v e r l e a r n e d t o u s e
thesis or a n a t t e m p t ) i n s t e a d of w i t h his o w n t h e i r sense o r g a n s : T h e y d i d n o t see t h e t h i n g s
living wholeness. before t h e i r eyes, h e a r t h e w o r d s s o u n d i n g in
T h e a n a l y s t ' s w h o l e p e r s o n a l i t y is t h e o n l y their ears, or notice the things they touched or
a d e q u a t e e q u i v a l e n t of his p a t i e n t ' s p e r s o n a l i t y . tasted. S o m e lived w i t h o u t b e i n g a w a r e of the
Psychological experience and knowledge do not s t a t e of t h e i r o w n b o d i e s .

T h e " c o m p a s s " of t h e p s y c h e
a n o t h e r J u n g i a n w a y of l o o k i n g at
p e o p l e in g e n e r a l . Each p o i n t o n t h e
c o m p a s s has its o p p o s i t e : f o r a
" t h i n k i n g " t y p e , t h e " f e e l i n g " side
w o u l d be least d e v e l o p e d . ( " F e e l i n g "
here m e a n s t h e f a c u l t y o f w e i g h i n g
and evaluating e x p e r i e n c e i n the
w a y t h a t o n e m i g h t say " I feel t h a t is
a g o o d thing to d o , " w i t h o u t needing
t o a n a l y z e or r a t i o n a l i z e t h e " w h y "
of '.he a c t i o n . ) Of c o u r s e , t h e r e is
o v e r l a p p i n g in e a c h i n d i v i d u a l : In
a " s e n s a t i o n " person the t h i n k i n g
or t h e f e e l i n g s i d e c o u l d b e a l m o s t
as s t r o n g ( a n d " i n t u i t i o n , " t h e
o p p o s i t e , w o u l d be w e a k e s t ) .

Go
There were others who seemed to live in a These four functional types correspond to the
most curious condition of consciousness, as if obvious means by which consciousness obtains
the state they had arrived at today were final, its orientation to experience. Sensation (i.e.
with no possibility of change, or as if the world sense-perception) tells you that something
and the psyche were static and would remain exists; thinking tells you what it is; feeling tells
so forever. T h e y seemed devoid of all imagina- you whether it is agreeable or not; and intuition
tion, and they entirely and exclusively de- tells you whence it comes and where it is going.
pended upon their sense-perception. Chances T h e reader should understand that these
and possibilities did not exist in their world, four criteria of types of human behavior are
and in " t o d a y " there was no real " t o m o r r o w . " just four viewpoints among many others, like
The future was just the repetition of the past. will power, temperament, imagination, mem-
I am trying here to give the reader a glimpse ory, and so on. T h e r e is nothing dogmatic about
of my own first impressions when I began to them, but their basic nature recommends them
observe the many people I met. It soon became as suitable criteria for a classification. I find
clear to me, however, that the people who used them particularly helpful when I am called
their minds were those who thought that is, upon to explain parents to children and hus-
who applied their intellectual faculty in trying bands to wives, and vice versa. T h e y are also
to adapt, themselves to people and circum- useful in understanding one's own prejudices.
stances. And the equally intelligent people who T h u s , if you want to understand another
did not think were those who sought and found person's d r e a m , you have to sacrifice your own
their way by feeling. predilections and suppress your prejudices. This
" F e e l i n g " is a word that needs some explana- is not easy or comfortable, because it means a
tion. For instance, one speaks of "feeling" when moral effort that is not to everyone's taste. But
it is a matter of " s e n t i m e n t " (corresponding to if the analyst does not make the effort to criti-
the French term sentiment). But one also cize his own standpoint (and to admit its rela-
applies the same word to define an opinion; tivity, he will get neither the right information
for example, a communication from the White about, nor sufficient insight into, his patient's
House may begin: " T h e President feels . . . . " mind. T h e analyst expects at least a certain
Furthermore, the word may be used to express willingness on the patient's part to listen to his
an intuition: " I had a feeling as if. . . . " opinion and to take it seriously, and the patient
When I use the word "feeling" in contrast must be granted the same right. Although such
to "thinking," I refer to a j u d g m e n t of value a relationship is indispensable for any under-
for instance, agreeable or disagreeable, good or standing and is therefore of self-evident neces-
bad, and so on. Feeling according to this defi- sity, one must remind oneself again and again
nition is not an emotion (which, as the word that it is more important in therapy for the
conveys, is involuntary). Feeling as I mean it is patient to understand than for the analyst's
(like thinking) a rational (i.e. ordering) func- theoretical expectations to be satisfied. T h e
tion, whereas intuition is an irrational (i.e. patient's resistance to the analyst's interpreta-
perceiving) function. In so far as intuition is a tion is not necessarily w r o n g ; it is rather a sure
" h u n c h , " it is not the product of a voluntary sign that something does not " c l i c k . " Either the
act; it is rather an involuntary event, which patient has not yet reached the point where he
depends upon different external or internal cir- understands, or the interpretation does not fit.
cumstances instead of an act of judgment. In our efforts to interpret the dream symbols
Intuition is more like a sense-perception, which of another person, we are almost invariabl
is also an irrational event in so far as it de- hampered by our tendency to fill in the un-
pends essentially upon objective stimuli, which avoidable gaps in our understanding by pro-
owe their existence to physical and not to jection that is, by the assumption that what
mental causes. the analyst perceives or thinks is equally per-

6i
ceived or t h o u g h t by the d r e a m e r . T o o v e r c o m e her hidden motivations unconscious influen-
this s o u r c e of e r r o r , I h a v e a l w a y s insisted o n ces t h a t h a d m o r e t h a n o n c e led to d i s a g r e e a b l e
t h e i m p o r t a n c e of s t i c k i n g t o t h e c o n t e x t of t h e rows with h e r friends. S h e h a d a l w a y s b l a m e d
p a r t i c u l a r d r e a m a n d e x c l u d i n g all t h e o r e t i c a l o t h e r s for t h e s e , n o t h e r s e l f .
a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t d r e a m s in g e n e r a l e x c e p t I t is n o t m e r e l y t h e " s h a d o w " s i d e o f o u r p e r -
for t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t d r e a m s i n s o m e way sonalities that we overlook, disregard, a n d re-
m a k e sense. press. W e m a y also d o the s a m e to o u r positive
It will b e c l e a r f r o m all I h a v e s a i d t h a t w e q u a l i t i e s . A n e x a m p l e t h a t c o m e s t o m i n d is
c a n n o t l a y d o w n g e n e r a l r u l e s for i n t e r p r e t i n g t h a t of a n a p p a r e n t l y m o d e s t a n d self-effacing
dreams. W h e n I suggested earlier that the over- man, with charming manners. He always
all f u n c t i o n of d r e a m s s e e m s t o b e t o c o m p e n - seemed c o n t e n t with a back seat, b u t discreetly
sate for deficiencies or distortions in the insisted o n b e i n g p r e s e n t . W h e n asked to speak
conscious m i n d , I m e a n t t h a t this a s s u m p t i o n h e w o u l d offer a w e l l - i n f o r m e d o p i n i o n , t h o u g h
o p e n e d u p t h e most p r o m i s i n g a p p r o a c h to the h e n e v e r i n t r u d e d it. B u t h e s o m e t i m e s h i n t e d
n a t u r e o f particular d r e a m s . I n s o m e cases y o u t h a t a g i v e n m a t t e r c o u l d b e d e a l t w i t h in a
c a n see this f u n c t i o n p l a i n l y d e m o n s t r a t e d . far superior way at a certain higher level
O n e of m y p a t i e n t s h a d a v e r y h i g h o p i n i o n (though he never explained how).
of h i m s e l f a n d w a s u n a w a r e t h a t a l m o s t e v e r y - I n his d r e a m s , h o w e v e r , h e c o n s t a n t l y had
o n e w h o k n e w h i m w a s i r r i t a t e d b y his air of e n c o u n t e r s w i t h g r e a t historical figures, such
m o r a l s u p e r i o r i t y . H e c a m e to m e w i t h a d r e a m as N a p o l e o n a n d A l e x a n d e r t h e G r e a t . These
in w h i c h h e h a d seen a d r u n k e n t r a m p r o l l i n g d r e a m s w e r e c l e a r l y c o m p e n s a t i n g for a n in-
in a d i t c h a s i g h t t h a t e v o k e d f r o m h i m o n l y feriority c o m p l e x . But they h a d a n o t h e r impli-
t h e p a t r o n i z i n g c o m m e n t : " I t ' s t e r r i b l e to see c a t i o n . W h a t sort of m a n m u s t I b e , t h e d r e a m
h o w low a m a n c a n fall." It w a s e v i d e n t that w a s asking, to h a v e such illustrious callers? In
the unpleasant nature of t h e d r e a m was at this respect t h e d r e a m s p o i n t e d to a secret m e g -
l e a s t in p a r t a n a t t e m p t t o offset h i s inflated
o p i n i o n of his o w n m e r i t s . B u t t h e r e w a s s o m e -
t h i n g m o r e t o it t h a n t h i s . I t t u r n e d o u t that
he h a d a b r o t h e r w h o was a d e g e n e r a t e alco-
holic. W h a t the d r e a m also revealed was t h a t
his s u p e r i o r attitude was compensating the
b r o t h e r , as b o t h a n o u t e r a n d a n i n n e r figure.

In a n o t h e r case I recall, a w o m a n w h o was


proud of her intelligent understanding of
psychology had recurringdreams about another
woman. When in o r d i n a r y life s h e m e t this
w o m a n , she d i d n o t like h e r , t h i n k i n g h e r a
v a i n a n d d i s h o n e s t i n t r i g u e r . B u t in t h e d r e a m s
t h e w o m a n a p p e a r e d a l m o s t as a sister, friendly
a n d likeable. M y patient could not u n d e r s t a n d
w h y s h e s h o u l d d r e a m so f a v o r a b l y about a
person she disliked. But these d r e a m s w e r e try-
ing to convey the idea that she herself was
" s h a d o w e d " by an unconscious character that
resembled the other w o m a n . It was h a r d for
m y patient, w h o h a d very clear ideas a b o u t her
o w n personality, to realize t h a t the d r e a m was
telling her a b o u t her o w n p o w e r c o m p l e x and

62
a l o m a n i a , w h i c h offset t h e d r e a m e r ' s f e e l i n g o f images a n d m a d e t h e m unrecognizable or mis-
inferiority. T h i s u n c o n s c i o u s i d e a of g r a n d e u r l e a d i n g in o r d e r to decei ve t h e d r e a m i n g c o n -
insulated h i m from t h e r e a l i t y of his e n v i r o n - sciousness a b o u t t h e real subject of t h e d r e a m .
ment a n d e n a b l e d h i m to r e m a i n aloof from By c o n c e a l i n g the critical thought from the
o b l i g a t i o n s t h a t w o u l d b e i m p e r a t i v e for o t h e r dreamer, the "censor" protected his sleep
p e o p l e . H e felt n o n e e d to p r o v e e i t h e r to a g a i n s t t h e shock of a d i s a g r e e a b l e r e m i n i s c e n c e .
himself or to o t h e r s t h a t his s u p e r i o r j u d g - But I a m skeptical a b o u t the theory t h a t the
ment was based on superior merit. d r e a m is a g u a r d i a n o f s l e e p ; d r e a m s j u s t a s
H e w a s , in fact, u n c o n s c i o u s l y p l a y i n g an often d i s t u r b sleep.
insane g a m e , a n d the d r e a m s w e r e seeking to I t r a t h e r l o o k s a s if t h e a p p r o a c h to con-
b r i n g it t o t h e l e v e l o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n a c u r i - s c i o u s n e s s h a s a " b l o t t i n g - o u t " effect u p o n t h e
ously a m b i g u o u s w a y . H o b n o b b i n g w i t h N a p o - s u b l i m i n a l c o n t e n t s of t h e p s y c h e . T h e s u b l i m i -
leon and being on speaking terms with nal state retains ideas a n d images at a much
Alexander the Great are exactly the kind of l o w e r level of t e n s i o n t h a n t h e y possess in c o n -
fantasies p r o d u c e d b y a n i n f e r i o r i t y complex. sciousness. In the subliminal condition they
But w h y , o n e a s k s , c o u l d not the d r e a m be lose clarity of d e f i n i t i o n ; t h e r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n
o p e n a n d d i r e c t a b o u t it a n d s a y w h a t it h a d t h e m a r e less c o n s e q u e n t i a l a n d m o r e v a g u e l y
to s a y w i t h o u t a m b i g u i t y ? a n a l o g o u s , less r a t i o n a l a n d t h e r e f o r e m o r e " i n -
I h a v e frequently b e e n asked this q u e s t i o n , c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . " T h i s c a n also be o b s e r v e d in
a n d I h a v e a s k e d it m y s e l f . I a m o f t e n s u r p r i s e d all dreamlike conditions, whether due to
at t h e t a n t a l i z i n g w a y d r e a m s s e e m t o e v a d e f a t i g u e , f e v e r , o r t o x i n s . B u t if s o m e t h i n g h a p -
definite i n f o r m a t i o n o r o m i t t h e d e c i s i v e p o i n t . p e n s to e n d o w a n y of these i m a g e s w i t h g r e a t e r
Freud a s s u m e d t h e e x i s t e n c e of a special func- t e n s i o n , t h e y b e c o m e less s u b l i m i n a l a n d , as
tion o f t h e p s y c h e , w h i c h h e c a l l e d t h e "cen- t h e y c o m e close to t h e t h r e s h o l d of conscious-
sor." T h i s , he supposed, twisted the dream ness, m o r e s h a r p l y defined.

Left, a d o w n - a n d - o u t a l c o h o l i c in
a New York slum (from the 1 9 5 5 film
On the Bowery). Such a figure might
appear in t h e d r e a m s of a m a n w h o
felt himself to be s u p e r i o r t o
others. In t h i s w a y his u n c o n s c i o u s
w o u l d be c o m p e n s a t i n g f o r his
conscious m i n d ' s onesidedness.

Right, The Nightmare, painted by


the 1 8 t h - c e n t u r y S w i s s - b o r n artist
Henry Fuseli. A l m o s t e v e r y o n e has
been a w a k e n e d , u p s e t , or d i s t u r b e d
by his d r e a m s ; o u r s l e e p d o e s n o t
appear to be p r o t e c t e d f r o m t h e
contents of the u n c o n s c i o u s .
It is from this fact that one may understand patient a more or less voluntary confession and
why dreams often express themselves as analo- realization of everything that the patient dis-
gies, why one dream image slides into another, likes or fears.
and why neither the logic nor the time scale This is like the much older confession of the
of our waking life seems to apply. T h e form Church, which in many ways anticipated
that dreams take is natural to the unconscious modern psychological techniques. At least this
because the material from which they are pro- is the general rule. In practice, however, it may
duced is retained in the subliminal state in pre- work the other way r o u n d ; overpowering feel-
cisely this fashion. Dreams do not guard sleep ings of inferiority or serious weakness may make
from what Freud called the "incompatible it very difficult, even impossible, for the patient
w i s h . " What he called " d i s g u i s e " is actually to face fresh evidence of his own inadequacy.
the shape all "impulses naturally take in the So I have often found it profitable to begin by
unconscious. Thus, a dream cannot produce a giving a positive outlook to the patient; this
definite thought. If it begins to do so, it ceases provides a helpful sense of security when he
to be a dream because it crosses the threshold approaches the more painful insights.
of consciousness. T h a t is why dreams seem to T a k e as an example a dream of "personal
skip the very points that are most important to exaltation" in which, for instance, one has tea
the conscious mind, and seem rather to mani- with the queen of England, or finds oneself on
fest the "fringe of consciousness," like the faint intimate terms with the pope. If the dreamer
gleam of stars during a total eclipse of the sun. is not a schizophrenic, the practical interpreta-
We should understand that dream symbols tion of the symbol depends very much upon his
are for the most part manifestations of a psyche present state of mind that is, the condition of
that is beyond the control of the conscious his ego. If the dreamer overestimates his own
mind. M e a n i n g and purposefulness are not the value, it is easy to show (from the material pro-
prerogatives of the m i n d ; they operate in the duced by association of ideas) how inappropri-
whole of living nature. There is no difference ate and childish the dreamer's intentions are,
in principle between organic and psychic and how much they emanate from childish
growth. As a plant produces its flower, so the wishes to be equal to or superior to his parents.
psyche creates its symbols. Every dream is But if it is a case of inferiority, where an all-
evidence of this process. pervading feeling of worthlessness has already
So, by means of dreams (plus all sorts of overcome every positive aspect of the dreamer's
intuitions, impulses, and other spontaneous personality, it would be quite wrong to depress
events), instinctive forces influence the activity him still more by showing how infantile, ridicu-
of consciousness. Whether that influence is for lous, or even perverse he is. T h a t would cruelly
better or for worse depends upon the actual increase his inferiority, as well as cause an
contents of the unconscious. If it contains too unwelcome and quite unnecessary resistance to
many things that normally ought to be con- the treatment.
scious, then its function becomes twisted and T h e r e is no therapeutic technique or doctrine
prejudiced; motives appear that are not based that is of general application, since every case
upon true instincts, but that owe their exist- that one receives for treatment is an individual
ence and psychic importance to the fact that in a specific condition. I remember a patient I
they have been consigned to the unconscious by once had to treat over a period of nine years.
repression or neglect. T h e y overlay, as it were,
the normal unconscious psyche and distort its
natural tendency to express basic symbols and
motifs. Therefore it is reasonable for a psycho- Right, the heroic dreams with which
analyst, concerned with the causes of a mental Walter Mitty (in the 1947 film of
JamesThurber's story) compensates
disturbance, to begin by eliciting from his his sense of inferiority.

64
I s a w h i m o n l y for a f e w w e e k s e a c h y e a r , s i n c e If I h a d b e e n a b l e t o t a l k f r e e l y a b o u t it, I
he lived a b r o a d . F r o m t h e s t a r t I k n e w w h a t his w o u l d h a v e t o l d y o u w h a t it w a s a t m y first
real t r o u b l e w a s , b u t I also s a w t h a t t h e least consultation. But that would have destroyed
a t t e m p t to get close to t h e t r u t h w a s m e t b y a my rapport with you. W h e r e should I have been
violent defensive reaction that threatened a then? I should have been morally bankrupt. In
c o m p l e t e r u p t u r e b e t w e e n us. W h e t h e r I liked t h e c o u r s e o f 10 y e a r s I h a v e l e a r n e d t o t r u s t
it o r n o t , I h a d t o d o m y b e s t t o m a i n t a i n o u r y o u ; a n d as m y confidence g r e w , m y condi-
r e l a t i o n a n d to follow his i n c l i n a t i o n , w h i c h w a s tion i m p r o v e d . I i m p r o v e d b e c a u s e this slow
supported b y his d r e a m s a n d w h i c h led our p r o c e s s r e s t o r e d m y belief in myself. N o w I a m
discussion a w a y from t h e root of his neurosis. s t r o n g e n o u g h to discuss t h e p r o b l e m t h a t w a s
W e r a n g e d so w i d e l y t h a t I o f t e n a c c u s e d m y s e l f destroying m e . "
of l e a d i n g m y p a t i e n t a s t r a y . N o t h i n g b u t t h e H e then m a d e a devastatingly frank confes-
fact that his condition slowly but clearly sion of his p r o b l e m , w h i c h s h o w e d m e t h e r e a s -
i m p r o v e d p r e v e n t e d m e from confronting him o n s for t h e p e c u l i a r c o u r s e o u r t r e a t m e n t had
brutally with the truth. had to follow. T h e original shock h a d been
I n t h e 10th y e a r , h o w e v e r , t h e p a t i e n t d e - s u c h t h a t a l o n e h e h a d b e e n u n a b l e to face it.
c l a r e d h i m s e l f to b e c u r e d a n d freed from all H e n e e d e d the help of a n o t h e r , a n d the t h e r a -
his s y m p t o m s . I w a s s u r p r i s e d b e c a u s e t h e o r e t i - p e u t i c task w a s the slow e s t a b l i s h m e n t of c o n -
cally his c o n d i t i o n w a s i n c u r a b l e . N o t i c i n g m y fidence, rather than the demonstration of a
a s t o n i s h m e n t , h e s m i l e d a n d said (in effect): clinical theory.
" A n d I w a n t t o t h a n k y o u a b o v e a l l for y o u r F r o m cases like this I l e a r n e d to a d a p t my
unfailing t a c t a n d p a t i e n c e in h e l p i n g m e to m e t h o d s to t h e n e e d s of t h e i n d i v i d u a l p a t i e n t ,
c i r c u m v e n t the painful c a u s e of m y neurosis. r a t h e r t h a n to c o m m i t myself to g e n e r a l t h e o r e -
I a m n o w r e a d y t o tell y o u e v e r y t h i n g a b o u t i t . tical c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t m i g h t be i n a p p l i c a b l e

The Madhouse, p a i n t e d by G o y a N o t e
the " k i n g " and the " b i s h o p " on the
right'. S c h i z o p h r e n i a o f t e n t a k e s
t h e f o r m of " p e r s o n a l e x a l t a t i o n "

65
in any particular case. The knowledge of An example that comes to m y mind is a
h u m a n n a t u r e t h a t I h a v e a c c u m u l a t e d in t h e dream in w h i c h a g r o u p of y o u n g men are
c o u r s e of 60 y e a r s of p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e has riding on horseback across a wide field. The
t a u g h t m e to c o n s i d e r e a c h case as a n e w o n e d r e a m e r is in t h e l e a d a n d h e j u m p s a d i t c h
in w h i c h , first ol a l l , I h a v e h a d t o s e e k t h e i n - full o f w a t e r , j u s t c l e a r i n g t h i s h a z a r d . T h e r e s t
d i v i d u a l a p p r o a c h . S o m e t i m e s I h a v e not hesi- o f t h e p a r t y fall i n t o t h e d i t c h . N o w t h e y o u n g
tated to p l u n g e i n t o a careful s t u d y of infantile man who first told me this dream was a
events a n d fantasies; at o t h e r times I h a v e be- c a u t i o u s , i n t r o v e r t e d type. But I also h e a r d the
g u n a t t h e l o p , e v e n if t h i s h a s m e a n t soaring s a m e d r e a m f r o m a n o l d m a n of d a r i n g c h a r -
straight into the most remote metaphysical a c t e r , w h o h a d lived a n active a n d e n t e r p r i s i n g
speculations. It a l l d e p e n d s o n learning the life. A t t h e t i m e h e h a d t h i s d r e a m , h e w a s a n
l a n g u a g e of t h e i n d i v i d u a l p a t i e n t a n d follow- i n v a l i d w h o g a v e his d o c t o r a n d n u r s e a g r e a t
i n g t h e g r o p i n g s of his u n c o n s c i o u s t o w a r d t h e deal of t r o u b l e ; h e h a d a c t u a l l y i n j u r e d him-
light. S o m e cases d e m a n d o n e m e t h o d a n d s o m e self b y h i s d i s o b e d i e n c e o f m e d i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n s .
another. It w a s c l e a r t o m e t h a t t h i s d r e a m w a s t e l l i n g
l i t i s is e s p e c i a l l y t r u e w h e n o n e s e e k s t o i n - t h e y o u n g m a n w h a t h e ought t o d o . B u t it w a s
terpret symbols. T w o different individuals m a y t e l l i n g t h e o l d m a n w h a t h e a c t u a l l y w a s still
have almost exactly the s a m e d r e a m . T h i s , as lining. W h e r e a s it e n c o u r a g e d t h e h e s i t a n t y o u n g
o n e s o o n d i s c o v e r s in c l i n i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , is less m a n . t h e o l d m a n w a s in n o s u c h n e e d o f e n -
uncommon than the l a y m a n m a y think.) Yet c o u r a g e m e n t ; t h e s p i r i t o f e n t e r p r i s e t h a t still
if. for i n s t a n c e , o n e d r e a m e r is y o u n g a n d the flickered w i t h i n h i m w a s . i n d e e d , his g r e a t e s t
other old. the p r o b l e m that disturbs them is trouble. This e x a m p l e shows how the interpre-
correspondingly different, and it would be t a t i o n of d r e a m s a n d s y m b o l s l a r g e l y d e p e n d s
o b v i o u s l y a b s u r d t o i n t e r p r e t b o t h d r e a m s in upon the individual circumstances of the
the same wav. d r e a m e r a n d t h e c o n d i t i o n of his m i n d .

As this m u s e u m display s h o w s , the


f e t u s of m a n r e s e m b l e s t h o s e of
other animals (and thus provides
an i n d i c a t i o n of m a n ' s p h y s i c a l
e v o l u t i o n ) T h e p s y c h e , t o o , has
" e v o l v e d "; a n d s o m e c o n t e n t s o f
m o d e r n man's u n c o n s c i o u s resemble
p r o d u c t s of t h e m i n d of a n c i e n t
m a n J u n g termed these p r o d u c t s
archetypal images

66
The archetype in dream symbolism

I have already suggested that dreams serve the our body is based on the general anatomical
purpose of compensation. This assumption pattern of the m a m m a l . T h e trained eye of the
means that the dream is a normal psychic phe- anatomist or the biologist finds many traces of
nomenon that transmits unconscious reactions this original pattern in our bodies. T h e experi-
orspontaneousimpulses to consciousness. M a n y enced investigator of the mind can similarly see
dreams can be interpreted with the help of the the analogies between the dream pictures of
dreamer, who provides both the associations to modern man and the products of the primitive
and the context of the dream image, by means mind, its "collective i m a g e s , " and its mytholo-
of which one can look at all its aspects. gical motifs.
This method is adequate in all ordinary J u s t as the biologist needs the science of com-
cases, such as those when a relative, a friend, parative anatomy, however, the psychologist
or a patient tells you a dream more or less in cannot do without a " c o m p a r a t i v e anatomy of
the course of conversation. But when it is a the p s y c h e . " In practice, to put it differently,
matter of obsessive dreaming or of highly emo- the psychologist must have a sufficient experi-
tional dreams, the personal associations pro- ence not only of dreams and other products of
duced by the dreamer do not usually suffice for unconscious activity, but also of mythology in
a satisfactory interpretation. In such cases, we its widest sense. Without this equipment, no-
have to take into consideration the fact (first body can spot the important analogies; it is not
observed and commented on by Freud J that possible, for instance, to see the analogy be-
elements often occur in a dream that are not tween a case of compulsion neurosis and that of
individual and that cannot be derived from a classical demonic possession without a work-
the dreamer's personal experience. These ele- ing knowledge of both.
ments, as I have previously mentioned, are what M y views about the " a r c h a i c remnants,"
Freud called " a r c h a i c remnants" mental which I call " a r c h e t y p e s " or "primordial
forms whose presence cannot be explained by i m a g e s , " have been constantly criticized by
anything in the individual's own life and which people who lack a sufficient knowledge of the
seem to be aboriginal, innate, and inherited psychology of dreams and of mythology. T h e
shapes of the human mind. term " a r c h e t y p e " is often misunderstood as
Just as the human body represents a whole meaning certain definite mythological images
museum of organs, each with a long evolution- or motifs. But these are nothing more than
ary history behind it, so we should expect to conscious representations; it would be absurd
find that the mind is organized in a similar to assume that such variable representations
way. It can no more be a product without his- could be inherited.
tory than is the body in which it exists. By T h e archetype is a tendency to form such
"history" I do not mean the fact that the mind representations ofa motifrepresentations that
builds itself up by conscious reference to the can vary a great deal in detail without losing
past through language and other cultural tradi- their basic pattern. T h e r e are, for instance,
tions. I am referring to the biological, prehis- many representations of the motif of the hostile
toric, and unconscious development of the mind brethren, but the motif itself remains the same.
in archaic man, whose psyche was still close to M y critics have incorrectly assumed that I am
that of the animal. dealing with "inherited representations," and
This immensely old psyche forms the basis on that ground they have dismissed the idea of
of our mind, just as much as the structure of the archetype as mere superstition. They have

67
M a n ' s unconscious archetypal images
are as i n s t i n c t i v e as t h e a b i l i t y
of g e e s e t o m i g r a t e ( i n f o r m a t i o n ) ;
as a n t s ' f o r m i n g o r g a n i z e d s o c i e t i e s ;
as b e e s ' t a i l - w a g g i n g d a n c e ( a b o v e )
t h a t c o m m u n i c a t e s to t h e h i v e t h e
e x a c t l o c a t i o n of a f o o d s o u r c e

A m o d e r n professor had a " v i s i o n "


e x a c t l y like a w o o d c u t in an o l d
b o o k t h a t he h a d n e v e r s e e n . R i g h t ,
the b o o k ' s title page; and another
w o o d c u t , symbolizing the male and
female principles united. Such
a r c h e t y p a l s y m b o l s arise f r o m t h e
p s y c h e ' s a g e - o l d c o l l e c t i v e basis.

68
failed to t a k e into account the fact that if relate to a n y t h i n g they could remember or
archetypes were representations that originated could have passed on to their c h i l d r e n . Yet
in o u r c o n s c i o u s n e s s ( o r w e r e a c q u i r e d b y c o n - s o m e of these p a t i e n t s w e r e h i g h l y e d u c a t e d : A
sciousness), w e s h o u l d surely u n d e r s t a n d t h e m , few of t h e m w e r e a c t u a l l y p s y c h i a t r i s t s them-
and not be b e w i l d e r e d and astonished when selves.
they p r e s e n t t h e m s e l v e s i n o u r consciousness. I v i v i d l y r e c a l l t h e c a s e of a professor who
They are, indeed, an instinctive trend, as h a d h a d a s u d d e n vision a n d t h o u g h t he w a s
m a r k e d as t h e i m p u l s e of b i r d s to b u i l d nests, i n s a n e . H e c a m e t o s e e m e in a s t a t e o f c o m -
or a n t s t o f o r m o r g a n i z e d c o l o n i e s . plete panic. I simply took a 400-year-old book
Here I must clarify the relation between from the shelf a n d s h o w e d h i m a n old w o o d c u t
instincts a n d a r c h e t y p e s : W h a t w e p r o p e r l y call d e p i c t i n g h i s v e r y v i s i o n . " T h e r e ' s n o r e a s o n for
instincts a r e p h y s i o l o g i c a l u r g e s , a n d a r e p e r - you to believe that y o u ' r e i n s a n e , " I said to
ceived b y t h e s e n s e s . B u t a t the same time, h i m . " T h e y k n e w a b o u t y o u r vision 4 0 0 years
they a l s o m a n i f e s t t h e m s e l v e s in f a n t a s i e s a n d a g o . " W h e r e u p o n he sat d o w n entirely deflated,
often r e v e a l t h e i r p r e s e n c e o n l y b y symbolic but once more normal.
images. T h e s e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s a r e w h a t I call A very i m p o r t a n t case c a m e to m e from a
the a r c h e t y p e s . T h e y a r e w i t h o u t k n o w n o r i g i n ; m a n w h o was himself a psychiatrist. O n e day
a n d t h e y r e p r o d u c e t h e m s e l v e s in a n y t i m e o r he brought m e a h a n d w r i t t e n booklet he h a d
in a n y p a r t o f t h e w o r l d e v e n w h e r e trans- r e c e i v e d as a C h r i s t m a s p r e s e n t from h i s 10-
mission b y d i r e c t d e s c e n t o r " c r o s s f e r t i l i z a t i o n " \ e a r - o l d d a u g h t e r . It c o n t a i n e d a w h o l e s e r i e s
through migration must be ruled out. of d r e a m s s h e had had when she was eight.
I can r e m e m b e r m a n y cases of p e o p l e who They m a d e u p t h e w e i r d e s t series of d r e a m s
have c o n s u l t e d m e b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e baflled t h a t I h a v e ever seen, a n d I c o u l d well u n d e r -
by t h e i r o w n d r e a m s or bv their children's. stand why the father was more than just puz-
T h e y w e r e a t a c o m p l e t e loss t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e zled by t h e m . T h o u g h childlike, they w e r e u n -
t e r m s of t h e d r e a m s . T h e r e a s o n w a s t h a t the cannv. and they contained images whose origin
dreams contained images that they could not was whollv incomprehensible to the father.

69
H e r e are the relevant motifs from the d r e a m s : b i t s of it a t e v e r y o n e w h o p a s s e s . I n t h i s w a y
1. " T h e evil a n i m a l . " a s n a k e l i k e m o n s t e r w i t h all t h e p a s s e r s - b y b e c o m e b a d .
m a n y h o r n s , kills a n d d e v o u r s a l l o t h e r a n i m a l s . 7. A d r u n k e n w o m a n falls i n t o t h e w a t e r and
B u t G o d c o m e s f r o m t h e f o u r c o r n e r s , b e i n g in comes out renewed a n d sober.
fact f o u r s e p a r a t e g o d s , a n d g i v e s r e b i r t h t o a l l 8. T h e s c e n e is in A m e r i c a , w h e r e m a n y p e o p l e
the dead animals. are rolling on an ant heap, attacked by the
2. A n a s c e n t i n t o h e a v e n , w h e r e p a g a n d a n c e s a n t s . T h e d r e a m e r , in a p a n i c , falls i n t o a r i v e r .
a r e b e i n g c e l e b r a t e d ; a n d a descent i n t o hell, 9 . T h e r e is a d e s e r t o n t h e m o o n where the
where angels are doing good deeds. d r e a m e r s i n k s so d e e p l y i n t o t h e g r o u n d that
3. A horde of s m a l l animals frightens the she r e a c h e s hell.
d r e a m e r . T h e a n i m a l s increase to a t r e m e n d o u s 10. I n this d r e a m t h e girl h a s a vision of a
s i z e , a n d o n e of t h e m d e v o u r s t h e l i t t l e g i r l . l u m i n o u s b a l l . S h e t o u c h e s it. V a p o r s e m a n a t e
4. A small mouse is p e n e t r a t e d by worms, f r o m it. A m a n c o m e s a n d kills h e r .
s n a k e s , fishes, a n d human beings. Thus the 1 1. T h e g i r l d r e a m s s h e is d a n g e r o u s l y ill. S u d -
m o u s e b e c o m e s h u m a n . T h i s p o r t r a y s the four d e n l y b i r d s c o m e o u t of h e r skin a n d c o v e r h e r
s t a g e s of t h e o r i g i n o f m a n k i n d . completely.
5. A d r o p o f w a t e r is s e e n , as it a p p e a r s w h e n 12. S w a r m s of g n a t s o b s c u r e t h e s u n . t h e m o o n ,
l o o k e d at t h r o u g h a m i c r o s c o p e . T h e g i r l sees a n d all t h e s t a r s , e x c e p t o n e . T h a t o n e s t a r falls
t h a t t h e d r o p is lull o f t r e e b r a n c h e s . T h i s p o r - upon the dreamer.
t r a y s t h e o r i g i n of t h e w o r l d . In the unabridged German original, each
6. A b a d b o v h a s a c l o d o f e a r t h a n d throws dream b e g i n s w i t h t h e w o r d s of t h e o l d fairv

7"
Parallels to a r c h e t y p a l m o t i f s in
the girl's first d r e a m ( p . 7 0 ) :
Left, f r o m S t r a s b o u r g C a t h e d r a l ,
Christ c r u c i f i e d o n A d a m ' s g r a v e -
symbolizing t h e t h e m e of r e b i r t h
(Christ as t h e s e c o n d A d a m ) . In
a Navaho s a n d p a i n t i n g , a b o v e , t h e
horned heads are t h e f o u r c o r n e r s
of the w o r l d . In B r i t a i n ' s r o y a l
coronation ceremony, the m o n a r c h
(right. Q u e e n E l i z a b e t h II in 1 9 5 3 )
is presented to t h e p e o p l e at t h e
four d o o r s of W e s t m i n s t e r A b b e y .

tale: " O n c e u p o n a t i m e . . . . " By these w o r d s


the little d r e a m e r suggests that she feels as if
each d r e a m w e r e a sort of fairy tale, which she
wants to tell her father as a C h r i s t m a s present,
flic l a t h e r tried to e x p l a i n the d r e a m s in
terms of their c o n t e x t . But he could not d o so,
lor there seemed to he no personal associations
to t h e m .
T h e possibility t h a t these d r e a m s w e r e con-
scious e l a b o r a t i o n s can of course be ruled out
only by s o m e o n e w h o knew the child well
enough to be absolutely sure of her truthfulness.
(They w o u l d , h o w e v e r , r e m a i n a c h a l l e n g e to
our u n d e r s t a n d i n g even if they w e r e fantasies. |
In this case, the l a t h e r was c o n v i n c e d t h a t the
d r e a m s w e r e a u t h e n t i c , a n d I h a v e no reason to
doubt it. I knew the little girl myself, but this
was before she g a v e her d r e a m s to her l a t h e r ,
so that I had no c h a n c e to ask her a b o u t t h e m .
She lived a b r o a d a n d died of an infectious
disease a b o u t a y e a r after that C h r i s t m a s .

7"
Her dreams have a decidedly peculiar char- But she h a d very little religious b a c k g r o u n d .
acter. T h e i r l e a d i n g t h o u g h t s are m a r k e d l y H e r p a r e n t s w e r e P r o t e s t a n t s in n a m e ; b u t in
philosophic in c o n c e p t . T h e first o n e , for fact they k n e w the Bible only from h e a r s a y . It
i n s t a n c e , speaks of a n evil m o n s t e r killing o t h e r is p a r t i c u l a r l y unlikely t h a t the r e c o n d i t e i m a g e
a n i m a l s , b u t G o d gives r e b i r t h to t h e m all of Apokataslasis h a d b e e n fully e x p l a i n e d to the
t h r o u g h a d i v i n e Apokatastasis, or restitution. girl. C e r t a i n l y h e r father h a d n e v e r h e a r d of
In the W e s t e r n w o r l d this i d e a is k n o w n this m y t h i c a l idea.
t h r o u g h the C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n . It c a n be found N i n e of the 12 d r e a m s a r e influenced by the
in the Acts of the Apostles r n : 2 1 : " [ C h r i s t ] t h e m e of d e s t r u c t i o n a n d r e s t o r a t i o n . A n d n o n e
w h o m the h e a v e n m u s t receive until the t i m e of of these d r e a m s shows traces of specific C h r i s -
restitution of all things. . . . " T h e early G r e e k tian e d u c a t i o n or influence. O n the c o n t r a r y ,
F a t h e r s of t h e C h u r c h (for i n s t a n c e , O r i g e n ) they a r e m o r e closely related to p r i m i t i v e
p a r t i c u l a r l y insisted u p o n the idea t h a t , at the m y t h s . T h i s relation is c o r r o b o r a t e d by the
end of t i m e , e v e r y t h i n g will b e restored by t h e o t h e r m o t i f t h e " c o s m o g o n i c m y t h " (the cre-
R e d e e m e r to its original a n d perfect s t a t e . But, a t i o n of the world a n d of m a n ) t h a t a p p e a r s in
a c c o r d i n g to St. M a t t h e w x v n : l l , t h e r e was the fourth a n d fifth d r e a m s . T h e s a m e c o n n e c -
a l r e a d y a n old J e w i s h t r a d i t i o n t h a t Elias " t r u l y tion is found in I C o r i n t h i a n s x v : 2 2 , w h i c h I
shall first c o m e , a n d restore all t h i n g s . " I C o r i n - h a v e j u s t q u o t e d . In this passage too, A d a m
t h i a n s x v : 2 2 refers to the s a m e i d e a in the a n d Christ ( d e a t h a n d r e s u r r e c t i o n ) a r e linked
following w o r d s : " F o r as in A d a m all die, even together.
so in Christ shall all b e m a d e a l i v e . " T h e g e n e r a l idea of Christ the R e d e e m e r
O n e m i g h t guess t h a t t h e child h a d e n c o u n - belongs to the w o r l d - w i d e a n d p r e - C h r i s t t h e m e
tered this t h o u g h t in h e r religious e d u c a t i o n . of the h e r o a n d rescuer w h o , a l t h o u g h he has

A b o v e , the h e r o - g o d Raven (of the


H a i d a I n d i a n s of A m e r i c a ' s P a c i f i c
C o a s t ) in t h e b e l l y of a w h a l e
c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the " d e v o u r i n g
m o n s t e r " m o t i f in t h e g i r l ' s first
dream (p. 7 0 ) .

T h e girl's s e c o n d d r e a m o f a n g e l s
in hell a n d d e m o n s in h e a v e n
seems t o e m b o d y t h e idea of t h e
relativity of morality. The same
c o n c e p t is e x p r e s s e d in t h e d u a l
a s p e c t of t h e f a l l e n a n g e l w h o is
both Satan, the devil, and (right)
Lucifer, t h e r e s p l e n d e n t b r i n g e r
of l i g h t . T h e s e o p p o s i t e s c a n also
be seen in t h e f i g u r e of G o d , far
r i g h t ( i n a d r a w i n g b y B l a k e ) : He
a p p e a r s to J o b , in a d r e a m , w i t h
a c l o v e n h o o f like a d e m o n ' s .

72
been d e v o u r e d by a m o n s t e r , a p p e a r s a g a i n in ven, hell, a n d evil. But the w a y in w h i c h they
a miraculous way, having overcome whatever a r e t r e a t e d by this child points to a totally
monster it was t h a t swallowed h i m . W h e n a n d n o n - C h r i s t i a n origin.
where such a motif o r i g i n a t e d n o b o d y knows. Let us take the first d r e a m of the G o d w h o
We d o not even k n o w h o w to go a b o u t investi- really consists of four gods, c o m i n g from the
gating the p r o b l e m . T h e o n e a p p a r e n t c e r t a i n t y " f o u r c o r n e r s . " T h e c o r n e r s of w h a t ? T h e r e is
is that every g e n e r a t i o n seems to h a v e k n o w n it n o r o o m m e n t i o n e d in the d r e a m . A r o o m
as a t r a d i t i o n h a n d e d d o w n from s o m e p r e c e d - w o u l d not even fit in w i t h the p i c t u r e of w h a t
ing time. T h u s w e c a n safely a s s u m e t h a t it is obviously a cosmic e v e n t , in w h i c h the U n i -
" o r i g i n a t e d " at a p e r i o d w h e n m a n did not yet versal Being himself i n t e r v e n e s . T h e q u a t e r n i t y
know t h a t he possessed a h e r o m y t h ; in a n age, (or e l e m e n t of " f o u r n e s s " ) itself is a s t r a n g e
that is to say, w h e n h e did not yet consciously i d e a , b u t o n e t h a t plays a g r e a t role in m a n y
reflect on w h a t h e was saying. T h e h e r o figure religions a n d philosophies. I n t h e C h r i s t i a n r e -
is an a r c h e t y p e , w h i c h has existed since t i m e ligion, it has b e e n s u p e r s e d e d by the T r i n i t y , a
immemorial. notion t h a t we must a s s u m e was k n o w n to the
T h e p r o d u c t i o n of a r c h e t y p e s by c h i l d r e n is child. But w h o in a n o r d i n a r y middle-class
especially significant, b e c a u s e o n e c a n s o m e - family of t o d a y w o u l d be likely to k n o w of a
times be q u i t e c e r t a i n t h a t a child has h a d n o d i v i n e q u a t e r n i t y ? It is a n idea t h a t was o n c e
direct access to the t r a d i t i o n c o n c e r n e d . In this fairly familiar a m o n g s t u d e n t s of the H e r m e t i c
case, the girl's family h a d n o m o r e t h a n a p h i l o s o p h y in the M i d d l e Ages, b u t it p e t e r e d
superficial a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h the C h r i s t i a n t r a - out w i t h the b e g i n n i n g of the 18th c e n t u r y , a n d
dition. C h r i s t i a n t h e m e s m a y , of course, b e it has b e e n entirely obsolete for at least 200
represented by such ideas as G o d , angels, h e a - years. W h e r e , t h e n , did the little girl pick it u p ?

V / j t k D r e a m s upon my b e d t h o a n e a r e s t i n e ^ a l f n g k e s t m e
with. V i s i o n s
73
F r o m EzekieFs vision? But t h e r e is no C h r i s t i a n m u c h i m p o r t a n c e t h a t she p r e s e n t e d t h e m to
t e a c h i n g t h a t identifies t h e s e r a p h i m with G o d . her father as a C h r i s t m a s p r e s e n t ?
T h e s a m e q u e s t i o n m a y he asked a b o u t the If the d r e a m e r h a d b e e n a p r i m i t i v e m e d i -
h o r n e d s e r p e n t . In the Bible, it is t r u e , t h e r e cine m a n , o n e could r e a s o n a b l y a s s u m e that
are m a n y h o r n e d a n i m a l s in the Book of they represent v a r i a t i o n s of the philosophical
R e v e l a t i o n , for i n s t a n c e . But all these seem to t h e m e s ol d e a t h , of resurrection or restitution,
be q u a d r u p e d , a l t h o u g h their overlord is the of the origin of the w o r l d , the c r e a t i o n of m a n .
d r a g o n , the G r e e k w o r d for w h i c h (drakon) also a n d the relativity of values. But o n e m i g h t give
m e a n s s e r p e n t . The h o r n e d serpent a p p e a r s in u p such d r e a m s as hopelessly difficult if one
1 6 t h - c e n t u r y L a t i n a l c h e m y as the quadricor- tried to i n t e r p r e t t h e m from a personal level.
nulus serpens f o u r - h o r n e d s e r p e n t ) , a symbol They u n d o u b t e d l y c o n t a i n '"collective i m a g e s . "
of M e r c u r y a n d a n a n t a g o n i s t of the C h r i s t i a n a n d they a r e in a w a y a n a l o g o u s to the d o c -
Trinity. But this is an o b s c u r e reference. So far trines t a u g h t to y o u n g people in p r i m i t i v e tribes
as I can discover, it is m a d e by only o n e w h e n they a r e a b o u t to be initiated as m e n . At
a u t h o r ; a n d this child h a d n o m e a n s of k n o w - such times they learn a b o u t w h a t G o d , or the
ing it. gods, or the " f o u n d i n g " a n i m a l s h a v e d o n e ,
In the second d r e a m , a motif a p p e a r s that is how the world a n d m a n w e r e c r e a t e d , how the
definitely n o n - C h r i s t i a n a n d that c o n t a i n s a re- end of the world will c o m e , a n d the m e a n i n g ol
versal of a c c e p t e d values for i n s t a n c e , p a g a n d e a t h . Is t h e r e a n y occasion w h e n we, in Chris-
d a n c e s by m e n in h e a v e n a n d good deeds by tian civilization, h a n d out similar instructions?
angels in hell. This symbol suggests a relativity There is: in adolescence. But m a n y people
of m o r a l values. W h e r e did the child find such begin to think a g a i n of things like this in old
a r e v o l u t i o n a r y n o t i o n , w o r t h y of Nietzsche's a g e . at the a p p r o a c h of d e a t h .
genius? The little girl, as it h a p p e n e d , was in both
These q u e s t i o n s lead us to a n o t h e r : W h a t is these situations. She was a p p r o a c h i n g p u b e r t y
the c o m p e n s a t o r y m e a n i n g of these d r e a m s , to a n d , at the s a m e t i m e , the e n d of her life. Little
which the little girl obviously a t t r i b u t e d so or n o t h i n g in the symbolism of h e r d r e a m s

T h e little g i r l ' s d r e a m s (p. 7 0 )


c o n t a i n s y m b o l s of c r e a t i o n , d e a t h ,
and rebirth, w h i c h resemble the
t e a c h i n g s g i v e n t o a d o l e s c e n t s in
p r i m i t i v e i n i t i a t i o n rituals. Left,
t h e e n d of a N a v a h o c e r e m o n y :
A girl, having b e c o m e a w o m a n ,
g o e s i n t o t h e desert t o m e d i t a t e .

D e a t h a n d r e b i r t h s y m b o l i s m also
a p p e a r s in d r e a m s at t h e e n d of
life, w h e n t h e a p p r o a c h of d e a t h
casts a s h a d o w b e f o r e it. R i g h t ,
o n e of G o y a ' s last p a i n t i n g s : T h e
strange creature, apparently a
d o g , that emerges f r o m the dark
c a n b e i n t e r p r e t e d as t h e artist's
f o r e s h a d o w i n g of his d e a t h In
m a n y m y t h o l o g i e s d o g s a p p e a r as
g u i d e s to t h e l a n d of t h e d e a d

74
points to the b e g i n n i n g of a n o r m a l a d u l t life, S u c h a r e the ideas t h a t the d r e a m s b r o u g h t
but t h e r e a r e m a n y allusions to d e s t r u c t i o n a n d h o m e to the child. T h e y w e r e a p r e p a r a t i o n for
restoration. W h e n I first r e a d h e r d r e a m s , in- d e a t h , expressed t h r o u g h short stories, like the
deed, I h a d the u n c a n n y feeling that they sug- tales told at p r i m i t i v e initiations or the Koans
gested i m p e n d i n g disaster. T h e reason I felt of Z e n B u d d h i s m . T h i s message is unlike the
like that was the p e c u l i a r n a t u r e of the c o m - o r t h o d o x C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e a n d m o r e like
pensation that I d e d u c e d from the s y m b o l i s m . a n c i e n t p r i m i t i v e t h o u g h t . It seems to h a v e
It was the o p p o s i t e of w h a t o n e w o u l d expect o r i g i n a t e d o u t s i d e historical t r a d i t i o n in the
to find in the consciousness of a girl of t h a t age. long-forgotten psychic sources t h a t , since p r e -
T h e s e d r e a m s o p e n u p a new a n d r a t h e r historic times, h a v e n o u r i s h e d philosophical a n d
terrifying aspect of life a n d d e a t h . O n e w o u l d religious s p e c u l a t i o n a b o u t life a n d d e a t h .
expect to find such i m a g e s in a n a g i n g person It was as if future events w e r e casting their
who looks back u p o n life, r a t h e r t h a n to be s h a d o w back by a r o u s i n g in the child certain
given t h e m by a child w h o w o u l d n o r m a l l y be t h o u g h t forms t h a t , t h o u g h n o r m a l l y d o r m a n t ,
looking f o r w a r d . T h e i r a t m o s p h e r e recalls the describe or a c c o m p a n y the a p p r o a c h of a fatal
old R o m a n saying, "Life is a short d r e a m , " issue. A l t h o u g h the specific s h a p e in w h i c h they
rather t h a n the j o y a n d e x u b e r a n c e of its express themselves is m o r e or less p e r s o n a l , their
springtime. For this c h i l d ' s life was like a g e n e r a l p a t t e r n is collective. T h e y a r e found
ver sacrum vovendum (vow of a v e r n a l sacri- e v e r y w h e r e a n d at all times, just as a n i m a l
fice), as the R o m a n poet p u t s it. E x p e r i e n c e instincts vary a good d e a l in the different
shows that the u n k n o w n a p p r o a c h of d e a t h species a n d yet serve the s a m e general p u r -
casts an adumbratio (an a n t i c i p a t o r y s h a d o w ; poses. W e d o not a s s u m e t h a t e a c h n e w - b o r n
over the life a n d d r e a m s of the victim. Even a n i m a l creates its o w n instincts as a n i n d i v i d u a l
the a l t a r in C h r i s t i a n c h u r c h e s r e p r e s e n t s , o n a c q u i s i t i o n , a n d we must not suppose t h a t
the one h a n d , a t o m b a n d , on the o t h e r , a p l a c e h u m a n i n d i v i d u a l s invent their specific h u m a n
of resurrection the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of d e a t h ways with every n e w b i r t h . Like the instincts,
into e t e r n a l life. the collective t h o u g h t p a t t e r n s of the h u m a n
m i n d a r e i n n a t e a n d i n h e r i t e d . T h e y function,
w h e n the occasion arises, in m o r e or less the
s a m e way in all of us.
E m o t i o n a l manifestations, to w h i c h such
t h o u g h t p a t t e r n s belong, a r e r e c o g n i z a b l y the
s a m e all over the e a r t h . W e c a n identify t h e m
even in a n i m a l s , a n d the a n i m a l s themselves
u n d e r s t a n d o n e a n o t h e r in this respect, even
t h o u g h they m a y b e l o n g to different species.
A n d w h a t a b o u t insects, with their c o m p l i c a t e d
s y m b i o t i c functions? Most of t h e m d o not even
know their p a r e n t s a n d h a v e n o b o d y to teach
t h e m . W h y should o n e a s s u m e , t h e n , t h a t m a n
is the only living b e i n g d e p r i v e d of specific
instincts, or that his psyche is devoid of all
traces of its e v o l u t i o n ?
.Naturally, if you identify the psyche with
consciousness, you can easily fall into the e r r o -
neous idea that m a n c o m e s i n t o the world with
a psyche that is e m p t y , a n d t h a t in later years
it c o n t a i n s n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n w h a t it has

7.-,
l e a r n e d by i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e . But the a n d d i s a p p o i n t m e n t at his failure to c a t c h a n y
psyche is m o r e t h a n consciousness. A n i m a l s fish, strangles his m u c h beloved only son, a n d
h a v e little consciousness, b u t m a n y impulses is then seized with i m m e n s e regret as he holds
a n d reactions t h a t d e n o t e the existence of a the little d e a d b o d y in his a r m s . S u c h a m a n
p s y c h e ; a n d p r i m i t i v e s d o a lot of things whose m i g h t r e m e m b e r this m o m e n t of p a i n for ever.
m e a n i n g is u n k n o w n to t h e m . W e c a n n o t k n o w w h e t h e r this kind of experi-
You m a y ask m a n y civilized p e o p l e in vain e n c e was a c t u a l l y the initial cause of the d e -
for the real m e a n i n g of the C h r i s t m a s tree or v e l o p m e n t of h u m a n consciousness. But t h e r e
of the E a s t e r egg. T h e fact is, they d o things is n o d o u b t t h a t the shock of a similar e m o -
w i t h o u t k n o w i n g w h y they d o t h e m . I a m tional e x p e r i e n c e is often n e e d e d to m a k e
inclined to the view t h a t things w e r e generally people w a k e u p a n d p a y a t t e n t i o n to w h a t they
d o n e first a n d t h a t it was only a long t i m e a r e d o i n g . T h e r e is a famous case of a 13th-
a f t e r w a r d t h a t s o m e b o d y asked w h y they w e r e c e n t u r y S p a n i s h h i d a l g o , R a i m o n Lull, w h o fin-
d o n e . T h e m e d i c a l psychologist is c o n s t a n t l y ally (after a long chase) succeeded in m e e t i n g
confronted w i t h o t h e r w i s e intelligent p a t i e n t s the lady he a d m i r e d at a secret r e n d e z v o u s . S h e
who b e h a v e in a peculiar a n d u n p r e d i c t a b l e silently o p e n e d her dress a n d showed h i m her
w a y a n d w h o h a v e n o inkling of w h a t they say breast, r o t t e n with c a n c e r . T h e shock c h a n g e d
or d o . T h e y a r e s u d d e n l y c a u g h t by u n r e a s o n - Lull's life; he e v e n t u a l l y b e c a m e a n e m i n e n t
able m o o d s for w h i c h they themselves c a n n o t theologian a n d o n e of the C h u r c h ' s greatest
account. missionaries. In the case of such a s u d d e n
Superficially, such reactions a n d impulses c h a n g e o n e c a n often p r o v e t h a t a n a r c h e t y p e
seem to be of a n i n t i m a t e l y personal n a t u r e , has b e e n at work for a long t i m e in the u n c o n -
a n d so we dismiss t h e m as i d i o s y n c r a t i c be- scious, skillfully a r r a n g i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t
havior. In fact, they a r e based u p o n a p r e - will lead to the crisis.
formed a n d e v e r - r e a d y instinctive system t h a t is S u c h e x p e r i e n c e s seem to show t h a t a r c h e -
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of m a n . T h o u g h t forms, u n i v e r - typal forms a r e not j u s t static p a t t e r n s . T h e y
sally u n d e r s t a n d a b l e gestures, a n d m a n y a t t i - are d y n a m i c factors t h a t manifest themselves
tudes follow a p a t t e r n t h a t was established long in impulses, j u s t as s p o n t a n e o u s l y as the in-
before m a n d e v e l o p e d a reflective consciousness. stincts. C e r t a i n d r e a m s , visions, or t h o u g h t s can
It is even c o n c e i v a b l e that the early origins s u d d e n l y a p p e a r ; a n d h o w e v e r carefully one
of m a n ' s c a p a c i t y to reflect c o m e from the p a i n - investigates, o n e c a n n o t find o u t w h a t causes
ful c o n s e q u e n c e s of violent e m o t i o n a l clashes. t h e m . T h i s does not m e a n t h a t they h a v e n o
Let me take, p u r e l y as a n illustration of this c a u s e ; they c e r t a i n l y h a v e . But it is so r e m o t e
point, the b u s h m a n w h o , in a m o m e n t of a n g e r or o b s c u r e t h a t o n e c a n n o t see w h a t it is. In

S o m e d r e a m s s e e m to p r e d i c t t h e
f u t u r e ( p e r h a p s d u e to u n c o n s c i o u s
k n o w l e d g e of f u t u r e p o s s i b i l i t i e s ) ;
t h u s d r e a m s w e r e l o n g u s e d as
d i v i n a t i o n . In G r e e c e t h e sick
w o u l d ask t h e h e a l i n g g o d A s k l e p i o s
f o r a d r e a m i n d i c a t i n g a c u r e . Left,
a relief d e p i c t s s u c h a d r e a m c u r e :
A snake (the g o d ' s s y m b o l ) bites a
man's diseased shoulder and the
g o d (far left) heals t h e s h o u l d e r .
R i g h t , C o n s t a n t i n e ( a n Italian
painting c 1 4 6 0 ) dreaming before a
battle that w a s to make him R o m a n
E m p e r o r . He d r e a m e d of t h e cross,
a s y m b o l of C h r i s t , a n d a v o i c e
said: " I n this sign c o n q u e r . " He
t o o k t h e s i g n as his e m b l e m , w o n
the battle, and w a s thus
converted to Christianity
such a case, o n e must wait either until the sufficient to e x p l a i n it. S u c h a d r e a m often
d r e a m a n d its m e a n i n g a r e sufficiently u n d e r - comes right out of the b l u e , a n d o n e w o n d e r s
stood, or until s o m e e x t e r n a l event occurs that w h a t could h a v e p r o m p t e d it. O f course, if one
will e x p l a i n the d r e a m . knew its ulterior message, its c a u s e would be
At the m o m e n t of the d r e a m , this event m a y clear. For it is only o u r consciousness that does
still lie in the future. But just as o u r conscious not yet k n o w ; the unconscious seems a l r e a d y
t h o u g h t s often o c c u p y themselves with the informed, a n d to h a v e c o m e to a conclusion
future a n d its possibilities, so d o the u n c o n s c i o u s that is expressed in the d r e a m . In fact, the un-
a n d its d r e a m s . There has long been a general conscious seems to be a b l e to e x a m i n e a n d to
belief t h a t the chief function of d r e a m s is p r o - d r a w conclusions from facts, m u c h as conscious-
g n o s t i c a t i o n of t h e future. In a n t i q u i t y , a n d as ness does. It can even use c e r t a i n facts, a n d
late as the M i d d l e Ages, d r e a m s p l a y e d their a n t i c i p a t e their possible results, just because we
p a r t in m e d i c a l prognosis. I c a n confirm by a a r e not conscious of t h e m .
m o d e r n d r e a m the e l e m e n t of prognosis (or p r e - But as far as o n e can m a k e out from d r e a m s ,
cognition that c a n be found in a n old d r e a m the u n c o n s c i o u s makes its d e l i b e r a t i o n s instinc-
rpioted by A r t e m i d o r u s of Daldis, in the second tively. The distinction is i m p o r t a n t . Logical
c e n t u r y A . O . A m a n d r e a m e d t h a t he saw his analysis is the p r e r o g a t i v e of consciousness; we
l a t h e r die in the flames of a house on (ire. Not select with reason a n d k n o w l e d g e . The u n c o n -
long a f t e r w a r d s , he himself died in a phlegmon? scious, h o w e v e r , seems to be g u i d e d chiefly by
(fire, or high lexer:, which I p r e s u m e was instinctive t r e n d s , r e p r e s e n t e d by c o r r e s p o n d i n g
pneumonia. t h o u g h t forms that is. by the a r c h e t y p e s . A
It so h a p p e n e d that a colleague of m i n e was d o c t o r w h o is asked to describe the course of
once suffering from a d e a d l y g a n g r e n o u s fever an illness will use such r a t i o n a l concepts as
in fact, a phlegmone. A former patient of " i n f e c t i o n " or " f e v e r . " The d r e a m is more
his, w h o h a d no k n o w l e d g e of the n a t u r e of his poetic. It presents the diseased b o d y as a m a n ' s
d o c t o r ' s illness, d r e a m e d t h a t the d o c t o r died e a r t h l y house, a n d the fever as the fire that is
in a g r e a t fire. At that time the d o c t o r h a d d e s t r o y i n g it.
just e n t e r e d a hospital a n d the disease was only As the a b o v e d r e a m shows, the a r c h e t y p a l
b e g i n n i n g . T h e d r e a m e r knew n o t h i n g but the m i n d has h a n d l e d the situation in the s a m e way
b a r e fact that his d o c t o r was ill a n d in a as it did in the t i m e of A r t e m i d o r u s . S o m e t h i n g
hospital. Three weeks later, the d o c t o r d i e d . that is of a m o r e or less u n k n o w n n a t u r e has
As this e x a m p l e shows, d r e a m s m a y h a v e a n been intuitively g r a s p e d In the unconscious a n d
a n t i c i p a t o r y or prognostic aspect, a n d a n y b o d y s u b m i t t e d to an a r c h e t y p a l t r e a t m e n t . This sug-
trying to i n t e r p r e t t h e m must take this into gests t h a t , instead of the process of reasoning
c o n s i d e r a t i o n , especially w h e r e a n obviously t h a t conscious t h o u g h t w o u l d h a v e a p p l i e d , the
meaningful d r e a m does not p r o v i d e a context a r c h e t y p a l m i n d has s t e p p e d in a n d t a k e n over

In a d r e a m q u o t e d f r o m A r t e m i d o r u s
on this page, a b u r n i n g house
s y m b o l i z e s a fever T h e h u m a n b o d y
is o f t e n r e p r e s e n t e d as a h o u s e :
Left, f r o m an 1 8 t h - c e n t u r y H e b r e w
encyclopedia, the body and a house
are c o m p a r e d in d e t a i l t u r r e t s as
ears, w i n d o w s as eyes, a f u r n a c e
as s t o m a c h , etc. R i g h t , in a c a r t o o n
by J a m e s T h u r b e r , a h e n p e c k e d
h u s b a n d sees his h o m e a n d his w i f e
as the s a m e b e i n g
the task of p r o g n o s t i c a t i o n . The a r c h e t y p e s thus figure with d a n c e s , music, h y m n s , p r a y e r s , a n d
have their o w n initiative a n d their o w n specific sacrifices, g r i p the a u d i e n c e with n u m i n o u s
energy. T h e s e p o w e r s e n a b l e t h e m b o t h to p r o - e m o t i o n s (as if with m a g i c spells) a n d exalt the
d u c e a m e a n i n g f u l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n (in t h e i r o w n i n d i v i d u a l to a n identification with the h e r o .
symbolic style) a n d to interfere in a given situa- II we try to see such a situation with the
tion with their o w n impulses a n d their o w n eyes of a believer, we c a n p e r h a p s u n d e r s t a n d
t h o u g h t formations. In this respect, they func- how the o r d i n a r y m a n can be l i b e r a t e d from
tion like c o m p l e x e s ; they c o m e a n d g o very his personal i m p o t e n c e a n d misery a n d en-
much as they please, a n d often they o b s t r u c t or d o w e d (at least t e m p o r a r i l y ) with a n almost
modify o u r conscious i n t e n t i o n s in a n e m b a r - s u p e r h u m a n q u a l i t y . Often e n o u g h such a con-
rassing w a y . viction will sustain him for a long t i m e a n d
W e can perceive the specific e n e r g v of give a c e r t a i n style to his life. It m a y even set
a r c h e t y p e s w h e n we e x p e r i e n c e the p e c u l i a r the tone of a w h o l e society. A r e m a r k a b l e
fascination that a c c o m p a n i e s t h e m . T h e y seem instance of this can be found in the Eleusinian
to hold a special spell. S u c h a p e c u l i a r q u a l i t y mysteries, w h i c h w e r e finally suppressed at the
is also c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ol the personal c o m p l e x e s ; b e g i n n i n g of the seventh c e n t u r y of the Chris-
and just as personal c o m p l e x e s h a v e their indi- tian era. They expressed, t o g e t h e r with the
vidual history, so d o social c o m p l e x e s of a n Delphic o r a c l e , the essence a n d spirit of a n c i e n t
a r c h e t y p a l c h a r a c t e r . But while personal c o m - G r e e c e . O n a m u c h g r e a t e r scale, the C h r i s t i a n
plexes never p r o d u c e m o r e t h a n a personal bias, era itself owes its n a m e a n d significance to the
a r c h e t y p e s c r e a t e m y t h s , religions, a n d philoso- a n t i q u e mystery of t h e g o d - m a n . w h i c h has its
phies that influence a n d c h a r a c t e r i z e whole roots in the a r c h e t y p a l O s i r i s - H o r u s m y t h of
nations a n d epochs of history. W e r e g a r d the a n c i e n t Egypt.
personal c o m p l e x e s as c o m p e n s a t i o n s for o n e - It is c o m m o n l y a s s u m e d that on s o m e given
sided or faulty a t t i t u d e s of consciousness; in occasion in prehistoric times, the basic m y t h o -
the saine w a y . m y t h s of a religious n a t u r e can logical ideas w e r e " i n v e n t e d " by a clever old
be i n t e r p r e t e d as a sort of m e n t a l t h e r a p y for p h i l o s o p h e r or p r o p h e t , a n d ever afterward
the sufferings a n d anxieties of m a n k i n d in " b e l i e v e d " by a c r e d u l o u s a n d uncritical
general h u n g e r , w a r , disease, old a g e , d e a t h . p e o p l e . It is said t h a t stories told by a p o w e r -
The universal h e r o m y t h , lot e x a m p l e , seeking priesthood are not " t r u e . " but merely
always refers to a powerful m a n or g o d - m a n "'wishful t h i n k i n g . " But the very word " i n v e n t "
who v a n q u i s h e s evil in the form of d r a g o n s , is derived from the L a t i n invenirt, a n d m e a n s
serpents, monsters, d e m o n s , a n d so on, a n d w h o to " i i n d " a n d h e n c e to find s o m e t h i n g by "seek-
liberates his p e o p l e from d e s t r u c t i o n a n d d e a t h , i n g " it. In the latter case the w o r d itself hints
fhe n a r r a t i o n or ritual r e p e t i t i o n of sacred texts at some foreknowledge of w h a t you a r e going
and c e r e m o n i e s , a n d the w o r s h i p of such a to find.

The e n e r g y of a r c h e t y p e s c a n be
focused ( t h r o u g h rituals a n d o t h e r
appeals to m a s s e m o t i o n ) t o m o v e
people to c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n T h e
Nazis k n e w this, a n d u s e d v e r s i o n s
of T e u t o n i c m y t h s t o h e l p rally
the c o u n t r y to their c a u s e Far r i g h t ,
a p r o p a g a n d a p a i n t i n g of H i t l e r as
a heroic c r u s a d e r ; r i g h t , a s o l s t i c e
festival c e l e b r a t e d in s u m m e r by
the Hitler Y o u t h , a revival of an
ancient p a g a n f e s t i v a l
T o p , a c h i l d ' s p a i n t i n g of C h r i s t m a s
i n c l u d e s t h e f a m i l i a r tree d e c o r a t e d
w i t h c a n d l e s . T h e e v e r g r e e n tree is
c o n n e c t e d w i t h Christ t h r o u g h t h e
s y m b o l i s m of t h e w i n t e r s o l s t i c e
a n d t h e " n e w y e a r " ( t h e n e w a e o n of
C h r i s t i a n i t y ) There are m a n y l i n k s
b e t w e e n Christ a n d t h e tree s y m b o l :
T h e c r o s s is o f t e n seen as a tree,
as in a m e d i e v a l Italian f r e s c o ,
left, of Christ c r u c i f i e d o n t h e tree
of k n o w l e d g e . C a n d l e s in C h r i s t i a n
c e r e m o n i e s s y m b o l i z e d i v i n e l i g h t , as
in t h e S w e d i s h festival of St L u c i a
( a b o v e ) , w h e r e girls w e a r c r o w n s of
burning candles.

8o
Let me go b a c k to the s t r a n g e ideas con- similar t e r m s d e s i g n a t e a " p o w e r " of e x t r a -
tained in the d r e a m s of the little girl. It seems o r d i n a r y efficiency a n d pervasiveness, w h i c h we
unlikely t h a t she s o u g h t t h e m o u t , since she was s h o u l d call d i v i n e . T h u s the w o r d mungu is
surprised to find t h e m . T h e y o c c u r r e d to h e r their e q u i v a l e n t for A l l a h or G o d . ) W h e n I
rather as p e c u l i a r a n d u n e x p e c t e d stories, w h i c h asked t h e m w h a t they m e a n t by this act, or
seemed n o t e w o r t h y e n o u g h to be given to h e r w h y they did it, they w e r e c o m p l e t e l y baffled.
father as a C h r i s t m a s p r e s e n t . I n d o i n g so, h o w - T h e y c o u l d only s a y : " W e h a v e always d o n e
ever, she lifted t h e m u p i n t o t h e s p h e r e of o u r it. I t has a l w a y s b e e n d o n e w h e n the sun rises."
still living C h r i s t i a n m y s t e r y t h e b i r t h of o u r T h e y l a u g h e d a t t h e obvious conclusion t h a t
Lord, m i x e d w i t h the secret of the e v e r g r e e n the sun is mungu. T h e sun i n d e e d is not mungu
tree t h a t carries the n e w - b o r n L i g h t . ( T h i s is w h e n it is a b o v e the h o r i z o n ; mungu is the a c t u a l
the reference of t h e fifth d r e a m . ) m o m e n t of t h e sunrise.
A l t h o u g h t h e r e is a m p l e historical e v i d e n c e W h a t they w e r e d o i n g was obvious to m e ,
for the s y m b o l i c r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n C h r i s t a n d b u t n o t to t h e m ; they j u s t did it, n e v e r reflect-
the tree s y m b o l , t h e little girl's p a r e n t s w o u l d ing o n w h a t they d i d . T h e y w e r e c o n s e q u e n t l y
have b e e n g r a v e l y e m b a r r a s s e d h a d they b e e n u n a b l e to e x p l a i n themselves. I c o n c l u d e d t h a t
asked to e x p l a i n exactly w h a t they m e a n t by they w e r e offering t h e i r souls to mungu, be-
decorating a tree w i t h b u r n i n g c a n d l e s to cele- cause the b r e a t h (of life) a n d the spittle m e a n
brate the n a t i v i t y of Christ. " O h , it's j u s t a " s o u l - s u b s t a n c e . " T o b r e a t h e or spit u p o n
Christmas c u s t o m ! " t h e y w o u l d h a v e said. A s o m e t h i n g conveys a " m a g i c a l " effect, as, for
serious a n s w e r w o u l d r e q u i r e a f a r - r e a c h i n g i n s t a n c e , w h e n C h r i s t used spittle to c u r e the
dissertation a b o u t the a n t i q u e symbolism of the b l i n d , or w h e r e a son inhales his d y i n g father's
dying god, a n d its r e l a t i o n to t h e cult of the last b r e a t h in o r d e r to take over the father's
Great M o t h e r a n d h e r s y m b o l , the t r e e t o soul. It is most unlikely t h a t these Africans ever,
mention only one aspect of this c o m p l i c a t e d even in t h e r e m o t e past, k n e w a n y m o r e a b o u t
problem. f t h e m e a n i n g of their c e r e m o n y . I n fact, their
T h e further we delve into the origins of a ancestors p r o b a b l y knew even less, because they
"collective i m a g e " (or, to express it in ecclesi- w e r e even m o r e p r o f o u n d l y u n c o n s c i o u s of their
astical l a n g u a g e , of a d o g m a ) , the m o r e we u n - motives a n d t h o u g h t less a b o u t their doings.
cover a seemingly u n e n d i n g w e b of a r c h e t y p a l G o e t h e ' s F a u s t a p t l y says: "Im Anfang war
patterns t h a t , before m o d e r n times, w e r e n e v e r die Tat [ I n the b e g i n n i n g was t h e d e e d ] . "
the object of conscious reflection. T h u s , p a r a - " D e e d s " w e r e n e v e r i n v e n t e d , they w e r e d o n e ;
doxically e n o u g h , we k n o w m o r e a b o u t m y t h o - t h o u g h t s , o n the o t h e r h a n d , are a relatively
logical s y m b o l i s m t h a n did a n y g e n e r a t i o n late discovery of m a n . First he was m o v e d to
before o u r o w n . T h e fact is t h a t in former times deeds by u n c o n s c i o u s factors; it was only a long
men did not reflect u p o n their s y m b o l s ; they t i m e a f t e r w a r d t h a t he b e g a n to reflect u p o n
lived t h e m a n d w e r e unconsciously a n i m a t e d by the causes t h a t h a d m o v e d h i m ; a n d it took
their m e a n i n g . h i m a very long t i m e i n d e e d to arrive at the
I will illustrate this by a n e x p e r i e n c e I o n c e p r e p o s t e r o u s idea t h a t he must h a v e moved
had w i t h the p r i m i t i v e s of M o u n t E l g o n in himselfhis m i n d b e i n g u n a b l e to identify a n y
Africa. E v e r y m o r n i n g at d a w n , they leave their o t h e r m o t i v a t i n g force t h a n his o w n .
huts a n d b r e a t h e or spit i n t o t h e i r h a n d s , w h i c h W e s h o u l d l a u g h at the idea of a p l a n t or a n
they t h e n stretch o u t to t h e first rays of the s u n , a n i m a l i n v e n t i n g itself, yet t h e r e a r e m a n y
as if they w e r e offering e i t h e r their b r e a t h or p e o p l e w h o believe t h a t the psyche or m i n d
their spittle to the rising god to mungu. ( T h i s i n v e n t e d itself a n d thus was t h e c r e a t o r of its
Swahili w o r d , w h i c h t h e y used in e x p l a i n i n g o w n existence. As a m a t t e r of fact, the m i n d
the ritual act, is d e r i v e d from a Polynesian root has g r o w n to its present state of consciousness
equivalent to mana or mulungu. T h e s e a n d as a n a c o r n grows i n t o a n oak or as s a u r i a n s

81
d e v e l o p e d into m a m m a l s . As it has for so long a c t i o n w i t h o u t a h i t c h , w h e r e a s the p r i m i t i v e
been d e v e l o p i n g , so it still develops, a n d thus seems to be h a m p e r e d at e a c h step by fears,
we a r e m o v e d by forces from w i t h i n as well as superstitions, a n d o t h e r unseen obstacles to
by stimuli from w i t h o u t . a c t i o n . T h e m o t t o " W h e r e t h e r e ' s a will, t h e r e ' s
T h e s e i n n e r motives s p r i n g from a d e e p a w a y " is the superstition of m o d e r n m a n .
source t h a t is not m a d e by consciousness a n d is Yet in o r d e r to sustain his c r e e d , c o n t e m -
not u n d e r its c o n t r o l . In the m y t h o l o g y of p o r a r y m a n pays the price in a r e m a r k a b l e lack
earlier times, these forces w e r e called mana, or of i n t r o s p e c t i o n . H e is blind to the fact t h a t ,
spirits, d e m o n s , a n d gods. T h e y a r e as active with all his r a t i o n a l i t y a n d efficiency, he is
t o d a y as they ever w e r e . If they c o n f o r m to o u r possessed by " p o w e r s " t h a t a r e b e y o n d his con-
wishes, we call t h e m h a p p y h u n c h e s or impulses trol. His gods a n d d e m o n s h a v e not d i s a p p e a r e d
a n d p a t ourselves o n the back for b e i n g s m a r t at a l l ; they h a v e merely got n e w n a m e s . They
fellows. If they go a g a i n s t us, t h e n we say t h a t keep him on the r u n w i t h restlessness, v a g u e
it is j u s t b a d luck, or t h a t c e r t a i n p e o p l e a r e a p p r e h e n s i o n s , psychological c o m p l i c a t i o n s , a n
against us, or t h a t t h e cause of o u r misfortunes i n s a t i a b l e need for pills, alcohol, t o b a c c o , food
must be p a t h o l o g i c a l . T h e o n e t h i n g we refuse a n d , a b o v e all, a large a r r a y of neuroses.
to a d m i t is t h a t we a r e d e p e n d e n t u p o n
" p o w e r s " that are beyond our control.
T w o e x a m p l e s of belief in t h e
It is t r u e , h o w e v e r , t h a t in r e c e n t times civil- " m a g i c a l " g u a l i t y of b r e a t h : B e l o w
ized m a n has a c q u i r e d a c e r t a i n a m o u n t of will left, a Z u l u w i t c h d o c t o r c u r e s a
p a t i e n t by b l o w i n g i n t o his ear
p o w e r , w h i c h he c a n a p p l y w h e r e he pleases.
t h r o u g h a c o w ' s horn (to drive the
H e has l e a r n e d to d o his work efficiently w i t h - spirits o u t ) ; b e l o w , a m e d i e v a l
out h a v i n g recourse to c h a n t i n g a n d d r u m m i n g p a i n t i n g of t h e c r e a t i o n d e p i c t s
G o d b r e a t h i n g life i n t o A d a m . R i g h t ,
to h y p n o t i z e h i m i n t o t h e state of d o i n g . He- in a 1 3 t h - c e n t u r y Italian p a i n t i n g ,
c a n even dispense w i t h a daily p r a y e r for d i v i n e Christ heals a b l i n d m a n w i t h
s p i t t l e w h i c h , like b r e a t h , has
aid. H e c a n c a r r y o u t w h a t he proposes to d o , l o n g been believed to have a life-
a n d he c a n a p p a r e n t l y t r a n s l a t e his ideas into giving ability
The soul of man

What we call civilized consciousness has steadily d r a w e r s a n d a r c never confronted with o n e


separated itself from the basic instincts. But another.
these instincts h a v e not d i s a p p e a r e d . T h e y h a v e As an e x a m p l e of this so-called c o m p a r t m e n t
merely lost their c o n t a c t w i t h o u r consciousness psychology, I r e m e m b e r the case of an alcoholic
and are thus forced to assert themselves in an w h o h a d c o m e u n d e r the l a u d a b l e influence of
indirect fashion. T h i s m a y be by m e a n s of a c e r t a i n religious m o v e m e n t , a n d , fascinated
physical s y m p t o m s in the case of a neurosis, or by its e n t h u s i a s m , h a d forgotten that he n e e d e d
by means of i n c i d e n t s of v a r i o u s kinds, such as a d r i n k . H e was obviously a n d m i r a c u l o u s l y
unaccountable m o o d s , u n e x p e c t e d forgetful- c u r e d by J e s u s , a n d he was c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y
ness, or mistakes in speech. displayed as a witness to divine g r a c e or to the
A m a n likes to believe that he is the m a s t e r efficiency of the said religious o r g a n i z a t i o n . But
of his soul. But as long as he is u n a b l e to c o n t r o l after a few weeks of p u b l i c confessions, the
his moods a n d e m o t i o n s , or to be conscious of novelty b e g a n to pale a n d some alcoholic re-
the myriad secret w a y s in w h i c h unconscious freshment seemed to be i n d i c a t e d , a n d so he
factors insinuate themselves into his a r r a n g e - d r a n k a g a i n . But this t i m e the helpful o r g a n -
ments and decisions, he is c e r t a i n l y not his o w n ization c a m e to the conclusion t h a t the case was
master. T h e s e u n c o n s c i o u s factors owe their " p a t h o l o g i c a l " a n d obviously not s u i t a b l e for
existence to the a u t o n o m y of the a r c h e t y p e s . a n i n t e r v e n t i o n by J e s u s , so they p u t him into
Modern m a n protects himself against seeing his a clinic to let the d o c t o r d o b e t t e r t h a n the
own split state by a system of c o m p a r t m e n t s . div ine healer.
Certain areas of o u t e r life a n d of his o w n T h i s is a n aspect of the m o d e r n " c u l t u r a l "
behavior are kept, as it w e r e , in s e p a r a t e m i n d t h a t is w o r t h looking into. It shows a n

3
84
alarming d e g r e e of dissociation a n d p s y c h o - But all such a t t e m p t s h a v e p r o v e d singularly
logical confusion. ineffective, a n d will d o so as long as we try to
If, for a m o m e n t , we r e g a r d m a n k i n d as o n e c o n v i n c e ourselves a n d the w o r l d t h a t it is only
individual, we see t h a t the h u m a n r a c e is like they (i.e. o u r o p p o n e n t s ) w h o a r e w r o n g , ft
a person c a r r i e d a w a y b y u n c o n s c i o u s p o w e r s ; w o u l d be m u c h m o r e to the p o i n t for us to
and the h u m a n r a c e also likes to k e e p c e r t a i n m a k e a serious a t t e m p t to recognize o u r o w n
problems t u c k e d a w a y in s e p a r a t e d r a w e r s . But s h a d o w a n d its nefarious doings. If we could
this is why we s h o u l d give a g r e a t d e a l of con- see o u r s h a d o w (the d a r k side of o u r n a t u r e ) ,
sideration to w h a t we a r e d o i n g , for m a n k i n d we s h o u l d be i m m u n e to a n y m o r a l a n d m e n t a l
is now t h r e a t e n e d by self-created a n d d e a d l y infection a n d i n s i n u a t i o n . As m a t t e r s n o w
dangers t h a t a r e g r o w i n g b e y o n d o u r control. s t a n d , we lay ourselves o p e n to every infection,
Our world is, so to speak, dissociated like a b e c a u s e we a r e really d o i n g p r a c t i c a l l y the
neurotic, w i t h the I r o n C u r t a i n m a r k i n g the s a m e t h i n g as they. O n l y we h a v e the a d d i -
symbolic line of division. W e s t e r n m a n , b e c o m - tional d i s a d v a n t a g e t h a t we n e i t h e r see n o r
ing a w a r e of the aggressive will to p o w e r of w a n t to u n d e r s t a n d w h a t we ourselves are
the East, sees himself forced to t a k e e x t r a o r d i n - d o i n g , u n d e r the cover of good m a n n e r s .
ary measures of defense, at the s a m e t i m e as T h e c o m m u n i s t w o r l d , it m a y be n o t e d , has
he prides himself on his v i r t u e a n d good o n e big m y t h (which we call a n illusion, in
intentions. the v a i n h o p e t h a t o u r s u p e r i o r j u d g m e n t will
W h a t he fails to see is t h a t it is his o w n vices, m a k e it d i s a p p e a r ) . It is the t i m e - h a l l o w e d
which he has covered u p by good i n t e r n a t i o n a l a r c h e t y p a l d r e a m of a G o l d e n A g e (or P a r a -
manners, t h a t are t h r o w n b a c k in his face by dise), w h e r e e v e r y t h i n g is p r o v i d e d in a b u n d -
the c o m m u n i s t w o r l d , shamelessly a n d m e t h - a n c e for e v e r y o n e , a n d a g r e a t , j u s t , a n d wise
odically. W h a t the W e s t has t o l e r a t e d , b u t chief rules over a h u m a n k i n d e r g a r t e n . T h i s
secretly a n d with a slight sense of s h a m e (the powerful a r c h e t y p e in its infantile form has
diplomatic lie, systematic d e c e p t i o n , veiled g r i p p e d t h e m , b u t it will n e v e r d i s a p p e a r from
threats), comes b a c k i n t o the o p e n a n d in full the w o r l d at the m e r e sight of o u r superior
measure from the East a n d ties us u p in n e u - p o i n t of view. W e even s u p p o r t it by o u r o w n
rotic knots. It is the face of his o w n evil s h a d o w childishness, for o u r W e s t e r n civilization is in
that grins at W e s t e r n m a n from the o t h e r side the g r i p of the s a m e m y t h o l o g y . Unconsciously,
of the I r o n C u r t a i n . we cherish the s a m e prejudices, h o p e s , a n d
It is this state of affairs t h a t explains the e x p e c t a t i o n s . W e too believe in the welfare
peculiar feeling of helplessness of so m a n y state, in universal p e a c e , in the e q u a l i t y of m a n ,
people in W e s t e r n societies. T h e y h a v e b e g u n in his e t e r n a l h u m a n rights, in j u s t i c e , t r u t h ,
to realize t h a t the difficulties confronting us are a n d (do not say it too loudly) in the K i n g d o m
moral p r o b l e m s , a n d t h a t the a t t e m p t s to of G o d on E a r t h .
answer t h e m by a policy of piling u p n u c l e a r T h e sad t r u t h is t h a t m a n ' s real life consists
arms or by e c o n o m i c " c o m p e t i t i o n " is achiev- of a c o m p l e x of i n e x o r a b l e o p p o s i t e s d a y a n d
ing little, for it cuts b o t h ways. M a n y of us night, b i r t h a n d d e a t h , h a p p i n e s s a n d misery,
now u n d e r s t a n d t h a t m o r a l a n d m e n t a l m e a n s good a n d evil. W e are n o t even sure t h a t one
would be m o r e efficient, since they could p r o - will prevail against the o t h e r , t h a t good will
vide us with psychic i m m u n i t y a g a i n s t the ever- o v e r c o m e evil, or j o y defeat p a i n . Life is a
increasing infection. b a t t l e g r o u n d . It always has b e e n , a n d always
will b e ; a n d if it w e r e n o t so, existence w o u l d
c o m e to a n e n d .
It was precisely this conflict w i t h i n m a n t h a t
"Our world is dissociated like a
led the early C h r i s t i a n s to e x p e c t a n d h o p e for
neurotic." Left, the Berlin Wall. a n early e n d to this w o r l d , or the B u d d h i s t s to

85
Every s o c i e t y has its idea of t h e
a r c h e t y p a l p a r a d i s e or g o l d e n age
t h a t , it is b e l i e v e d , o n c e e x i s t e d
a n d w i l l exist a g a i n . Left, a 1 9 t h -
century American painting embodies
t h e idea of a past U t o p i a : It s h o w s
W i l l i a m Penn's treaty w i t h the
I n d i a n s in 1 6 8 2 o c c u r r i n g in an ideal
s e t t i n g w h e r e all is h a r m o n y a n d
peace. B e l o w left, a r e f l e c t i o n of
t h e idea of a U t o p i a yet to c o m e :
A p o s t e r in a M o s c o w park s h o w s
L e n i n l e a d i n g t h e Russian p e o p l e
t o w a r d the future

A b o v e , the G a r d e n of E d e n , d e p i c t e d
as a w a l l e d ( a n d w o m b - l i k e ) g a r d e n
in a 1 5 t h - c e n t u r y ' F r e n c h p a i n t i n g
a n d s h o w i n g t h e e x p u l s i o n of A d a m
a n d Eve. R i g h t , a " g o l d e n a g e " of
p r i m i t i v e n a t u r a l n e s s is p i c t u r e d
in a 1 6 t h - c e n t u r y p a i n t i n g by
C r a n a c h ( e n t i t l e d Earthly Paradise).
Far r i g h t , t h e 1 6 t h - c e n t u r y F l e m i s h
artist Brueghel's Land of Cokaygne,
a m y t h i c a l l a n d of s e n s u a l d e l i g h t s
a n d easy l i v i n g . ( s t o r i e s of w h i c h
w e r e w i d e l y p o p u l a r in m e d i e v a l
Europe, especially a m o n g the hard-
w o r k i n g peasants and serfs).
reject all e a r t h l y desires a n d a s p i r a t i o n s . T h e s e H e r e a f t e r . O n l y t o d a y d o they t h i n k they c a n
basic answers w o u l d be frankly suicidal if they d o w i t h o u t such ideas.
were not linked u p with p e c u l i a r m e n t a l a n d Because we c a n n o t discover G o d ' s t h r o n e in
moral ideas a n d practices t h a t c o n s t i t u t e the the sky w i t h a r a d i o telescope or establish (for
bulk of both religions a n d t h a t , to a c e r t a i n c e r t a i n ) t h a t a beloved father or m o t h e r is still
extent, modify their r a d i c a l d e n i a l of the world. a b o u t in a m o r e or less c o r p o r e a l form, p e o p l e
I stress this point b e c a u s e , in o u r t i m e , t h e r e a s s u m e t h a t such ideas a r e " n o t t r u e . " I
are millions of p e o p l e w h o h a v e lost faith in w o u l d r a t h e r say t h a t they a r e not " t r u e "
any kind of religion. S u c h p e o p l e d o not u n d e r - enough, for these a r e c o n c e p t i o n s of a kind
stand their religion a n y longer. W h i l e life r u n s t h a t h a v e a c c o m p a n i e d h u m a n life from p r e -
smoothly w i t h o u t religion, t h e loss r e m a i n s as historic times, a n d t h a t still b r e a k t h r o u g h
good as u n n o t i c e d . But w h e n suffering c o m e s , i n t o consciousness at a n y p r o v o c a t i o n .
it is a n o t h e r m a t t e r . T h a t is w h e n p e o p l e begin M o d e r n m a n m a y assert t h a t he can
to seek a w a y o u t a n d to reflect a b o u t the dispense w i t h t h e m , a n d h e m a y bolster his
meaning of life a n d its b e w i l d e r i n g a n d painful o p i n i o n by insisting t h a t t h e r e is n o scientific
experiences. e v i d e n c e of their t r u t h . O r he m a y even
It is significant t h a t the psychological d o c t o r regret the loss of his convictions. But since we
(within my e x p e r i e n c e ) is c o n s u l t e d m o r e by a r e d e a l i n g w i t h invisible a n d u n k n o w a b l e
Jews and P r o t e s t a n t s t h a n by C a t h o l i c s . T h i s things (for G o d is b e y o n d h u m a n u n d e r s t a n d -
might be e x p e c t e d , for t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h ing, a n d t h e r e is n o m e a n s of p r o v i n g i m m o r -
still feels responsible for t h e cura animarum tality), w h y s h o u l d we b o t h e r a b o u t e v i d e n c e ?
(the care a n d welfare of souls). But in this Even if we did not k n o w by reason o u r need
scientific age, the psychiatrist is a p t to b e asked for salt in o u r food, we s h o u l d nonetheless
the questions t h a t o n c e b e l o n g e d in the d o m a i n profit from its use. W e m i g h t a r g u e t h a t the
of the theologian. P e o p l e feel t h a t it m a k e s , or use of salt is a m e r e illusion of taste or a
would m a k e , a g r e a t difference if only they h a d s u p e r s t i t i o n ; b u t it w o u l d still c o n t r i b u t e to
a positive belief in a m e a n i n g f u l w a y of life or o u r well-being. W h y , t h e n , should we d e p r i v e
in God a n d i m m o r t a l i t y . T h e s p e c t e r of a p - ourselves of views t h a t w o u l d p r o v e helpful in
proaching d e a t h often gives a powerful i n c e n - crises a n d w o u l d give a m e a n i n g to o u r
tive to such t h o u g h t s . F r o m t i m e i m m e m o r i a l , existence?
men have h a d ideas a b o u t a S u p r e m e Being A n d h o w d o we k n o w t h a t such ideas a r e
(one or several) a n d a b o u t t h e L a n d of the not t r u e ? M a n y p e o p l e w o u l d a g r e e w i t h m e

87
if I stated flatly t h a t such ideas a r e p r o b a b l y w a n d e r i n g t e n t - m a k e r he c e r t a i n l y w o u l d
illusions. W h a t they fail to realize is t h a t the not h a v e been the m a n he was. His real
denial is as impossible to " p r o v e " as the a n d m e a n i n g f u l life lay in the i n n e r c e r t a i n t y
assertion of religious belief. W e a r e entirely t h a t he was the messenger of the L o r d . O n e
free to choose w h i c h point of view we t a k e ; m a y accuse him of suffering from m e g a l o -
it will in a n y case be a n a r b i t r a r y decision. m a n i a , b u t this o p i n i o n pales before the testi-
T h e r e is, h o w e v e r , a s t r o n g e m p i r i c a l reason m o n y of history a n d the j u d g m e n t of s u b -
why we should c u l t i v a t e t h o u g h t s t h a t can s e q u e n t g e n e r a t i o n s . T h e m y t h that took
never be p r o v e d . It is t h a t they a r e k n o w n to possession of him m a d e h i m s o m e t h i n g g r e a t e r
be useful. M a n positively needs g e n e r a l ideas than a mere craftsman.
and convictions t h a t will give a m e a n i n g to S u c h a m y t h , h o w e v e r , consists of symbols
his life a n d e n a b l e him to find a p l a c e for t h a t h a v e not b e e n i n v e n t e d consciously. T h e y
himself in the universe. H e c a n s t a n d t h e most h a v e h a p p e n e d . It was not the m a n J e s u s
incredible h a r d s h i p s w h e n he is c o n v i n c e d that w h o c r e a t e d the m y t h of the g o d - m a n . It
they m a k e sense; he is c r u s h e d w h e n , on t o p existed for m a n y c e n t u r i e s before his b i r t h .
of all his misfortunes, h e has to a d m i t t h a t he H e himself was seized by this s y m b o l i c idea,
is taking p a r t in a " t a l e told by a n i d i o t . " w h i c h , as St. M a r k tells us, lifted h i m o u t of
It is the role of religious symbols to give a the n a r r o w life of t h e N a z a r e n e c a r p e n t e r .
meaning to the life of m a n . T h e P u e b l o
Indians believe t h a t they a r e t h e sons of
Father S u n , a n d this belief e n d o w s their life
with a perspective ( a n d a goal) t h a t goes far
beyond their limited existence. It gives t h e m
ample space for the unfolding of personality
and p e r m i t s t h e m a full life as c o m p l e t e
persons. T h e i r plight is infinitely m o r e satis-
factory t h a n t h a t of a m a n in o u r o w n civiliza-
tion w h o knows t h a t he is ( a n d will r e m a i n )
nothing m o r e t h a n a n u n d e r d o g with n o i n n e r
meaning to his life.
A sense of a w i d e r m e a n i n g to one's exist-
ence is w h a t raises a m a n b e y o n d m e r e g e t t i n g
and s p e n d i n g . If he lacks this sense, he is
lost and miserable. H a d St. Paul been con-
vinced t h a t he was n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n a

Left, the burial c o f f i n of a S o u t h


American C a y a p a s I n d i a n . T h e d e a d
man is p r o v i d e d w i t h f o o d a n d
c l o t h i n g for his life after d e a t h .
Religious s y m b o l s a n d beliefs of e v e r y
kind give m e a n i n g t o m e n ' s lives
ancient p e o p l e s g r i e v e d o v e r d e a t h
(right, an E g y p t i a n f i g u r i n e
representing m o u r n i n g , w h i c h w a s
f o u n d in a t o m b ) ; y e t t h e i r b e l i e f s
made t h e m also t h i n k of d e a t h as a
positive t r a n s f o r m a t i o n .
M y t h s go back to the p r i m i t i v e storyteller
a n d his d r e a m s , to m e n m o v e d by the stirring
of their fantasies. T h e s e p e o p l e w e r e not very
different from those w h o m later g e n e r a t i o n s
h a v e called poets or p h i l o s o p h e r s . P r i m i t i v e
storytellers did not c o n c e r n themselves with
the origin of t h e i r fantasies; it was very m u c h
later t h a t p e o p l e b e g a n to w o n d e r w h e r e a
story o r i g i n a t e d . Vet. c e n t u r i e s a g o , in w h a t
we now call "ancient"" G r e e c e , m e n ' s m i n d s
w e r e a d v a n c e d e n o u g h t o surmise that the
tales of the gods were n o t h i n g but a r c h a i c
a n d e x a g g e r a t e d t r a d i t i o n s o f l o n g - b u r i e d kings
or chieftains. M e n a l r e a d y t o o k t h e view that
the m y t h was too i m p r o b a b l e to m e a n what it
said. T h e y therefore tried to r e d u c e it to a
g e n e r a l l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e form.
In m o r e recent times, we h a v e seen the s a m e
thing h a p p e n with d r e a m s y m b o l i s m . W e
b e c a m e a w a r e , in the years w h e n psychology
was in its infancy, that d r e a m s h a d some
i m p o r t a n c e . But j u s t as the G r e e k s p e r s u a d e d
themselves t h a t t h e i r m y t h s w e r e m e r e l y e l a b -
o r a t i o n s of r a t i o n a l or " n o r m a l " history, so
some of the pioneers of psychology c a m e to the
conclusion t h a t d r e a m s did not m e a n w h a t they
a p p e a r e d to m e a n . T h e i m a g e s or symbols t h a t
they p r e s e n t e d w e r e dismissed as b i z a r r e forms
in w h i c h repressed c o n t e n t s o f the psyche
a p p e a r e d to the c o n s c i o u s m i n d . It thus c a m e
to be t a k e n for g r a n t e d t h a t a d r e a m m e a n t
s o m e t h i n g o t h e r t h a n its o b v i o u s s t a t e m e n t .
I h a v e a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d my d i s a g r e e m e n t
with this idea a d i s a g r e e m e n t t h a t led m c
to s t u d y the form as well as the c o n t e n t of
d r e a m s . W h y should they m e a n s o m e t h i n g
different from their c o n t e n t s ? Is t h e r e a n y -
A b o v e , a c h i l d ' s d r a w i n g of a tree
t h i n g in n a t u r e t h a t is o t h e r t h a n it is? T h e ( w i t h t h e s u n a b o v e i t ) . A tree is
d r e a m is a n o r m a l a n d n a t u r a l p h e n o m e n o n , o n e of t h e best e x a m p l e s of a m o t i f
t h a t o f t e n a p p e a r s in d r e a m s ( a n d
a n d it does not m e a n s o m e t h i n g it is not. T h e
e l s e w h e r e ) a n d t h a t c a n have an
T a l m u d even s a y s : " T h e d r e a m is its o w n i n c r e d i b l e v a r i e t y o f m e a n i n g s . It
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . " T h e confusion arises b e c a u s e might symbolize evolution, physical
g r o w t h , or p s y c h o l o g i c a l m a t u r a t i o n ;
the d r e a m ' s c o n t e n t s a r e s y m b o l i c a n d thus it m i g h t s y m b o l i z e s a c r i f i c e or
h a v e m o r e t h a n o n e m e a n i n g . T h e symbols death (Christ's crucifixion on the
t r e e ) ; it m i g h t be a p h a l l i c s y m b o l ;
point in different directions from those we it m i g h t be a great deal m o r e . A n d
a p p r e h e n d with the conscious m i n d ; a n d t h e r e - such other c o m m o n dream motifs
as t h e cross ( r i g h t ) or t h e lingam
fore they r e l a t e to s o m e t h i n g either u n c o n s c i o u s
(far r i g h t ) c a n also have a vast
or at least not entirely conscious. array of s y m b o l i c m e a n i n g s .

'I"
T o the scientific m i n d , such p h e n o m e n a as h a r d facts, irrespective of his ability to formu-
symbolic ideas a r e a n u i s a n c e b e c a u s e they late t h e m in intellectual terms. It is. therefore,
c a n n o t be f o r m u l a t e d in a w a y t h a t is satis- epiite n a t u r a l t h a t p e o p l e w h o h a v e not had the
factory to intellect a n d logic. T h e y a r e by no m e d i c a l psychologist's e x p e r i e n c e find it diffi-
m e a n s the only case of this kind in psychology. cult to follow w h a t h a p p e n s w h e n psychology
T h e t r o u b l e begins with the p h e n o m e n o n of ceases to be a t r a n q u i l pursuit for the scientist
"affect" or e m o t i o n , w h i c h evades all the in his l a b o r a t o r y a n d b e c o m e s a n active p a r t
a t t e m p t s of the psychologist to pin it d o w n of the a d v e n t u r e of real life. Target p r a c t i c e
with a final definition. T h e cause of t h e diffi- on a s h o o t i n g r a n g e is far from the battlefield;
culty is the s a m e in b o t h cases the i n t e r v e n - the d o c t o r has to deal with casualties in a
tion of the unconscious. g e n u i n e w a r . H e must c o n c e r n himself with
I know e n o u g h of the scientific point of psychic realities, even if he c a n n o t e m b o d y
view to u n d e r s t a n d t h a t it is most a n n o y i n g to t h e m in scientific definitions. T h a t is w h y no
have to d e a l with facts t h a t c a n n o t b e c o m - textbook can teach p s y c h o l o g y ; one learns only
pletely or a d e q u a t e l y g r a s p e d . T h e t r o u b l e with by a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e .
these p h e n o m e n a is t h a t the facts a r e u n - W e c a n see this point clearly w h e n we
d e n i a b l e a n d yet c a n n o t be f o r m u l a t e d in examine certain well-known symbols:
intellectual t e r m s . F o r this o n e w o u l d h a v e to be T h e cross in t h e C h r i s t i a n religion, for in-
able to c o m p r e h e n d life itself, for it is life t h a t s t a n c e , is a m e a n i n g f u l s y m b o l t h a t expresses
p r o d u c e s e m o t i o n s a n d symbolic ideas. a m u l t i t u d e of aspects, ideas, a n d e m o t i o n s :
T h e a c a d e m i c psychologist is perfectly free b u t a cross after a n a m e on a list simply indi-
to dismiss the p h e n o m e n o n of e m o t i o n or the cates t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l is d e a d . T h e p h a l l u s
concept of the u n c o n s c i o u s (or b o t h ) from his functions as a n a l l - e m b r a c i n g s y m b o l in the
consideration. Yet they r e m a i n facts to w h i c h H i n d u religion, but if a street u r c h i n d r a w s
the m e d i c a l psychologist at least has to p a y o n e on a wall, it just reflects an interest in his
d u e a t t e n t i o n ; for e m o t i o n a l conflicts a n d the penis. Because infantile a n d adolescent fan-
intervention of the unconscious a r e the classical tasies often c o n t i n u e far into a d u l t life, m a n y
features of his science. If he treats a p a t i e n t at d r e a m s o c c u r in which t h e r e are u n m i s t a k a b l e
all, he comes u p against these irrationalities as sexual allusions. It w o u l d be a b s u r d to u n d e r -

9i
s t a n d t h e m as a n y t h i n g else. But w h e n a m a s o n o p i n i o n is t h a t they a r e chiefly v a l u a b l e to
speaks of m o n k s a n d n u n s to be laid u p o n poets a n d artists ( t h a t in " s e n s i b l e " m a t t e r s o n e
each o t h e r , or a n electrician of m a l e plugs a n d s h o u l d mistrust t h e m ) , they a r e in fact e q u a l l y
female sockets, it w o u l d be l u d i c r o u s to vital in all t h e h i g h e r g r a d e s of science. H e r e
suppose t h a t he is i n d u l g i n g in g l o w i n g adoles- t h e y play a n increasingly i m p o r t a n t role, w h i c h
cent fantasies. H e is simply using colorful s u p p l e m e n t s t h a t of t h e " r a t i o n a l " intellect a n d
descriptive n a m e s for his m a t e r i a l s . W h e n an its a p p l i c a t i o n to a specific p r o b l e m . E v e n
e d u c a t e d H i n d u talks to you a b o u t t h e lin- physics, t h e strictest of all a p p l i e d sciences,
g a m (the p h a l l u s t h a t represents t h e god Siva d e p e n d s to a n a s t o n i s h i n g d e g r e e u p o n intui-
in H i n d u m y t h o l o g y ) , you will h e a r things tion, w h i c h works by w a y of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s
we W e s t e r n e r s w o u l d n e v e r c o n n e c t w i t h the ( a l t h o u g h it is possible to d e m o n s t r a t e after-
penis. T h e l i n g a m is certainly n o t a n obscene w a r d t h e logical p r o c e d u r e s t h a t could h a v e
allusion; n o r is the cross m e r e l y a sign of led o n e to t h e s a m e result as i n t u i t i o n ) .
d e a t h . M u c h d e p e n d s u p o n t h e m a t u r i t y of I n t u i t i o n is a l m o s t i n d i s p e n s a b l e in t h e in-
the d r e a m e r w h o p r o d u c e s such a n i m a g e . t e r p r e t a t i o n of symbols, a n d it c a n often e n s u r e
T h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of d r e a m s a n d symbols t h a t t h e y a r e i m m e d i a t e l y u n d e r s t o o d by the
d e m a n d s intelligence. It c a n n o t be t u r n e d into d r e a m e r . But while such a lucky h u n c h m a y be
a m e c h a n i c a l system a n d t h e n c r a m m e d i n t o subjectively c o n v i n c i n g , it c a n also be r a t h e r
u n i m a g i n a t i v e b r a i n s . It d e m a n d s b o t h a n d a n g e r o u s . It c a n so easily lead to a false
i n c r e a s i n g k n o w l e d g e of t h e d r e a m e r ' s indi- feeling of security. I t m a y , for i n s t a n c e , seduce
v i d u a l i t y a n d a n i n c r e a s i n g self-awareness b o t h t h e i n t e r p r e t e r a n d t h e d r e a m e r into
on t h e p a r t of t h e i n t e r p r e t e r . N o e x p e r i e n c e d c o n t i n u i n g a cosy a n d relatively easy r e l a t i o n ,
w o r k e r in this field will d e n y t h a t t h e r e a r e w h i c h m a y e n d in a sort of s h a r e d d r e a m .
rules of t h u m b t h a t c a n p r o v e helpful, b u t they T h e safe basis of real intellectual k n o w l e d g e
m u s t be a p p l i e d with p r u d e n c e a n d intelligence. a n d m o r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g gets lost if o n e is
O n e m a y follow all t h e right rules a n d yet get c o n t e n t w i t h t h e v a g u e satisfaction of h a v i n g
bogged d o w n in t h e most a p p a l l i n g nonsense, understood by " h u n c h . " O n e can explain and
simply by o v e r l o o k i n g a seemingly u n i m p o r t a n t k n o w only if o n e has r e d u c e d i n t u i t i o n s to a n
detail t h a t a b e t t e r intelligence w o u l d n o t h a v e exact k n o w l e d g e of facts a n d their logical
missed. Even a m a n of high intellect c a n go connections.
b a d l y a s t r a y for lack of i n t u i t i o n or feeling. An honest i n v e s t i g a t o r will h a v e to a d m i t
W h e n we a t t e m p t to u n d e r s t a n d symbols, t h a t he c a n n o t always d o this, b u t it w o u l d
we a r e not only confronted with t h e symbol be dishonest n o t to keep it a l w a y s in m i n d .
itself, b u t we a r e b r o u g h t u p a g a i n s t the Even a scientist is a h u m a n b e i n g . So it is
wholeness of t h e s y m b o l - p r o d u c i n g i n d i v i d u a l . n a t u r a l for h i m , like o t h e r s , to h a t e t h e things
T h i s includes a study of his c u l t u r a l back- he c a n n o t e x p l a i n . It is a c o m m o n illusion to
g r o u n d , a n d in t h e process o n e fills in m a n y believe t h a t w h a t w e k n o w t o d a y is all we
gaps in one's o w n e d u c a t i o n . I h a v e m a d e it ever c a n k n o w . N o t h i n g is m o r e v u l n e r a b l e
a rule myself to consider every case as a n t h a n scientific t h e o r y , w h i c h is a n e p h e m e r a l
entirely n e w p r o p o s i t i o n a b o u t w h i c h I d o a t t e m p t to e x p l a i n facts a n d n o t a n everlasting
not even k n o w t h e A B C . R o u t i n e responses t r u t h in itself.
m a y be p r a c t i c a l a n d useful while o n e is deal-
ing with the surface, b u t as soon as o n e gets Ancient mythological beings are
in touch with t h e vital p r o b l e m s , life itself now curiosities in museums (right).
But the archetypes they expressed
takes over a n d even t h e most b r i l l i a n t t h e o r e t i -
have not lost their power to affect
cal premises b e c o m e ineffectual w o r d s . men's minds. Perhaps the monsters
of modern "horror" films (far right)
I m a g i n a t i o n a n d i n t u i t i o n a r e vital to o u r are distorted versions of archetypes
u n d e r s t a n d i n g . A n d t h o u g h t h e usual p o p u l a r that will no longer be repressed.

9 2
The role of symbols

W h e n the m e d i c a l psychologist takes a n inter- a n d vital forces in the b u i l d i n g u p of h u m a n


est in symbols, he is p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d with society; a n d they c a n n o t be e r a d i c a t e d w i t h o u t
" n a t u r a l " symbols, as distinct from " c u l t u r a l " serious loss. W h e r e they a r e repressed or neg-
symbols. T h e former a r e d e r i v e d from the lected, their specific cnergv d i s a p p e a r s into the
unconscious c o n t e n t s of the p s y c h e , a n d they u n c o n s c i o u s with u n a c c o u n t a b l e c o n s e q u e n c e s .
therefore r e p r e s e n t a n e n o r m o u s n u m b e r of T h e psychic e n e r g y t h a t a p p e a r s to h a v e been
variations on the essential a r c h e t y p a l images. lost in this w a y in fact serves to revive a n d in-
In m a n y cases they c a n still be t r a c e d back tensify w h a t e v e r is u p p e r m o s t in the u n c o n -
to their a r c h a i c roots i.e. to ideas a n d i m a g e s scious t e n d e n c i e s , p e r h a p s , t h a t h a v e h i t h e r t o
that we meet in the most a n c i e n t records a n d h a d no c h a n c e to express themselves or at least
in p r i m i t i v e societies. T h e c u l t u r a l symbols, on h a v e not been allowed a n u n i n h i b i t e d existence
the o t h e r h a n d , a r e those t h a t h a v e b e e n in o u r consciousness.
used to express " e t e r n a l t r u t h s , " a n d t h a t a r e S u c h t e n d e n c i e s form a n e v e r - p r e s e n t a n d
still used in m a n y religions. T h e y h a v e g o n e p o t e n t i a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e " s h a d o w " to o u r con-
t h r o u g h m a n y t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s a n d even a long scious m i n d . Even t e n d e n c i e s t h a t m i g h t in
process of m o r e or less conscious d e v e l o p m e n t , some c i r c u m s t a n c e s be a b l e to exert a beneficial
and h a v e t h u s b e c o m e collective images influence a r e t r a n s f o r m e d into d e m o n s w h e n
accepted by civilized societies. they a r e repressed. T h i s is w h y m a n y well-
S u c h c u l t u r a l symbols nevertheless retain m e a n i n g p e o p l e a r e u n d e r s t a n d a b l y afraid of
m u c h of their original n u m i n o s i t y or " s p e l l . " the unconscious, a n d i n c i d e n t a l l y of psychology.
O n e is a w a r e t h a t they c a n evoke a d e e p e m o - O u r times h a v e d e m o n s t r a t e d w h a t it m e a n s
tional response in s o m e i n d i v i d u a l s , a n d this for the gates of the u n d e r w o r l d to be o p e n e d .
psychic c h a n g e m a k e s t h e m function in m u c h Things whose e n o r m i t y n o b o d y could h a v e
the s a m e w a y as prejudices. T h e y a r e a factor i m a g i n e d in the idyllic harmlessness of the first
with w h i c h the psychologist must r e c k o n ; it is d e c a d e of o u r c e n t u r y h a v e h a p p e n e d a n d h a v e
folly to dismiss t h e m b e c a u s e , in r a t i o n a l t e r m s , t u r n e d o u r world upside d o w n . E v e r since, the
they seem to be a b s u r d or i r r e l e v a n t . T h e y a r e world has r e m a i n e d in a state of s c h i z o p h r e n i a .
i m p o r t a n t c o n s t i t u e n t s of o u r m e n t a l m a k e - u p Not only has civilized G e r m a n y disgorged its

93
terrible p r i m i t i v i t y , but Russia is also ruled by is m a n ' s strongest w e a p o n ) , b u t u n f o r t u n a t e l y
it, a n d Africa has b e e n set on fire. N o w o n d e r m a n y believers seem to b e so afraid of science
t h a t t h e W e s t e r n world feels uneasy. ( a n d i n c i d e n t a l l y of psychology) that they t u r n
M o d e r n m a n does not u n d e r s t a n d h o w m u c h a blind eye to the n u m i n o u s psychic powers
his " r a t i o n a l i s m " (which h a s d e s t r o y e d his c a p a - t h a t forever control m a n ' s fate. W e h a v e strip-
city to respond to n u m i n o u s symbols a n d ideas I ped all things of their mystery a n d n u m i n o s i t y :
has put him at the m e r c y of the psychic n o t h i n g is holy a n y longer.
" u n d e r w o r l d . " H e has freed himself frqm I n earlier ages, as instinctive c o n c e p t s welled
" s u p e r s t i t i o n " ( o r s o h e believes), but in the p r o - u p in the m i n d of m a n , his conscious m i n d
cess he has lost his spiritual values to a positively could no d o u b t i n t e g r a t e t h e m into a c o h e r e n t
d a n g e r o u s d e g r e e . His m o r a l a n d spiritual t r a d i - psychic p a t t e r n . But the " c i v i l i z e d " m a n is no
tion has d i s i n t e g r a t e d , a n d he is now p a y i n g longer a b l e to d o this. His " a d v a n c e d " con-
the price for this b r e a k - u p in w o r l d - w i d e dis- sciousness has d e p r i v e d itself of t h e m e a n s by
o r i e n t a t i o n a n d dissociation. w h i c h the auxiliary c o n t r i b u t i o n s of the in-
A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s h a v e often described w h a t stincts a n d the unconscious can be assimilated.
h a p p e n s to a p r i m i t i v e society w h e n its spiritual These o r g a n s of assimilation a n d i n t e g r a t i o n
values a r e exposed to t h e i m p a c t of m o d e r n were n u m i n o u s symbols, held holy by c o m m o n
civilization. Its p e o p l e lose the m e a n i n g of their consent.
lives, theirsocial o r g a n i z a t i o n d i s i n t e g r a t e s , a n d T o d a y , for i n s t a n c e , we talk of " m a t t e r . " W e
they themselves m o r a l l y d e c a y . W e are now in describe its physical p r o p e r t i e s . W e c o n d u c t
the s a m e c o n d i t i o n . But we h a v e never really l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t s to d e m o n s t r a t e some ol
u n d e r s t o o d w h a t we h a v e lost, for o u r spiritual its aspects. But the word " m a t t e r " r e m a i n s a
leaders u n f o r t u n a t e l y w e r e m o r e interested in d r y , i n h u m a n , a n d purely intellectual c o n c e p t ,
p r o t e c t i n g their institutions t h a n in u n d e r s t a n d - w i t h o u t a n y psychic significance for us. How
ing the mystery t h a t symbols present. In m y different was the former i m a g e of m a t t e r the
o p i n i o n , faith docs not e x c l u d e t h o u g h t (which Great Mother that could e n c o m p a s s a n d cx-

94
press the p r o f o u n d e m o t i o n a l m e a n i n g of This e n o r m o u s loss is c o m p e n s a t e d for by
M o t h e r E a r t h . In t h e s a m e w a y , w h a t was the the symbols of o u r d r e a m s . T h e y b r i n g u p o u r
spirit is n o w identified w i t h intellect a n d thus original n a t u r e its instincts a n d p e c u l i a r
ceases to be the F a t h e r of All. It has d e g e n - t h i n k i n g . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , h o w e v e r , they express
erated to the limited e g o - t h o u g h t s of m a n ; the their c o n t e n t s in the l a n g u a g e of n a t u r e , w h i c h
immense e m o t i o n a l e n e r g y expressed in the is s t r a n g e a n d i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e to us. It t h e r e -
image of " o u r F a t h e r " vanishes into the sand fore confronts us with the task of t r a n s l a t i n g it
of an intellectual desert. into the r a t i o n a l w o r d s a n d c o n c e p t s of m o d e r n
T h e s e t w o a r c h e t y p a l principles lie at the speech, w h i c h has l i b e r a t e d itself from its p r i m i -
foundation of the c o n t r a s t i n g systems of East tive e n c u m b r a n c e s n o t a b l y from its mystical
and West. T h e masses a n d t h e i r leaders d o not p a r t i c i p a t i o n with the things it describes. N o w -
realize, h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e r e is n o s u b s t a n t i a l a d a y s , w h e n we talk of ghosts a n d o t h e r n u m i -
difference b e t w e e n c a l l i n g the world p r i n c i p l e nous figures, we a r e n o l o n g e r c o n j u r i n g t h e m
male a n d a father (spirit), as the West does, or u p . 'The p o w e r as well as t h e glory is d r a i n e d
female a n d a m o t h e r ( m a t t e r ) , as t h e C o m - out of such o n c e - p o t e n t w o r d s . W e h a v e ceased
munists d o . Essentially, we k n o w as little of the to believe in m a g i c f o r m u l a s ; not m a n y taboos
one as of the o t h e r . In earlier times, these p r i n - a n d similar restrictions a r e left; a n d o u r world
ciples w e r e w o r s h i p e d in all sorts of rituals, seems to be disinfected of all such " s u p e r s t i -
which at least s h o w e d the psychic significance t i o u s " m i n i m a as " w i t c h e s , warlocks, a n d wor-
they held for m a n . But n o w they h a v e b e c o m e r i c o w s , " to say n o t h i n g ol werewolves, v a m p i r e s ,
mere a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t s . bush souls, a n d all the o t h e r b i z a r r e beings that
As scientific u n d e r s t a n d i n g has g r o w n , so o u r p o p u l a t e d the p r i m e v a l forest.
world has b e c o m e d e h u m a n i z e d . M a n feels h i m - T o be m o r e a c c u r a t e , the surface of o u r
self isolated in the cosmos, b e c a u s e he is n o world seems to be cleansed ol all superstitious
longer involved in n a t u r e a n d has lost his e m o - a n d i r r a t i o n a l e l e m e n t s . W h e t h e r , however, the
tional " u n c o n s c i o u s i d e n t i t y " with n a t u r a l p h e - real inner h u m a n w o r l d mil inn wish-fullilling
n o m e n a . These h a v e slowly lost t h e i r symbolic
implications. T h u n d e r is n o l o n g e r the voice of
an a n g r y god, n o r is l i g h t n i n g his a v e n g i n g
missile. N o river c o n t a i n s a spirit, no tree is
the life p r i n c i p l e of a m a n , n o s n a k e the e m b o d i -
ment of w i s d o m , no m o u n t a i n cave the h o m e
of a great d e m o n . No voices now speak to
man from stones, p l a n t s , a n d a n i m a l s , n o r does
he speak to t h e m believing they can h e a r . His
contact with n a t u r e has g o n e , a n d with it has
gone the p r o f o u n d e m o t i o n a l e n e r g y that this
symbolic c o n n e c t i o n s u p p l i e d .

Repressed u n c o n s c i o u s c o n t e n t s c a n
erupt d e s t r u c t i v e l y in the f o r m of
negative e m o t i o n s as in W o r l d W a r
II Far left, J e w i s h p r i s o n e r s in
W a r s a w after the 1 9 4 3 u p r i s i n g ;
left, f o o t w e a r of t h e d e a d s t a c k e d
at A u s c h w i t z .

Right, A u s t r a l i a n a b o r i g i n e s w h o
have d i s i n t e g r a t e d s i n c e t h e y lost
their r e l i g i o u s beliefs t h r o u g h
contact w i t h c i v i l i z a t i o n T h i s t r i b e
now numbers only a few hundred

95
fiction a b o u t it) is also freed from p r i m i t i v i t y e m o t i o n s . O n e can speak of a n a r c h e t y p e only
is a n o t h e r q u e s t i o n . Is the n u m b e r 13 n o t still w h e n these two aspects a r e s i m u l t a n e o u s . W h e n
t a b o o for m a n y p e o p l e ? A r e t h e r e not still t h e r e is m e r e l y the i m a g e , t h e n t h e r e is simply
m a n y i n d i v i d u a l s possessed by i r r a t i o n a l preju- a w o r d - p i c t u r e of little c o n s e q u e n c e . But by
dices, projections, a n d childish illusions? A rea- b e i n g c h a r g e d w i t h e m o t i o n , t h e i m a g e gains
listic p i c t u r e of the h u m a n m i n d reveals m a n y n u m i n o s i t y (or psychic e n e r g y ) ; it b e c o m e s
such p r i m i t i v e traits a n d survivals, w h i c h a r e d y n a m i c , a n d c o n s e q u e n c e s of some kind m u s t
still p l a y i n g their roles just as if n o t h i n g h a d flow from it.
h a p p e n e d d u r i n g the last 500 years. I a m a w a r e t h a t it is difficult to g r a s p this
It is essential to a p p r e c i a t e this p o i n t . M o d e r n c o n c e p t , b e c a u s e I a m t r y i n g to use w o r d s to
m a n is in fact a c u r i o u s m i x t u r e of c h a r a c t e r i s - describe s o m e t h i n g whose very n a t u r e m a k e s it
tics a c q u i r e d over the long ages of his m e n t a l i n c a p a b l e of precise definition. But since so
d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s m i x e d - u p b e i n g is the m a n m a n y p e o p l e h a v e chosen to t r e a t a r c h e t y p e s
a n d his symbols t h a t we h a v e to d e a l w i t h , a n d as if they w e r e p a r t of a m e c h a n i c a l system
we must scrutinize his m e n t a l p r o d u c t s very t h a t c a n be l e a r n e d by rote, it is essential to
carefully i n d e e d . Skepticism a n d scientific con- insist t h a t they are not m e r e n a m e s , or even
viction exist in h i m side by side w i t h old-fash- p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n c e p t s . T h e y a r e pieces of life
ioned prejudices, o u t d a t e d h a b i t s of t h o u g h t itself- i m a g e s t h a t a r e i n t e g r a l l y c o n n e c t e d to
a n d feeling, o b s t i n a t e m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , a n d the living i n d i v i d u a l by the b r i d g e of the
blind i g n o r a n c e . e m o t i o n s . T h a t is w h y it is impossible to give
S u c h are the c o n t e m p o r a r y h u m a n beings a n a r b i t r a r y (or universal) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a n y
w h o p r o d u c e the symbols we psychologists in- a r c h e t y p e . It m u s t be e x p l a i n e d in the m a n n e r
vestigate. In o r d e r to e x p l a i n these symbols i n d i c a t e d by the w h o l e life-situation of the p a r -
a n d their m e a n i n g , it is vital to l e a r n w h e t h e r ticular i n d i v i d u a l to w h o m it relates.
their r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s are r e l a t e d to p u r e l y per- T h u s , in the case of a d e v o u t C h r i s t i a n , the
sonal e x p e r i e n c e , or w h e t h e r they h a v e b e e n s y m b o l of the cross can b e i n t e r p r e t e d only in
chosen by a d r e a m for its p a r t i c u l a r p u r p o s e its C h r i s t i a n c o n t e x t unless the d r e a m p r o -
from a store of g e n e r a l conscious k n o w l e d g e . duces a very s t r o n g reason to look b e y o n d it.
T a k e , for i n s t a n c e , a d r e a m in w h i c h the E v e n t h e n , the specific C h r i s t i a n m e a n i n g
n u m b e r 13 occurs. T h e q u e s t i o n is w h e t h e r the should be k e p t in m i n d . But o n e c a n n o t say
d r e a m e r himself h a b i t u a l l y believes in the u n - t h a t , at all times a n d in all c i r c u m s t a n c e s , the
lucky q u a l i t y of the n u m b e r , or w h e t h e r the symbol of the cross has the s a m e m e a n i n g . If
d r e a m m e r e l y alludes to p e o p l e w h o still in- t h a t w e r e so, it w o u l d b e s t r i p p e d of its n u m i n -
d u l g e in such superstitions. T h e a n s w e r m a k e s osity, lose its vitality, a n d b e c o m e a m e r e w o r d .
a g r e a t difference to the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . I n the T h o s e w h o d o not realize the special feeling
former case, you h a v e to reckon w i t h t h e fact t o n e of the a r c h e t y p e e n d w i t h n o t h i n g m o r e
t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l is still u n d e r the spell of the t h a n a j u m b l e of m y t h o l o g i c a l concepts, w h i c h
u n l u c k y 13, a n d therefore will feel most u n - c a n be s t r u n g t o g e t h e r to show t h a t e v e r y t h i n g
c o m f o r t a b l e in R o o m 13 in a hotel or sitting m e a n s a n y t h i n g or n o t h i n g at all. All the
at a t a b l e w i t h 13 p e o p l e . I n t h e l a t t e r case, 13 corpses in the w o r l d a r e c h e m i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l ,
m a y not m e a n a n y m o r e t h a n a d i s c o u r t e o u s or b u t living i n d i v i d u a l s a r e not. A r c h e t y p e s c o m e
abusive r e m a r k . T h e " s u p e r s t i t i o u s " d r e a m e r to life only w h e n o n e p a t i e n t l y tries to discover
still feels the " s p e l l " of 1 3 ; t h e m o r e " r a t i o n a l " w h y a n d in w h a t fashion they a r e m e a n i n g f u l
d r e a m e r has s t r i p p e d 13 of its original e m o - to a living i n d i v i d u a l .
tional o v e r t o n e s . T h e m e r e use of w o r d s is futile w h e n you d o
T h i s a r g u m e n t illustrates the w a y in w h i c h not k n o w w h a t they s t a n d for. T h i s is p a r t i c u -
a r c h e t y p e s a p p e a r in p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e : larly t r u e in psychology, w h e r e we speak of a r c h e -
T h e y a r e , at the s a m e t i m e , b o t h i m a g e s a n d types such as the a n i m a a n d a n i m u s , the wise

96
The ancient Chinese connected the
m o o n w i t h the goddess K w a n - Y i n
(pictured above) Other societies
h a v e p e r s o n i f i e d t h e m o o n as a
divinity. A n d t h o u g h modern space
f l i g h t has p r o v e d t h a t t h e m o o n is
o n l y a c r a t e r e d ball of dirt ( l e f t ) ,
w e have r e t a i n e d s o m e t h i n g of t h e
a r c h e t y p a l a t t i t u d e in o u r f a m i l i a r
a s s o c i a t i o n of t h e m o o n w i t h l o v e
and romance

97
In a c h i l d ' s u n c o n s c i o u s w e c a n see
t h e p o w e r ( a n d u n i v e r s a l i t y ) of
archetypal symbols A seven-year-
old's painting (left) a huge sun
d r i v i n g a w a y b l a c k birds, d e m o n s
of t h e n i g h t h a s t h e f l a v o r of a
true m y t h C h i l d r e n at p l a y ( r i g h t )
s p o n t a n e o u s l y d a n c e in as n a t u r a l
a f o r m of s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n as t h e
c e r e m o n i a l d a n c e s of p r i m i t i v e s .
A n c i e n t f o l k l o r e still exists in
c h i l d r e n ' s " r i t u a l " b e l i e f s : For
i n s t a n c e , c h i l d r e n all o v e r B r i t a i n
( a n d e l s e w h e r e ) b e l i e v e it is l u c k y
to see a w h i t e h o r s e w h i c h is a
w e l l - k n o w n s y m b o l of life A C e l t i c
g o d d e s s of c r e a t i v i t y , E p o n a , s h o w n
(far r i g h t ) r i d i n g a horse, w a s o f t e n
p e r s o n i f i e d as a w h i t e m a r e .

m a n . the G r e a t M o t h e r , a n d so o n . You c a n these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that the symbols of d r e a m s


know all a b o u t the saints, sages, p r o p h e t s , a n d c o n s t a n t l y refer, as if the u n c o n s c i o u s sought to
o t h e r godly m e n , a n d all the great m o t h e r s of b r i n g back all the old things from which the
the world. But if they a r e m e r e i m a g e s whose m i n d freed itself as it evolved illusions, fanta-
n u m i n o s i t y you h a v e never e x p e r i e n c e d , it will sies, a r c h a i c t h o u g h t forms, f u n d a m e n t a l in-
be as if you w e r e t a l k i n g in a d r e a m , for you stincts, a n d so on.
will not k n o w w h a t you a r e t a l k i n g a b o u t . T h e This is w h a t e x p l a i n s the resistance, even
m e r e w o r d s you use will be e m p t y a n d valueless. fear, t h a t p e o p l e often e x p e r i e n c e in a p p r o a c h -
T h e y g a i n life a n d m e a n i n g only w h e n you ing u n c o n s c i o u s m a t t e r s . T h e s e relict c o n t e n t s
try to take i n t o a c c o u n t their n u m i n o s i t y i.e. a r e not m e r e l y n e u t r a l or indifferent. O n the
their r e l a t i o n s h i p to the living i n d i v i d u a l . O n l y c o n t r a r y , they are so highly c h a r g e d that they
then d o you begin to u n d e r s t a n d that their a r e often m o r e t h a n merely u n c o m f o r t a b l e .
n a m e s m e a n very little, w h e r e a s the way they They can cause real fear. The m o r e they are
are related to you is a l l - i m p o r t a n t . repressed, the m o r e they s p r e a d t h r o u g h the
The s y m b o l - p r o d u c i n g function of o u r whole p e r s o n a l i t y in the form of a neurosis.
d r e a m s is thus a n a t t e m p t to b r i n g the original It is this psychic e n e r g y t h a t gives t h e m such
m i n d of m a n into " a d v a n c e d ' " or differentiated vital i m p o r t a n c e . It is just as if a m a n w h o has
consciousness, w h e r e it has never b e e n before lived t h r o u g h a period of unconsciousness
a n d w h e r e , therefore, it has never b e e n s u b - should s u d d e n l y realize that t h e r e is a g a p in
jected to critical self-reflection. For, in ages long his m e m o r y t h a t i m p o r t a n t events seem to
past, t h a t original m i n d was the w h o l e of m a n ' s h a v e t a k e n p l a c e t h a t he c a n n o t r e m e m b e r . I n
personality. As he d e v e l o p e d consciousness, so so far as he assumes t h a t the psyche is a n ex-
his conscious m i n d lost c o n t a c t with some of clusively personal affair (and this is the usual
t h a t p r i m i t i v e psychic e n e r g y . A n d the consci- a s s u m p t i o n ) , he will try to retrieve the a p p a r -
ous m i n d has n e v e r k n o w n t h a t original m i n d ; ently lost infantile m e m o r i e s . But the gaps in
for it was d i s c a r d e d in the process of evolving his c h i l d h o o d m e m o r y a r e merely the s y m p -
the very differentiated consciousness t h a t a l o n e toms of a m u c h g r e a t e r loss the loss of the
could be a w a r e of it. p r i m i t i v e psyche.
Yet it seems t h a t w h a t we call the u n c o n - As the evolution of the e m b r y o n i c b o d y re-
scious has preserved p r i m i t i v e characteristics peats its p r e h i s t o r y , so the m i n d also develops
that formed p a r t of the original m i n d . It is to t h r o u g h a series of p r e h i s t o r i c stages. The m a i n

98
missing for a long t i m e , that gives p u r p o s e to
a n d thus e n r i c h e s h u m a n life.
T h e recollection of infantile m e m o r i e s a n d
the r e p r o d u c t i o n of a r c h e t y p a l ways of psychic
b e h a v i o r can c r e a t e a w i d e r horizon a n d a
g r e a t e r extension of consciousness on c o n d i -
tion t h a t o n e succeeds in assimilating a n d inte-
g r a t i n g in the conscious m i n d the lost a n d
r e g a i n e d c o n t e n t s . Since they a r c not n e u t r a l ,
their assimilation will modify the personality,
just as they themselves will h a v e to u n d e r g o
c e r t a i n a l t e r a t i o n s . In this p a r t of w h a t is called
" t h e i n d i v i d u a t i o n p r o c e s s " (which Dr. M . - L .
von F r a n z describes in a later section of this
b o o k ) , the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of svmbols plavs a n
i m p o r t a n t p r a c t i c a l role. For the symbols are
n a t u r a l attempts to reconcile a n d u n i t e o p p o -
task of d r e a m s is to b r i n g b a r k a sort b f " r e c o l - sites w i t h i n the psyche.
lection" of the p r e h i s t o r i c , as well as the infan- N a t u r a l l y , just seeing a n d then b r u s h i n g aside
tile world, right d o w n to the level of the most the symbols w o u l d h a v e n o such effect a n d
primitive instincts. S u c h recollections c a n h a v e w o u l d merely re-establish the old n e u r o t i c con-
a r e m a r k a b l y h e a l i n g effect in c e r t a i n cases, as dition a n d destroy the a t t e m p t at a synthesis.
Freud saw long a g o . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n confirms Bttt. u n f o r t u n a t e l y , those r a r e p e o p l e w h o d o
the view that a n infantile m e m o r y g a p (a so- not d e n y the very existence of the a r c h e t y p e s
called amnesia) r e p r e s e n t s a positive loss a n d almost i n v a r i a b l y treat t h e m as m e r e words a n d
its recovery can b r i n g a positive increase in life forget their living reality. W h e n their n u m i n o -
and well-being. sity has thus (illegitimately) been b a n i s h e d , the
Because a child is physically small a n d its process of limitless s u b s t i t u t i o n begins in o t h e r
conscious t h o u g h t s a r e scarce a n d simple, we w o r d s , o n e glides easily from archetype to
do not realize the f a r - r e a c h i n g c o m p l i c a t i o n s ol a r c h e t y p e , with e v e r y t h i n g m e a n i n g every-
the infantile m i n d that a r e based on its original thing. It is t r u e e n o u g h t h a t the forms of a r c h e -
identity with the prehistoric psyche. T h a t types are to a c o n s i d e r a b l e extent e x c h a n g e a b l e .
"original m i n d " is just as m u c h present a n d But their n u m i n o s i t y is a n d r e m a i n s a fact, a n d
still functioning in the child as the e v o l u t i o n a r y represents the value of an a r c h e t y p a l event.
stages of m a n k i n d a r e in its e m b r y o n i c b o d y . T h i s e m o t i o n a l v a l u e must be kept in mind
II the r e a d e r r e m e m b e r s w h a t I said earlier a n d allowed for t h r o u g h o u t the whole intel-
about the r e m a r k a b l e d r e a m s ol the child w h o lectual process of d r e a m i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . It is
made a present of her d r e a m s to her father, he only too easy to lose this v a l u e , because think-
will get a good idea of w h a t 1 m e a n . ing a n d feeling a r e so d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed
In infantile a m n e s i a , o n e f i n d s s t r a n g e m y t h o - that t h i n k i n g almost a u t o m a t i c a l l y throws out
logical fragments that also often a p p e a r in later feeling values a n d vice versa. Psychology is the
psychoses. I m a g e s of this kind are highly n u m i - only science t h a t has to take the factor of value
nous and therefore verv i m p o r t a n t . If such re- (i.e. feeling) into a c c o u n t , because it is the link
collections r e a p p e a r in a d u l t life, they m a y in b e t w e e n physical events a n d life. Psychology
some cases cause profound psychological dis- is often accused of not b e i n g scientific on this
turbance, while in o t h e r people they can p r o - a c c o u n t ; but its critics fail to u n d e r s t a n d the
duce miracles of healing or religious c o n v e r - scientific a n d p r a c t i c a l necessity of giving d u e
sions. Often they b r i n g back a piece of life, c o n s i d e r a t i o n to feeling.

9<)
IOO
Healing the split

O u r intellect has c r e a t e d a n e w w o r l d t h a t t h a t t h e y lead a n i g n o m i n i o u s existence a m o n g


dominates n a t u r e , a n d has p o p u l a t e d it with the relics of o u r past. O u r p r e s e n t lives are
monstrous m a c h i n e s . T h e l a t t e r a r e so i n d u - d o m i n a t e d by the goddess R e a s o n , w h o is o u r
bitably useful t h a t w e c a n n o t see even a possi- greatest a n d most t r a g i c illusion. By the aid of
bility of g e t t i n g rid of t h e m or o u r subservience reason, so we assure ourselves, we h a v e " c o n -
to t h e m . M a n is b o u n d to follow t h e a d v e n t u r - quered nature."
ous p r o m p t i n g s of his scientific a n d i n v e n t i v e But this is a m e r e slogan, for the so-called
mind a n d to a d m i r e himself for his s p l e n d i d c o n q u e s t of n a t u r e o v e r w h e l m s us w i t h the
achievements. At t h e s a m e t i m e , his genius n a t u r a l fact of o v e r p o p u l a t i o n a n d a d d s to o u r
shows the u n c a n n y t e n d e n c y to i n v e n t things t r o u b l e s by o u r psychological i n c a p a c i t y to
that b e c o m e m o r e a n d m o r e d a n g e r o u s , be- m a k e the necessary political a r r a n g e m e n t s . It
cause they r e p r e s e n t b e t t e r a n d b e t t e r m e a n s r e m a i n s q u i t e n a t u r a l for m e n to q u a r r e l a n d
for wholesale suicide. to struggle for s u p e r i o r i t y over o n e a n o t h e r .
In view of the r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g a v a l a n c h e H o w t h e n h a v e we " c o n q u e r e d n a t u r e " ?
of world p o p u l a t i o n , m a n has a l r e a d y b e g u n to As a n y c h a n g e m u s t begin s o m e w h e r e , it is
seek ways a n d m e a n s of k e e p i n g the rising flood the single i n d i v i d u a l w h o will e x p e r i e n c e it a n d
at b a y . But n a t u r e m a y a n t i c i p a t e all o u r c a r r y it t h r o u g h . T h e c h a n g e m u s t i n d e e d b e -
a t t e m p t s by t u r n i n g a g a i n s t m a n his o w n cre- gin with a n i n d i v i d u a l ; it m i g h t be a n y o n e of
ative m i n d . T h e H - b o m b , for i n s t a n c e , w o u l d us. N o b o d y c a n afford to look a r o u n d a n d to
put a n effective stop to o v e r p o p u l a t i o n . I n spite w a i t for s o m e b o d y else to d o w h a t he is l o a t h to
of o u r p r o u d d o m i n a t i o n of n a t u r e , we a r e still d o himself. But since n o b o d y seems to k n o w
her victims, for we h a v e n o t even l e a r n e d to w h a t to d o , it m i g h t b e w o r t h while for e a c h of
control o u r o w n n a t u r e . Slowly b u t , it a p p e a r s , us to ask himself w h e t h e r by a n y c h a n c e his or
inevitably, we a r e c o u r t i n g disaster. her u n c o n s c i o u s m a y k n o w s o m e t h i n g t h a t will
T h e r e a r e n o longer a n y gods w h o m we can h e l p us. C e r t a i n l y the conscious m i n d seems
invoke to h e l p us. T h e g r e a t religions of t h e u n a b l e to d o a n y t h i n g useful in this respect.
world suffer from i n c r e a s i n g a n e m i a , b e c a u s e M a n t o d a y is painfully a w a r e of the fact t h a t
the helpful n u m i n a h a v e fled from t h e woods, n e i t h e r his g r e a t religions n o r his v a r i o u s philo-
rivers, a n d m o u n t a i n s , a n d from a n i m a l s , a n d sophies seem to p r o v i d e h i m w i t h those p o w e r -
the g o d - m e n h a v e d i s a p p e a r e d u n d e r g r o u n d ful a n i m a t i n g ideas t h a t w o u l d give him the
into the u n c o n s c i o u s . T h e r e we fool ourselves security h e needs in face of t h e p r e s e n t c o n d i -
tion of the w o r l d .
I k n o w w h a t the B u d d h i s t s w o u l d s a y :
T h i n g s w o u l d go r i g h t if p e o p l e w o u l d only
follow the " n o b l e eightfold p a t h " of t h e
Dharma ( d o c t r i n e , law) a n d h a d t r u e insight
i n t o the Self T h e C h r i s t i a n tells us t h a t if only
A b o v e left, t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y ' s
pcople h a d faith in G o d , we s h o u l d h a v e a
greatest c i t y N e w Y o r k . B e l o w , b e t t e r w o r l d . T h e rationalist insists t h a t if
the e n d of a n o t h e r c i t y H i r o s h i m a ,
1 9 4 5 . T h o u g h m a n m a y s e e m to h a v e
p e o p l e w e r e intelligent a n d r e a s o n a b l e , all o u r
gained ascendance over nature, p r o b l e m s w o u l d be m a n a g e a b l e . T h e t r o u b l e
Jung always pointed out that man
is t h a t n o n e of t h e m m a n a g e s to solve these
has n o t yet g a i n e d c o n t r o l o v e r
his own n a t u r e . problems himself

IOI
C h r i s t i a n s often ask w h y G o d does not speak I n spite of the fact t h a t the C a t h o l i c C h u r c h
to t h e m , as he is believed to h a v e d o n e in for- a d m i t s the o c c u r r e n c e of somma a Deo missa
m e r days. W h e n I h e a r such questions, it always ( d r e a m s sent by G o d ) , most of its thinkers
makes m e think of the r a b b i w h o was asked m a k e no serious a t t e m p t to u n d e r s t a n d d r e a m s .
h o w it could be t h a t G o d often s h o w e d himself I d o u b t w h e t h e r t h e r e is a P r o t e s t a n t treatise or
to p e o p l e in the olden d a y s w h e r e a s n o w a d a y s d o c t r i n e t h a t w o u l d stoop so low as to a d m i t
n o b o d y ever sees h i m . T h e r a b b i r e p l i e d : the possibility t h a t the vox Dei m i g h t be per-
" N o w a d a y s t h e r e is no longer a n y b o d y w h o ceived in a d r e a m . But if a t h e o l o g i a n really
can b o w low e n o u g h . " believes in G o d , by w h a t a u t h o r i t y does he
T h i s a n s w e r hits the nail on the h e a d . W e suggest t h a t G o d is u n a b l e to speak t h r o u g h
are so c a p t i v a t e d by a n d e n t a n g l e d in o u r s u b - dreams?
jective consciousness t h a t we h a v e forgotten the I h a v e spent m o r e t h a n half a c e n t u r y in
age-old fact t h a t G o d speaks chiefly t h r o u g h i n v e s t i g a t i n g n a t u r a l symbols, a n d I h a v e c o m e
d r e a m s a n d visions. T h e B u d d h i s t discards the to t h e conclusion t h a t d r e a m s a n d their symbols
world of u n c o n s c i o u s fantasies as useless illu- a r e not s t u p i d a n d m e a n i n g l e s s . O n the con-
sions; the C h r i s t i a n p u t s his C h u r c h a n d his t r a r y , d r e a m s p r o v i d e the most i n t e r e s t i n g in-
Bible b e t w e e n himself a n d his u n c o n s c i o u s ; f o r m a t i o n for those w h o take the t r o u b l e to
a n d the r a t i o n a l intellectual does not yet k n o w u n d e r s t a n d their symbols. T h e results, it is true,
t h a t his consciousness is not his total psyche. h a v e little to d o w i t h such w o r l d l y concerns
T h i s i g n o r a n c e persists t o d a y in spite of the as b u y i n g a n d selling. But the m e a n i n g of life
fact that for m o r e t h a n 70 years the u n c o n - is not exhaustively e x p l a i n e d by one's business
scious has been a basic scientific c o n c e p t t h a t life, n o r is the d e e p desire of the h u m a n h e a r t
is i n d i s p e n s a b l e to a n y serious psychological a n s w e r e d by a b a n k a c c o u n t .
investigation. In a p e r i o d of h u m a n history w h e n all avail-
W e c a n no longer afford to be so G o d - able e n e r g y is spent in the investigation of
A l m i g h t y - l i k e as to set ourselves u p as judges n a t u r e , very little a t t e n t i o n is p a i d to the essence
of the merits or d e m e r i t s of n a t u r a l p h e n o m e n a . of m a n , which is his psyche, a l t h o u g h m a n y
W e d o not base o u r b o t a n y u p o n the old- researches a r e m a d e into its conscious functions.
fashioned division into useful a n d useless p l a n t s , But the really c o m p l e x a n d u n f a m i l i a r p a r t of
or o u r zoology u p o n the n a i v e distinction be- the m i n d , from w h i c h symbols are p r o d u c e d ,
tween h a r m l e s s a n d d a n g e r o u s a n i m a l s . But we is still virtually u n e x p l o r e d . It seems almost in-
still c o m p l a c e n t l y assume t h a t consciousness is c r e d i b l e t h a t t h o u g h we receive signals from it
sense a n d the u n c o n s c i o u s is nonsense. I n science every n i g h t , d e c i p h e r i n g these c o m m u n i c a t i o n s
such an a s s u m p t i o n w o u l d be l a u g h e d out of seems too tedious for a n y b u t a very few people
c o u r t . Do m i c r o b e s , for i n s t a n c e , m a k e sense to be b o t h e r e d with it. M a n ' s greatest instru-
or nonsense? m e n t , his psyche, is little t h o u g h t of, a n d it is
W h a t e v e r the u n c o n s c i o u s m a y be, it is a often directly mistrusted a n d despised. " I t ' s
n a t u r a l p h e n o m e n o n p r o d u c i n g symbols t h a t only p s y c h o l o g i c a l " too often m e a n s : It is
p r o v e to be m e a n i n g f u l . W e c a n n o t expect nothing.
s o m e o n e w h o has never looked t h r o u g h a m i c r o - W h e r e , exactly, does this i m m e n s e prejudice
scope to be a n a u t h o r i t y on m i c r o b e s ; in the c o m e from ? W e h a v e obviously b e e n so busy
s a m e w a y , no one w h o has not m a d e a serious with the q u e s t i o n of w h a t we think that we
study of n a t u r a l symbols c a n be c o n s i d e r e d a entirely forget to ask w h a t the unconscious
c o m p e t e n t j u d g e in this m a t t e r . But the g e n e r a l psyche thinks a b o u t us. T h e ideas of S i g m u n d
u n d e r v a l u a t i o n of the h u m a n soul is so g r e a t F r e u d confirmed for most p e o p l e the existing
that n e i t h e r the g r e a t religions n o r the philoso- c o n t e m p t for the psyche. Before h i m it h a d been
phies nor scientific r a t i o n a l i s m h a v e been will- m e r e l y overlooked a n d n e g l e c t e d ; it has n o w
ing to look at it twice. b e c o m e a d u m p for m o r a l refuse.

102
This m o d e r n s t a n d p o i n t is surely one-sided
and unjust. It does not even a c c o r d with the
known facts. O u r a c t u a l k n o w l e d g e of the u n -
conscious shows t h a t it is a n a t u r a l p h e n o m e n o n
and that, like N a t u r e herself, it is at least
neutral. It c o n t a i n s all aspects of h u m a n n a t u r e
light a n d d a r k , beautiful a n d ugly, good a n d
evil, profound a n d silly. T h e study of i n d i v i d u a l ,
as well as of collective, symbolism is a n e n o r -
mous task, a n d o n e t h a t has not yet b e e n m a s t -
ered. But a b e g i n n i n g has been m a d e at last.
The early results a r e e n c o u r a g i n g , a n d they
seem to i n d i c a t e a n a n s w e r to m a n y so far un-
answered questions of p r e s e n t - d a y m a n k i n d .

Above, R e m b r a n d t ' s Philosopher


with an Open Book (1 6 3 3 ) . T h e
i n w a r d - l o o k i n g o l d m a n p r o v i d e s an
image of J u n g ' s belief t h a t e a c h of us
must explore his o w n u n c o n s c i o u s .
The u n c o n s c i o u s m u s t not be i g n o r e d ;
it is as natural, as limitless, a n d
as p o w e r f u l as t h e stars.

io3
2 A n c i e n t m y t h s and m o d e r n m a n

J o s e p h L. H e n d e r s o n

A c e r e m o n i a l m a s k f r o m t h e island of N e w I r e l a n d ( N e w G u i n e a )
Ancient myths and modern man

The eternal symbols

T h e a n c i e n t history of m a n is b e i n g m e a n i n g - is not t r e a t e d as a saint or as a n o r a c l e . It is


fully rediscovered t o d a y in the s y m b o l i c i m a g e s said he is m e n t a l l y d i s t u r b e d . W e read the
a n d m y t h s t h a t h a v e survived a n c i e n t m a n . As m y t h s of the a n c i e n t G r e e k s or the folk stories
archaeologists dig d e e p into the past, it is less of A m e r i c a n I n d i a n s , b u t we fail to see a n y
the events of historical t i m e t h a t we l e a r n to c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e m a n d o u r a t t i t u d e s to
t r e a s u r e t h a n the statues, designs, t e m p l e s , a n d the " h e r o e s " or d r a m a t i c events of t o d a y .
l a n g u a g e s that tell of old beliefs. O t h e r symbols Yet the c o n n e c t i o n s a r e t h e r e . A n d the sym-
are revealed to us by the philologists a n d reli- bols t h a t represent t h e m h a v e not lost their re-
gious historians, w h o c a n t r a n s l a t e these beliefs l e v a n c e for m a n k i n d .
into intelligible m o d e r n c o n c e p t s . T h e s e in t u r n O n e of the m a i n c o n t r i b u t i o n s of" o u r time
are b r o u g h t to life by the c u l t u r a l a n t h r o p o l o - to the u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d r e v a l u i n g of such
gists. T h e y c a n show t h a t the s a m e symbolic e t e r n a l symbols has been m a d e by D r . J u n g ' s
p a t t e r n s c a n be found in the rituals or m y t h s of School of A n a l y t i c a l Psychology. It has helped
small tribal societies still existing, u n c h a n g e d to b r e a k d o w n the a r b i t r a r y distinction b e t w e e n
for c e n t u r i e s , on the outskirts of civilization. p r i m i t i v e m a n . to w h o m symbols seem a n a t u r a l
All such researches h a v e d o n e m u c h to cor- p a r t of e v e r y d a y life, a n d m o d e r n m a n , for
rect the one-sided a t t i t u d e ol those m o d e r n m e n w h o m symbols a r e a p p a r e n t l y meaningless a n d
w h o m a i n t a i n t h a t such symbols b e l o n g to the irrelevant.
peoples of a n t i q u i t y or to " b a c k w a r d " " m o d e r n As Dr. J u n g has p o i n t e d out earlier in this
tribes a n d a r e therefore i r r e l e v a n t to the c o m - book, the h u m a n m i n d has its o w n history a n d
plexities of m o d e r n life. In L o n d o n or N e w the psyche retains traces left from previ-
York we m a y dismiss the fertility rites of neo- ous stages of its d e v e l o p m e n t . M o r e t h a n this,
lithic m a n as a r c h a i c superstition. If a n y o n e the c o n t e n t s of the unconscious exert a forma-
claims to h a v e seen a vision or h e a r d voices, he tive influence on the psyche. Consciously we
-
may ignore t h e m , h u t unconsciously we respond in the d r e a m s of m o d e r n p a t i e n t s a r e n e i t h e r
to t h e m , a n d to the s y m b o l i c forms including trivial n o r a c c i d e n t a l . T h e y exist b e c a u s e the
d r e a m s i n which they express themselves. u n c o n s c i o u s m i n d of m o d e r n m a n preserves the
The i n d i v i d u a l m a y feel t h a t his d r e a m s a r e s y m b o l - m a k i n g c a p a c i t y t h a t o n c e found ex-
spontaneous a n d d i s c o n n e c t e d . But over a long pression in the beliefs a n d rituals of the p r i m i -
period of time the a n a l y s t c a n observe a series tive. A n d t h a t c a p a c i t y still plays a role of vital
of d r e a m i m a g e s a n d n o t e t h a t they h a v e a psychic i m p o r t a n c e . In m o r e ways t h a n we re-
meaningful p a t t e r n ; a n d by u n d e r s t a n d i n g this alize, we a r e d e p e n d e n t on the messages that
his patient m a y e v e n t u a l l y a c q u i r e a new a t t i - a r e c a r r i e d by such symbols, a n d b o t h o u r a t t i -
tude to life. S o m e of the symbols in such tudes a n d o u r b e h a v i o r are profoundly in-
dreams derive from w h a t Dr. J u n g has called fluenced by t h e m .
"the collective u n c o n s c i o u s " t h a t is, the p a r t In w a r t i m e , for i n s t a n c e , o n e finds increased
of the psyche t h a t retains a n d t r a n s m i t s the interest in the works of H o m e r , S h a k e s p e a r e , a n d
common psychological i n h e r i t a n c e of m a n k i n d . Tolstoi, a n d we r e a d with a new u n d e r s t a n d i n g
These symbols a r e so a n c i e n t a n d u n f a m i l i a r those passages t h a t give w a r its e n d u r i n g (or
to m o d e r n m a n t h a t he c a n n o t directly u n d e r - " a r c h e t y p a l " ) m e a n i n g . T h e y evoke a response
stand or assimilate t h e m . from us t h a t is m u c h m o r e p r o f o u n d t h a n it
It is here t h a t t h e analyst c a n h e l p . Possibly could be from s o m e o n e w h o has never k n o w n
the patient must be freed from the e n c u m b r a n c e the intense e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e of w a r . T h e
of symbols that h a v e g r o w n stale a n d i n a p p r o - battles on the plains of T r o y w e r e utterly un-
priate. O r possibly he must be assisted to dis- like the fighting at A g i n c o u r t or B o r o d i n o , yet
cover the a b i d i n g v a l u e of a n old symbol t h a t , the great writers a r e a b l e to t r a n s c e n d the
far from being d e a d , is seeking to be r e b o r n in differences of time a n d place a n d to express
modern form. t h e m e s that a r e universal. W e respond because
Before the analyst c a n effectively e x p l o r e the these t h e m e s a r e f u n d a m e n t a l l y symbolic.
meaning of symbols with a p a t i e n t , he must A more striking e x a m p l e should be familiar
himself a c q u i r e a w i d e r k n o w l e d g e of their to a n y o n e w h o has g r o w n u p in a C h r i s t i a n
origins a n d significance. For the analogies be- society. At C h r i s t m a s we m a y express o u r i n n e r
tween a n c i e n t m y t h s a n d the stories that a p p e a r feeling for the m y t h o l o g i c a l b i r t h of a semi-

\
Far left, a s y m b o l i c c e r e m o n y of
a n t i q u i t y in 2 0 t h - c e n t u r y f o r m : T h e
A m e r i c a n a s t r o n a u t J o h n G l e n n in
a W a s h i n g t o n parade after his o r b i t
of t h e e a r t h in 1 9 6 2 - like a h e r o
of o l d , after a v i c t o r y , r e t u r n i n g
h o m e in a t r i u m p h a l p r o c e s s i o n

C e n t e r left, a c r o s s - l i k e s c u l p t u r e
of a Greek f e r t i l i t y g o d d e s s (c 2 5 0 0
B.C.). Left, t w o v i e w s of 6 1 2 t h -
c e n t u r y S c o t s s t o n e cross t h a t
retains s o m e p a g a n f e m a l e n e s s :
t h e " b r e a s t s " at t h e c r o s s b a r
Right, another age old archetype
r e b o r n in a n e w g u i s e : a R u s s i a n
p o s t e r for an " a t h e i s t i c " f e s t i v a l
at Easter, to r e p l a c e t h e C h r i s t i a n
festival |ust as the C h r i s t i a n
Easter w a s s u p e r i m p o s e d o n earlier
p a g a n s o l s t i c e rites

toy
d i v i n e child, even t h o u g h we m a y not believe But the r e s u r r e c t i o n of Christ on E a s t e r S u n -
in the d o c t r i n e of t h e virgin b i r t h of C h r i s t or d a y is m u c h less satisfying from a ritual point
h a v e a n y kind of conscious religious faith. U n - of view t h a n is the s y m b o l i s m of the cyclic re-
k n o w i n g l y , we h a v e fallen in w i t h t h e s y m b o l - ligions. F o r Christ ascends to sit at the right
ism of r e b i r t h . T h i s is a relic of a n i m m e n s e l y h a n d of G o d the F a t h e r : His resurrection
o l d e r solstice festival, w h i c h carries the h o p e occurs o n c e a n d for all.
t h a t the fading w i n t e r l a n d s c a p e of the n o r t h e r n It is this finality of the C h r i s t i a n c o n c e p t of
h e m i s p h e r e will b e r e n e w e d . F o r all o u r sophis- t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n (the C h r i s t i a n i d e a of the Last
tication we find satisfaction in this symbolic J u d g m e n t has a similar " c l o s e d " t h e m e ) t h a t
festival, j u s t as we j o i n w i t h o u r c h i l d r e n at distinguishes C h r i s t i a n i t y from o t h e r g o d - k i n g
Easter in the p l e a s a n t ritual of E a s t e r eggs a n d m y t h s . It h a p p e n e d o n c e , a n d t h e ritual merely
Easter r a b b i t s . c o m m e m o r a t e s it. But this sense of finality is
But d o we u n d e r s t a n d w h a t we d o , or see p r o b a b l y o n e reason w h y early C h r i s t i a n s , still
the c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n the story of Christ's influenced by p r e - C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n s , felt that
b i r t h , d e a t h , a n d r e s u r r e c t i o n a n d the folk C h r i s t i a n i t y n e e d e d to b e s u p p l e m e n t e d by
symbolism of E a s t e r ? U s u a l l y we d o not even some e l e m e n t s of a n o l d e r fertility r i t u a l . T h e y
c a r e to consider such things intellectually. n e e d e d the r e c u r r i n g p r o m i s e of r e b i r t h ; a n d
Yet they c o m p l e m e n t e a c h o t h e r . Christ's t h a t is w h a t is s y m b o l i z e d by t h e egg a n d the
crucifixion on G o o d F r i d a y seems at first sight r a b b i t of Easter.
to b e l o n g to t h e s a m e p a t t e r n of fertility sym- I h a v e t a k e n two q u i t e different e x a m p l e s to
bolism t h a t o n e finds in the rituals of such o t h e r show h o w m o d e r n m a n c o n t i n u e s to r e s p o n d to
" s a v i o r s " as Osiris, T a m m u z , a n d O r p h e u s . p r o f o u n d psychic influences of a kind t h a t , con-
T h e y , too, w e r e of d i v i n e or s e m i - d i v i n e sciously, he dismisses as little m o r e t h a n the
b i r t h , they flourished, w e r e killed, a n d w e r e folk tales of superstitious a n d u n e d u c a t e d
r e b o r n . T h e y b e l o n g e d , in fact, to cyclic reli- peoples. But it is necessary to go m u c h further
gions in w h i c h t h e d e a t h a n d r e b i r t h of the t h a n this. T h e m o r e closely o n e looks at the
g o d - k i n g was a n e t e r n a l l y r e c u r r i n g m y t h . history of s y m b o l i s m , a n d at t h e role t h a t sym-

Left, a 1 3 t h - c e n t u r y J a p a n e s e scroll
p a i n t i n g of t h e d e s t r u c t i o n of a
city: b e l o w , similarly d o m i n a t e d
by f l a m e a n d s m o k e , St. P a u l ' s
C a t h e d r a l , L o n d o n , d u r i n g an air
raid in W o r l d W a r II M e t h o d s o f
warfare have c h a n g e d over the
ages, b u t t h e e m o t i o n a l i m p a c t o f
w a r is t i m e l e s s a n d a r c h e t y p a l .
bols h a v e p l a y e d in the life of m a n y different
c u l t u r e s , the m o r e o n e u n d e r s t a n d s t h a t t h e r e
is also a r e - c r e a t i v e m e a n i n g in these symbols.
S o m e symbols r e l a t e to c h i l d h o o d a n d the
t r a n s i t i o n to a d o l e s c e n c e , o t h e r s to m a t u r i t y ,
a n d o t h e r s a g a i n to the e x p e r i e n c e of old age,
w h e n m a n is p r e p a r i n g for his i n e v i t a b l e d e a t h .
D r . J u n g has described h o w the d r e a m s of a girl
of eight c o n t a i n e d the symbols o n e n o r m a l l y
associates with old a g e . H e r d r e a m s p r e s e n t e d
aspects of initiation into life as b e l o n g i n g to the
s a m e a r c h e t y p a l p a t t e r n as initiation into d e a t h .
T h i s progression of symbolic ideas m a y take
p l a c e , therefore, w i t h i n the u n c o n s c i o u s m i n d
of m o d e r n m a n j u s t as it took p l a c e in the
rituals of a n c i e n t societies.
T h i s crucial link b e t w e e n a r c h a i c or p r i m i t i v e
m y t h s a n d the symbols p r o d u c e d by the u n -
conscious is of i m m e n s e p r a c t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e to
the analyst. It e n a b l e s h i m to identify a n d to
i n t e r p r e t these symbols in a context t h a t gives
t h e m historical p e r s p e c t i v e as well as psycholo-
gical m e a n i n g . I shall n o w take some of the
m o r e i m p o r t a n t m y t h s of a n t i q u i t y a n d show
h o w a n d to w h a t p u r p o s e they a r e a n a l o -
gous to the s y m b o l i c m a t e r i a l t h a t we e n c o u n -
ter in o u r d r e a m s .

T o p left, C h r i s t ' s n a t i v i t y ; c e n t e r ,
his c r u c i f i x i o n ; b o t t o m , his a s c e n s i o n .
His b i r t h , d e a t h , a n d rebirth f o l l o w s
t h e p a t t e r n of m a n y a n c i e n t h e r o
m y t h s a p a t t e r n o r i g i n a l l y based o n
s e a s o n a l f e r t i l i t y rites like t h o s e
p r o b a b l y h e l d 3 0 0 0 years a g o at
E n g l a n d ' s S t o n e h e n g e (seen b e l o w
at d a w n at t h e s u m m e r s o l s t i c e ) .
Heroes and hero makers

T h e m y t h of the h e r o is the most c o m m o n a n d the forces of evil, his fallibility to the sin of
the b e s t - k n o w n m y t h in the world. W e find it p r i d e (kybris), a n d his fall t h r o u g h b e t r a y a l or
in the classical m y t h o l o g y of G r e e c e a n d R o m e , a " h e r o i c " sacrifice t h a t ends in his d e a t h .
in the M i d d l e Ages, in the F a r East, a n d a m o n g I shall l a t e r e x p l a i n in m o r e detail w h y I be-
c o n t e m p o r a r y p r i m i t i v e tribes. It also a p p e a r s lieve t h a t this p a t t e r n has psychological m e a n -
in o u r d r e a m s . It has a n o b v i o u s d r a m a t i c ing b o t h for the i n d i v i d u a l , w h o is e n d e a v o r i n g
a p p e a l , a n d a less o b v i o u s , b u t nonetheless p r o - to discover a n d assert his p e r s o n a l i t y , a n d for a
found, psychological i m p o r t a n c e . w h o l e society, w h i c h has a n e q u a l need to
T h e s e h e r o m y t h s v a r y e n o r m o u s l y in d e t a i l , establish its collective identity. But a n o t h e r im-
but the m o r e closely o n e e x a m i n e s t h e m the p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the h e r o m y t h provides
m o r e o n e sees t h a t s t r u c t u r a l l y they a r e very a clue. In m a n y of these stories the early weak-
similar. They h a v e , t h a t is to say, a universal ness of the h e r o is b a l a n c e d by the a p p e a r a n c e
p a t t e r n , even t h o u g h they w e r e d e v e l o p e d by of s t r o n g " t u t e l a r y " figures or g u a r d i a n s -
g r o u p s or i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h o u t a n y direct cul- w h o e n a b l e him to perform the s u p e r h u m a n
t u r a l c o n t a c t w i t h e a c h o t h e r b y , for i n s t a n c e , tasks t h a t he c a n n o t a c c o m p l i s h u n a i d e d .
tribes of Africans or N o r t h A m e r i c a n I n d i a n s , A m o n g the G r e e k heroes, T h e s e u s h a d Posei-
or the G r e e k s , or the I n c a s of P e r u . O v e r a n d d o n , god of the sea, as his d e i t y ; Perseus h a d
over a g a i n o n e h e a r s a tale d e s c r i b i n g a hero's A t h e n a ; Achilles h a d C h e i r o n , the wise cen-
m i r a c u l o u s b u t h u m b l e b i r t h , his early proof of t a u r , as his t u t o r .
s u p e r h u m a n s t r e n g t h , his r a p i d rise to p r o m i - T h e s e godlike figures a r e in fact symbolic re-
nence or p o w e r , his t r i u m p h a n t struggle with p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the w h o l e psyche, the larger

T h e h e r o ' s early p r o o f of s t r e n g t h
o c c u r s in m o s t h e r o m y t h s B e l o w ,
the infant Hercules killing t w o
serpents. T o p right, the y o u n g
K i n g A r t h u r , a l o n e able to d r a w a
magic sword from a stone Bottom
right, A m e r i c a ' s D a v y C r o c k e t t , w h o
k i l l e d a bear w h e n he w a s t h r e e .

I I C)
A b o v e , t w o e x a m p l e s of t h e h e r o ' s
betrayal: the biblical hero Samson
( t o p ) , betrayed by Delilah; and the
Persian h e r o R u s t a m , led i n t o a
t r a p b y a m a n he t r u s t e d B e l o w ,
a m o d e r n result of hybns ( o v e r
c o n f i d e n c e ) : G e r m a n p r i s o n e r s in
Stalingrad, 1 9 4 1 , after Hitler
i n v a d e d Russia in w i n t e r

Above, three e x a m p l e s of t h e t u t e l a r y M o s t h e r o e s m u s t face a n d o v e r c o m e


or guardian f i g u r e t h a t a c c o m p a n i e s v a r i o u s m o n s t e r s a n d f o r c e s of evil
the archetypal hero. T o p . f r o m Greek Top, the Scandinavian hero Sigurd
myth, the c e n t a u r C h e i r o n g i v i n g ( l o w e r right of p i c t u r e ) slays t h e
instruction to the y o u t h f u l A c h i l l e s . s e r p e n t Fafnir C e n t e r , t h e a n c i e n t
Center, King A r t h u r ' s g u a r d i a n , t h e B a b y l o n i a n epic hero G i l g a m e s h
magician M e r l i n ( h o l d i n g a s c r o l l ) . battling w i t h a lion B o t t o m , the
Bottom, an i n s t a n c e f r o m m o d e r n life: m o d e r n A m e r i c a n c o m i c - s t r i p hero
the trainer o n w h o s e k n o w l e d g e a n d Superman, whose one-man war
experience a p r o f e s s i o n a l b o x e r a g a i n s t c r i m e o f t e n requires h i m t o
often d e p e n d s rescue p r e t t y g i r l s

I I I
a n d m o r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e i d e n t i t y t h a t supplies title Hero Cycles of the Winnebago) w e c a n see
t h e s t r e n g t h t h a t the p e r s o n a l ego lacks. T h e i r the definite progression from the most p r i m i t i v e
special role suggests t h a t the essential function to the most sophisticated c o n c e p t of the h e r o .
of the heroic m y t h is t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of the This progression is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of o t h e r h e r o
i n d i v i d u a l ' s ego-consciousness his a w a r e n e s s cycles. T h o u g h t h e symbolic figures in t h e m
of his o w n s t r e n g t h s a n d weaknessesin a m a n - n a t u r a l l y h a v e different n a m e s , t h e i r roles a r e
n e r t h a t will e q u i p h i m for the a r d u o u s tasks similar, a n d we shall u n d e r s t a n d t h e m b e t t e r
with w h i c h life confronts h i m . O n c e the indi- o n c e we h a v e g r a s p e d the point m a d e by this
v i d u a l has passed his initial test a n d c a n e n t e r example.
the m a t u r e p h a s e of life, the h e r o m y t h loses its D r . R a d i n n o t e d four distinct cycles in the
r e l e v a n c e . T h e h e r o ' s symbolic d e a t h b e c o m e s , e v o l u t i o n of the h e r o m y t h . H e n a m e d t h e m the
as it w e r e , the a c h i e v e m e n t of t h a t m a t u r i t y . Trickster cycle, the Hare cycle, the Red Horn
I h a v e so far b e e n referring to t h e c o m p l e t e cycle, a n d t h e Twin cycle. H e correctly per-
h e r o m y t h , in w h i c h t h e w h o l e cycle from b i r t h ceived the psychology of this evolution w h e n he
to d e a t h is e l a b o r a t e l y d e s c r i b e d . But it is essen- s a i d : " I t represents o u r efforts to d e a l with the
tial to recognize t h a t at each of the stages in p r o b l e m of g r o w i n g u p , aided by the illusion of
this cycle t h e r e a r e special forms of the h e r o an eternal fiction."
story t h a t a p p l y to the p a r t i c u l a r point r e a c h e d T h e T r i c k s t e r cycle c o r r e s p o n d s to the earliest
by the i n d i v i d u a l in the d e v e l o p m e n t of his ego- a n d least d e v e l o p e d period of life. T r i c k s t e r is
consciousness, a n d to the specific p r o b l e m con- a figure whose physical a p p e t i t e s d o m i n a t e his
fronting h i m at a given m o m e n t . T h a t is to b e h a v i o r ; he has the m e n t a l i t y of a n infant.
say, the i m a g e of t h e h e r o evolves in a m a n n e r L a c k i n g a n y p u r p o s e b e y o n d the gratification
t h a t reflects e a c h stage of the e v o l u t i o n of the of his p r i m a r y needs, he is cruel, cynical, a n d
h u m a n personality. unfeeling. ( O u r stories of Brer R a b b i t or R e y -
T h i s c o n c e p t c a n b e m o r e easily u n d e r s t o o d n a r d t h e Fox preserve the essentials of the
if I present it in w h a t a m o u n t s to a d i a g r a m . T r i c k s t e r m y t h . ) T h i s figure, w h i c h at the out-
I take this e x a m p l e from the o b s c u r e N o r t h set assumes the form of a n a n i m a l , passes from
A m e r i c a n tribe of W i n n e b a g o I n d i a n s , b e c a u s e o n e mischievous exploit to a n o t h e r . But, as he-
it sets o u t q u i t e clearly four distinct stages in does so, a c h a n g e comes over h i m . At the end
the evolution of the h e r o . In these stories (which of his r o g u e ' s progress he is b e g i n n i n g to take
D r . P a u l R a d i n p u b l i s h e d in 1948 u n d e r the on the physical likeness of a g r o w n m a n .

I I 2
T h e next figure is H a r e . H e also, like R e d H o r n m a y display. W i t h R e d H o r n we
Trickster (whose a n i m a l traits are r e p r e s e n t e d h a v e r e a c h e d the w o r l d of m a n , t h o u g h a n
among some A m e r i c a n I n d i a n s by a c o y o t e ) , a r c h a i c w o r l d , in w h i c h the aid of s u p e r h u m a n
first a p p e a r s in a n i m a l form. H e has not yet p o w e r s or t u t e l a r y gods is n e e d e d to ensure
attained m a t u r e h u m a n s t a t u r e , b u t all the m a n ' s victory over t h e evil forces t h a t beset h i m .
same he a p p e a r s as t h e f o u n d e r of h u m a n T o w a r d the e n d of the story the h e r o - g o d d e -
c u l t u r e t h e T r a n s f o r m e r . T h e W i n n e b a g o be- p a r t s , leaving R e d H o r n a n d his sons o n e a r t h .
lieve t h a t , in giving t h e m their famous M e d i c i n e T h e d a n g e r to m a n ' s h a p p i n e s s a n d security
Rite, he b e c a m e their savior as well as their n o w comes from m a n himself.
culture-hero. T h i s m y t h was so powerful, D r . T h i s basic t h e m e ( w h i c h is r e p e a t e d in the
Radin tells us, t h a t the m e m b e r s of the P e y o t e last cycle, t h a t of the T w i n s ) raises, in effect,
Rite were r e l u c t a n t to give u p H a r e w h e n the vital q u e s t i o n : H o w long c a n h u m a n be-
Christianity b e g a n to p e n e t r a t e the t r i b e . H e ings, be successful w i t h o u t falling victims to
became m e r g e d w i t h the figure of C h r i s t , a n d their o w n p r i d e or, in m y t h o l o g i c a l t e r m s , to
some of t h e m a r g u e d t h a t they h a d n o need of the j e a l o u s y of the gods?
Christ since they a l r e a d y h a d H a r e . T h i s a r c h e - T h o u g h the T w i n s a r e said to be the sons of
typal figure r e p r e s e n t s a distinct a d v a n c e on t h e S u n , they a r e essentially h u m a n a n d to-
Trickster: O n e c a n see t h a t he is b e c o m i n g a g e t h e r c o n s t i t u t e a single p e r s o n . O r i g i n a l l y
socialized being, c o r r e c t i n g the i n s t i n c t u a l a n d u n i t e d in the m o t h e r ' s w o m b , they w e r e forced
infantile urges found in the T r i c k s t e r cycle. a p a r t at b i r t h . Yet they b e l o n g t o g e t h e r , a n d
Red H o r n , the t h i r d of this series of h e r o it is necessary t h o u g h exceedingly difficult
figures, is a n a m b i g u o u s p e r s o n , said to be t h e to r e u n i t e t h e m . In these two c h i l d r e n we see
youngest of 10 b r o t h e r s . H e meets the r e q u i r e - the t w o sides of m a n ' s n a t u r e . O n e of t h e m .
ments of a n a r c h e t y p a l h e r o by passing such Flesh, is a c q u i e s c e n t , mild, a n d w i t h o u t initia-
tests as w i n n i n g a r a c e a n d by p r o v i n g himself t i v e ; the o t h e r , S t u m p , is d y n a m i c a n d rebel-
in battle. His s u p e r h u m a n p o w e r is s h o w n by lious. In some of the stories of t h e T w i n H e r o e s
his ability to defeat giants by guile (in a g a m e these a t t i t u d e s a r c refined to the point w h e r e
of dice) or by s t r e n g t h (in a wrestling m a t c h ) . o n e figure r e p r e s e n t s the i n t r o v e r t , whose m a i n
He has a powerful c o m p a n i o n in the form of a s t r e n g t h lies in his p o w e r s of reflection, a n d the
t h u n d e r b i r d called "Storms-as-he-walks," whose o t h e r is a n e x t r a v e r t , a m a n of action w h o c a n
strength c o m p e n s a t e s for w h a t e v e r weakness a c c o m p l i s h g r e a t deeds.

" T r i c k s t e r " : t h e first, r u d i m e n t a r y


stage in t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e
hero m y t h , in w h i c h t h e hero is
instinctual, u n i n h i b i t e d , a n d o f t e n
childish. Far left, t h e 1 6 t h - c e n t u r y
Chinese epic hero M o n k e y , s h o w n
(in a m o d e r n P e k i n g o p e r a ) t r i c k i n g
a river k i n g i n t o g i v i n g u p a m a g i c
staff. Left, o n a s i x t h - c e n t u r y
B.C. jar, the i n f a n t H e r m e s in his
cradle after h a v i n g s t o l e n A p o l l o ' s
cattle. Right, t h e t r o u b l e - m a k i n g
Norse g o d L o k i (a 1 9 t h - c e n t u r y
s c u l p t u r e ) . Far r i g h t , C h a r l i e
Chaplin c r e a t i n g a d i s t u r b a n c e in
the 1 9 3 6 f i l m Modern Timesa
2 0 t h - c e n t u r y trickster.

113
F o r a long t i m e these t w o heroes a r e invin- In the e x a m p l e s of the h e r o ' s b e t r a y a l or d e -
c i b l e : W h e t h e r they a r e p r e s e n t e d as t w o sep- feat t h a t o c c u r in E u r o p e a n m y t h o l o g y , the
a r a t e figures or as t w o - i n - o n e , they c a r r y all t h e m e of ritual sacrifice is m o r e specifically e m -
before t h e m . Yet, like the w a r r i o r gods of ployed as a p u n i s h m e n t for hybris. But the
N a v a h o I n d i a n m y t h o l o g y , they e v e n t u a l l y W i n n e b a g o , like the N a v a h o , d o not go so far.
sicken from the a b u s e of their o w n p o w e r . T h e r e T h o u g h the T w i n s e r r e d , a n d t h o u g h the
a r e n o m o n s t e r s left in h e a v e n or on e a r t h for p u n i s h m e n t should h a v e been d e a t h , they
t h e m to o v e r c o m e , a n d their c o n s e q u e n t wild themselves b e c a m e so frightened by their irre-
b e h a v i o r brings r e t r i b u t i o n in its t r a i n . T h e sponsible p o w e r t h a t they c o n s e n t e d to live in a
W i n n e b a g o say t h a t n o t h i n g , in the e n d , was state of p e r m a n e n t rest: T h e conflicting sides
safe from t h e m not even the s u p p o r t s on w h i c h of h u m a n n a t u r e w e r e a g a i n in e q u i l i b r i u m .
the w o r l d rests. W h e n the T w i n s killed o n e of I h a v e given this description of the four types
the four a n i m a l s t h a t u p h e l d the e a r t h , they of h e r o at s o m e , length b e c a u s e it provides a
h a d o v e r s t e p p e d all limits, a n d the t i m e h a d clear d e m o n s t r a t i o n of the p a t t e r n t h a t occurs
c o m e to p u t a stop to their c a r e e r . T h e p u n i s h - b o t h in the historic m y t h s a n d in the hero
m e n t they deserved was d e a t h . d r e a m s of c o n t e m p o r a r y m a n . W i t h this in mind
T h u s , in b o t h the R e d H o r n cycle a n d t h a t of we can e x a m i n e the following d r e a m of a
the T w i n s , we see t h e t h e m e of sacrifice or m i d d l e - a g e d p a t i e n t . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of this
d e a t h of the h e r o as a necessary c u r e for hybris, d r e a m shows h o w the a n a l y t i c a l psychologist
the p r i d e t h a t has o v e r - r e a c h e d itself. In the c a n , from his k n o w l e d g e of m y t h o l o g y , help his
p r i m i t i v e societies whose levels of c u l t u r e cor- p a t i e n t find a n a n s w e r to w h a t m i g h t otherwise
r e s p o n d to the R e d H o r n cycle, it a p p e a r s t h a t seem a n insoluble riddle. This m a n d r e a m e d he-
this d a n g e r m a y h a v e been forestalled by the was at a t h e a t r e , in the role of " a n i m p o r t a n t
institution of p r o p i t i a t o r y h u m a n sacrifice a s p e c t a t o r whose o p i n i o n is r e s p e c t e d . " There-
t h e m e t h a t has i m m e n s e symbolic i m p o r t a n c e was a n act in which a white m o n k e y was s t a n d -
a n d recurs c o n t i n u a l l y in h u m a n history. T h e ing on a pedestal with m e n a r o u n d h i m . In
W i n n e b a g o , like the I r o q u o i s a n d a few A l g o n - r e c o u n t i n g his d r e a m the m a n said :
q u i n tribes, p r o b a b l y a t e h u m a n flesh as a tote-
mic ritual t h a t could t a m e their individualistic
My guide explains the theme to me.' It is the
a n d d e s t r u c t i v e impulses. ordeal of a voting sailor who is exposed both to

T h e s e c o n d s t a g e in t h e e v o l u t i o n
of the hero is t h e f o u n d e r of h u m a n
c u l t u r e . Left, a N a v a h o s a n d p a i n t i n g
of the m y t h of C o y o t e , w h o s t o l e
fire f r o m t h e g o d s a n d g a v e it t o
m a n . In Greek m y t h P r o m e t h e u s also
s t o l e fire f r o m t h e g o d s f o r m a n
for w h i c h he w a s c h a i n e d to a r o c k
a n d t o r t u r e d b y an eagle ( b e l o w ,
o n a s i x t h - c e n t u r y B.c c u p ) .
The hero in t h e t h i r d s t a g e is a B e l o w left, a m e d i e v a l Italian In t h e f o u r t h s t a g e , t h e T w i n s
p o w e r f u l m a n - g o d like B u d d h a . In s c u l p t u r e of R o m u l u s a n d R e m u s , often misuse their p o w e r a s d i d
the f i r s t - c e n t u r y s c u l p t u r e a b o v e , the t w i n s (raised by a w o l f ) w h o the R o m a n heroes Castor and Pollux
Siddhartha begins the journey on f o u n d e d R o m e a n d w h o are t h e w h e n they a b d u c t e d the daughters
w h i c h he w i l l receive e n l i g h t e n m e n t b e s t - k n o w n i n s t a n c e of t h e f o u r t h of L e u c i p p u s ( b e l o w , in a p a i n t i n g
and b e c o m e B u d d h a . s t a g e of t h e h e r o m y t h . by t h e F l e m i s h artist R u b e n s ) .
the wind and to being beaten up. I begin to of t h e i r m e a n i n g in t e r m s of the reality of his
object that this white monkey is not a sailor at e v e r y d a y life.
all; but just at that moment a young man in T h u s , in a d r e a m , we see a series of figures
black stands up and I think that he must be the
t h e a t r i c a l l y p r e s e n t e d as v a r i o u s aspects of a
true hero. But another handsome young man
strides toward an altar and stretches himself out figure t h a t the d r e a m e r keeps e x p e c t i n g will
on it. They are making marks on his bare chest t u r n o u t to be the t r u e h e r o . T h e first is a white
as a preparation to offering him as a human m o n k e y , the second a sailor, the t h i r d a y o u n g
sacrifice. m a n in black, a n d the last a " h a n d s o m e y o u n g
Then I find myself on a platform with several m a n . " I n the early p a r t of the p e r f o r m a n c e ,
other people. We could get down by a small
w h i c h is s u p p o s e d to r e p r e s e n t the sailor's
ladder, but I hesitate to do so because there are
two young toughs standing by and I think that o r d e a l , the d r e a m e r sees only t h e w h i t e m o n -
they will stop us. But when a woman in the group key. T h e m a n in black s u d d e n l y a p p e a r s a n d as
uses the ladder unmolested, I see that it is safe s u d d e n l y d i s a p p e a r s ; he is a n e w figure w h o
and all of us follow the woman down. first c o n t r a s t s with the w h i t e m o n k e y a n d is then
for a m o m e n t confused w i t h t h e h e r o p r o p e r .
N o w a d r e a m of this kind c a n n o t be quickly (Such confusion in d r e a m s is not u n u s u a l . T h e
or simply i n t e r p r e t e d . W e h a v e to u n r a v e l it d r e a m e r is not usually p r e s e n t e d w i t h clear
carefully in o r d e r to show b o t h its r e l a t i o n to i m a g e s by the u n c o n s c i o u s . H e has to puzzle out
the d r e a m e r ' s o w n life a n d its w i d e r symbolic a m e a n i n g from a succession of contrasts a n d
i m p l i c a t i o n s . T h e p a t i e n t w h o p r o d u c e d it was paradoxes.)
a m a n w h o h a d a c h i e v e d m a t u r i t y in a physical Significantly, these figures a p p e a r in the
sense. H e was successful in his c a r e e r , a n d he c o u r s e of a t h e a t r i c a l p e r f o r m a n c e , a n d this
h a d a p p a r e n t l y d o n e p r e t t y well as a h u s b a n d c o n t e x t seems to be a direct reference by the
a n d father. Yet psychologically h e was still d r e a m e r to his o w n t r e a t m e n t by a n a l y s i s : T h e
i m m a t u r e , a n d h a d not c o m p l e t e d his youthful " g u i d e " he m e n t i o n s is p r e s u m a b l y his analyst.
p h a s e of d e v e l o p m e n t . It was this psychic i m m a - Yet h e does not see himself as a p a t i e n t w h o is
turity t h a t expressed itselfin his d r e a m s as differ- b e i n g t r e a t e d by a d o c t o r b u t as " a n i m p o r t a n t
ent aspects of t h e h e r o m y t h . T h e s e i m a g e s still s p e c t a t o r whose o p i n i o n is r e s p e c t e d . " T h i s is
exerted a s t r o n g a t t r a c t i o n for his i m a g i n a t i o n the v a n t a g e p o i n t from w h i c h he sees c e r t a i n
even t h o u g h they h a d long since e x h a u s t e d a n y figures w h o m he associates w i t h the e x p e r i e n c e

A n i n d i v i d u a l p s y c h e d e v e l o p s (as
does the hero m y t h ) from a primitive,
childish s t a g e a n d often images
of t h e early s t a g e s c a n a p p e a r in t h e
d r e a m s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y i m m a t u r e
a d u l t s . T h e first s t a g e m i g h t b e
r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e carefree p l a y
of c h i l d r e n like t h e p i l l o w f i g h t
(far left) f r o m t h e 1 9 3 3 F r e n c h f i l m
Zero de Conduite. The second
s t a g e m i g h t b e t h e reckless t h r i l l -
s e e k i n g of early a d o l e s c e n c e : R i g h t ,
A m e r i c a n y o u t h s test t h e i r n e r v e s
in a s p e e d i n g car. A later s t a g e
c a n p r o d u c e i d e a l i s m , a n d self-
s a c r i f i c e in late a d o l e s c e n c e ,
e x e m p l i f i e d in t h e p i c t u r e ( o p p o s i t e ,
far r i g h t ) t a k e n d u r i n g t h e East B e r l i n
rising ( J u n e 1 9 5 3 ) w h e n y o u n g m e n
f o u g h t Russian tanks w i t h stones.

Ilfi
of growing u p . T h e w h i t e m o n k e y , for i n s t a n c e , key t r i c k s " or p r a c t i c e d " m o n k e y s h i n e s . " T h e
reminds him of t h e playful a n d s o m e w h a t law- saying provides t h e clue h e r e . T h e m o n k e y in
less behavior of boys b e t w e e n t h e ' a g e s of seven the d r e a m is in fact a symbolic form of the
and 12. T h e sailor suggests t h e a d v e n t u r o u s n e s s Trickster figure.
of early a d o l e s c e n c e , t o g e t h e r with t h e conse- But w h y should T r i c k s t e r a p p e a r as a m o n -
quent p u n i s h m e n t by " b e a t i n g " for i r r e s p o n - key? A n d w h y s h o u l d it b e w h i t e ? As I h a v e
sible p r a n k s . T h e d r e a m e r could offer n o asso- a l r e a d y p o i n t e d o u t , the W i n n e b a g o m y t h tells
ciation to the y o u n g m a n in black, b u t in the us t h a t , t o w a r d the end of the cycle, T r i c k s t e r
handsome y o u n g m a n a b o u t to be sacrificed he begins to e m e r g e in the physical likeness of a
saw a r e m i n d e r of t h e self-sacrificing idealism m a n . A n d h e r e , in the d r e a m , is a m o n k e y -
of late adolescence. so close to a h u m a n b e i n g t h a t it is a l a u g h a b l e
At this stage it is possible to p u t t o g e t h e r the a n d not too d a n g e r o u s c a r i c a t u r e of a m a n .
historical m a t e r i a l (or a r c h e t y p a l h e r o images) T h e d r e a m e r himself could offer n o personal
and the d a t a from t h e d r e a m e r ' s p e r s o n a l ex- association t h a t could e x p l a i n w h y the m o n k e y
perience in o r d e r to see h o w they c o r r o b o r a t e , was w h i t e . But from o u r k n o w l e d g e of p r i m i -
contradict, or qualify e a c h o t h e r . tive s y m b o l i s m we c a n c o n j e c t u r e t h a t w h i t e -
T h e first conclusion is t h a t the w h i t e m o n k e y ness lends a special q u a l i t y of " g o d - l i k e n e s s " to
seems to r e p r e s e n t T r i c k s t e r or at least those this o t h e r w i s e b a n a l figure. ( T h e a l b i n o is re-
traits of personality t h a t the W i n n e b a g o a t t r i - g a r d e d as sacred in m a n y p r i m i t i v e c o m m u n i -
bute to T r i c k s t e r . But, to m e , the m o n k e y also ties.) T h i s fits in q u i t e well w i t h T r i c k s t e r ' s
stands for s o m e t h i n g t h a t the d r e a m e r has not s e m i - d i v i n e or s e m i - m a g i c a l p o w e r s .
personally a n d a d e q u a t e l y e x p e r i e n c e d for h i m - T h u s , it seems, t h e w h i t e m o n k e y symbolizes
self he in fact says t h a t in the d r e a m he was for the d r e a m e r the positive q u a l i t y of child-
a spectator. I found o u t t h a t as a boy he h a d h o o d playfulness, w h i c h he h a d insufficiently
been excessively a t t a c h e d to his p a r e n t s , a n d a c c e p t e d at the t i m e , a n d w h i c h he n o w feels
that he was n a t u r a l l y i n t r o s p e c t i v e . F o r these called u p o n to exalt. As the d r e a m tells us, he
reasons he h a d n e v e r fully d e v e l o p e d t h e bois- places it " o n a p e d e s t a l , " w h e r e it b e c o m e s
terous qualities n a t u r a l to late c h i l d h o o d ; n o r s o m e t h i n g m o r e t h a n a lost c h i l d h o o d experi-
had he j o i n e d in t h e g a m e s of his schoolfellows. e n c e . It is, for the a d u l t m a n , a symbol of
He had not, as the s a y i n g goes, " g o t u p to m o n - creative experimentalism.

i '7
Next we c o m e to t h e conclusion a b o u t the v a n c e d p r a n k s of the y o u n g t e e n a g e r , a n d he
m o n k e y . Is it a m o n k e y , or is it a sailor w h o is seeking ways in w h i c h those lost experiences
has to p u t u p with b e a t i n g s ? T h e d r e a m e r ' s a n d personal qualities c a n be r e h a b i l i t a t e d .
o w n associations p o i n t e d to the m e a n i n g of this Next comes a c u r i o u s c h a n g e in the d r e a m .
t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . But in a n y case the next stage T h e y o u n g m a n in black a p p e a r s , a n d for a
in h u m a n d e v e l o p m e n t is o n e in w h i c h the irre- m o m e n t the d r e a m e r feels t h a t this is t h e " t r u e
sponsibility of c h i l d h o o d gives w a y to a period h e r o . " T h a t is all we a r e told a b o u t the m a n
of socialization, a n d t h a t involves submission to in b l a c k ; yet this fleeting glimpse i n t r o d u c e s a
painful discipline. O n e could say, therefore, t h e m e of p r o f o u n d i m p o r t a n c e a t h e m e t h a t
t h a t the sailor is a n a d v a n c e d form of T r i c k s t e r , occurs frequently in d r e a m s .
w h o is b e i n g c h a n g e d into a socially responsible- T h i s is the c o n c e p t of the " s h a d o w , " which
person by m e a n s of a n initiation o r d e a l . D r a w - plays such a vital role in a n a l y t i c a l psychology.
ing on t h e history of s y m b o l i s m , we c a n assume- D r . J u n g has p o i n t e d o u t t h a t the s h a d o w cast
t h a t the w i n d r e p r e s e n t s the n a t u r a l e l e m e n t s by the conscious m i n d of the i n d i v i d u a l con-
in this process, a n d the b e a t i n g s a r e those t h a t tains the h i d d e n , repressed, a n d u n f a v o r a b l e (or
are humanly induced. nefarious) aspects of the personality. But this
At this p o i n t , t h e n , we h a v e a reference to darkness is not jusl the simple ((inverse of the
the process t h a t the W i n n e b a g o describe in the conscious ego. J u s t as the ego c o n t a i n s unfavor-
H a r e cycle, w h e r e the c u l t u r e - h e r o is a weak a b l e a n d d e s t r u c t i v e a t t i t u d e s , so the s h a d o w
yet struggling figure, r e a d y to sacrifice childish- has good qualities n o r m a l instincts a n d
ness for the sake of further d e v e l o p m e n t . O n c e c r e a t i v e impulses. Ego a n d s h a d o w , i n d e e d ,
a g a i n , in this p h a s e of the d r e a m , the p a t i e n t is a l t h o u g h s e p a r a t e , are i n e x t r i c a b l y linked to-
a c k n o w l e d g i n g his failure to e x p e r i e n c e to the g e t h e r in m u c h the s a m e w a y t h a t t h o u g h t a n d
full a n i m p o r t a n t aspect of c h i l d h o o d a n d early feeling a r e r e l a t e d to each o t h e r .
a d o l e s c e n c e . H e missed out on the playfulness T h e ego, nevertheless, is in conflict with the
of the child, a n d also on the r a t h e r m o r e a d - s h a d o w , in w h a t D r . J u n g o n c e called " t h e
b a t t l e for d e l i v e r a n c e . " In the struggle of
p r i m i t i v e m a n to a c h i e v e consciousness, this
conflict is expressed by the contest b e t w e e n the
a r c h e t y p a l h e r o a n d the cosmic p o w e r s of evil,
personified by d r a g o n s a n d o t h e r monsters. In
the d e v e l o p i n g consciousness of the i n d i v i d u a l
the h e r o figure is the symbolic m e a n s by which
t h e e m e r g i n g ego o v e r c o m e s the inertia of the
u n c o n s c i o u s m i n d , a n d liberates the m a t u r e

The y o u n g , undifferentiated ego-


p e r s o n a l i t y is p r o t e c t e d by t h e
m o t h e r a protection imaged by
t h e s h e l t e r i n g M a d o n n a , left ( i n
a painting by the 1 5th-century
Italian artist Piero della F r a n c e s c a ) ,
or by t h e E g y p t i a n sky g o d d e s s N u t ,
r i g h t , b e n d i n g over t h e e a r t h ( i n a
f i f t h - c e n t u r y B.C. r e l i e f ) . B u t t h e
e g o m u s t e v e n t u a l l y free itself f r o m
unconsciousness and immaturity;
a n d its "battle f o r d e l i v e r a n c e " is
often symbolized by a hero's battle
w i t h a m o n s t e r l i k e the Japanese
g o d Susanoo's battle w i t h a serpent,
t o p right (in a 1 9 t h - c e n t u r y p r i n t ) .
T h e hero d o e s n ' t a l w a y s w i n at
o n c e : For i n s t a n c e , J o n a h w a s
s w a l l o w e d by t h e w h a l e (far right,
from a 14th-century manuscript).
"9
m a n from a regressive longing to r e t u r n to the
blissful state of infancy in a world d o m i n a t e d
by his m o t h e r .
Usually, in m y t h o l o g y , the h e r o wins his
b a t t l e against the m o n s t e r . (I shall say m o r e
a b o u t this in a m o m e n t . ) But t h e r e a r e o t h e r
h e r o m y t h s in w h i c h the h e r o gives in to the
m o n s t e r . A familiar type is t h a t of J o n a h a n d
the w h a l e , in w h i c h the h e r o is swallowed by a
sea m o n s t e r t h a t carries him on a night sea
j o u r n e y from west to east, thus s y m b o l i z i n g the
supposed transit of the sun from sunset to
d a w n . The h e r o goes into d a r k n e s s , which
represents a kind of d e a t h . I h a v e e n c o u n t e r e d
this t h e m e in d r e a m s p r e s e n t e d in my o w n The ego's e m e r g e n c e can be
s y m b o l i z e d n o t by a b a t t l e but by a
clinical e x p e r i e n c e . s a c r i f i c e : d e a t h l e a d i n g to r e b i r t h .
R e v o l u t i o n is s a c r i f i c i a l in this w a y :
The b a t t l e b e t w e e n the h e r o a n d the d r a g o n
D e l a c r o i x ' s p a i n t i n g ( b e l o w ) , Greece
is the m o r e active form of this m y t h , a n d it expiring on the Ruins of Missolonghi,
shows m o r e clearly the a r c h e t y p a l t h e m e of the p e r s o n i f i e s t h e c o u n t r y k i l l e d by c i v i l
w a r to be l i b e r a t e d a n d r e b o r n . A s
ego's t r i u m p h over regressive t r e n d s . For most individual sacrifices: the British poet
people the d a r k or n e g a t i v e side of the person- B y r o n ( a b o v e ) d i e d in G r e e c e d u r i n g
t h e r e v o l u t i o n ( 1 8 2 4 ) . B e l o w left, t h e
ality r e m a i n s u n c o n s c i o u s . T h e h e r o , on the C h r i s t i a n m a r t y r St. L u c i a s a c r i f i c e d
c o n t r a r y , must realize t h a t the s h a d o w exists her eyes a n d her life for her r e l i g i o n .
and that he c a n d r a w s t r e n g t h from it. H e must a n d its role in p r e p a r i n g the h e r o for the s t r u g -
c o m e to t e r m s w i t h its d e s t r u c t i v e p o w e r s i f he gles o f life, is a n essential t r a n s i t i o n f r o m the
is to b e c o m e s u f f i c i e n t l y t e r r i b l e to o v e r c o m e e a r l i e r p a r t s o f the d r e a m to the t h e m e o f the
the d r a g o n i.e. b e f o r e t h e e g o c a n t r i u m p h , it s a c r i f i c i a l h e r o : the h a n d s o m e y o u n g m a n w h o
must m a s t e r a n d a s s i m i l a t e the s h a d o w . places h i m s e l f on an a l t a r . I his figure r e p r e -
O n e c a n see this t h e m e , i n c i d e n t a l l y , in a sents the f o r m o f h e r o i s m that is c o m m o n l y
well-known l i t e r a r y h e r o figure ( J o e t he's c h a r - a s s o c i a t e d to the e g o - b u i l d i n g process o f late
acter of Faust. In accepting the wager of a d o l e s c e n c e . A m a n expresses t h e ideal p r i n -
M e p h i s t o p h e l e s . F a u s t put h i m s e l f in the p o w e r ciples o f his life at this t i m e , sensing t h e i r p o w e r
of a " s h a d o w " ' figure t h a t G o e t h e d e s c r i b e s as b o t h to t r a n s f o r m h i m s e l f a n d to c h a n g e his r e -
'"part o f that p o w e r w h i c h , w i l l i n g evil, finds l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s . H e is, so to s p e a k , in the
the g o o d . " ' L i k e the m a n w h o s e d r e a m I h a v e b l o o m of y o u t h , a t t r a c t i v e , full o f e n e r g y a n d
been d i s c u s s i n g , F a u s t h a d failed to live out to i d e a l i s m . W h y . t h e n , does he willingly offer
the full a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f his e a r l y life. He- h i m s e l f as a h u m a n s a c r i f i c e ?
was, a c c o r d i n g l y , a n u n r e a l o r i n c o m p l e t e p e r - T h e r e a s o n , p r e s u m a b l y , is the s a m e as t h a t
son w h o lost himself in a fruitless quest for w h i c h m a d e the Twins of the W i n n e b a g o m y t h
m e t a p h y s i c a l g o a l s t h a t failed to m a t e r i a l i z e . give u p t h e i r p o w e r on p a i n o f d e s t r u c t i o n . T h e
He was still u n w i l l i n g to a c c e p t life's c h a l l e n g e i d e a l i s m o f y o u t h , w h i c h drives o n e so h a r d , is
to live b o t h the g o o d a n d t h e b a d . b o u n d to lead to o v e r - c o n f i d e n c e : T h e h u m a n
It is to this a s p e c t o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s that the ego c a n be e x a l t e d to e x p e r i e n c e g o d l i k e a t t r i -
young m a n in b l a c k in m y p a t i e n t ' s dream b u t e s , but o n l y at the cost o f o v e r - r e a c h i n g itself
seems to refer. S u c h a r e m i n d e r o f t h e shadow a n d f a l l i n g to d i s a s t e r . ( T h i s is t h e m e a n i n g o f
side o f his p e r s o n a l i t y , of its p o w e r f u l p o t e n t i a l the story o f I c a r u s , the y o u t h w h o is c a r r i e d

B e l o w , a m o n t a g e of W o r l d W a r I In m y t h o l o g y , a h e r o ' s d e a t h is
a c a l l - t o - a r m s poster, i n f a n t r y , a o f t e n d u e to his o w n hybris, w h i c h
military c e m e t e r y . M e m o r i a l s a n d causes t h e g o d s to h u m b l e h i m . A s
religious services for s o l d i e r s w h o a m o d e r n e x a m p l e : In 1 9 1 2 t h e
gave their lives for their c o u n t r y s h i p Titanic s t r u c k an i c e b e r g a n d
often reflect t h e c y c l i c "death a n d sank. ( R i g h t , a m o n t a g e of s c e n e s
r e b i r t h " t h e m e of t h e a r c h e t y p a l of t h e s i n k i n g , f r o m t h e 1 9 4 3 f i l m
heroic s a c r i f i c e . A n i n s c r i p t i o n Titanic.) Yet t h e Titanic h a d b e e n
on one B r i t i s h m e m o r i a l to t h e d e a d called " u n s i n k a b l e " : according to
of W o r l d W a r I reads: " A t t h e g o i n g the A m e r i c a n a u t h o r W a l t e r L o r d ,
d o w n of t h e s u n a n d in the m o r n i n g o n e sailor w a s h e a r d to say, " G o d
we will remember t h e m . " h i m s e l f c o u l d n ' t sink this s h i p ! "
up to h e a v e n on his f r a g i l e , h u m a n l y c o n t r i v e d m a n ' s h i s t o r y . H e r e , as t h e m a n lies s t r e t c h e d
w i n g s , b u t w h o flies t o o close to t h e sun a n d o u t on a n a l t a r , we see a r e f e r e n c e to a n a c t
p l u n g e s to his d o o m . ) All t h e s a m e , t h e y o u t h - e v e n m o r e p r i m i t i v e t h a n those p e r f o r m e d on
ful e g o m u s t a l w a y s r u n this risk, for i f a y o u n g t h e a l t a r s t o n e in t h e t e m p l e at Stonehenge.
m a n does n o t strive for a h i g h e r g o a l t h a n he T h e r e , as on so m a n y p r i m i t i v e a l t a r s , w e c a n
c a n safely r e a c h , he c a n n o t s u r m o u n t t h e o b - i m a g i n e a y e a r l y solstice rite c o m b i n e d with
stacles b e t w e e n adolescence and m a t u r i t y . the death and rebirth o f a mythological hero.
So far, I have been talking a b o u t the con- T h e r i t u a l has a s o r r o w a b o u t it t h a t is also
clusions t h a t , a t t h e level o f his p e r s o n a l asso- a kind o f j o y , a n i n w a r d a c k n o w l e d g m e n t t h a t
c i a t i o n s , m y p a t i e n t c o u l d d r a w f r o m his o w n d e a t h also leads to a n e w life. W h e t h e r it is
d r e a m . Y e t t h e r e is a n a r c h e t y p a l level o f t h e e x p r e s s e d in t h e prose e p i c o f t h e W i n n e b a g o
d r e a m the mystery o f the proffered human I n d i a n s , in a l a m e n t for t h e d e a t h o f B a l d e r in
s a c r i f i c e . I t is p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e it is a m y s t e r y the N o r s e e d d a s , in W a l t W h i t m a n ' s p o e m s o f
t h a t it is e x p r e s s e d in a r i t u a l a c t t h a t , in its mourning for Abraham Lincoln, or in the
s y m b o l i s m , c a r r i e s us a l o n g w a y b a c k into dream r i t u a l w h e r e b y a m a n r e t u r n s to his

I 22
Heroes o f t e n f i g h t m o n s t e r s t o
rescue " d a m s e l s In d i s t r e s s " ( w h o
s y m b o l i z e t h e a n i m a ) . Left, St,
George slays a d r a g o n to free a
m a i d e n ( i n a 1 5 t h - c e n t u r y Italian
p a i n t i n g ) . R i g h t , in t h e 1 9 1 6 f i l m
The Great Secret, t h e d r a g o n has
become a locomotive but the heroic
rescue r e m a i n s t h e s a m e .

youthful h o p e s a n d fears, it is t h e s a m e t h e m e
the d r a m a o f n e w b i r t h t h r o u g h d e a t h .
T h e e n d o f the d r e a m b r i n g s out a c u r i o u s
epilogue in w h i c h t h e d r e a m e r at last b e c o m e s
involved in t h e a c t i o n o f t h e d r e a m . H e a n d
others a r e on a p l a t f o r m f r o m w h i c h t h e y h a v e
to d e s c e n d . H e does n o t trust t h e l a d d e r b e c a u s e
of the possible i n t e r f e r e n c e o f h o o d l u m s , but
a w o m a n e n c o u r a g e s h i m to b e l i e v e he c a n g o
down safely a n d this is a c c o m p l i s h e d . S i n c e I
found out f r o m his a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t t h e w h o l e As a g e n e r a l rule it c a n b e said t h a t t h e n e e d
performance he witnessed was part of his for h e r o s y m b o l s arises w h e n the ego needs
analysis a p r o c e s s o f i n n e r c h a n g e t h a t h e w a s strengthening w h e n , t h a t is to s a y , t h e c o n -
experiencing he was p r e s u m a b l y thinking o f scious m i n d n e e d s a s s i s t a n c e in s o m e task t h a t
the difficulty o f g e t t i n g b a c k to e v e r y d a y r e a l i t y it c a n n o t a c c o m p l i s h u n a i d e d o r w i t h o u t d r a w -
a g a i n . His f e a r o f t h e " t o u g h s , " as he calls i n g on t h e s o u r c e s o f s t r e n g t h t h a t lie in the u n -
t h e m , suggests his f e a r t h a t t h e T r i c k s t e r a r c h e - c o n s c i o u s m i n d . I n the d r e a m I h a v e b e e n dis-
type m a y a p p e a r in a c o l l e c t i v e f o r m . c u s s i n g , for i n s t a n c e , t h e r e was n o r e f e r e n c e to
T h e s a v i n g e l e m e n t s in t h e d r e a m a r e the o n e o f the m o r e i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f t h e m y t h
m a n - m a d e l a d d e r , w h i c h h e r e is p r o b a b l y a o f the t y p i c a l hero his capacity to s a v e o r
symbol o f the r a t i o n a l m i n d , a n d the p r e s e n c e protect beautiful women from terrible danger.
of the w o m a n w h o e n c o u r a g e s t h e d r e a m e r to ( T h e d a m s e l in distress w a s a f a v o r i t e m y t h of
use it. H e r a p p e a r a n c e in the final s e q u e n c e of m e d i e v a l E u r o p e . ) T h i s is o n e w a y in w h i c h
the d r e a m p o i n t s to a p s y c h i c n e e d to i n c l u d e m y t h s or d r e a m s refer to t h e " a n i m a " t h e
a f e m i n i n e p r i n c i p l e as a c o m p l e m e n t to all feminine element of the male psyche that
this excessively m a s c u l i n e a c t i v i t y . G o e t h e called " t h e Eternal F e m i n i n e . "

It s h o u l d not b e a s s u m e d f r o m w h a t I h a v e T h e n a t u r e a n d f u n c t i o n o f this f e m a l e e l e -
said, or f r o m the fact t h a t I h a v e c h o s e n to use m e n t will b e discussed l a t e r in this b o o k by D r .
the W i n n e b a g o m y t h to i l l u m i n a t e this p a r t i c u - von F r a n z . B u t its r e l a t i o n to t h e h e r o figure
lar d r e a m , t h a t o n e m u s t seek for c o m p l e t e a n d can be illustrated here by a d r e a m produced
wholly m e c h a n i c a l p a r a l l e l s b e t w e e n a d r e a m by a n o t h e r p a t i e n t , also a m a n o f m a t u r e y e a r s .
and the m a t e r i a l s o n e c a n find in the h i s t o r y o f H e b e g a n by s a y i n g :
mythology. E a c h d r e a m is i n d i v i d u a l to the " I had returned from a long hike through
d r e a m e r , a n d t h e p r e c i s e f o r m it takes is d e t e r - India. A w o m a n had equipped myself and a
mined by his o w n situation. What I have friend for the j o u r n e y , a n d on m y r e t u r n I
sought to s h o w is t h e m a n n e r in w h i c h the un- r e p r o a c h e d h e r for f a i l i n g to g i v e us b l a c k r a i n -
c o n s c i o u s d r a w s on this a r c h e t y p a l m a t e r i a l a n d hats, t e l l i n g h e r t h a t t h r o u g h this o v e r s i g h t w e
modifies its p a t t e r n s to t h e d r e a m e r ' s needs. h a d b e e n s o a k e d by the r a i n . "
T h u s , in this p a r t i c u l a r d r e a m , o n e must not This introduction to the dream, it later
look for a d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e to w h a t t h e W i n n e - e m e r g e d , r e f e r r e d to a p e r i o d in this man's
b a g o d e s c r i b e in the R e d H o r n or T w i n c y c l e s ; y o u t h w h e n he w a s g i v e n to t a k i n g "heroic"
the r e f e r e n c e is r a t h e r to t h e essence o f those walks t h r o u g h d a n g e r o u s m o u n t a i n c o u n t r y in
two t h e m e s t o t h e s a c r i f i c i a l e l e m e n t in t h e m . company with a c o l l e g e f r i e n d . (As he had

123
n e v e r b e e n to I n d i a , a n d in view o f his o w n y o u n g m a n . H e is dressed in g r a y with a b l a c k
a s s o c i a t i o n s to this d r e a m , I c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e hat. and he sits d o w n to talk w i t h another
d r e a m j o u r n e y signified his e x p l o r a t i o n o f a y o u n g m a n dressed in a b l a c k suit. I m m e d i a t e l y
n e w r e g i o n n o t , t h a t is to s a y , a r e a l p l a c e b u t a f t e r this s c e n e t h e d r e a m e r feels a n e w vigor,
the realm o f the unconscious.) a n d finds that he is c a p a b l e o f r e j o i n i n g his
I n his d r e a m t h e p a t i e n t s e e m s to feel t h a t p a r t y . T h e y all t h e n c l i m b o v e r t h e n e x t hill.
a w o m a n p r e s u m a b l y a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f his T h e r e , b e l o w t h e m , he sees t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n ; it
a n i m a h a s failed to p r e p a r e h i m p r o p e r l y for is a lovely h a r b o r t o w n . H e feels b o t h h e a r t e n e d
this e x p e d i t i o n . T h e l a c k o f a s u i t a b l e r a i n h a t a n d r e j u v e n a t e d by t h e d i s c o v e r y .
suggests t h a t he feels in a n u n p r o t e c t e d s t a t e o f H e r e , in c o n t r a s t to t h e restless, u n c o m f o r t -
m i n d , in w h i c h he is u n c o m f o r t a b l y a f f e c t e d by a b l e , a n d l o n e l y j o u r n e y o f t h e first e p i s o d e ,
e x p o s u r e to n e w a n d n o t a l t o g e t h e r pleasant the d r e a m e r is w i t h a group. T h e contrast
experiences. H e believes that the w o m a n should marks a change from an earlier pattern of
h a v e p r o v i d e d a r a i n h a t for h i m , just as his i s o l a t i o n a n d y o u t h f u l p r o t e s t to the s o c i a l i z i n g
m o t h e r p r o v i d e d c l o t h e s for h i m to w e a r as a i n f l u e n c e o f a r e l a t i o n to o t h e r s . S i n c e this i m -
b o y . T h i s e p i s o d e is r e m i n i s c e n t o f his e a r l y plies a n e w c a p a c i t y for r e l a t e d n e s s , it suggests
picaresque wanderings, when he was sustained t h a t his a n i m a must n o w be f u n c t i o n i n g b e t t e r
b y the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t his m o t h e r ( t h e o r i g i n a l t h a n it was b e f o r e s y m b o l i z e d by his d i s c o v -
f e m i n i n e i m a g e ) w o u l d p r o t e c t h i m a g a i n s t all ery o f t h e missing h a t t h a t t h e a n i m a figure h a d
d a n g e r s . As he g r e w o l d e r , h e s a w t h a t this w a s p r e v i o u s l y failed to p r o v i d e for h i m .
a c h i l d i s h illusion, a n d he n o w b l a m e s his m i s - B u t t h e d r e a m e r is t i r e d , a n d t h e s c e n e at
f o r t u n e on his o w n a n i m a , n o t his m o t h e r . the r e s t a u r a n t reflects his n e e d to look at his
I n t h e n e x t s t a g e o f the d r e a m t h e p a t i e n t e a r l i e r a t t i t u d e s in a n e w l i g h t , with the h o p e
speaks o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g in a h i k e w i t h a g r o u p of o f r e n e w i n g his s t r e n g t h b y this regression. A n d
p e o p l e . H e g r o w s tired a n d r e t u r n s to a n o u t - so it t u r n s o u t . W h a t he first sees is a poster
d o o r r e s t a u r a n t w h e r e he finds his r a i n c o a t , to- s u g g e s t i n g the e n a c t m e n t o f a y o u t h f u l hero
gether with the r a i n h a t t h a t he h a d missed role a high-school b o y p l a y i n g the p a r t of
e a r l i e r . H e sits d o w n to r e s t ; a n d , as he does so, P e r s e u s . T h e n he sees the b o y , n o w a m a n , with
he n o t i c e s a p o s t e r s t a t i n g that a l o c a l h i g h - a friend w h o m a k e s a s h a r p c o n t r a s t to h i m .
s c h o o l b o y is t a k i n g t h e p a r t o f Perseus in a T h e o n e dressed in light g r a y , the o t h e r in
p l a y . T h e n t h e b o y in q u e s t i o n a p p e a r s w h o black, can be recognized, from what I have
turns out to be not a b o y at all but a husky p r e v i o u s l y s a i d , as a version o f t h e T w i n s . T h e y
are h e r o - f i g u r e s e x p r e s s i n g t h e o p p o s i t e s o f e g o locks t u r n e d all w h o g a z e d u p o n t h e m to s t o n e .
and a l t e r - e g o , w h i c h , h o w e v e r , a p p e a r h e r e in He later had to o v e r c o m e the dragon that
a harmonious and unified relation. g u a r d e d A n d r o m e d a . T h e s e u s r e p r e s e n t e d the
T h e p a t i e n t ' s a s s o c i a t i o n s c o n f i r m e d this a n d y o u n g p a t r i a r c h a l spirit o f A t h e n s w h o h a d to
e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t h e figure in g r a y r e p r e s e n t s a b r a v e t h e t e r r o r s o f t h e C r e t a n l a b y r i n t h with
w e l l - a d a p t e d , w o r l d l y a t t i t u d e to life, w h e r e a s its m o n s t r o u s i n m a t e , t h e M i n o t a u r , w h i c h p e r -
the figure in b l a c k r e p r e s e n t s t h e s p i r i t u a l life, haps symbolized the unhealthy d e c a d e n c e o f
in the sense t h a t a c l e r g y m a n w e a r s b l a c k . T h a t m a t r i a r c h a l C r e t e . ( I n all c u l t u r e s , t h e l a b y -
they w o r e h a t s ( a n d he n o w h a d f o u n d his o w n ) r i n t h has t h e m e a n i n g o f a n e n t a n g l i n g and
points to t h e i r h a v i n g a c h i e v e d a relatively c o n f u s i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e w o r l d oi m a t r i -
m a t u r e i d e n t i t y o f a k i n d t h a t he h a d felt to b e a r c h a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s ; it c a n b e t r a v e r s e d o n l y
severely l a c k i n g in his o w n e a r l i e r a d o l e s c e n t by those w h o a r e r e a d y for a s p e c i a l i n i t i a t i o n
years, w h e n t h e q u a l i t y o f " T r i c k s t e r i s m " still into the mysterious world o f the collective un-
clung to h i m , in spite o f his i d e a l i s t i c s e l f - i m a g e conscious.) Having overcome this danger,
as a seeker o f w i s d o m . T h e s e u s r e s c u e d A r i a d n e , a m a i d e n in distress.
His a s s o c i a t i o n t o t h e G r e e k h e r o Perseus This r e s c u e s y m b o l i z e s t h e l i b e r a t i o n o f the
was a c u r i o u s o n e , w h i c h p r o v e d e s p e c i a l l y sig- a n i m a figure f r o m t h e d e v o u r i n g a s p e c t o f the
nificant b e c a u s e it r e v e a l e d a g l a r i n g i n a c c u - m o t h e r i m a g e . N o t until this is a c c o m p l i s h e d
racy. It t u r n e d o u t t h a t h e t h o u g h t Perseus was c a n a m a n a c h i e v e his first t r u e c a p a c i t y for
the h e r o w h o slew t h e M i n o t a u r a n d r e s c u e d r e l a t e d n e s s to w o m e n . T h e f a c t t h a t this m a n
A r i a d n e f r o m t h e C r e t a n l a b y r i n t h . As he w r o t e h a d failed a d e q u a t e l y to s e p a r a t e the a n i m a
the n a m e d o w n for m e , h e d i s c o v e r e d his mis- f r o m t h e m o t h e r w a s e m p h a s i z e d in a n o t h e r
t a k e t h a t it w a s T h e s e u s , not P e r s e u s , w h o d r e a m , in w h i c h he e n c o u n t e r e d a d r a g o n a
slew the M i n o t a u r a n d this m i s t a k e b e c a m e s y m b o l i c i m a g e for t h e " d e v o u r i n g " a s p e c t o f
suddenly m e a n i n g f u l , as s u c h slips often d o , by his a t t a c h m e n t to his m o t h e r . T h i s d r a g o n p u r -
m a k i n g h i m n o t i c e w h a t these t w o h e r o e s h a d sued h i m , a n d b e c a u s e he h a d n o w e a p o n .he
in c o m m o n . T h e y b o t h h a d to o v e r c o m e t h e i r b e g a n to get t h e w o r s t o f t h e s t r u g g l e .
fear o f u n c o n s c i o u s d e m o n i c m a t e r n a l p o w e r s S i g n i f i c a n t l y , h o w e v e r , his wife a p p e a r e d in
and h a d to l i b e r a t e f r o m these p o w e r s a single the d r e a m , and her a p p e a r a n c e somehow made
youthful f e m i n i n e figure. t h e d r a g o n s m a l l e r a n d less t h r e a t e n i n g . T h i s
Perseus h a d to c u t o f f t h e h e a d o f t h e g o r g o n c h a n g e in t h e d r e a m s h o w e d t h a t in his m a r -
Medusa, whose horrifying visage and snaky riage the d r e a m e r was belatedly overcoming

Some h e r o i c b a t t l e s a n d r e s c u e s
from Greek m y t h : Far left, Perseus
slays M e d u s a ( o n a s i x t h - c e n t u r y
B.C. v a s e ) ; left, Perseus w i t h
A n d r o m e d a ( f r o m a f i r s t - c e n t u r y B.C.
mural) w h o m he s a v e d f r o m a m o n s t e r .
Right, T h e s e u s kills t h e M i n o t a u r
(on a f i r s t - c e n t u r y B.C. j a r ) w a t c h e d
by A r i a d n e ; b e l o w , o n a C r e t a n c o i n
(67 B.C.), t h e M i n o t a u r ' s l a b y r i n t h .
the a t t a c h m e n t to his m o t h e r . I n o t h e r w o r d s , h e r o a r c h e t y p e r e p r e s e n t s ; he h a d c l a r i f i e d a n d
he h a d to find a m e a n s o f f r e e i n g t h e p s y c h i c d e v e l o p e d t h a t p a r t o f h i m w h i c h was s y m b o l -
e n e r g y a t t a c h e d to t h e m o t h e r - s o n r e l a t i o n s h i p , ized by t h e w o m a n ; a n d he h a d , by his e g o ' s
in o r d e r to a c h i e v e a m o r e a d u l t r e l a t i o n to h e r o i c a c t , l i b e r a t e d himself f r o m his m o t h e r .
women and, indeed, to a d u l t s o c i e t y as a T h e s e and m a n y other examples o f the hero
whole. T h e h e r o - d r a g o n battle was the symbolic m y t h in m o d e r n d r e a m s s h o w t h a t t h e e g o as
e x p r e s s i o n o f this p r o c e s s o f " g r o w i n g u p . " h e r o is a l w a y s e s s e n t i a l l y a b e a r e r o f c u l t u r e
B u t t h e h e r o ' s task has a n a i m that goes rather than a purely egocentric exhibitionist.
b e y o n d b i o l o g i c a l a n d m a r i t a l a d j u s t m e n t . I t is E v e n T r i c k s t e r , in his m i s g u i d e d o r u n p u r p o s i v e
to l i b e r a t e t h e a n i m a as t h a t i n n e r c o m p o n e n t w a y , is a c o n t r i b u t o r to t h e c o s m o s as p r i m i t i v e
o f the p s y c h e t h a t is n e c e s s a r y for a n y true m a n sees it. In N a v a h o m y t h o l o g y , as C o y o t e ,
creative achievement. I n this m a n ' s c a s e w e he h u r l e d t h e stars i n t o t h e sky as a n a c t o f
h a v e to guess t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f this o u t c o m e c r e a t i o n , he i n v e n t e d the n e c e s s a r y c o n t i n g e n c y
b e c a u s e it is not d i r e c t l y s t a t e d in t h e d r e a m o f o f d e a t h , a n d in t h e m y t h o f e m e r g e n c e he
the I n d i a n journey. But I a m sure he would h e l p e d lead the p e o p l e t h r o u g h t h e h o l l o w reed
c o n f i r m m y h y p o t h e s i s t h a t his j o u r n e y o v e r t h e w h e r e b y t h e y e s c a p e d f r o m o n e w o r l d to a n -
hill a n d the sight o f his g o a l as a p e a c e f u l h a r - o t h e r a b o v e it w h e r e t h e y w e r e safe f r o m t h e
b o r t o w n c o n t a i n e d t h e r i c h p r o m i s e t h a t he t h r e a t o f flood.
w o u l d d i s c o v e r his a u t h e n t i c a n i m a function. W e h a v e h e r e a r e f e r e n c e to t h a t f o r m o f
H e w o u l d thus b e c u r e d o f his e a r l y r e s e n t m e n t c r e a t i v e e v o l u t i o n w h i c h e v i d e n t l y b e g i n s on a
at n o t b e i n g g i v e n p r o t e c t i o n ( t h e r a i n h a t ) b y c h i l d l i k e , p r e c o n s c i o u s , o r a n i m a l level o f exist-
t h e w o m a n for his j o u r n e y t h r o u g h I n d i a . ( I n e n c e . T h e e g o ' s rise to e f f e c t i v e c o n s c i o u s a c t i o n
d r e a m s , s i g n i f i c a n t l y p l a c e d t o w n s c a n often b e b e c o m e s p l a i n in t h e t r u e c u l t u r e - h e r o . I n the
a n i m a symbols.) s a m e fashion t h e c h i l d i s h o r a d o l e s c e n t e g o frees
T h e m a n h a d w o n this p r o m i s e o f s e c u r i t y itself f r o m t h e o p p r e s s i o n o f p a r e n t a l e x p e c t a -
for h i m s e l f by his c o n t a c t w i t h t h e a u t h e n t i c tions a n d b e c o m e s i n d i v i d u a l . As p a r t o f this
hero a r c h e t y p e , and had found a new c o - o p e r a - rise to c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h e h e r o - d r a g o n b a t t l e m a y
tive a n d r e l a t e d a t t i t u d e to t h e g r o u p . His sense have to be f o u g h t a n d refought to liberate
of rejuvenation naturally followed. He had e n e r g y for t h e m u l t i t u d e o f h u m a n tasks that
d r a w n on t h e i n n e r s o u r c e o f s t r e n g t h t h a t t h e can form a culture pattern out o f chaos.
T h e h e r o ' s rescue of a m a i d e n c a n
s y m b o l i z e t h e f r e e i n g of t h e a n i m a
f r o m t h e " d e v o u r i n g " a s p e c t of t h e
m o t h e r . T h i s a s p e c t is r e p r e s e n t e d ,
far left, by B a l i n e s e d a n c e r s w e a r i n g
t h e m a s k of R a n g d a ( l e f t ) , a m a l i g n
f e m a l e s p i r i t ; or by t h e s e r p e n t t h a t
s w a l l o w e d and then regurgitated the
Greek hero J a s o n ( a b o v e ) .

A s in t h e d r e a m d i s c u s s e d o n p 1 2 4 ,
a c o m m o n a n i m a s y m b o l is a h a r b o r
t o w n B e l o w , a p o s t e r by M a r c C h a g a l l
p e r s o n i f i e s N i c e as a m e r m a i d .
W h e n this is s u c c e s s f u l , w e see the full h e r o The archetype of initiation
i m a g e e m e r g i n g as a kind o f e g o s t r e n g t h for,
if we a r e s p e a k i n g in c o l l e c t i v e t e r m s , a t r i b a l
i d e n t i t y ) t h a t has n o f u r t h e r n e e d to o v e r c o m e
the m o n s t e r s a n d t h e g i a n t s . It has r e a c h e d t h e In a p s y c h o l o g i c a l sense the h e r o i m a g e is n o t
p o i n t w h e r e these d e e p forces c a n b e p e r s o n - to b e r e g a r d e d as i d e n t i c a l w i t h the e g o p r o p e r .
a l i z e d . T h e " f e m i n i n e e l e m e n t " no l o n g e r a p - It is b e t t e r d e s c r i b e d as t h e s y m b o l i c m e a n s by
p e a r s in d r e a m s as a d r a g o n , b u t as a w o m a n ; w h i c h the e g o s e p a r a t e s itself from t h e a r c h e -
s i m i l a r l y , the " s h a d o w " side o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y types e v o k e d by t h e p a r e n t a l i m a g e s in e a r l y
takes on a less m e n a c i n g f o r m . c h i l d h o o d . D r . J u n g has suggested t h a t e a c h
This i m p o r t a n t point is i l l u s t r a t e d in the h u m a n b e i n g has o r i g i n a l l y a feeling o f w h o l e -
d r e a m o f a m a n n e a r i n g 5 0 . All his life he h a d ness, a p o w e r f u l a n d c o m p l e t e sense o f the Self.
suffered from p e r i o d i c a t t a c k s o f a n x i e t y asso- And from the S e l f the t o t a l i t y o f t h e p s y c h e
c i a t e d with fear o f f a i l u r e ( o r i g i n a l l y engen- the i n d i v i d u a l i z e d ego-consciousness emerges
d e r e d by a d o u b t i n g m o t h e r ) . Y e t his a c t u a l as the i n d i v i d u a l g r o w s up.
a c h i e v e m e n t s , b o t h in his profession a n d in his Within the past few years, the works of
p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , w e r e well a b o v e a v e r a g e . In c e r t a i n followers of J u n g h a v e b e g u n to d o c u -
his d r e a m his n i n e - y e a r - o l d son a p p e a r e d as a m e n t the series o f e v e n t s by w h i c h the i n d i -
young man of about 18 o r 19, dressed in the v i d u a l e g o e m e r g e s d u r i n g the t r a n s i t i o n from
s h i n i n g a r m o r o f a m e d i e v a l k n i g h t . The y o u n g i n f a n c y t h r o u g h c h i l d h o o d . This s e p a r a t i o n c a n
m a n is called u p o n to fight a host o f m e n in n e v e r b e c o m e final w i t h o u t severe i n j u r y to Un-
b l a c k , w h i c h he p r e p a r e s at first to d o . T h e n he o r i g i n a l sense o f w h o l e n e s s . A n d t h e e g o must
s u d d e n l y r e m o v e s his h e l m e t , a n d smiles at the c o n t i n u a l l y r e t u r n to r e - e s t a b l i s h its r e l a t i o n to
l e a d e r of the m e n a c i n g h o s t ; it is c l e a r that
they will not engage in the b a t t l e b u t will
b e c o m e friends.
The son in the d r e a m is the man's own
y o u t h f u l e g o , w h i c h h a d f r e q u e n t l y felt t h r e a t -
e n e d by t h e s h a d o w in t h e f o r m o f s e l f - d o u b t .
H e h a d , in a sense, w a g e d a successful c r u s a d e
a g a i n s t this a d v e r s a r y all his m a t u r e life. N o w ,
partly through the a c t u a l e n c o u r a g e m e n t of
seeing his son g r o w up w i t h o u t such d o u b t s , but
m a i n l y by f o r m i n g a s u i t a b l e i m a g e o f t h e h e r o
in the f o r m closest to his o w n environmental
p a t t e r n , he finds it n o l o n g e r n e c e s s a r y to fight
t h e s h a d o w ; he c a n a c c e p t it. T h a t is w h a t is
s y m b o l i z e d in t h e a c t o f f r i e n d s h i p . H e is n o
l o n g e r d r i v e n to a c o m p e t i t i v e s t r u g g l e for i n d i -
vidual s u p r e m a c y , b u t is a s s i m i l a t e d to t h e c u l -
tural task o f f o r m i n g a d e m o c r a t i c sort o f c o m -
m u n i t y . S u c h a c o n c l u s i o n , r e a c h e d in t h e full-
ness o f life, goes b e y o n d the h e r o i c task a n d
leads o n e to a t r u l y m a t u r e a t t i t u d e .

This c h a n g e , h o w e v e r , does not t a k e p l a c e


a u t o m a t i c a l l y . It r e q u i r e s a p e r i o d o f t r a n s i t i o n ,
w h i c h is expressed in the v a r i o u s f o r m s o f t h e
a r c h e t y p e of i n i t i a t i o n .

1i 28
28
the S e l f in o r d e r to m a i n t a i n a c o n d i t i o n of Ancient history a n d the rituals o f c o n t e m -
psychic h e a l t h . p o r a r y p r i m i t i v e societies h a v e p r o v i d e d us with
It w o u l d a p p e a r f r o m m y studies t h a t t h e a w e a l t h o f m a t e r i a l a b o u t m y t h s a n d rites o f
hero m y t h is t h e first s t a g e in t h e d i f f e r e n t i a - initiation, whereby young men and women are
tion o f t h e p s y c h e . I h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h a t it weaned a w a y from their parents and forcibly
seems to g o t h r o u g h a fourfold c y c l e by w h i c h m a d e m e m b e r s o f t h e i r c l a n o r t r i b e . B u t in
the ego seeks to a c h i e v e its r e l a t i v e a u t o n o m y m a k i n g this b r e a k w i t h t h e c h i l d h o o d w o r l d ,
from the o r i g i n a l c o n d i t i o n o f w h o l e n e s s . U n l e s s t h e o r i g i n a l p a r e n t a r c h e t y p e will b e i n j u r e d ,
some d e g r e e o f a u t o n o m y is a c h i e v e d , t h e i n d i - a n d t h e d a m a g e must be m a d e g o o d by a h e a l -
vidual is u n a b l e to r e l a t e h i m s e l f to his a d u l t i n g p r o c e s s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o t h e life o f the
environment. But the hero myth does not g r o u p . ( T h e i d e n t i t y o f t h e g r o u p a n d the i n d i -
ensure t h a t this l i b e r a t i o n will o c c u r . It o n l y v i d u a l is o f t e n s y m b o l i z e d by a t o t e m a n i m a l . )
shows h o w it is possible for it to o c c u r , so that T h u s t h e g r o u p fulfills t h e c l a i m s o f t h e i n j u r e d
the ego m a y a c h i e v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s . T h e r e r e - archetv pe a n d b e c o m e s a kind ol s e c o n d parent
mains the p r o b l e m o f m a i n t a i n i n g a n d d e v e l o p - to w h i c h t h e y o u n g a r e first s y m b o l i c a l l y s a c r i -
ing that c o n s c i o u s n e s s in a m e a n i n g f u l w a y , so ficed, o n l y to r e - e m e r g e i n t o a n e w life.
that the i n d i v i d u a l c a n live a useful life a n d In this " d r a s t i c c e r e m o n y , w h i c h looks v e r y
can a c h i e v e t h e n e c e s s a r y sense o f s e l f - d i s t i n c - like a s a c r i f i c e to t h e p o w e r s t h a t m i g h t hold
tion in s o c i e t y . t h e y o u n g m a n b a c k , " as D r . J u n g has put it,

A primitive t r i b e ' s totem ( o f t e n an


animal) s y m b o l i z e s e a c h t r i b e s m a n ' s
identity w i t h t h e t r i b a l u n i t . Left,
an A u s t r a l i a n a b o r i g i n e i m i t a t i n g
(in a ritual d a n c e ) his t r i b e ' s t o t e m
a n emu. M a n y modern groups
use t o t e m - l i k e a n i m a l s as e m b l e m s :
Below, a heraldic lion ( f r o m the
Belgian c o a t of a r m s ) o n a 1 7 t h -
century a l l e g o r i c a l m a p of B e l g i u m .
Right, t h e f a l c o n is t h e m a s c o t o f
the A m e r i c a n A i r Force A c a d e m y ' s
f o o t b a l l t e a m . Far r i g h t , m o d e r n
totemistic e m b l e m s that aren't
animals: a s h o p w i n d o w d i s p l a y
of ties, b a d g e s , etc. of B r i t i s h
schools a n d c l u b s .

I 2 9
w c sec h o w t h e p o w e r o f t h e o r i g i n a l a r c h e t y p e
can n e v e r be p e r m a n e n t l y o v e r c o m e , in the
m a n n e r e n v i s a g e d by the h e r o - d r a g o n b a t t l e ,
w i t h o u t a c r i p p l i n g sense ol a l i e n a t i o n from the
fruitful p o w e r s o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s . W e saw in
the m y t h o f the Twins h o w t h e i r hybris, ex-
pressing e x c e s s i v e e g o - S e l f s e p a r a t i o n , was c o r -
r e c t e d by t h e i r o w n f e a r o f t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s ,
w h i c h forced t h e m b a c k i n t o a h a r m o n i o u s e g o -
Self relation.
In t r i b a l societies it is the i n i t i a t i o n rite that
most e f f e c t i v e l y solves this p r o b l e m . T h e ritual
takes the n o v i c e b a c k to the deepesl level ol
original mother-child identity or e g o - S e l f iden-
tity, thus f o r c i n g h i m to e x p e r i e n c e a s y m b o l i c
d e a t h . In o t h e r w o r d s , his i d e n t i t y is t e m p o -
r a r i l y d i s m e m b e r e d o r dissolved in the c o l l e c t i v e
u n c o n s c i o u s . F r o m this s t a t e he is then c e r e -
m o n i a l l y r e s c u e d by the rite ol the new b i r t h .
This is the first act o f t r u e c o n s o l i d a t i o n ol the
e g o with the l a r g e r g r o u p , e x p r e s s e d as t o t e m ,
c l a n , or t r i b e , o r all t h r e e c o m b i n e d .
The ritual, whether it is f o u n d in tribal
g r o u p s o r in m o r e c o m p l e x s o c i e t i e s , i n v a r i a b l y
insists u p o n this rite o f d e a t h a n d r e b i r t h , w h i c h
p r o v i d e s the n o v i c e with a " r i t e o f p a s s a g e "
from o n e s t a g e o f life to the n e x t , w h e t h e r it is
from e a r l y c h i l d h o o d to l a t e r c h i l d h o o d or from
early to late a d o l e s c e n c e and from then to
maturity.
Initiatory e v e n t s a r e n o t , o f c o u r s e , c o n f i n e d a n a l y s i s . It is not s u r p r i s i n g that t h e r e should
to the p s y c h o l o g y o f y o u t h . E v e r y new p h a s e o f a p p e a r , in the u n c o n s c i o u s o f s o m e o n e w h o is
development t h r o u g h o u t a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s life is seeking help from a doctor specializing in
accompanied by a r e p e t i t i o n o f the original psychic d i s o r d e r s , i m a g e s that d u p l i c a t e the
conflict b e t w e e n the c l a i m s o f the Sell a n d the m a j o r p a t t e r n s o f i n i t i a t i o n as we know them
claims ol the e g o . In f a c t , this c o n f l i c t m a y be from h i s t o r y .
expressed more powerfully at the period of P e r h a p s t h e c o m m o n e s t ol these t h e m e s to be
transition from e a r l y m a t u r i t y to m i d d l e a g e f o u n d in y o u n g p e o p l e is the o r d e a l , o r trial of
(between 3 5 a n d 4 0 in o u r society t h a n at a n y s t r e n g t h . T h i s m i g h t s e e m to be i d e n t i c a l with
other time in life. A n d the transition from what we have already noticed in modern
middle a g e to old a g e c r e a t e s a g a i n the need d r e a m s i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e h e r o m y t h , such as the
for a f f i r m a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n the s a i l o r w h o h a d to s u b m i t to t h e w e a t h e r a n d to
ego and the total p s y c h e ; the h e r o receives his b e a t i n g s , or that p r o o f o f fitness r e p r e s e n t e d in
last call to a c t i o n in d e f e n s e o f e g o - c o n s c i o u s - t h e h i k e t h r o u g h I n d i a o f the m a n w i t h o u t a
ness against the a p p r o a c h i n g dissolution o f life r a i n h a t . W e c a n also sec this t h e m e o f physical
in death. s u f f e r i n g c a r r i e d to its logical e n d in the first
At these c r u c i a l p e r i o d s , the a r c h e t y p e of d r e a m I discussed, w h e n the h a n d s o m e y o u n g
initiation is s t r o n g l y activated to p r o v i d e a m a n b e c a m e a h u m a n s a c r i f i c e on an a l t a r .
meaningful transition that offers something This s a c r i f i c e r e s e m b l e d the a p p r o a c h to i n i t i a -
more s p i r i t u a l l y s a t i s f y i n g t h a n the a d o l e s c e n t tion, but its end was o b s c u r e d . It s e e m e d to
rites with t h e i r s t r o n g s e c u l a r flavor. T h e a r c h e - r o u n d o f f the h e r o c y c l e , to m a k e way lor a
typal p a t t e r n s ol i n i t i a t i o n in this religious sense new t h e m e .
known since a n c i e n t t i m e s as " t h e m y s t e r i e s " T h e r e is o n e striking d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n the
are w o v e n i n t o t h e t e x t u r e o f all e c c l e s i a s t i c a l h e r o m y t h a n d the i n i t i a t i o n rite. T h e typical
rituals r e q u i r i n g a s p e c i a l m a n n e r o f w o r s h i p at h e r o figures e x h a u s t t h e i r efforts in a c h i e v i n g
the time o f b i r t h , m a r r i a g e , o r d e a t h . the goal of their ambitions; in s h o r t , they
As in o u r study o f the h e r o m y t h , so in the b e c o m e successful even i f i m m e d i a t e l y after-
study o f i n i t i a t i o n we must look for e x a m p l e s ward thev are punished or killed for their
in the s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s o f m o d e r n p e o p l e hybris. In c o n t r a s t to this, the n o v i c e for i n i t i a -
and e s p e c i a l l y o f those w h o h a v e undergone tion is c a l l e d u p o n to give up willful a m b i t i o n

Primitive i n i t i a t i o n rituals b r i n g
the y o u t h i n t o a d u l t h o o d a n d i n t o
the tribe's c o l l e c t i v e i d e n t i t y . In
many p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s , i n i t i a t i o n
is a c c o m p l i s h e d by c i r c u m c i s i o n (a
symbolic s a c r i f i c e ) . Here are f o u r
stages in a c i r c u m c i s i o n rite o f
Australian a b o r i g i n e s . Far l e f t . t o p
and center: T h e b o y s are p l a c e d
under b l a n k e t s (a s y m b o l i c d e a t h
from w h i c h t h e y w i l l be r e b o r n ) .
Bottom, t h e y are r e m o v e d a n d h e l d
by the m e n for t h e a c t u a l o p e r a t i o n .
Left, the c i r c u m c i s e d b o y s are
given m e n ' s c o n i c a l c a p s , a m a r k of
their n e w s t a t u s . R i g h t , t h e y are
finally i s o l a t e d f r o m the tribe t o
be purified a n d g i v e n i n s t r u c t i o n .

'3 1
and all desire and to submit to the ordeal. He that the initiate will over-reach himself. Instead,
must be willing to experience this trial without he has learned a lesson in humility by experi-
hope of success. In fact, he must be prepared encing a rite of death and rebirth that marks
to die; and though the token of his ordeal may his passage from youth to maturity.
be mild (a period of fasting, the knocking out According to his chronological age he should
of a tooth, or tattooing) or agonizing (the inflic- already have made this transition, but a pro-
tion of the wounds of circumcision, subincision, longed period of arrested development has held
or other mutilations), the purpose remains him back. This delay had plunged him into a
always the same: T o create the symbolic mood neurosis for which he had come for treatment,
of death from which may spring the symbolic and the dream offers him the same wise counsel
mood of rebirth. that he could have been given by any good
A young man of 25 dreams of climbing a tribal medicine man that he should give up
mountain on top of which there is a kind of scaling mountains to prove his strength and
altar. Near the altar he sees a sarcophagus with submit to the meaningful ritual of an initiatory
a statue of himself upon it. T h e n a veiled priest change that could fit him for the new moral
approaches carrying a staff on which there responsibilities of manhood.
glows a living sun-disk. (Discussing the dream T h e theme of submission as an essential
later, the young man said that climbing a attitude toward promotion of the successful
mountain reminded him of the effort he was initiation rite can be clearly seen in the case of
making in his analysis to achieve self-mastery.) girls or women. Their rite of passage initially
T o his surprise, he finds himself, as it were, emphasizes their essential passivity, and this is
dead, and instead of a sense of achievement he reinforced by the psychological limitation on
feels deprivation and fear. Then comes a feeling theirautonomyimposedby the menstrual cycle.
of strength and rejuvenation as he is bathed It has been suggested that the menstrual cycle
in the warm rays of the sun-disk. may actually be the major part of initiation
This dream shows quite succinctly the dis- from a woman's point of view, since it has the
tinction we must make between initiation and power to awaken the deepest sense of obedience
the hero myth. T h e act of climbing the moun- to life's creative power over her. Thus she will-
tain seems to suggest a trial of strength: It is ingly gives herself to her womanly function,
the will to achieve ego-consciousness in the much as a man gives himself to his assigned
heroic phase of adolescent development. T h e role in the community life of his group.
patient had evidently thought that his approach On the other hand, the woman, no less than
to therapy would be like his approach to other the man, has her initial trials of strength that
tests of manhood, which he had approached in
the competitive manner characteristic of young
men in our society. But the scene by the altar
corrected this mistaken assumption, showing
him that his task is rather to submit to a power
greater than himself. He must see himself as if
he were dead and entombed in a symbolic form
(the sarcophagus) that recalls the archetypal
mother as the original container of all life. Only
A sarcophagus from second-century
by such an act of submission can he experience
A . D . T h e b e s t h a t reveals a s y m b o l i c
rebirth. An invigorating ritual brings him to life c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e a r c h e t y p a l Great
again as the symbolic son of a Sun Father. M o t h e r ( t h e c o n t a i n e r of all l i f e ) .
T h e i n s i d e of t h e c o v e r bears a p o r t r a i t
Here again we might confuse this with a hero of t h e E g y p t i a n g o d d e s s N u t ;
thus the goddess w o u l d " e m b r a c e "
cycle that of the Twins, the "children of the t h e b o d y of t h e d e c e a s e d ( w h o s e
S u n . " But in this case we have no indication p o r t r a i t is o n t h e base, far r i g h t ) .

I 3 2
'33
lead to a final s a c r i f i c e for the s a k e of e x p e r i -
e n c i n g the n e w b i r t h . T h i s s a c r i f i c e e n a b l e s a
w o m a n to free h e r s e l f f r o m t h e e n t a n g l e m e n t o f
p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s a n d fits h e r for a m o r e c o n -
scious role as an i n d i v i d u a l in h e r o w n r i g h t .
In c o n t r a s t , a m a n ' s s a c r i f i c e is a s u r r e n d e r o f
his s a c r e d independence: He becomes more
c o n s c i o u s l y r e l a t e d to w o m a n .
H e r e we c o m e to that a s p e c t o f i n i t i a t i o n
which a c q u a i n t s m a n with w o m a n and w o m a n
w i t h m a n in such a w a y as to c o r r e c t s o m e sort
of original male-female opposition. Man's
knowledge (Logos) then encounters woman's
relatedness E r o s i a n d t h e i r u n i o n is r e p r e s e n t e d
as t h a t s y m b o l i c r i t u a l o f a s a c r e d marriage
w h i c h has b e e n at t h e h e a r t o f i n i t i a t i o n s i n c e
its origins in the m y s t e r y - r e l i g i o n s o f a n t i q u i t y .
But this is e x c e e d i n g l y difficult for modern
p e o p l e to g r a s p , a n d it f r e q u e n t l y takes a special
crisis in t h e i r lives to m a k e t h e m u n d e r s t a n d it.
Several patients have told me dreams in
w h i c h the m o t i f o f s a c r i f i c e is c o m b i n e d with
the m o t i f o f the s a c r e d m a r r i a g e . O n e o f these
was p r o d u c e d by a y o u n g m a n w h o h a d fallen
in love but was u n w i l l i n g to m a r r y for fear that
m a r r i a g e w o u l d b e c o m e a kind o f prison p r e -
sided o v e r by a p o w e r f u l m o t h e r figure. His
o w n m o t h e r h a d b e e n a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e in his
c h i l d h o o d , a n d his f u t u r e m o t h e r - i n - l a w p r e -
s e n t e d a s i m i l a r t h r e a t . W o u l d not his w i f e - t o -

Four v a r i e d i n i t i a t i o n c e r e m o n i e s :
T o p left, n o v i c e s in a c o n v e n t
p e r f o r m s u c h h u m b l e d u t i e s as
s c r u b b i n g a f l o o r ( f r o m the 1 9 5 8
f i l m The Nun's Story), a n d h a v e
their hair c u t off ( f r o m a m e d i e v a l
p a i n t i n g ) . Center, ship's passengers
crossing the equator must undergo a
"rite of p a s s a g e . " B o t t o m , A m e r i c a n
c o l l e g e f r e s h m e n in a t r a d i t i o n a l
b a t t l e w i t h their s e n i o r s .

M a r r i a g e c a n be seen as an i n i t i a t i o n
rite in w h i c h t h e m a n a n d t h e w o m a n
m u s t s u b m i t t o o n e a n o t h e r B u t in
s o m e s o c i e t i e s t h e m a n o f f s e t s his
submission by ritually " a b d u c t i n g "
his b r i d e as d o t h e D y a k s of M a l a y s i a
and Borneo (right, from the 1955
f i l m The Lost Continent). A remnant
of t h i s p r a c t i c e exists in t o d a y ' s
c u s t o m of c a r r y i n g t h e bride a c r o s s
t h e t h r e s h o l d (far r i g h t ) .

1
:Y\
be d o m i n a t e h i m in t h e s a m e w a y these m o t h e r s H e felt d e e p l y a s h a m e d o f his c o w a r d l y failure
had d o m i n a t e d t h e i r c h i l d r e n ? to s a c r i f i c e h i m s e l f with the o t h e r s .
In 11 is d r e a m he was e n g a g e d in a ritual This d r e a m b r o u g h t h o m e to m y p a t i e n t the
dance a l o n g w i t h a n o t h e r m a n a n d t w o o t h e r fact t h a t he was m o r e t h a n r e a d y to c h a n g e
women, o n e o f w h o m was his fiancee. The his a t t i t u d e to life. H e h a d b e e n s e l f - c e n t e r e d ,
others w e r e a n o l d e r m a n a n d wife, w h o i m - s e e k i n g t h e illusory safety o f p e r s o n a l i n d e p e n -
pressed t h e d r e a m e r b e c a u . s e . d e s p i t e t h e i r c l o s e - d e n c e but inwardly dominated by t h e fears
n e s s to e a c h o t h e r , t h e y s e e m e d to h a v e r o o m c a u s e d by c h i l d h o o d s u b j e c t i o n to his m o t h e r .
for their i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , a n d did nol H e n e e d e d a c h a l l e n g e to his m a n h o o d in o r d e r
appear to be possessive. T h e s e t w o therefore to see that unless he s a c r i f i c e d his c h i l d i s h s t a t e
represented to this y o u n g m a n a m a r r i e d state- o f m i n d he w o u l d be left isolated a n d a s h a m e d .
that did not i m p o s e u n d u e c o n s t r a i n t on the T h e d r e a m , a n d his s u b s e q u e n t insight i n t o its
development o f the individual n a t u r e of the two m e a n i n g , dispelled his d o u b t s . H e h a d passed
partners. I f it w e r e possible for h i m to a c h i e v e t h r o u g h the s y m b o l i c rite by w h i c h a y o u n g
this c o n d i t i o n , m a r r i a g e w o u l d t h e n become man gives up his exclusive autonomy and
a c c e p t a b l e to h i m . a c c e p t s his s h a r e d life in a r e l a t e d , not j u s t
In the ritual dance each man faced his heroic, form.
woman p a r t n e r , a n d all f o u r t o o k t h e i r p l a c e s A n d so he m a r r i e d a n d f o u n d appropriate
at the c o r n e r s o f a s q u a r e d a n c i n g g r o u n d . As fulfillment in his r e l a t i o n s h i p with his wife. F a r
they d a n c e d , it b e c a m e a p p a r e n t that this was from i m p a i r i n g his e f f e c t i v e n e s s in the w o r l d ,
also a kind o f s w o r d d a n c e . E a c h d a n c e r h a d his m a r r i a g e a c t u a l l y e n h a n c e d it.
in his h a n d a short s w o r d with w h i c h to p e r - Quite apart from the neurotic fear that
form a difficult a r a b e s q u e , m o v i n g a r m s a n d invisible m o t h e r s or l a t h e r s may be lurking
legs in a series o f m o v e m e n t s that suggested behind the marriage veil, even the normal
alternate i m p u l s e s ol a g g r e s s i o n a n d s u b m i s s i o n voting m a n has g o o d reason to leel a p p r e h e n -
to each o t h e r . In the final s c e n e o f the d a n c e sive a b o u t the w e d d i n g r i t u a l . It is essentially
all four d a n c e r s h a d to plunge- the swords i n t o a w o m a n ' s i n i t i a t i o n rite, in w h i c h a m a n is
their own b r e a s t s a n d d i e . O n l y the d r e a m e r b o u n d to feel like a n y t h i n g but a c o n q u e r i n g
refused to a c c o m p l i s h the final s u i c i d e , a n d was h e r o . No w o n d e r we find, in t r i b a l societies,
left s t a n d i n g a l o n e a f t e r t h e o t h e r s h a d fallen. such c o u n t e r p h o b i c rituals as the a b d u c t i o n o r

'35
rape o f the bride. T h e s e enable the m a n to w h i c h she c o u l d a c c e p t a b a l a n c e d a n d n a t u r a l
c l i n g to t h e r e m n a n t s o f his h e r o i c r o l e at the r e l a t i o n t o t h e m a s c u l i n e p r i n c i p l e ) she h a d
v e r y m o m e n t t h a t h e m u s t s u b m i t to his b r i d e w r o n g l y a s s u m e d t h a t she h a d to p u t h e r e n t i r e
and assume the responsibilities o f m a r r i a g e . c o n s c i o u s (i.e. r i g h t - s i d e d ) i d e n t i t y in t h e ser-
B u t t h e t h e m e o f m a r r i a g e is a n i m a g e o f vice o f the m a n . In fact, m a r r i a g e required her
such u n i v e r s a l i t y t h a t it also has a d e e p e r m e a n - to s h a r e w i t h h i m o n l y t h a t s u b l i m i n a l , n a t u r a l
i n g . It is a n a c c e p t a b l e , e v e n n e c e s s a r y , s y m - (i.e. left-sided) p a r t o f h e r s e l f in w h i c h the
bolic discovery o f the feminine c o m p o n e n t o f a p r i n c i p l e o f u n i o n w o u l d h a v e a s y m b o l i c , not
m a n ' s o w n p s y c h e , j u s t as m u c h as it is t h e a l i t e r a l o r a b s o l u t e , m e a n i n g . H e r f e a r was the
a c q u i s i t i o n o f a r e a l wife. S o o n e m a y e n c o u n - fear o f the w o m a n w h o d r e a d s to lose her
t e r this a r c h e t y p e in a m a n o f any age in identity in a s t r o n g l y patriarchal marriage,
r e s p o n s e to a s u i t a b l e s t i m u l u s . w h i c h this w o m a n h a d g o o d r e a s o n to resist.
N o t all w o m e n , h o w e v e r , r e a c t t r u s t i n g l y to Nevertheless, the sacred marriage as an
the married state. A w o m a n patient who had archetypal form has a particularly important
unfulfilled l o n g i n g s f o r a c a r e e r , w h i c h she h a d m e a n i n g for t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f w o m e n , a n d o n e
h a d to give u p for a v e r y difficult a n d s h o r t - for w h i c h t h e y a r e p r e p a r e d d u r i n g t h e i r a d o -
lived m a r r i a g e , d r e a m e d t h a t she w a s k n e e l i n g lescence by m a n y preliminary events o f an
o p p o s i t e a m a n w h o w a s also k n e e l i n g . H e h a d initiatory character.
a r i n g t h a t he p r e p a r e d to p u t o n h e r f i n g e r ,
b u t she s t r e t c h e d o u t h e r r i g h t - h a n d r i n g f i n g e r
in a tense mannerevidently resisting this The archetypal sacred marriage (the
ritual of marital union. u n i o n of o p p o s i t e s , of t h e m a l e a n d
f e m a l e p r i n c i p l e s ) r e p r e s e n t e d here
It w a s easy to p o i n t o u t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t e r r o r . by a 1 9 t h - c e n t u r y I n d i a n s c u l p t u r e
Instead o f offering the left-hand ring finger (by of t h e d e i t i e s Siva a n d P a r v a t i .
Beauty and the Beast

Girls in o u r s o c i e t y s h a r e in t h e m a s c u l i n e h e r o o f y o u n g w o m e n like herself, a n d as she l o o k e d


myths b e c a u s e , like b o y s , t h e y m u s t also d e - a h e a d to w h e r e t h e y w e r e g o i n g she s a w t h a t as
velop a r e l i a b l e e g o - i d e n t i t y a n d a c q u i r e an e a c h c a m e to t h e h e a d o f t h e l i n e she was d e -
e d u c a t i o n . B u t t h e r e is a n o l d e r l a y e r o f t h e capitated by a guillotine. W i t h o u t any fear the
mind t h a t s e e m s to c o m e to t h e s u r f a c e in t h e i r d r e a m e r r e m a i n e d in t h e l i n e , p r e s u m a b l y q u i t e
feelings, w i t h t h e a i m o f m a k i n g t h e m into w i l l i n g to s u b m i t to t h e s a m e t r e a t m e n t w h e n
women, n o t i n t o i m i t a t i o n men. When this her turn c a m e .
ancient c o n t e n t o f t h e p s y c h e b e g i n s to m a k e I e x p l a i n e d to h e r t h a t this m e a n t she was
its a p p e a r a n c e , t h e m o d e r n y o u n g w o m a n m a y r e a d y to g i v e u p t h e h a b i t o f " l i v i n g in h e r
repress it b e c a u s e it t h r e a t e n s to c u t h e r o f f h e a d " ; she m u s t l e a r n to free h e r b o d y to dis-
from the e m a n c i p a t e d e q u a l i t y o f f r i e n d s h i p c o v e r its n a t u r a l s e x u a l r e s p o n s e a n d t h e fulfill-
and o p p o r t u n i t y to c o m p e t e w i t h men that m e n t o f its b i o l o g i c a l role in m o t h e r h o o d . T h e
have b e c o m e h e r m o d e r n p r i v i l e g e s . d r e a m e x p r e s s e d this as t h e n e e d to m a k e a
T h i s r e p r e s s i o n m a y b e so successful t h a t for d r a s t i c c h a n g e ; she h a d to s a c r i f i c e t h e " m a s c u -
a time she will m a i n t a i n a n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h l i n e " hero role.
the m a s c u l i n e i n t e l l e c t u a l goals she l e a r n e d at As o n e m i g h t e x p e c t , this e d u c a t e d w o m a n
school or c o l l e g e . E v e n w h e n she m a r r i e s , she h a d n o difficulty in a c c e p t i n g this i n t e r p r e t a t i o n
will preserve s o m e illusion o f f r e e d o m , d e s p i t e at a n i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l , a n d she set a b o u t t r y i n g
her ostensible a c t o f s u b m i s s i o n to t h e a r c h e t y p e to c h a n g e h e r s e l f i n t o a m o r e s u b m i s s i v e k i n d
of m a r r i a g e w i t h its i m p l i c i t i n j u n c t i o n to o f w o m a n . S h e did t h e n i m p r o v e h e r love-life
b e c o m e a m o t h e r . A n d so t h e r e m a y o c c u r , as and b e c a m e the m o t h e r of two very satisfactory
we very f r e q u e n t l y see today, that conflict c h i l d r e n . As she g r e w to k n o w h e r s e l f b e t t e r ,
which in t h e e n d forces t h e w o m a n to redis- she b e g a n to sec t h a t for a m a n (or t h e m a s c u -
cover h e r b u r i e d w o m a n h o o d in a p a i n f u l ( b u t l i n e - t r a i n e d m i n d in w o m e n ) life is s o m e t h i n g
ultimately r e w a r d i n g ) m a n n e r . t h a t has to be t a k e n by s t o r m , as a n a c t o f t h e
I saw a n e x a m p l e o f this in a y o u n g m a r r i e d h e r o i c w i l l ; b u t for a w o m a n to feel r i g h t a b o u t
woman w h o did n o t y e t h a v e a n y c h i l d r e n b u t herself, life is best r e a l i z e d b y a p r o c e s s of
who i n t e n d e d to h a v e o n e o r t w o e v e n t u a l l y , awakening.
because it w o u l d b e e x p e c t e d o f h e r . Mean- A universal myth expressing this k i n d of
while h e r s e x u a l r e s p o n s e was u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . a w a k e n i n g is f o u n d in t h e f a i r y t a l e o f B e a u t y
This w o r r i e d h e r a n d h e r h u s b a n d , t h o u g h t h e y a n d t h e B e a s t . T h e b e s t - k n o w n v e r s i o n o f this
were u n a b l e to o f f e r a n y e x p l a n a t i o n for it. story r e l a t e s h o w B e a u t y , t h e y o u n g e s t o f four
She h a d g r a d u a t e d w i t h h o n o r s f r o m a g o o d daughters, becomes her father'sfavorite because
women's c o l l e g e a n d e n j o y e d a life o f i n t e l l e c - o f h e r unselfish g o o d n e s s . W h e n she asks h e r
tual c o m p a n i o n s h i p w i t h h e r h u s b a n d a n d o t h e r f a t h e r o n l y for a w h i t e r o s e , i n s t e a d o f t h e m o r e
men. A l t h o u g h this side o f h e r life w e n t well c o s t l y p r e s e n t s d e m a n d e d b y t h e o t h e r s , she is
enough m u c h o f t h e t i m e , she h a d o c c a s i o n a l a w a r e only of her i n n e r sincerity o f feeling. She
outbursts o f t e m p e r a n d t a l k e d in a n aggressive does n o t k n o w t h a t she is a b o u t to e n d a n g e r
fashion t h a t a l i e n a t e d m e n a n d g a v e h e r a n i n - h e r f a t h e r ' s life a n d h e r i d e a l r e l a t i o n w i t h h i m .
tolerable feeling o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h herself. F o r he steals t h e w h i t e rose f r o m t h e e n c h a n t e d
She h a d a d r e a m at this t i m e t h a t s e e m e d so g a r d e n o f B e a s t , w h o is s t i r r e d to a n g e r b y t h e
i m p o r t a n t she s o u g h t professional advice to theft and requires him to return in three
understand it. S h e d r e a m e d she w a s in a line m o n t h s for his p u n i s h m e n t , p r e s u m a b l y d e a t h .

137
(In allowing the lather this r e p r i e v e to go At this the c a s t l e is Idled with a b l a z e o f light
h o m e with his g i l t . Beast b e h a v e s out o f c h a r - a n d the s o u n d o f m u s i c , a n d Beast d i s a p p e a r s .
a c t e r , e s p e c i a l l y w h e n he also o i l e r s to send h i m I n his p l a c e s t a n d s a h a n d s o m e p r i n c e , w h o
a t r u n k full o f gold w h e n he gets h o m e . As tells Beauty that he h a d b e e n e n c h a n t e d by a
Beauty's father c o m m e n t s , the Beast seems cruel w i t c h a n d t u r n e d i n t o the B e a s t . The spell was
a n d kind at the s a m e t i m e . ) o r d a i n e d to last until a b e a u t i f u l girl should
B e a u t y insists u p o n t a k i n g h e r f a t h e r ' s p u n - love Beast for his g o o d n e s s a l o n e .
i s h m e n t a n d r e t u r n s a f t e r t h r e e m o n t h s to the In this s t o r y , if we u n r a v e l the s y m b o l i s m , we
e n c h a n t e d c a s t l e . T h e r e she is g i v e n a b e a u t i f u l a r e likely to see that B e a u t y is any y o u n g girl
r o o m w h e r e she has no w o r r i e s a n d n o t h i n g to or w o m a n w h o has e n t e r e d i n t o an e m o t i o n a l
fear e x c e p t the o c c a s i o n a l visits o f B e a s t , w h o b o n d with h e r l a t h e r , no less b i n d i n g b e c a u s e
r e p e a t e d l y c o m e s to ask h e r if she will s o m e d a y o f its s p i r i t u a l n a t u r e . H e r g o o d n e s s is s y m b o l -
m a r r y h i m . S h e a l w a y s refuses. T h e n , s e e i n g in ized by h e r r e q u e s t lor a w h i t e rose, but in a
a m a g i c m i r r o r a p i c t u r e o f h e r f a t h e r l y i n g ill. significant twist o f m e a n i n g her unconscious
she begs Beast to a l l o w h e r to r e t u r n to c o m f o r t i n t e n t i o n puts h e r l a t h e r a n d t h e n h e r s e l f in
h i m , p r o m i s i n g to r e t u r n in a w e e k . B e a s t tells the p o w e r o f a p r i n c i p l e that expresses not
h e r that he will die if she deserts h i m . but she g o o d n e s s a l o n e , but cruelty a n d kindness c o m -
m a y go for a w e e k . b i n e d . It is as if she wished to be r e s c u e d from
At h o m e , h e r r a d i a n t p r e s e n c e b r i n g s joy to a love h o l d i n g h e r to an e x c l u s i v e l y virtuous
her l a t h e r a n d e n v y to h e r sisters, w h o plot to and unreal attitude.
d e t a i n h e r l o n g e r t h a n h e r p r o m i s e d stay. At Bv l e a r n i n g to love Beast she a w a k e n s to the
length she d r e a m s that Beast is d y i n g o f d e s p a i r . p o w e r o f h u m a n love c o n c e a l e d in its a n i m a l
S o . r e a l i z i n g she has o v e r s t a y e d h e r t i m e , she and therefore imperfect but g e n u i n e l y erotic
r e t u r n s to r e s u s c i t a t e h i m . f o r m . P r e s u m a b l y this r e p r e s e n t s a n a w a k e n i n g
Q u i t e f o r g e t t i n g the d y i n g B e a s t ' s ugliness. o f h e r true f u n c t i o n o f r e l a t c d n c s s , e n a b l i n g h e r
B e a u t y m i n i s t e r s to h i m . H e tells h e r t h a t _ h c to a c c e p t the e r o t i c c o m p o n e n t o f h e r o r i g i n a l
was u n a b l e to live w i t h o u t h e r . a n d that he will wish, w h i c h had to be repressed b e c a u s e ol a
die happy now that she has returned. But fear o f incest. To l e a v e h e r f a t h e r she h a d . as
B e a u t y realizes that she c a n n o t live w i t h o u t it w e r e , lo a c c e p t the i n c c s l - l e a r . to allow her-
Beast, that she has fallen in love with h i m . S h e self to live in its p r e s e n c e in f a n t a s y until she
tells h i m so. a n d p r o m i s e s to be his wile i f o n l y c o u l d get to k n o w the a n i m a l m a n a n d d i s c o v e r
he will noi die. h e r own true response to it as a w o m a n .

Three s c e n e s f r o m t h e 1 9 4 6 f i l m of
Beauty and the Beast ( d i r e c t e d b y
France's J e a n C o c t e a u ) : Left,
B e a u t y ' s father c a u g h t s t e a l i n g t h e
w h i t e rose f r o m t h e B e a s t ' s g a r d e n ;
right, t h e Beast d y i n g ; far r i g h t ,
t h e Beast t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a P r i n c e ,
w a l k i n g w i t h Beauty. The story can
be said to s y m b o l i z e a y o u n g g i r l ' s
i n i t i a t i o n i.e. her release f r o m
her b o n d w i t h the father, in o r d e r
to c o m e to t e r m s w i t h t h e e r o t i c
a n i m a l side of her n a t u r e . U n t i l this
is d o n e , she c a n n o t a c h i e v e a t r u e
relationship w i t h a man.
In ihis way she redeems herself and her A woman of menopausal age reported the
image ol the m a s c u l i n e from the forces o f re- following d r e a m :
pression, b r i n g i n g to c o n s c i o u s n e s s h e r c a p a c i t y
to trust h e r love as s o m e t h i n g that combines I am with several anonymous women whom I
spirit a n d n a t u r e in the best sense o f the w o r d s . don't seem to know. W e go downstairs in a
strange house, and are confronted suddenly by
A d r e a m <>l an e m a n c i p a t e d w o m a n p a t i e n t some grotesque " a p e - m e n ' ' with evil laces dressed
ol mine r e p r e s e n t e d this need to r e m o v e the in fur with trray and black rings, with tails, hor-
incest-fear, a very real fear in this patient's rible and leering. W e arc completely in their
thoughts, because ol her father's over-close power, but suddenly I feel the only way we can
attachment to h e r f o l l o w i n g his wife's d e a t h . save ourselves is not to panic and run or fight,
but to treat these creatures with humanity as il
I he d r e a m s h o w e d h e r b e i n g c h a s e d In a furi-
to make them aware of their better side. So one
ous bull. S h e lied at first, but r e a l i z e d it was no ol the ape-men comes up to me and I greet him
use. S h e fell a n d the bull w a s u p o n h e r . S h e like a dancing partner and begin to dance with
knew h e r o n l y h o p e was to sing to the b u l l , a n d him.
when she d i d . t h o u g h in a q u a v e r i n g v o i c e , the Later. I have been given supernatural healing
hull c a l m e d d o w n a n d b e g a n l i c k i n g h e r h a n d powers and there is a man who is at death's door.
I have a kind of quill or perhaps a bird's beak
with its t o n g u e . T h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s h o w e d that
through which I blow air into his nostrils and he
she c o u l d n o w l e a r n to r e l a t e to m e n in a m o r e begins to breathe again.
confidently f e m i n i n e w a y not o n l y s e x u a l l y ,
hut e r o t i c a l l y in t h e w i d e r sense o f r e l a t e d n e s s D u r i n g the years o f h e r m a r r i a g e a n d the
on the level ol h e r c o n s c i o u s i d e n t i t y . r a i s i n g o f h e r c h i l d r e n , this w o m a n b a d b e e n
But in the cases o f o l d e r w o m e n , the Beasi o b l i g e d to n e g l e c t h e r c r e a t i v e g i l l , with w h i c h
theme m a y not i n d i c a t e the need to find the she h a d o n c e m a d e a s m a l l but g e n u i n e r e p u t a -
answer to a personal fixation or to release tion as a w r i t e r . At the l i m e o f h e r d r e a m she
a sexual i n h i b i t i o n , or a n y o f the things that b a d b e e n t r y i n g to force h e r s e l f b a c k to work
the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l l y m i n d e d r a t i o n a l i s t m a y a g a i n , at the s a m e t i m e c r i t i c i z i n g hersell un-
see in the m y t h . It c a n b e . in fact, (he e x p r e s - m e r c i f u l l y lor not b e i n g a b e t t e r wife, f r i e n d ,
sion ol a c e r t a i n kind o f w o m a n ' s initiation, and m o t h e r . T h e d r e a m showed her problem
which may be just as m e a n i n g f u l al the onset in the light o f o t h e r w o m e n w h o m i g h t b e g o i n g
of the m e n o p a u s e as at the h e i g h t o f a d o l e s - t h r o u g h a s i m i l a r t r a n s i t i o n , d e s c e n d i n g , as the
c e n c e ; a n d it may a p p e a l at a n y a g e . w h e n the dream puts il. i n t o the lower regions ol a
union ol spirit a n d n a t u r e has b e e n d i s t u r b e d . s t r a n g e b o u s e from a too highly c o n s c i o u s level.
T h i s w e c a n guess to b e t h e e n t r a n c e to s o m e d i s c h a r g i n g h e r f e m i n i n e , wifely f u n c t i o n in a
meaningful aspect of the collective unconscious, n a t u r a l w a y . ( I n a s s o c i a t i o n to this d r e a m she
w i t h its c h a l l e n g e to a c c e p t t h e m a s c u l i n e p r i n - said: " W h e n my husband comes h o m e , my
c i p l e as a n i m a l - m a n , t h a t s a m e h e r o i c , c l o w n - c r e a t i v e side goes u n d e r g r o u n d a n d I b e c o m e
like T r i c k s t e r f i g u r e w e m e t at t h e b e g i n n i n g the over-organized housewife.") Her dream
o f the p r i m i t i v e h e r o c y c l e s . takes this u n e x p e c t e d t u r n o f t r a n s f o r m i n g h e r
F o r h e r to r e l a t e t o this a p e - m a n , a n d h u - spirit g o n e b a d i n t o t h e w o m a n she m u s t a c c e p t
m a n i z e h i m by b r i n g i n g out w h a t is g o o d in a n d c u l t i v a t e in h e r s e l f ; in this w a y she c a n
h i m , m e a n t t h a t she w o u l d first h a v e t o a c c e p t harmonize her creative intellectual interests
some unpredictable element o f her natural with the i n s t i n c t s that enable h e r to relate
c r e a t i v e s p i r i t . W i t h this she c o u l d c u t a c r o s s w a r m l y to o t h e r s .
t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l b o n d s o f h e r life a n d l e a r n to T h i s involves a new a c c e p t a n c e o f the dual
w r i t e in a n e w w a y , m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e for h e r p r i n c i p l e o f life in n a t u r e , o f t h a t w h i c h is c r u e l
in t h e s e c o n d p a r t o f life. b u t k i n d , o r , as w e m i g h t say in h e r c a s e , r u t h -
T h a t this i m p u l s e is r e l a t e d to t h e c r e a t i v e lessly a d v e n t u r o u s b u t at t h e s a m e t i m e h u m b l y
m a s c u l i n e p r i n c i p l e is s h o w n in t h e s e c o n d s c e n e and creatively domestic. T h e s e opposites obvi-
w h e r e she r e s u s c i t a t e s a m a n by b l o w i n g a i r ously c a n n o t b e r e c o n c i l e d e x c e p t on a h i g h l y
t h r o u g h a k i n d o f b i r d ' s b e a k i n t o his nose. s o p h i s t i c a t e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l level o f a w a r e n e s s ,
T h i s p n e u m a t i c p r o c e d u r e suggests the need for a n d w o u l d o f c o u r s e b e h a r m f u l to t h a t i n n o -
a r e v i v a l o f t h e spirit r a t h e r t h a n t h e p r i n c i p l e c e n t c h i l d in h e r S u n d a y - s c h o o l dress.
o f e r o t i c w a r m t h . It is a s y m b o l i s m k n o w n all T h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o n e c o u l d p l a c e on this
over the world: The ritual act brings the w o m a n ' s d r e a m is t h a t she n e e d e d to o v e r c o m e
c r e a t i v e b r e a t h o f life to a n y n e w a c h i e v e m e n t . s o m e e x c e s s i v e l y n a i v e i m a g e o f herself. S h e h a d
T h e dream of another woman emphasizes to b e w i l l i n g to e m b r a c e t h e full p o l a r i t y o f h e r
the " n a t u r e " aspect o f Beauty and the B e a s t : feelings just as B e a u t y h a d to g i v e u p the
i n n o c e n c e o f t r u s t i n g in a f a t h e r w h o c o u l d not
Something flies or is thrown in through the g i v e h e r t h e p u r e w h i t e rose o f his f e e l i n g w i t h -
window, like a large insect with whirling spiral o u t a w a k e n i n g t h e b e n e f i c e n t fury o f the B e a s t .
legs, yellow and black. It then becomes a queer
animal, striped yellow and black, like a tiger, with
bear-like, almost human paws and a pointed wolf-
like face. It may run loose and harm children.
It is Sunday afternoon, and I see a little girl all
dressed in white on her way to Sunday school.
I must get the police to help.
But then I see the creature has become part
woman, part animal. It fawns upon me, wants to
be loved. I feel it's a fairy-tale situation, or a
dream, and only kindness can transform it. I try
to embrace it warmly, but I can't go through with
it. I push it away. But I have the feeling I must
keep it near and get used to it and maybe some-
day I'll be able to kiss it.

H e r e we have a different situation from the A b o v e , t h e Greek g o d D i o n y s u s


previous o n e . T h i s w o m a n h a d b e e n t o o i n t e n - e c s t a t i c a l l y p l a y i n g t h e lute ( i n a
vase p a i n t i n g ) . T h e f r e n z i e d a n d
sively c a r r i e d a w a y b y t h e m a s c u l i n e c r e a t i v e o r g i a s t i c rites of t h e D i o n y s i a c
f u n c t i o n w i t h i n herself, w h i c h h a d b e c o m e a cults symbolized initiation into
nature's mysteries. Right, M a e n a d s
c o m p u l s i v e , m e n t a l ( t h a t is, " a i r - b o r n e " ) p r e - w o r s h i p i n g D i o n y s u s ; far r i g h t ,
o c c u p a t i o n . T h u s she has b e e n p r e v e n t e d from satyrs in t h e s a m e w i l d w o r s h i p .

140
Orpheus and the Son of Man

" B e a u t y a n d t h e B e a s t " is a f a i r y t a l e w i t h t h e abandon h i m s e l f to his a n i m a l nature and


q u a l i t y o f a wild f l o w e r , a p p e a r i n g so u n e x p e c t - t h e r e b y e x p e r i e n c e t h e full f e r t i l i z i n g p o w e r o f
edly a n d c r e a t i n g in us s u c h a n a t u r a l sense o f t h e E a r t h M o t h e r . T h e i n i t i a t i n g a g e n t for this
w o n d e r t h a t w e d o n o t n o t i c e for t h e m o m e n t rite o f p a s s a g e in t h e D i o n y s i a c r i t u a l was w i n e .
that it b e l o n g s to a d e f i n i t e class, g e n u s , a n d I t w a s s u p p o s e d to p r o d u c e t h e s y m b o l i c l o w e r -
species o f p l a n t . T h e k i n d o f m y s t e r y i n h e r e n t i n g o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s n e c e s s a r y to i n t r o d u c e t h e
in s u c h a story is g i v e n a u n i v e r s a l a p p l i c a t i o n novice into the closely guarded secrets of
not o n l y in a l a r g e r h i s t o r i c a l m y t h , b u t also in n a t u r e , w h o s e e s s e n c e was e x p r e s s e d b y a s y m -
the r i t u a l s w h e r e b y t h e m y t h is e x p r e s s e d o r bol o f erotic fulfillment: the god Dionysus
from w h i c h it m a y b e d e r i v e d . j o i n e d w i t h A r i a d n e , his c o n s o r t , in a s a c r e d
T h e type o f ritual a n d myth appropriately marriage ceremony.
expressing this t y p e o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x p e r i e n c e I n t i m e t h e rites o f D i o n y s u s lost t h e i r e m o -
is e x e m p l i f i e d in t h e G r e c o - R o m a n r e l i g i o n o f tive religious p o w e r . T h e r e e m e r g e d a n a l m o s t
D i o n y s u s , a n d in its s u c c e s s o r , t h e r e l i g i o n o f o r i e n t a l l o n g i n g for l i b e r a t i o n f r o m t h e i r e x c l u -
Orpheus. B o t h o f these religions provided a sive p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h t h e p u r e l y n a t u r a l s y m -
significant i n i t i a t i o n o f t h e t y p e k n o w n as " m y s - bols o f life a n d l o v e . T h e D i o n y s i a c religion,
t e r i e s . " T h e y b r o u g h t forth s y m b o l s a s s o c i a t e d s h i f t i n g c o n s t a n t l y f r o m s p i r i t u a l to p h y s i c a l
with a g o d - m a n o f a n d r o g y n o u s c h a r a c t e r w h o a n d b a c k a g a i n , p e r h a p s p r o v e d t o o wild a n d
was s u p p o s e d to h a v e a n i n t i m a t e u n d e r s t a n d - t u r b u l e n t for s o m e m o r e a s c e t i c souls. T h e s e
ing o f t h e a n i m a l o r p l a n t w o r l d a n d to b e c a m e to e x p e r i e n c e t h e i r religious ecstasies i n -
the m a s t e r o f i n i t i a t i o n i n t o t h e i r s e c r e t s . w a r d l y , in t h e w o r s h i p o f O r p h e u s .
T h e Dionysiac religion contained orgiastic O r p h e u s was p r o b a b l y a r e a l m a n , a s i n g e r ,
rites t h a t i m p l i e d t h e n e e d for a n i n i t i a t e to prophet, a n d teacher, w h o was martyred and

I I
4
w h o s e t o m b b e c a m e a s h r i n e . N o w o n d e r the act of God's incarnation in man. Alter his
e a r l y C h r i s t i a n c h u r c h saw in O r p h e u s the p r o - d e a t h , he r e t u r n e d to h e a v e n but returned
t o t y p e o f C h r i s t . B o t h religions b r o u g h t to the o n c e a n d for a l l . to reign on the right h a n d ol
late H e l l e n i s t i c w o r l d the p r o m i s e o f a f u t u r e G o d until t h e S e c o n d C o m i n g " w h e n the d e a d
d i v i n e life. B e c a u s e t h e y w e r e m e n , yet also shall a r i s e . "
m e d i a t o r s o f t h e d i v i n e , for t h e m u l t i t u d e s o f O f c o u r s e the a s c e t i c i s m o f early C h r i s t i a n i t y
t h e d y i n g G r e c i a n c u l t u r e in t h e d a y s o f the did not last. T h e m e m o r y o f t h e c y c l i c mysteries
R o m a n E m p i r e t h e y held t h e l o n g e d - f o r h o p e haunted its followers to the e x t e n t that the
o f a f u t u r e life. C h u r c h eventually h a d to i n c o r p o r a t e many
T h e r e was, h o w e v e r , o n e i m p o r t a n t differ- p r a c t i c e s from the p a g a n past i n t o its rituals.
e n c e b e t w e e n the r e l i g i o n ol O r p h e u s a n d the T h e most m e a n i n g f u l ol these may be f o u n d in
religion o f C h r i s t . T h o u g h s u b l i m a t e d i n t o a the old r e c o r d s o f w h a t was d o n e on Holy
m y s t i c a l f o r m , t h e O r p h i c m y s t e r i e s kept a l i v e S a t u r d a y a n d E a s t e r S u n d a y in c e l e b r a t i o n o f
the old D i o n y s i a c r e l i g i o n . T h e s p i r i t u a l im- the r e s u r r e c t i o n o f C h r i s t the b a p t i s m a l ser-
petus c a m e from a d e m i - g o d , in w h o m was vice that the m e d i e v a l c h u r c h m a d e i n t o a suit-
preserved the most significant cpiality of a a b l e a n d d e e p l y m e a n i n g f u l i n i t i a t i o n rite. But
religion r o o t e d in t h e a r t o f a g r i c u l t u r e . That t h a t r i t u a l has scarcely s u r v i v e d i n t o m o d e r n
cpiality was the old p a t t e r n o f t h e fertility gods times, and it is c o m p l e t e l y absent in Pro-
w h o c a m e o n l y for t h e season in o t h e r w o r d s , testantism.
the eternally recurrent cycle of birth, growth, T h e r i t u a l t h a t has s u r v i v e d m u c h better,
fullness, a n d d e c a y . a n d that still c o n t a i n s t h e m e a n i n g o f a c e n t r a l
C h r i s t i a n i t y , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , dispelled the i n i t i a t i o n m y s t e r y for the d e v o u t , is t h e C a t h o l i c
m y s t e r i e s . C h r i s t was the p r o d u c t a n d r e f o r m e r p r a c t i c e o f the e l e v a t i o n o f the c h a l i c e . It has
of a p a t r i a r c h a l , nomadic, pastoral religion, b e e n d e s c r i b e d by D r . J u n g in his " T r a n s f o r -
whose p r o p h e t s r e p r e s e n t e d t h e i r M e s s i a h as a m a t i o n Symbolism in the M a s s " :
being of absolutely divine origin. The Son o f " T h e lifting up o f the c h a l i c e in the a i r p r e -
M a n . t h o u g h b o r n o f a h u m a n v i r g i n , h a d his p a r e s the s p i r i t u a l i z a t i o n . . . o f t h e w i n e . This
b e g i n n i n g in h e a v e n , w h e n c e he c a m e in a n is c o n f i r m e d by the i n v o c a t i o n to the Holy

142
Ghost that i m m e d i a t e l y follows. . . . T h e i n v o - A b o v e , a D i o n y s i a c ritual d e p i c t e d
o n t h e great f r e s c o in t h e V i l l a
cation serves to infuse t h e w i n e w i t h holy spirit, of the M y s t e r i e s at P o m p e i i . In
lor it is t h e H o l y G h o s t w h o b e g e t s , fulfills, a n d t h e c e n t e r an i n i t i a t e is o f f e r e d
t h e c e r e m o n i a l c u p of D i o n y s u s , in
transforms. . . . A f t e r t h e e l e v a t i o n , t h e c h a l i c e
w h i c h he sees a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e
was, in f o r m e r t i m e s , set d o w n to the r i g h t o f g o d - m a s k h e l d b e h i n d . T h i s is a
s y m b o l i c i n f u s i o n of t h e d r i n k w i t h
the H o s t , to c o r r e s p o n d w i t h t h e b l o o d that
t h e g o d ' s spirit w h i c h can be said
flowed f r o m t h e right side o f C h r i s t . " to parallel t h e R o m a n C a t h o l i c
c e r e m o n y of e l e v a t i n g the c h a l i c e
T h e r i t u a l o f c o m m u n i o n is e v e r y w h e r e the
during Mass ( b e l o w )
same, w h e t h e r it is e x p r e s s e d by d r i n k i n g o f t h e
cup o f D i o n y s u s o r o f the holy C h r i s t i a n c h a -
lice; but t h e level ol a w a r e n e s s e a c h b r i n g s to
(he i n d i v i d u a l participant is d i f f e r e n t . The
Dionysiac p a r t i c i p a n t looks b a c k to the o r i g i n
ol things, to the " s t o r m - b i r t h " o f t h e g o d w h o
is blasted f r o m the resistant w o m b o f M o t h e r
E a r t h . In t h e frescoes o f t h e V i l l a d e M i s t e r i in
P o m p e i i , the e n a c t e d rite e v o k e d t h e god as a
mask o f t e r r o r r e f l e c t e d in t h e c u p o f D i o n y s u s
offered by the priest to t h e i n i t i a t e . E a t e r we
find the w i n n o w i n g b a s k e t , with its p r e c i o u s
fruits o f the e a r t h , a n d t h e p h a l l u s as c r e a t i v e
symbols o f t h e g o d ' s m a n i f e s t a t i o n as the p r i n -
ciple o f b r e e d i n g a n d g r o w t h .
In c o n t r a s t to this b a c k w a r d look, with its
central focus on n a t u r e ' s e t e r n a l c y c l e o f b i r t h
and d e a t h , the C h r i s t i a n m y s t e r y p o i n t s for-
ward to the i n i t i a t e ' s u l t i m a t e h o p e of u n i o n
with a t r a n s c e n d e n t g o d . M o t h e r N a t u r e , with

143
Left, O r p h e u s c h a r m i n g t h e b e a s t s
w i t h his s o n g ( i n a R o m a n m o s a i c ) ;
a b o v e , t h e m u r d e r of O r p h e u s b y
Thracian w o m e n ( o n a Greek vase).
B e l o w left, C h r i s t as t h e G o o d
S h e p h e r d (a s i x t h - c e n t u r y m o s a i c ) .
B o t h O r p h e u s a n d C h r i s t parallel
t h e a r c h e t y p e of t h e m a n of n a t u r e
a l s o r e f l e c t e d in t h e p a i n t i n g b y
Cranach ( b e l o w ) of "natural m a n ' s "
i n n o c e n c e . F a c i n g p a g e , left, t h e
18th-century French philosopher
R o u s s e a u , w h o p u t f o r w a r d t h e idea
of t h e " n o b l e s a v a g e " t h e s i m p l e
c h i l d of n a t u r e free of sin a n d evil.
Far r i g h t , t h e title p a g e of Walden,
by the 19th -century American writer
T h o r e a u , w h o b e l i e v e d in a n d f o l l o w e d
a n a t u r a l w a y of life a l m o s t w h o l l y
i n d e p e n d e n t of c i v i l i z a t i o n .

I 4 4
all her b e a u t i f u l s e a s o n a l c h a n g e s , has b e e n left In a s t a t e o f h e a v y f a t i g u e a n d d e p r e s s i o n , a
b e h i n d , a n d the c e n t r a l figure o f C h r i s t i a n i t y w o m a n u n d e r g o i n g a n a l y s i s h a d this f a n t a s y :
offers s p i r i t u a l c e r t a i n t y , for he is t h e S o n o f
God in h e a v e n . I sit on the side of a long narrow table in a
high vaulted room with no window. My body is
Y e t the t w o s o m e h o w fuse in the figure o f
hunched over and shrunken. T h e r e is nothing
O r p h e u s , t h e god w h o r e m e m b e r s D i o n y s u s but
over me but a long white linen cloth that hangs
looks f o r w a r d to Christ. The psychological from my shoulders to the floor. Something crucial
sense o f this i n t e r m e d i a t e figure has b e e n d e - has happened to me. T h e r e is not much life lelt
scribed by t h e Swiss a u t h o r L i n d a F i e r z - D a v i d , in me. Red crosses on gold disks appear before
in her i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e O r p h i c rite p i c t u r e d my eyes. I recall that I have made some sort of
commitment a long time ago and wherever I am
in the V i l l a d e M i s t e r i :
now must be part of this. I sit there a long time.
" O r p h e u s t a u g h t w h i l e he s a n g a n d p l a y e d Now I slowly open my eyes and I see a man
the lyre, a n d his s i n g i n g w a s so p o w e r f u l t h a t who sits beside me who is to heal me. He appears
it m a s t e r e d all n a t u r e ; w h e n he s a n g to his natural and kind and he is talking to me though
lyre the birds flew a b o u t h i m , the fish left t h e I don't hear him. He seems to know all about
where I have been. I am aware that I am very
water a n d s p r a n g to h i m . T h e w i n d a n d t h e
ugly and that there must be an odor of death
sea b e c a m e still, t h e rivers flowed u p w a r d t o -
around me. I wonder if he will be repelled. 1 look
ward h i m . It did not s n o w a n d t h e r e w a s n o at him for a very long time. He does not turn
hail. T r e e s a n d t h e v e r y stones f o l l o w e d a f t e r away. I breathe more easily.
O r p h e u s ; tiger a n d lion lay d o w n n e a r him T h e n I feel a cool breeze, or cool water, pour
next to the s h e e p , a n d t h e wolves n e x t to the over my body. I wrap the white linen cloth across
stag a n d the r o e . N o w w h a t does this m e a n ? me now and prepare for a natural sleep. T h e
man's healing bands are on my shoulders. I recall
It surely m e a n s t h a t t h r o u g h a d i v i n e insight
vaguely that there was a time when there were
into the m e a n i n g o f n a t u r a l e v e n t s . . . n a t u r e ' s wounds there but the pressure of his hands seems
happenings b e c o m e h a r m o n i o u s l y o r d e r e d f r o m to give me strength and healing.
within. E v e r y t h i n g b e c o m e s light a n d all c r e a -
tures a p p e a s e d when the mediator, in the T h i s w o m a n h a d p r e v i o u s l y felt t h r e a t e n e d
act of w o r s h i p i n g , r e p r e s e n t s the light o f n a t u r e . bv d o u b t s a b o u t h e r o r i g i n a l religious affilia-
Orpheus is a n e m b o d i m e n t of devotion and tion. S h e had been brought u p as a d e v o u t
piety; he s y m b o l i z e s t h e religious a t t i t u d e t h a t
solves all c o n f l i c t s , s i n c e t h e r e b y the w h o l e soul
is turned t o w a r d t h a t w h i c h lies o n t h e o t h e r
side of all c o n f l i c t . . . . A n d as he does this, h e
is truly O r p h e u s ; t h a t is, a g o o d s h e p h e r d , his
primitive e m b o d i m e n t . . . . "

Both as g o o d shepherd and as mediator.


Orpheus strikes t h e b a l a n c e b e t w e e n t h e D i o -
nysiac religion a n d t h e C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n , s i n c e
we find b o t h D i o n y s u s a n d C h r i s t in s i m i l a r
roles, t h o u g h , as I h a v e s a i d , d i f f e r e n t l y o r i e n -
ted as to t i m e a n d d i r e c t i o n in s p a c e one a
cyclic religion of t h e n e t h e r w o r l d , t h e o t h e r
heavenly a n d e s c h a t o l o g i c a l , o r final. T h i s series
of initiatory e v e n t s , d r a w n f r o m t h e c o n t e x t o f
religious history, is r e p e a t e d endlessly a n d w i t h
practically e v e r y c o n c e i v a b l e i n d i v i d u a l twist o f
meaning in the d r e a m s a n d f a n t a s i e s o f m o d e r n
people.

'45
C a t h o l i c o f t h e old s c h o o l , b u t s i n c e h e r y o u t h
she had struggled to free herself from the
f o r m a l r e l i g i o u s c o n v e n t i o n s f o l l o w e d by her
family. Y e t the symbolic events o f the c h u r c h
y e a r a n d t h e r i c h n e s s o f h e r insight i n t o t h e i r
meaning remained with her throughout the
p r o c e s s o f h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a n g e ; a n d in h e r
analysis I found this w o r k i n g knowledge of
religious s y m b o l i s m m o s t h e l p f u l .
T h e s i g n i f i c a n t e l e m e n t s she singled out o f
her fantasy were the white cloth, which she
u n d e r s t o o d as a s a c r i f i c i a l c l o t h ; t h e v a u l t e d
r o o m , w h i c h she c o n s i d e r e d to b e a t o m b ; a n d
h e r c o m m i t m e n t , w h i c h she a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e
e x p e r i e n c e o f s u b m i s s i o n . T h i s c o m m i t m e n t , as
she c a l l e d it, s u g g e s t e d a r i t u a l o f i n i t i a t i o n w i t h
a perilous descent into the vault o f d e a t h , which
s y m b o l i z e d t h e w a y she h a d left c h u r c h and
f a m i l y to e x p e r i e n c e G o d in h e r o w n f a s h i o n .
S h e h a d u n d e r g o n e a n " i m i t a t i o n o f C h r i s t " in
the t r u e s y m b o l i c s e n s e , a n d like h i m s h e h a d
suffered t h e w o u n d s t h a t p r e c e d e d this d e a t h .
The s a c r i f i c i a l c l o t h suggests t h e winding
s h e e t o r s h r o u d in w h i c h t h e c r u c i f i e d C h r i s t
was w r a p p e d a n d t h e n p l a c e d in t h e t o m b . T h e
e n d o f t h e f a n t a s y i n t r o d u c e s t h e h e a l i n g figure
o f a m a n , loosely a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m e as h e r
a n a l y s t b u t a p p e a r i n g also in his n a t u r a l role
as a f r i e n d fully a w a r e o f h e r e x p e r i e n c e . He
speaks to h e r in w o r d s she c a n n o t yet h e a r , b u t
his h a n d s a r e r e a s s u r i n g a n d give a sense o f
h e a l i n g . O n e senses in this figure t h e t o u c h a n d
the word o f the good shepherd, O r p h e u s or
Christ, as m e d i a t o r and also, o f course, as
h e a l e r . H e is o n t h e side of life a n d has to c o n -
vince her that she m a y now c o m e back from
the vault o f death.

S h a l l we c a l l this r e b i r t h o r resurrection?
B o t h , p e r h a p s , o r n e i t h e r . T h e essential rite p r o -
c l a i m s i t s e l f at t h e e n d : T h e c o o l b r e e z e or
w a t e r f l o w i n g o v e r h e r b o d y is t h e p r i m o r d i a l
a c t o f p u r i f i c a t i o n o r c l e a n s i n g o f t h e sin o f
d e a t h , the essence o f true baptism.
T h e same woman had a n o t h e r fantasy in
w h i c h she felt t h a t h e r b i r t h d a y fell u p o n the
day o f Christ's resurrection. ( T h i s was much
m o r e m e a n i n g f u l for h e r t h a n t h e m e m o r y o f
h e r m o t h e r , w h o h a d n e v e r g i v e n h e r t h e feel-

146
ing of r e a s s u r a n c e a n d r e n e w a l she so m u c h depart too far from her family's conventional
wished for o n h e r c h i l d h o o d b i r t h d a y s . ) But r e l i g i o n . B u t r e l i g i o u s s y m b o l i s m is s i g n i f i c a n t
this did not m e a n she i d e n t i f i e d h e r s e l f w i t h b y its a b s e n c e . A l l is in t h e h a n d s o f n a t u r e ; w e
the figure o f C h r i s t . F o r all his p o w e r and are clearly in the realm of the shepherd
glory, s o m e t h i n g was l a c k i n g ; a n d as she tried O r p h e u s r a t h e r t h a n t h e risen C h r i s t .
to reach him through prayer, he and his A dream followed this sequence, which
cross were lifted up to heaven out of her b r o u g h t h e r to a c h u r c h r e s e m b l i n g t h e c h u r c h
human r e a c h . in Assisi w i t h G i o t t o ' s frescoes o f S t . F r a n c i s .
In this s e c o n d f a n t a s y she fell b a c k u p o n t h e S h e felt m o r e a t h o m e h e r e t h a n she w o u l d in
symbol o f r e b i r t h as a rising s u n , a n d a n e w other churches because St. Francis, like
feminine s y m b o l b e g a n to m a k e its a p p e a r a n c e . O r p h e u s , w a s a religious m a n o f n a t u r e . T h i s
First o f all it a p p e a r e d as a n " e m b r y o in a r e v i v e d h e r feelings a b o u t t h e c h a n g e in h e r
watery s a c k . " T h e n she w a s c a r r y i n g a n e i g h t - religious a f f i l i a t i o n t h a t h a d b e e n so p a i n f u l to
year-old b o y t h r o u g h the water "passing a u n d e r g o , b u t n o w s h e b e l i e v e d she c o u l d j o y -
danger p o i n t . " T h e n a n e w m o v e m e n t o c c u r r e d fully f a c e t h e e x p e r i e n c e , i n s p i r e d b y t h e light
in which she n o l o n g e r felt t h r e a t e n e d o r u n d e r of nature.
the influence o f d e a t h . S h e w a s " i n a forest by T h e series o f d r e a m s e n d e d w i t h a d i s t a n t
a little spring w a t e r f a l l . . . g r e e n vines g r o w all echo o f the religion o f Dionysus. ( O n e could
around. I n m y h a n d s I h a v e a s t o n e b o w l in say t h a t this w a s a r e m i n d e r t h a t e v e n O r p h e u s
which t h e r e is s p r i n g w a t e r , s o m e g r e e n moss, c a n at t i m e s b e a little too f a r r e m o v e d f r o m
and violets. I b a t h e m y s e l f u n d e r t h e w a t e r f a l l . the fecundating power of the animal-god in
It is golden a n d ' s i l k y ' a n d I feel like a c h i l d . " m a n . ) S h e d r e a m e d t h a t she w a s l e a d i n g a fair-
T h e sense o f t h e s e e v e n t s is c l e a r , t h o u g h it is h a i r e d c h i l d by t h e h a n d . " W e a r e happily
possible to miss t h e i n n e r m e a n i n g in t h e c r y p - p a r t i c i p a t i n g in a festival t h a t i n c l u d e s t h e sun
tic description o f so m a n y c h a n g i n g images. a n d t h e forests a n d flowers all a r o u n d . The
Here we h a v e , it s e e m s , a p r o c e s s o f r e b i r t h in c h i l d has a l i t t l e w h i t e f l o w e r in h e r h a n d , a n d
which a l a r g e r s p i r i t u a l s e l f is r e b o r n a n d b a p - she p l a c e s it o n t h e h e a d o f a b l a c k b u l l . T h e
tized in n a t u r e as a c h i l d . M e a n w h i l e she has bull is p a r t o f t h e festival a n d is c o v e r e d with
rescued an o l d e r c h i l d w h o w a s , in s o m e w a y , festive d e c o r a t i o n s . " T h i s r e f e r e n c e r e c a l l s t h e
her own e g o a t t h e m o s t t r a u m a t i c p e r i o d o f a n c i e n t rites t h a t c e l e b r a t e d D i o n y s u s in t h e
her c h i l d h o o d . S h e then carried it through guise o f a b u l l .
water past t h e d a n g e r p o i n t , thus i n d i c a t i n g h e r But the dream did not end there. The
fear of a p a r a l y z i n g sense of guilt i f she s h o u l d w o m a n a d d e d : " S o m e t i m e l a t e r t h e b u l l is

Above left, t h e Persian g o d M i t h r a s


sacrificing t h e b u l l . T h e s a c r i f i c e
(also part of D i o n y s i a c rites) c a n
be seen as a s y m b o l of t h e v i c t o r y
of man's spiritual n a t u r e o v e r his
a n i m a l i t y o f w h i c h t h e b u l l is a
common s y m b o l . ( T h i s m a y e x p l a i n
the popularity in s o m e c o u n t r i e s
of b u l l f i g h t i n g , left.) R i g h t , an
etching by Picasso (1 9 3 5 ) d e p i c t s
a girl threatened by a M i n o t a u r
here, as in the m y t h of T h e s e u s ,
a symbol of m a n ' s u n c o n t r o l l a b l e
instinctive f o r c e s .
pierced by a golden arrow." Now, besides O n a f u n e r a l u r n f o u n d in a R o m a n g r a v e
D i o n y s u s , t h e r e is a n o t h e r p r e - C h r i s t i a n rite in n e a r t h e C o l u m b a r i u m on t h e E s q u i l i n e Hill we
w h i c h t h e bull p l a y s a s y m b o l i c r o l e . T h e P e r - find a c l e a r b a s - r e l i e f r e p r e s e n t i n g s c e n e s o f the
sian s u n - g o d M i t h r a s s a c r i f i c e s a b u l l . H e , like final stage of initiation where the n o v i c e is
O r p h e u s , r e p r e s e n t s t h e l o n g i n g for a life o f a d m i t t e d to t h e p r e s e n c e a n d c o n v e r s e o f t h e
t h e spirit t h a t m i g h t t r i u m p h o v e r t h e p r i m i t i v e goddesses. T h e rest o f t h e design is d e v o t e d to
a n i m a l passions o f m a n a n d , a f t e r a c e r e m o n y t w o p r e l i m i n a r y c e r e m o n i e s o f p u r i f i c a t i o n the
o f i n i t i a t i o n , give h i m p e a c e . s a c r i f i c e o f the " m y s t i c p i g , " a n d a m y s t i c i z e d
T h i s series o f i m a g e s c o n f i r m s a s u g g e s t i o n v e r s i o n o f t h e s a c r e d m a r r i a g e . T h i s all p o i n t s
that is found in many fantasy or dream to a n i n i t i a t i o n i n t o d e a t h , b u t in a f o r m that
s e q u e n c e s o f this t y p e t h a t t h e r e is n o final lacks the finality o f m o u r n i n g . It h i n t s at t h a t
p e a c e , no r e s t i n g p o i n t . In t h e i r religious quest element o f the later mysteries especially of
m e n a n d w o m e n e s p e c i a l l y those w h o live in Orphism which makes death carry a promise
modern Western C h r i s t i a n i z e d societies a r e o f i m m o r t a l i t y . Christianity went even further.
still in the p o w e r o f those e a r l y t r a d i t i o n s that It promised something more than immortality
strive w i t h i n t h e m for s u p r e m a c y , It is a c o n - ( w h i c h in t h e old sense o f t h e c y c l i c mysteries
flict o f p a g a n o r C h r i s t i a n beliefs, o r , o n e m i g h t m i g h t m e r e l y m e a n r e i n c a r n a t i o n ) , for i t o f f e r e d
say, o f rebirth or resurrection. t h e f a i t h f u l a n e v e r l a s t i n g life in h e a v e n .
A m o r e d i r e c t c l u e to t h e s o l u t i o n o f this S o we see a g a i n , in m o d e r n life, the t e n d e n c y
d i l e m m a is to b e f o u n d , in this w o m a n ' s first to r e p e a t old p a t t e r n s . T h o s e w h o h a v e to l e a r n
f a n t a s y , in a c u r i o u s p i e c e o f s y m b o l i s m that to f a c e d e a t h m a y h a v e to r e l e a r n t h e old m e s -
c o u l d easily b e o v e r l o o k e d . T h e w o m a n says s a g e t h a t tells us t h a t d e a t h is a m y s t e r y for
t h a t in h e r d e a t h v a u l t s h e s a w b e f o r e h e r eyes w h i c h we m u s t p r e p a r e ourselves in the s a m e
a vision o f red crosses o n g o l d disks. A s b e c a m e spirit of s u b m i s s i o n a n d h u m i l i t y as we o n c e
c l e a r l a t e r in h e r a n a l y s i s , she was a b o u t to e x - l e a r n e d to p r e p a r e ourselves for life.
perience a profound psychic change and to
e m e r g e o u t o f this " d e a t h " i n t o a n e w kind o f
life. W e might imagine, therefore, that this
i m a g e , w h i c h c a m e to h e r in t h e d e p t h o f h e r
d e s p a i r o f life, s h o u l d in s o m e w a y h e r a l d h e r
f u t u r e r e l i g i o u s a t t i t u d e . In h e r s u b s e q u e n t w o r k
she did in f a c t p r o d u c e e v i d e n c e for t h i n k i n g
t h a t t h e red crosses r e p r e s e n t e d h e r d e v o t i o n to
the C h r i s t i a n a t t i t u d e , w h i l e t h e gold disks r e -
presented her devotion to t h e pre-Christian
m y s t e r y r e l i g i o n s . H e r vision h a d told h e r t h a t
she m u s t r e c o n c i l e these C h r i s t i a n a n d p a g a n
e l e m e n t s in t h e n e w life t h a t lay a h e a d .

O n e last, b u t i m p o r t a n t , o b s e r v a t i o n con-
c e r n s t h e a n c i e n t i n i t i a t i o n rites a n d t h e i r r e l a -
tion to C h r i s t i a n i t y . T h e i n i t i a t i o n rite c e l e -
b r a t e d in t h e E l e u s i n i a n m y s t e r i e s ( t h e rites o f
w o r s h i p o f t h e fertility goddesses D e m e t e r a n d
Persephone] w a s not c o n s i d e r e d appropriate
m e r e l y for those w h o s o u g h t to live life m o r e
a b u n d a n t l y ; it was also used as a p r e p a r a t i o n
for d e a t h , as i f d e a t h also r e q u i r e d a n i n i t i a -
tory rite o f p a s s a g e o f t h e s a m e k i n d .

i
4
Symbols of transcendence

The symbols t h a t i n f l u e n c e m a n vary in t h e i r t r a n s i t i o n in a p e r s o n s life. B u t these s y m b o l s


purpose. S o m e m e n n e e d to b e a r o u s e d , a n d d o not seek to i n t e g r a t e the i n i t i a t e w i t h a n y
experience t h e i r i n i t i a t i o n in t h e v i o l e n c e o f a religious d o c t r i n e o r s e c u l a r g r o u p - c o n s c i o u s -
Dionysiac " t h u n d e r r i t e . " O t h e r s n e e d to b e ness. O n the c o n t r a r y , t h e y point to m a n ' s need
subdued, a n d t h e y a r e b r o u g h t to s u b m i s s i o n in for l i b e r a t i o n f r o m a n y s t a t e o f b e i n g t h a t is
the ordered design o f t e m p l e p r e c i n c t o r s a c r e d too i m m a t u r e , too fixed o r f i n a l . I n o t h e r w o r d s ,
cave, suggestive o f t h e A p o l l o n i a n r e l i g i o n of they c o n c e r n m a n ' s release from or t r a n s c e n d -
later G r e e c e . A full i n i t i a t i o n e m b r a c e s both e n c e o f a n y c o n f i n i n g p a t t e r n o f e x i s t e n c e , as
themes, as we c a n see w h e n w e look e i t h e r at he m o v e s t o w a r d a s u p e r i o r o r m o r e mature
the m a t e r i a l d r a w n f r o m a n c i e n t texts o r at s t a g e in his d e v e l o p m e n t .
living s u b j e c t s . B u t it is q u i t e c e r t a i n t h a t the A c h i l d , as I h a v e s a i d , possesses a sense o f
fundamental g o a l o f i n i t i a t i o n lies in t a m i n g the c o m p l e t e n e s s , b u t o n l y b e f o r e t h e initial e m e r -
original T r i c k s t e r - l i k e wildness o f t h e j u v e n i l e g e n c e o f his e g o - c o n s c i o u s n e s s . In t h e c a s e o f a n
nature. It t h e r e f o r e has a c i v i l i z i n g o r s p i r i t u - adult, a sense of completeness is achieved
alizing p u r p o s e , in s p i t e o f t h e v i o l e n c e o f t h e t h r o u g h a u n i o n of" the c o n s c i o u s n e s s with the
rites that a r e r e q u i r e d to set this p r o c e s s in u n c o n s c i o u s c o n t e n t s o f the m i n d . O u t o f this
motion. u n i o n arises w h a t J u n g c a l l e d " t h e t r a n s c e n d -
T h e r e is, h o w e v e r , a n o t h e r kind o f s y m b o l i s m , e n t f u n c t i o n o f t h e p s y c h e , " by w h i c h a m a n
belonging to t h e e a r l i e s t k n o w n s a c r e d t r a d i - c a n a c h i e v e his h i g h e s t g o a l : t h e full r e a l i z a t i o n
tions, that is also c o n n e c t e d with the p e r i o d s of o f the p o t e n t i a l o f his i n d i v i d u a l Self.

Both a bird a n d a s h a m a n (i.e. a


primitive m e d i c i n e m a n ) are
common s y m b o l s of t r a n s c e n d e n c e ,
and often are c o m b i n e d : Left, a
prehistoric cave p a i n t i n g at L a s c a u x
shows a s h a m a n in a bird m a s k . B e l o w ,
a shaman priestess of a S i b e r i a n
people, in a bird c o s t u m e . R i g h t ,
a shaman's c o f f i n (also S i b e r i a n )
with bird f i g u r e s o n t h e p o s t s

149
T h u s , w h a t w e call " s y m b o l s of t r a n s c e n d - E v i d e n c e o f s u c h p o w e r s c a n b e f o u n d as far
ence" are the symbols that represent man's b a c k as t h e p a l e o l i t h i c p e r i o d o f p r e h i s t o r y , as
striving to a t t a i n this g o a l . T h e y p r o v i d e the the A m e r i c a n scholar Joseph Campbell has
means by w h i c h t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s p o i n t e d o u t in c o m m e n t i n g u p o n o n e o f the
can e n t e r t h e c o n s c i o u s m i n d , a n d t h e y also f a m o u s c a v e p a i n t i n g s r e c e n t l y d i s c o v e r e d in
are t h e m s e l v e s a n a c t i v e e x p r e s s i o n o f those F r a n c e . A t L a s c a u x , he w r i t e s , " t h e r e is a s h a -
contents. m a n d e p i c t e d , lying in a t r a n c e , w e a r i n g a bird
These symbols are manifold inform. W h e t h e r m a s k w i t h a f i g u r e o f a b i r d p e r c h e d on a s t a f f
we e n c o u n t e r t h e m in h i s t o r y or in t h e d r e a m s beside him. T h e s h a m a n s o f S i b e r i a wear such
of c o n t e m p o r a r y m e n a n d w o m e n w h o a r e a t a b i r d c o s t u m e s to this d a y , a n d m a n y a r e b e -
critical s t a g e in t h e i r lives, we c a n see their lieved to h a v e b e e n c o n c e i v e d by t h e i r m o t h e r s
i m p o r t a n c e . A t t h e m o s t a r c h a i c level o f this f r o m t h e d e s c e n t o f a bird . . . . T h e shaman,
symbolism we a g a i n m e e t t h e T r i c k s t e r t h e m e . t h e n , is n o t o n l y a f a m i l i a r d e n i z e n , b u t even
But this t i m e he n o l o n g e r a p p e a r s as a lawless t h e f a v o r e d scion o f those r e a l m s o f p o w e r t h a t
would-be h e r o . H e has b e c o m e t h e s h a m a n a r e i n v i s i b l e to o u r n o r m a l w a k i n g c o n s c i o u s -
the m e d i c i n e m a n w h o s e m a g i c a l practices ness, w h i c h all m a y visit briefly in vision, b u t
and flights o f i n t u i t i o n s t a m p h i m as a p r i m i t i v e t h r o u g h w h i c h he r o a m s , a m a s t e r . "
master o f i n i t i a t i o n . H i s p o w e r resides in his A t t h e h i g h e s t level o f this t y p e o f i n i t i a t o r y
supposed a b i l i t y to l e a v e his b o d y a n d fly a b o u t a c t i v i t y , far f r o m those t r i c k s - o f - t h e - t r a d e by
the universe as a b i r d . w h i c h m a g i c so f r e q u e n t l y r e p l a c e s t r u e s p i r i t u a l
In this c a s e t h e b i r d is t h e most fitting s y m b o l i n s i g h t , we find t h e H i n d u m a s t e r yogis. In
of t r a n s c e n d e n c e . It represents the pecu- t h e i r t r a n c e s t a t e s t h e y g o far b e y o n d the n o r -
liar n a t u r e of intuition working through a mal categories of thought.
" m e d i u m , " t h a t is, a n i n d i v i d u a l w h o is c a p a b l e O n e o f t h e c o m m o n e s t d r e a m s y m b o l s for
of o b t a i n i n g k n o w l e d g e o f d i s t a n t e v e n t s o r this t y p e o f r e l e a s e t h r o u g h t r a n s c e n d e n c e is t h e
facts o f w h i c h he c o n s c i o u s l y k n o w s n o t h i n g theme o f the lonely j o u r n e y or pilgrimage,
by going i n t o a t r a n c e l i k e s t a t e . w h i c h s o m e h o w s e e m s to b e a s p i r i t u a l p i l g r i m -

ln myths or d r e a m s , a l o n e l y t o u r n e y
often s y m b o l i z e s t h e l i b e r a t i o n of
transcendence. A b o v e left, a 1 5 t h - c e n t u r y
painting of the p o e t D a n t e
holding his b o o k ( t h e Divine Comedy)
which relates his d r e a m of a j o u r n e y
to hell ( l o w e r left of p i c t u r e ) ,
purgatory, a n d h e a v e n . Far left, an
engraving of t h e l o u r n e y m a d e by t h e
pilgrim in the B r i t i s h a u t h o r J o h n
Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress (1 6 7 8 ) .
(Note that t h e j o u r n e y i s a c i r c u l a r
movement t o w a r d an i n n e r c e n t e r . )
This b o o k , t o o , is t o l d as a d r e a m ;
left, the p i l g r i m d r e a m i n g .

Many p e o p l e w a n t s o m e c h a n g e
from a c o n t a i n i n g p a t t e r n of life;
but the f r e e d o m g a i n e d by travel
(urged by the " r u n a w a y t o s e a "
poster, r i g h t ) is n o s u b s t i t u t e
for a true inner l i b e r a t i o n .

'5 1
a g e on w h i c h the i n i t i a t e b e c o m e s a c q u a i n t e d all free m e n to f a c e s o m e n e w d i s c o v e r y o r to
with t h e n a t u r e o f d e a t h . B u t this is not d e a t h live t h e i r lives in a n e w w a y . T h i s c h a n g e m a y
as a last j u d g m e n t o r o t h e r i n i t i a t o r y trial o f b e c o m e e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t in the p e r i o d b e -
s t r e n g t h ; it is a j o u r n e y o f r e l e a s e , r e n u n c i a - t w e e n m i d d l e a g e a n d old a g e , w h i c h is the
t i o n , a n d a t o n e m e n t , p r e s i d e d o v e r a n d fostered t i m e in life w h e n so m a n y p e o p l e a r e c o n s i d e r -
b y s o m e spirit o f c o m p a s s i o n . T h i s spirit is m o r e i n g w h a t to d o in t h e i r r e t i r e m e n t w h e t h e r to
often r e p r e s e n t e d b y a " m i s t r e s s " r a t h e r t h a n a w o r k o r to p l a y , w h e t h e r to stay at h o m e o r to
"master" of initiation, a supreme feminine travel.
(i.e. a n i m a ) f i g u r e s u c h as K w a n - Y i n in C h i n - I f t h e i r lives h a v e b e e n a d v e n t u r o u s , i n s e c u r e ,
ese B u d d h i s m , S o p h i a in t h e C h r i s t i a n - G n o s t i c o r full o f c h a n g e , t h e y m a y l o n g for a settled
doctrine, or the ancient Greek goddess of life a n d t h e c o n s o l a t i o n s o f religious c e r t a i n t y .
wisdom Pallas A t h e n a . B u t i f t h e y h a v e lived c h i e f l y w i t h i n t h e social
N o t o n l y t h e flight o f b i r d s o r t h e j o u r n e y p a t t e r n in w h i c h t h e y w e r e b o r n , t h e y may
i n t o t h e w i l d e r n e s s r e p r e s e n t s this s y m b o l i s m , d e s p e r a t e l y n e e d a l i b e r a t i n g c h a n g e . T h i s need
but any strong m o v e m e n t exemplifying release. m a y b e filled, t e m p o r a r i l y , b y a t r i p a r o u n d the
I n the first p a r t o f life, w h e n o n e is still a t t a c h e d w o r l d , o r b y n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n a m o v e to a
to t h e o r i g i n a l f a m i l y a n d social g r o u p , this smaller house. But none o f these external
m a y be e x p e r i e n c e d as t h a t m o m e n t o f i n i t i a - c h a n g e s will s e r v e unless t h e r e has b e e n s o m e
tion at w h i c h o n e m u s t l e a r n to t a k e t h e d e c i s i v e i n n e r t r a n s c e n d e n c e o f old v a l u e s in c r e a t i n g ,
steps i n t o life a l o n e . I t is t h e m o m e n t that not j u s t i n v e n t i n g , a n e w p a t t e r n o f l i f e .
T . S . E l i o t d e s c r i b e s in " T h e W a s t e Land," A c a s e o f this l a t t e r sort is a w o m a n who
w h e n o n e faces h a d lived in a style o f l i f e t h a t s h e , h e r f a m i l y ,
The awful daring of a moment's surrender, a n d friends h a d l o n g e n j o y e d b e c a u s e it was so
which an age of prudence can never retract. well r o o t e d , c u l t u r a l l y n o u r i s h i n g , a n d s e c u r e
A t a . l a t e r p e r i o d o f l i f e o n e m a y not n e e d to f r o m t r a n s i t o r y f a s h i o n s . S h e h a d this d r e a m :
b r e a k all ties w i t h t h e s y m b o l s o f m e a n i n g f u l
c o n t a i n m e n t . B u t n o n e t h e l e s s o n e c a n b e filled I found some strange pieces of wood, not
with t h a t spirit o f d i v i n e d i s c o n t e n t w h i c h forces carved but with natural beautiful shapes. Some-

Left, t h e B r i t i s h e x p l o r e r R. F. S c o t t
a n d his c o m p a n i o n s , p h o t o g r a p h e d in
t h e A n t a r c t i c in 1 9 1 1 . Explorers,
venturing into the u n k n o w n , provide
an apt i m a g e of t h e l i b e r a t i o n , t h e
b r e a k i n g o u t of c o n t a i n m e n t , t h a t
characterizes transcendence.

T h e s y m b o l of t h e s n a k e is c o m m o n l y
linked w i t h transcendence, because
it w a s t r a d i t i o n a l l y a c r e a t u r e of
the u n d e r w o r l d and thus w a s a
" m e d i a t o r " b e t w e e n o n e w a y of life
a n d a n o t h e r . R i g h t , t h e snake a n d
staff s y m b o l of t h e G r e c o - R o m a n
g o d of m e d i c i n e A s k l e p i o s o n a card
u s e d to i d e n t i f y a d o c t o r ' s car in
m o d e r n France.

>5 2
one said: '"Neanderthal man brought t h e m . " growth and development o f p s y c h i c life (as
Then I saw at a distance these Neanderthal men d i s t i n c t f r o m i n s t i n c t u a l life, c o m m o n l y s y m b o -
looking like a dark mass, but I could not see one lized b y a n i m a l s ) . H e n c e , in this p i e c e o f w o o d ,
of them distinctly. I thought I would take back
this w o m a n a c q u i r e d a s y m b o l o f h e r link with
from this place a piece of their wood.
Then I went on, as if on a journey by myself, the deepest layers o f the collective unconscious.
and I looked down into an enormous abyss like Next she speaks o f continuing her j o u r n e y
an extinct volcano. T h e r e was water in part of it a l o n e . T h i s t h e m e , as I h a v e a l r e a d y p o i n t e d
and there I expected to see more Neanderthal o u t , s y m b o l i z e s t h e n e e d for release as a n i n i t i a -
men. But instead I saw black water pigs that had
tory e x p e r i e n c e . S o here we have a n o t h e r sym-
come out of the water and were running in and
bol o f t r a n s c e n d e n c e .
out of the black volcanic rocks.
T h e n , in t h e d r e a m , she sees a h u g e c r a t e r o f
In c o n t r a s t to this w o m a n ' s f a m i l y attach- a n e x t i n c t v o l c a n o , w h i c h h a s b e e n the c h a n n e l
ments a n d h e r h i g h l y c u l t i v a t e d style o f life, for a v i o l e n t e r u p t i o n o f fire f r o m t h e deepest
the d r e a m takes h e r to a p r e h i s t o r i c period l a y e r s o f t h e e a r t h . W e c a n s u r m i s e t h a t this
more p r i m i t i v e t h a n a n y t h i n g w e c a n v i s u a l i z e . refers to a s i g n i f i c a n t m e m o r y t r a c e , w h i c h leads
She c a n find no social group among these b a c k to a t r a u m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s she asso-
ancient m e n : S h e sees t h e m as a n e m b o d i m e n t c i a t e d to a p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e e a r l y in h e r life
of a truly u n c o n s c i o u s , c o l l e c t i v e " d a r k m a s s " w h e n she h a d felt t h e d e s t r u c t i v e , yet c r e a t i v e ,
in the d i s t a n c e . Y e t t h e y a r e a l i v e , a n d she m a y f o r c e o f h e r passions to s u c h a n e x t e n t t h a t she
carry a w a y a p i e c e o f t h e i r w o o d . T h e d r e a m f e a r e d she w o u l d g o o u t o f h e r m i n d . S h e h a d
emphasizes t h a t t h e w o o d is n a t u r a l , not c a r v e d ; f o u n d , in l a t e a d o l e s c e n c e , a q u i t e u n e x p e c t e d
therefore it c o m e s f r o m a p r i m o r d i a l , n o t a c u l - need to b r e a k a w a y f r o m h e r f a m i l y ' s e x c e s -
turally c o n d i t i o n e d , level o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s . sively conventional social pattern. She had
T h e piece o f w o o d , r e m a r k a b l e for its g r e a t a g e , a c h i e v e d this b r e a k w i t h o u t serious distress, a n d
links this w o m a n ' s c o n t e m p o r a r y e x p e r i e n c e to h a d b e e n a b l e to r e t u r n e v e n t u a l l y to m a k e h e r
the distant o r i g i n s o f h u m a n life. peace with the family. But there lingered a
We know from many examples that an p r o f o u n d wish to m a k e a still g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n -
ancient tree o r p l a n t r e p r e s e n t s s y m b o l i c a l l y the t i a t i o n f r o m h e r f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d a n d to find
freedom from her own pattern o f existence.

T h i s d r e a m r e c a l l s a n o t h e r . It c a m e f r o m a
young m a n who had a totally different problem
b u t w h o s e e m e d to n e e d a s i m i l a r t y p e o f in-
sight. H e too h a d t h e u r g e to a c h i e v e d i f f e r e n -
t i a t i o n . H e d r e a m e d o f a v o l c a n o , a n d f r o m its
c r a t e r he s a w t w o b i r d s t a k i n g flight as if in
f e a r t h a t t h e v o l c a n o was a b o u t to e r u p t . T h i s
was in a s t r a n g e , l o n e l y p l a c e with a b o d y o f
w a t e r b e t w e e n h i m a n d t h e v o l c a n o . In this
case, the dream represented an individual
initiation j o u r n e y . .
It is s i m i l a r to cases r e p o r t e d among the
s i m p l e f o o d - g a t h e r i n g t r i b e s , w h i c h a r e the least
family-conscious groups we know. In these
societies t h e y o u n g i n i t i a t e must t a k e a lonely
j o u r n e y to a s a c r e d p l a c e (in I n d i a n c u l t u r e s o f
t h e N o r t h P a c i f i c c o a s t , it m a y a c t u a l l y b e a
c r a t e r l a k e ) w h e r e , in a v i s i o n a r y o r t r a n c e l i k e
s t a t e , he e n c o u n t e r s his " g u a r d i a n s p i r i t " in t h e

'53
form o f an a n i m a l , a bird, or natural object. t h e c o l l e c t i v e u n c o n s c i o u s . T h e y b r i n g i n t o the
H e c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e s himself with this "bush field o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s a s p e c i a l c h t h o n i c ( u n d e r -
souT'and thereby becomesa man. Withoutsuch w o r l d ) m e s s a g e t h a t is s o m e w h a t d i f f e r e n t from
a n e x p e r i e n c e h e is r e g a r d e d , as a n A c h u m a u i t h e s p i r i t u a l a s p i r a t i o n s s y m b o l i z e d by the birds
m e d i c i n e m a n p u t it, as " a n o r d i n a r y Indian, in t h e y o u n g m a n ' s d r e a m .
nobody." O t h e r t r a n s c e n d e n t s y m b o l s o f the d e p t h s a r e
T h e y o u n g m a n ' s d r e a m c a m e at t h e b e g i n - rodents, lizards, snakes, and sometimes fish.
n i n g o f his life, a n d it p o i n t e d to his f u t u r e These a r e i n t e r m e d i a t e c r e a t u r e s t h a t c o m b i n e
independence and identity as a man. The u n d e r w a t e r a c t i v i t y a n d t h e b i r d - f l i g h t with an
w o m a n I h a v e d e s c r i b e d was a p p r o a c h i n g the i n t e r m e d i a t e t e r r e s t r i a l life. T h e wild d u c k or
e n d o f h e r life, a n d s h e e x p e r i e n c e d a s i m i l a r t h e s w a n a r e cases in p o i n t . P e r h a p s t h e c o m -
j o u r n e y a n d s e e m e d to n e e d to a c q u i r e a s i m i - m o n e s t d r e a m s y m b o l o f t r a n s c e n d e n c e is the
l a r i n d e p e n d e n c e . S h e c o u l d live o u t t h e r e - s n a k e , as r e p r e s e n t e d by the t h e r a p e u t i c s y m b o l
m a i n d e r o f h e r d a y s in h a r m o n y w i t h a n e t e r n a l of t h e R o m a n g o d of m e d i c i n e Aesculapius,
h u m a n l a w t h a t , b y its a n t i q u i t y , t r a n s c e n d e d w h i c h has s u r v i v e d to m o d e r n t i m e s as a sign
the known symbols o f culture. o f t h e m e d i c a l profession. T h i s w a s o r i g i n a l l y
B u t s u c h i n d e p e n d e n c e does not e n d in a a n o n p o i s o n o u s t r e e s n a k e ; as we sec it, coiled
state o f yogi-like d e t a c h m e n t that would mean a r o u n d t h e s t a f f o f the h e a l i n g g o d , it s e e m s to
a r e n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e w o r l d w i t h all its i m p u r i - e m b o d y a kind o f m e d i a t i o n b e t w e e n e a r t h a n d
ties. I n t h e o t h e r w i s e d e a d a n d b l a s t e d l a n d - heaven.
s c a p e o f h e r d r e a m t h e w o m a n s a w signs of A still m o r e i m p o r t a n t a n d w i d e s p r e a d s y m -
a n i m a l life. T h e s e a r e " w a t e r p i g s , " u n k n o w n b o l o f c h t h o n i c t r a n s c e n d e n c e is t h e motif of
to h e r as a s p e c i e s . T h e y t h e r e f o r e w o u l d c a r r y the two entwined serpents. T h e s e are the famous
the m e a n i n g o f a special type o f a n i m a l , one N a g a s e r p e n t s o f a n c i e n t I n d i a ; a n d w e also
t h a t c a n live in t w o e n v i r o n m e n t s , in w a t e r o r find t h e m in G r e e c e as t h e e n t w i n e d serpents
on the e a r t h . o n t h e e n d o f t h e s t a f f b e l o n g i n g to t h e god
T h i s is t h e u n i v e r s a l q u a l i t y o f t h e a n i m a l as Hermes. An early Grecian herm is a stone
a symbol of transcendence. These creatures, p i l l a r w i t h a bust o f t h e god a b o v e . O n o n e side
figuratively coming from the depths o f the a r e t h e e n t w i n e d s e r p e n t s a n d on t h e o t h e r an
ancient Earth M o t h e r , are symbolic denizens of e r e c t p h a l l u s . As t h e s e r p e n t s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d

1
54
Above, the Egyptian g o d Thoth w i t h
t h e h e a d of a b i r d ( a n i b i s ) , in a
relief f r o m c. 3 5 0 B.C. T h o t h is
an " u n d e r w o r l d " f i g u r e a s s o c i a t e d
w i t h t r a n s c e n d e n c e ; it w a s he w h o
j u d g e d t h e s o u l s of t h e d e a d . T h e
Greek g o d Hermes, w h o w a s called
" p s y c h o - p o m p " ( s o u l - g u i d e ) , had
t h e f u n c t i o n of g u i d i n g t h e d e a d
t o t h e u n d e r w o r l d . Left, a s t o n e
herm, w h i c h w a s p l a c e d at c r o s s -
roads ( s y m b o l i z i n g t h e g o d ' s role
Left, a 1 7 t h - c e n t u r y F r e n c h p a i n t i n g as a m e d i a t o r b e t w e e n t w o w o r l d s )
reveals t h e s n a k e ' s role as m e d i a t o r O n t h e s i d e o f t h e h e r m is a
b e t w e e n this w o r l d a n d t h e n e x t . s n a k e t w i n e d a r o u n d a staff; t h i s
Orpheus is p l a y i n g his lyre; h e s y m b o l ( t h e caduceus) w a s carried
and his a u d i e n c e fail t o n o t i c e over t o the R o m a n g o d M e r c u r y
that Eurydice ( c e n t e r of p i c t u r e ) ( r i g h t , a 1 6 t h - c e n t u r y Italian
has been b i t t e n by a s n a k e a f a t a l b r o n z e ) , w h o also a c q u i r e d w i n g s ,
w o u n d t h a t s y m b o l i z e s her d e s c e n t r e c a l l i n g t h e b i r d as a s y m b o l of
into t h e u n d e r w o r l d . spiritual transcendence.

'55
in t h e a c t o f s e x u a l u n i o n a n d the e r e c t p h a l l u s H e r e w e see his full p o w e r o f t r a n s c e n d e n c e ,
is u n e q u i v o c a l l y s e x u a l , w e c a n d r a w c e r t a i n w h e r e b y the l o w e r t r a n s c e n d e n c e f r o m u n d e r -
c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t the f u n c t i o n o f t h e h e r m as a w o r l d s n a k e - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , passing t h r o u g h the
s y m b o l o f fertility. m e d i u m o f e a r t h l y r e a l i t y , finally a t t a i n s t r a n s -
B u t w e a r e m i s t a k e n i f we t h i n k this o n l y cendence to superhuman or transpersonal
refers to b i o l o g i c a l f e r t i l i t y . H e r m e s is T r i c k s t e r r e a l i t y in its w i n g e d flight.
in a d i f f e r e n t r o l e as a m e s s e n g e r , a g o d o f the S u c h a c o m p o s i t e s y m b o l is f o u n d in o t h e r
c r o s s - r o a d s , a n d finally the l e a d e r o f souls to r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s as t h e w i n g e d h o r s e o r w i n g e d
a n d f r o m t h e u n d e r w o r l d . His p h a l l u s t h e r e f o r e d r a g o n o r o t h e r c r e a t u r e s t h a t a b o u n d in the
penetrates from the known into the unknown a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n s of a l c h e m y , so fully illus-
world, seeking a spiritual message o f deliverance t r a t e d in D r . J u n g ' s classic w o r k on this s u b j e c t .
and healing. W e follow the i n n u m e r a b l e vicissitudes o f these
O r i g i n a l l y in E g y p t H e r m e s was k n o w n as s y m b o l s in o u r w o r k with p a t i e n t s . T h e y show
the i b i s - h e a d e d god T h o t h , and t h e r e f o r e w a s w h a t o u r t h e r a p y c a n e x p e c t to a c h i e v e w h e n
c o n c e i v e d as t h e b i r d f o r m o f t h e t r a n s c e n d e n t it l i b e r a t e s t h e d e e p e r p s y c h i c c o n t e n t s so that
p r i n c i p l e . A g a i n , in the O l y m p i a n period of they can b e c o m e part of our conscious equip-
Greek mythology, Hermes recovered attributes m e n t for u n d e r s t a n d i n g life m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y .
o f the bird life to a d d to his c h t h o n i c n a t u r e as I t is n o t easy for m o d e r n m a n to g r a s p the
s e r p e n t . His s t a f f a c q u i r e d wings a b o v e t h e ser- s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s y m b o l s t h a t c o m e d o w n to
p e n t s , b e c o m i n g t h e caduceus o r w i n g e d staff us f r o m t h e past o r t h a t a p p e a r in o u r d r e a m s .
o f M e r c u r y , a n d t h e g o d h i m s e l f b e c a m e the N o r is it easy to see h o w t h e a n c i e n t conflict
" f l y i n g m a n " w i t h his w i n g e d h a t a n d s a n d a l s . between symbols o f c o n t a i n m e n t and liberation

Winged dragons (above, from a 15th-


century manuscript) combine the
t r a n s c e n d e n t s y m b o l i s m of t h e s n a k e
a n d the b i r d . R i g h t , an i m a g e o f
spiritual t r a n s c e n d e n c e : M o h a m m e d
o n t h e w i n g e d m a r e B u r a q flies
t h r o u g h t h e celestial s p h e r e s

156
relates to o u r o w n p r e d i c a m e n t . Y e t it b e c o m e s
easier w h e n w e r e a l i z e it is o n l y t h e specific-
forms o f these a r c h a i c p a t t e r n s t h a t change,
not t h e i r p s y c h i c m e a n i n g .
W e h a v e b e e n t a l k i n g o f wild b i r d s as s y m -
bols o f r e l e a s e o r l i b e r a t i o n . B u t t o d a y we c o u l d
as well s p e a k o f j e t p l a n e s a n d s p a c e r o c k e t s ,
for t h e y a r e t h e p h y s i c a l e m b o d i m e n t o f the
s a m e t r a n s c e n d e n t p r i n c i p l e , f r e e i n g us at least
t e m p o r a r i l y f r o m g r a v i t y . I n t h e s a m e w a y the
ancient symbols of containment, which once
g a v e s t a b i l i t y a n d p r o t e c t i o n , n o w a p p e a r in
modern man's search for e c o n o m i c security
and social w e l f a r e .
A n y o f us c a n see, o f c o u r s e , t h a t t h e r e is a
conflict in o u r lives b e t w e e n a d v e n t u r e a n d dis-
c i p l i n e , o r evil a n d virtue, or freedom and
security. B u t these a r e o n l y p h r a s e s we use to
d e s c r i b e a n a m b i v a l e n c e t h a t t r o u b l e s us, a n d
to w h i c h w e n e v e r s e e m a b l e to find a n a n s w e r .
T h e r e is an a n s w e r . T h e r e is a m e e t i n g point
b e t w e e n c o n t a i n m e n t a n d l i b e r a t i o n , a n d we
can find it in t h e rites o f i n i t i a t i o n t h a t I h a v e
been discussing. T h e y c a n m a k e it possible for
i n d i v i d u a l s , o r w h o l e g r o u p s o f p e o p l e , to u n i t e
the opposing forces within themselves and
a c h i e v e a n e q u i l i b r i u m in t h e i r lives.
But t h e rites d o n o t o f f e r this o p p o r t u n i t y
invariably, or a u t o m a t i c a l l y . They relate to
p a r t i c u l a r p h a s e s in the life o f a n i n d i v i d u a l , o r
of a g r o u p , a n d unless t h e y a r e p r o p e r l y u n d e r -
stood a n d t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a n e w w a y o f l i f e , t h e
m o m e n t c a n pass. I n i t i a t i o n is, e s s e n t i a l l y , a
process t h a t b e g i n s w i t h a rite o f s u b m i s s i o n ,
followed by a p e r i o d o f c o n t a i n m e n t , a n d t h e n
by a f u r t h e r rite o f l i b e r a t i o n . I n this w a y e v e r y
individual c a n r e c o n c i l e the c o n f l i c t i n g e l e m e n t s
of his p e r s o n a l i t y : H e c a n strike a b a l a n c e t h a t
makes h i m truly h u m a n , a n d truly t h e m a s t e r
of himself.

In the d r e a m s a n d f a n t a s i e s of m a n y
modern p e o p l e , t h e f l i g h t s of t h e
great rockets of s p a c e r e s e a r c h
have o f t e n a p p e a r e d as s y m b o l i c
20th-century e m b o d i m e n t s of t h e
urge t o w a r d l i b e r a t i o n a n d release
that is called t r a n s c e n d e n c e .

'57
3 The process of individuation

M.-L. von Franz

T h e rose w i n d o w of t h e c a t h e d r a l of N o t r e D a m e , Paris
The process of individuation

The pattern of psychic g r o w t h

A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f this b o o k D r . C . G . J u n g
i n t r o d u c e d t h e r e a d e r to t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e u n -
c o n s c i o u s , its p e r s o n a l a n d c o l l e c t i v e s t r u c t u r e s ,
a n d its s y m b o l i c m o d e o f e x p r e s s i o n . O n c e o n e
h a s seen t h e v i t a l i m p o r t a n c e ( t h a t is, the h e a l -
ing or destructive i m p a c t ) o f the symbols pro-
d u c e d by t h e u n c o n s c i o u s , t h e r e r e m a i n s t h e
difficult p r o b l e m o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . D r . J u n g has
s h o w n t h a t e v e r y t h i n g d e p e n d s on w h e t h e r a n y
p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " c l i c k s " a n d is m e a n -
ingful to t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n c e r n e d . I n this w a y B e l o w , a " m e a n d e r " (a d e c o r a t i o n
in a s e v e n t h - c e n t u r y m a n u s c r i p t ) .
he has i n d i c a t e d t h e possible m e a n i n g a n d f u n c - I n d i v i d u a l d r e a m s s e e m as s t r a n g e
tion o f d r e a m s y m b o l i s m . a n d f r a g m e n t e d as t h e d e t a i l , a b o v e ,
f r o m the decoration; but over a
B u t , in the d e v e l o p m e n t o f J u n g ' s theory, lifetime's dreaming, a meandering
this possibility raised a n o t h e r q u e s t i o n : What pattern appears - r e v e a l i n g the
p r o c e s s of p s y c h i c g r o w t h
is the p u r p o s e o f t h e total d r e a m life o f t h e in-
dividual? W h a t role do d r e a m s play, not only
in the i m m e d i a t e p s y c h i c e c o n o m y o f the h u -
m a n b e i n g , b u t in his life as a w h o l e ?
By o b s e r v i n g a g r e a t m a n y p e o p l e a n d s t u d y -
ing t h e i r d r e a m s ( h e e s t i m a t e d t h a t he i n t e r -
preted at least 8 0 , 0 0 0 d r e a m s ) , J u n g d i s c o v e r e d
not only t h a t all d r e a m s a r e r e l e v a n t in v a r y i n g
degrees to t h e life o f t h e d r e a m e r , b u t t h a t they
a r e all p a r t s o f o n e g r e a t w e b o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l
factors, fcle also f o u n d t h a t , on t h e w h o l e , t h e y
seem to follow a n a r r a n g e m e n t o r p a t t e r n . T h i s
p a t t e r n J u n g c a l l e d " t h e process o f i n d i v i d u a -
tion." Since dreams produce different scenes
and images every night, people who are not
c a r e f u l o b s e r v e r s will p r o b a b l y b e u n a w a r e o f
any pattern. But if o n e watches one's own
d r e a m s o v e r a p e r i o d o f y e a r s a n d studies t h e
e n t i r e s e q u e n c e , o n e will see t h a t c e r t a i n c o n -
tents e m e r g e , disappear, and then turn up
again. M a n y people even d r e a m repeatedly of
the s a m e figures, l a n d s c a p e s , o r s i t u a t i o n s ; a n d
if o n e follows these t h r o u g h a w h o l e series, o n e
will see that t h e y c h a n g e slowly b u t p e r c e p t i b l y .
T h e s e changes can be accelerated if the d r e a m -
e r ' s c o n s c i o u s a t t i t u d e is i n f l u e n c e d by a p p r o -
priate interpretation o f the d r e a m s and their
symbolic contents.

i bo
Thus our dream life c r e a t e s a meandering
p a t t e r n in w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s t r a n d s o r t e n d e n -
cies b e c o m e v i s i b l e , t h e n v a n i s h , t h e n r e t u r n
a g a i n . I f o n e w a t c h e s this m e a n d e r i n g design
over a long period o f time, one c a n observe a
sort o f h i d d e n r e g u l a t i n g o r d i r e c t i n g t e n d e n c y
at w o r k , c r e a t i n g a s l o w , i m p e r c e p t i b l e p r o c e s s
of p s y c h i c g r o w t h the p r o c e s s o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n .
Gradually a wider and more mature person-
ality e m e r g e s , a n d by d e g r e e s b e c o m e s e f f e c t i v e
and e v e n visible to o t h e r s . T h e fact t h a t we
T h e p s y c h e c a n he c o m p a r e d t o a
often s p e a k o f " a r r e s t e d d e v e l o p m e n t " shows s p h e r e w i t h a b r i g h t f i e l d ( A ) o n its
that we a s s u m e t h a t s u c h a p r o c e s s o f g r o w t h surface, representing consciousness
T h e ego is t h e f i e l d ' s c e n t e r ( o n l y if
and m a t u r a t i o n is possible w i t h e v e r y i n d i v i - " I " k n o w a t h i n g is it c o n s c i o u s )
dual. Since this psychic growth cannot be T h e Self is at o n c e t h e n u c l e u s
a n d t h e w h o l e s p h e r e ( B ) ; its i n t e r n a l
brought about b y a c o n s c i o u s effort o f will regulating processes p r o d u c e dreams
power, but h a p p e n s i n v o l u n t a r i l y a n d natur-
ally, it is in d r e a m s f r e q u e n t l y s y m b o l i z e d by T h e p s y c h e c a n be c o m p a r e d t o a
s p h e r e w i t h a b r i g h t f i e l d ( A ) o n its
the t r e e , w h o s e s l o w , p o w e r f u l , involuntary- surface, representing consciousness
growth fulfills a d e f i n i t e p a t t e r n . T h e ego is t h e f i e l d ' s c e n t e r ( o n l y if
" I " k n o w a t h i n g is it c o n s c i o u s )
T h e organizing center from which the regu- T h e Self is at o n c e t h e n u c l e u s
latory effect s t e m s s e e m s to be a sort of " n u - a n d t h e w h o l e s p h e r e ( B ) ; its i n t e r n a l
regulating processes p r o d u c e dreams
clear a t o m " in o u r p s y c h i c s y s t e m . O n e c o u l d
a n o t h e r that they h a v e not b e e n a b l e to e v o l v e
also call it the i n v e n t o r , o r g a n i z e r , a n d s o u r c e
t r i b a l c u s t o m s o r c o l l e c t i v e religious beliefs a n d
of d r e a m i m a g e s . J u n g c a l l e d this c e n t e r t h e
c e r e m o n i e s . In his lifelong s o l i t u d e the N a s k a p i
" S e l f " a n d d e s c r i b e d it as the t o t a l i t y of the
h u n t e r has to rely on his o w n i n n e r voices a n d
whole p s y c h e , in o r d e r to d i s t i n g u i s h it f r o m
unconscious revelations; he has n o religious
the " e g o , " w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s o n l y a s m a l l p a r t o f
t e a c h e r s w h o tell h i m w h a t he s h o u l d b e l i e v e ,
the total p s y c h e .
no r i t u a l s , festivals, o r c u s t o m s to h e l p him
T h r o u g h o u t the ages m e n h a v e b e e n i n t u i -
a l o n g . I n his b a s i c view o f l i f e , t h e soul o f m a n
tively a w a r e o f the e x i s t e n c e o f s u c h a n i n n e r
is s i m p l y a n " i n n e r c o m p a n i o n , " w h o m he calls
center. T h e G r e e k s c a l l e d it m a n ' s i n n e r dai-
"my friend" or Mista'peo, meaning "Great
mon; in E g y p t it w a s e x p r e s s e d by t h e c o n c e p t
M a n . " M i s t a ' p e o dwells in the h e a r t a n d is i m -
of the Ba-soul; a n d t h e R o m a n s w o r s h i p e d it
m o r t a l ; in t h e m o m e n t of d e a t h , or shortly
as the " g e n i u s " n a t i v e to e a c h i n d i v i d u a l . In
b e f o r e , he leaves t h e i n d i v i d u a l , a n d l a t e r r e -
more p r i m i t i v e societies it was often t h o u g h t o f
i n c a r n a t e s h i m s e l f in a n o t h e r b e i n g .
as a protective spirit embodied within an
T h o s e N a s k a p i w h o p a y a t t e n t i o n to t h e i r
animal o r a fetish.
d r e a m s a n d w h o try to find t h e i r m e a n i n g a n d
T h i s i n n e r c e n t e r is r e a l i z e d in e x c e p t i o n a l l y test t h e i r t r u t h c a n e n t e r i n t o a d e e p e r c o n n e c -
pure, unspoiled f o r m by the N a s k a p i Indians, tion with the Great Man. He favors such
who still exist in t h e forests o f t h e Labrador p e o p l e a n d sends t h e m m o r e a n d b e t t e r d r e a m s .
peninsula. T h e s e s i m p l e p e o p l e a r e h u n t e r s w h o Thus the m a j o r o b l i g a t i o n o f an individual
live in isolated f a m i l y g r o u p s , so far f r o m o n e N a s k a p i is to follow the i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n by
his d r e a m s , a n d t h e n to give p e r m a n e n t f o r m
to t h e i r c o n t e n t s in a r t . Lies a n d dishonesty
ib i
d r i v e the ( b e a t M a n away from o n e ' s i n n e r
rneeai gl m
h b, o w
r sh ae n
r eda so f gaenniemr oa sl si t ya t tar na d
c t love
h i m aonfd ogniev' es
h i m life. D r e a m s give t h e N a s k a p i complete f a c t o r s , s u c h as t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e soil a n d the
a b i l i t y to find his w a y in life, n o t o n l y in t h e s t o n e s , t h e s l o p e o f t h e l a n d , a n d its e x p o s u r e
i n n e r w o r l d b u t also in t h e o u t e r w o r l d o f n a - to sun a n d w i n d . T h e l a t e n t t o t a l i t y o f t h e p i n e
t u r e . T h e y h e l p h i m to f o r e t e l l t h e w e a t h e r a n d in t h e seed r e a c t s to these c i r c u m s t a n c e s by
give h i m i n v a l u a b l e g u i d a n c e in his h u n t i n g , a v o i d i n g t h e stones a n d i n c l i n i n g t o w a r d the
u p o n w h i c h his life d e p e n d s . I m e n t i o n these s u n , w i t h t h e result t h a t t h e t r e e ' s g r o w t h is
very primitive people because they are u n c o n - s h a p e d . T h u s a n i n d i v i d u a l p i n e slowly c o m e s
t a m i n a t e d b y o u r c i v i l i z e d ideas a n d still h a v e i n t o e x i s t e n c e , c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e f u l f i l l m e n t o f its
n a t u r a l insight into the essence o f w h a t J u n g t o t a l i t y , its e m e r g e n c e i n t o t h e r e a l m o f r e a l i t y .
calls t h e Self. W i t h o u t t h e l i v i n g t r e e , t h e i m a g e o f t h e p i n e is
T h e S e l f c a n b e d e f i n e d as a n i n n e r g u i d i n g o n l y a possibility o r a n a b s t r a c t i d e a . A g a i n , t h e
f a c t o r t h a t is d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e c o n s c i o u s p e r - r e a l i z a t i o n o f this u n i q u e n e s s in t h e i n d i v i d u a l
sonality and that c a n be grasped only through m a n is t h e g o a l o f t h e p r o c e s s o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n .
the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f o n e ' s o w n d r e a m s . T h e s e F r o m o n e p o i n t o f v i e w this p r o c e s s takes
show it to b e t h e r e g u l a t i n g c e n t e r t h a t b r i n g s p l a c e in m a n (as w e l l as in e v e r y o t h e r living
about a constant extension and m a t u r i n g o f the b e i n g ) b y i t s e l f a n d in t h e u n c o n s c i o u s ; it is a
p e r s o n a l i t y . B u t this l a r g e r , m o r e n e a r l y t o t a l p r o c e s s b y w h i c h m a n lives o u t his i n n a t e h u -
a s p e c t o f t h e p s y c h e a p p e a r s first as m e r e l y a n m a n nature. Strictly speaking, however, the
inborn possibility. It m a y e m e r g e very slightly, p r o c e s s o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n is r e a l o n l y i f t h e i n d i -
or it m a y d e v e l o p r e l a t i v e l y c o m p l e t e l y d u r i n g v i d u a l is a w a r e o f it a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y m a k e s a
o n e ' s l i f e t i m e . H o w f a r it d e v e l o p s d e p e n d s o n living c o n n e c t i o n w i t h it. W e d o n o t know
w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e e g o is w i l l i n g to listen to whether the pine t r e e is a w a r e o f its own
t h e m e s s a g e s o f t h e Self. J u s t as t h e N a s k a p i g r o w t h , w h e t h e r it e n j o y s a n d suffers t h e dif-
h a v e n o t i c e d t h a t a p e r s o n w h o is r e c e p t i v e to f e r e n t vicissitudes t h a t s h a p e it. B u t m a n c e r -
the hints o f the G r e a t M a n gets b e t t e r a n d m o r e t a i n l y is a b l e to p a r t i c i p a t e c o n s c i o u s l y in his
helpful d r e a m s , we could add that the inborn d e v e l o p m e n t . H e e v e n feels t h a t f r o m t i m e to
Great Man becomes more real within the time, by making free d e c i s i o n s , h e c a n co-
r e c e p t i v e p e r s o n t h a n in those w h o n e g l e c t h i m . operate actively with it. This co-operation
S u c h a p e r s o n also b e c o m e s a m o r e c o m p l e t e b e l o n g s to t h e process o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n in t h e
human being. n a r r o w e r sense o f t h e w o r d .

I t e v e n s e e m s as i f t h e e g o has n o t b e e n p r o - M a n , however, experiences something that


d u c e d b y n a t u r e to follow its o w n arbitrary is n o t c o n t a i n e d in o u r m e t a p h o r o f t h e p i n e
i m p u l s e s to a n u n l i m i t e d e x t e n t , b u t to h e l p to t r e e . T h e i n d i v i d u a t i o n p r o c e s s is m o r e t h a n a
m a k e real t h e t o t a l i t y t h e w h o l e p s y c h e . I t is c o m i n g to t e r m s b e t w e e n t h e i n b o r n g e r m o f
the e g o t h a t serves to l i g h t u p t h e e n t i r e s y s t e m , w h o l e n e s s a n d t h e o u t e r a c t s o f f a t e . Its s u b j e c -
a l l o w i n g it to b e c o m e c o n s c i o u s a n d thus to be tive e x p e r i e n c e c o n v e y s the f e e l i n g t h a t s o m e
realized. If, for e x a m p l e , I have an artistic s u p r a - p e r s o n a l f o r c e is a c t i v e l y i n t e r f e r i n g in a
t a l e n t o f w h i c h m y e g o is n o t c o n s c i o u s , n o t h i n g c r e a t i v e w a y . O n e s o m e t i m e s feels t h a t t h e u n -
will h a p p e n to it. T h e gift m a y as well b e n o n - c o n s c i o u s is l e a d i n g t h e w a y in a c c o r d a n c e with
e x i s t e n t . O n l y i f m y e g o n o t i c e s it c a n T b r i n g a s e c r e t d e s i g n . I t is as i f s o m e t h i n g is l o o k i n g
it i n t o r e a l i t y . T h e i n b o r n b u t h i d d e n t o t a l i t y a t m e , s o m e t h i n g t h a t I d o n o t see b u t t h a t sees
o f the p s y c h e is n o t t h e s a m e t h i n g as a w h o l e - m e p e r h a p s t h a t G r e a t M a n in t h e h e a r t , w h o
ness t h a t is fully r e a l i z e d a n d l i v e d . tells m e his o p i n i o n s a b o u t m e b y m e a n s o f
O n e c o u l d p i c t u r e this in t h e f o l l o w i n g w a y : dreams.
The seed o f a mountain pine contains the B u t this c r e a t i v e l y a c t i v e a s p e c t o f t h e psy-
w h o l e f u t u r e t r e e in a l a t e n t f o r m ; b u t e a c h c h i c n u c l e u s c a n c o m e i n t o p l a y o n l y w h e n the
seed falls at a c e r t a i n t i m e o n t o a p a r t i c u l a r ego gets rid o f all p u r p o s i v e a n d wishful a i m s
p l a c e , in w h i c h t h e r e a r e a n u m b e r o f s p e c i a l a n d tries to get to a d e e p e r , m o r e b a s i c f o r m

162
of existence. T h e e g o m u s t b e a b l e to listen a useless tree. II you wanted to make a ship, it
attentively a n d to g i v e itself, w i t h o u t a n y fur- would soon rot; if you wanted to make tools, they
ther design o r p u r p o s e , to t h a t i n n e r u r g e to- would break. You can't do anything useful with
this tree, and that's why it has become so o l d . "
ward g r o w t h . M a n y e x i s t e n t i a l i s t p h i l o s o p h e r s
But in an inn, that same evening, when the car-
try to d e s c r i b e this s t a t e , b u t t h e y go o n l y as penter went to sleep, the old oak tree appeared
far as s t r i p p i n g o f f the illusions o f c o n s c i o u s - to him in his dream and said: " W h y do you com-
ness: T h e y g o r i g h t u p to t h e d o o r o f t h e un- pare me to your cultivated trees such as white-
conscious a n d t h e n fail to o p e n it. thorn, pear, orange, and apple trees, and all the
others that bear fruit? Even before they can ripen
People living in c u l t u r e s m o r e s e c u r e l y r o o t e d
their fruit, people attack and violate them. T h e i r
than our o w n h a v e less t r o u b l e in u n d e r s t a n d - branches are broken, their twigs are torn. T h e i r
ing that it is n e c e s s a r y to g i v e u p t h e u t i l i t a r i a n own gifts bring harm to them, and they cannot
attitude o f c o n s c i o u s p l a n n i n g in o r d e r to m a k e live out their natural span. T h a t is what happens
way for t h e i n n e r g r o w t h o f the p e r s o n a l i t y . I everywhere, and that is why I have long since
once met a n e l d e r l y l a d y w h o h a d not a c h i e v e d tried to become completely useless. You poor mor-
tal! Imagine if I had been useful in any way,
much in h e r life, in t e r m s o f o u t w a r d a c h i e v e -
would I have reached this size? Furthermore,
ment. But she h a d in fact m a d e a g o o d m a r - you and I are both creatures, and how can one
riage with a difficult h u s b a n d , a n d h a d s o m e - creature set himself so high as to judge another
how d e v e l o p e d i n t o a m a t u r e p e r s o n a l i t y . W h e n creature? You useless mortal man, what do you
she c o m p l a i n e d to m e t h a t she h a d not " d o n e " know about useless t r e e s ? "
anything in h e r life, I told h e r a story r e l a t e d T h e carpenter woke up and meditated upon his
dream, and later, when his apprentice asked him
by a C h i n e s e s a g e , C h u a n g - T z u . S h e under-
why just this one tree served to protect the earth-
stood i m m e d i a t e l y a n d felt g r e a t relief. T h i s is
altar, he answered, " K e e p your mouth shut! Let's
the s t o r y : hear no more about it! T h e tree grew here on
purpose because anywhere else people would have
ill-treated it. I f it were not the tree of the earth-
A wandering carpenter, called Stone, saw on his altar, it might have been chopped d o w n . "
travels a gigantic old oak tree standing in a field
near an earth-altar. T h e carpenter said to his
apprentice, who was admiring the o a k : " T h i s is The carpenter obviously understood his
d r e a m . H e s a w t h a t s i m p l y to fulfill o n e ' s d e s -
An earth altar b e n e a t h a tree (In tiny is t h e g r e a t e s t h u m a n a c h i e v e m e n t , and
a 19th-century Chinese painting)
t h a t o u r u t i l i t a r i a n n o t i o n s h a v e to give w a y in
Such r o u n d or s q u a r e s t r u c t u r e s
usually s y m b o l i z e t h e Self, t o w h i c h the f a c e o f the d e m a n d s o f o u r unconscious
the ego must s u b m i t t o f u l f i l l t h e
p s y c h e ; I f we t r a n s l a t e this m e t a p h o r i n t o psy-
process of i n d i v i d u a t i o n .
chological l a n g u a g e , t h e tree s y m b o l i z e s the
p r o c e s s of i n d i v i d u a t i o n , g i v i n g a lesson to o u r
shortsighted ego.
U n d e r t h e t r e e t h a t fulfilled its d e s t i n y , t h e r e
w a s i n C h u a n g - T z u ' s story a n earth-altar.
T h i s was a c r u d e , u n w r o u g h t s t o n e u p o n w h i c h
p e o p l e m a d e s a c r i f i c e s to t h e l o c a l god who
" o w n e d " this p i e c e o f l a n d . T h e s y m b o l o f the
e a r t h - a l t a r p o i n t s to t h e f a c t t h a t in o r d e r to
b r i n g the i n d i v i d u a t i o n process i n t o r e a l i t y , o n e
must s u r r e n d e r c o n s c i o u s l y to t h e p o w e r o f the
u n c o n s c i o u s , i n s t e a d o f t h i n k i n g in t e r m s of
w h a t o n e s h o u l d d o , o r o f w h a t is g e n e r a l l y
t h o u g h t r i g h t , o r o f w h a t usually h a p p e n s . O n e
must s i m p l y listen, in o r d e r to l e a r n w h a t t h e

163
inner totality the Self w a n t s o n e to d o h e r e tion. The fact is that e a c h person has to do
a n d n o w in a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n . s o m e t h i n g d i f f e r e n t , s o m e t h i n g that is u n i q u e l y
O u r a t t i t u d e m u s t be like t h a t of the m o u n - his o w n .
tain p i n e m e n t i o n e d a b o v e : It does not get Many people have criticized the Jungian
a n n o y e d w h e n its g r o w t h is o b s t r u c t e d b y a a p p r o a c h for not p r e s e n t i n g p s y c h i c material
s t o n e , n o r does it m a k e p l a n s a b o u t h o w to s y s t e m a t i c a l l y . B u t these c r i t i c s forget t h a t the
o v e r c o m e t h e o b s t a c l e s . It m e r e l y tries to feel m a t e r i a l itself is a living e x p e r i e n c e charged
w h e t h e r it s h o u l d g r o w m o r e t o w a r d t h e left o r with e m o t i o n , by n a t u r e i r r a t i o n a l a n d e v e r -
the r i g h t , t o w a r d t h e s l o p e o r a w a y f r o m it. c h a n g i n g , w h i c h does not l e n d i t s e l f to s y s t e m a -
L i k e the t r e e , we s h o u l d g i v e in to this a l m o s t t i z a t i o n e x c e p t in the most s u p e r f i c i a l fashion.
i m p e r c e p t i b l e , yet p o w e r f u l l y d o m i n a t i n g , i m - M o d e r n d e p t h p s y c h o l o g y has h e r e r e a c h e d the
pulse an i m p u l s e t h a t c o m e s f r o m the u r g e to- s a m e limits t h a t c o n f r o n t m i c r o p h y s i c s . T h a t is,
w a r d u n i q u e , c r e a t i v e s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n . A n d this when w e a r e d e a l i n g with statistical a v e r a g e s ,
is a p r o c e s s in w h i c h o n e must r e p e a t e d l y seek a r a t i o n a l a n d s y s t e m a t i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e facts
out a n d find s o m e t h i n g t h a t is not yet k n o w n is possible. But w h e n we a r e a t t e m p t i n g to d e -
to a n y o n e . T h e g u i d i n g hints o r i m p u l s e s c o m e , s c r i b e a single p s y c h i c e v e n t , we c a n do no m o r e
not from the e g o , b u t f r o m the t o t a l i t y o f the t h a n present an honest p i c t u r e of it f r o m as
p s y c h e : the Self. m a n y a n g l e s as possible. I n the s a m e w a y , s c i e n -
It is, m o r e o v e r , useless to cast furtive g l a n c e s tists h a v e to a d m i t that they d o not know w h a t
at the w a y s o m e o n e else is d e v e l o p i n g , b e c a u s e light is. They c a n say o n l y t h a t in c e r t a i n e x -
e a c h o f us has a u n i q u e task of s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n . p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s it seems to consist o f p a r -
Although many h u m a n problems are similar, ticles, while in o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s it
they a r e n e v e r i d e n t i c a l . All p i n e trees a r e very s e e m s to consist o f w a v e s . B u t w h a t it is " i n
m u c h a l i k e ( o t h e r w i s e we s h o u l d not r e c o g n i z e i t s e l f " is not k n o w n . T h e p s y c h o l o g y of the un-
t h e m as p i n e s ) , yet n o n e is e x a c t l y t h e s a m e as c o n s c i o u s a n d a n y d e s c r i p t i o n o f the process o f
a n o t h e r . B e c a u s e o f these f a c t o r s o f s a m e n e s s i n d i v i d u a t i o n e n c o u n t e r c o m p a r a b l e difficulties
a n d d i f f e r e n c e , it is difficult to s u m m a r i z e t h e o f d e f i n i t i o n . But I will try h e r e to g i v e a s k e t c h
infinite v a r i a t i o n s o f t h e p r o c e s s o f i n d i v i d u a - o f s o m e o f t h e i r most t y p i c a l f e a t u r e s .
The first approach of the unconscious

For most p e o p l e the y e a r s o f y o u t h a r e c h a r - to h e r life. F r o m this single d r e a m it is possible


acterized by a s t a t e o f g r a d u a l a w a k e n i n g in to d e d u c e t h e t r a g i c fate o f the d r e a m e r , w h i c h
which the i n d i v i d u a l slowly b e c o m e s a w a r e o f was a n t i c i p a t e d by h e r p s y c h e in c h i l d h o o d .
the world a n d o f himself. C h i l d h o o d is a p e r i o d S o m e t i m e s it is not a d r e a m but s o m e very
of great emotional intensity, and a child's i m p r e s s i v e a n d u n f o r g e t t a b l e real event that,
earliest d r e a m s often m a n i f e s t in s y m b o l i c f o r m like a p r o p h e c y , a n t i c i p a t e s the f u t u r e in s y m -
the basic s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p s y c h e , i n d i c a t i n g h o w bolic f o r m . It is well k n o w n t h a t c h i l d r e n often
it will l a t e r s h a p e the d e s t i n y o f the i n d i v i d u a l forget e v e n t s t h a t s e e m i m p r e s s i v e to a d u l t s but
c o n c e r n e d . F o r e x a m p l e , J ting o n c e told a g r o u p k e e p a vivid r e c o l l e c t i o n of s o m e i n c i d e n t or
of students a b o u t a y o u n g w o m a n w h o was so story that no o n e else has n o t i c e d . W h e n we
haunted by a n x i e t y t h a t she c o m m i t t e d s u i c i d e look i n t o o n e o f these c h i l d h o o d m e m o r i e s , we
at the a g e o f 26. As a s m a l l c h i l d , she had usually find t h a t it d e p i c t s (if i n t e r p r e t e d as if
dreamed that " J a c k Frost" had e n t e r e d her it w e r e a s y m b o l ) a b a s i c p r o b l e m o f t h e c h i l d ' s
room while she was lyiilg in b e d a n d p i n c h e d psychic makeup.
her on the s t o m a c h . S h e w o k e a n d d i s c o v e r e d W h e n a c h i l d r e a c h e s s c h o o l a g e , the p h a s e
that she had p i n c h e d h e r s e l f with h e r o w n h a n d . o f b u i l d i n g up the e g o a n d of a d a p t i n g to the
T h e d r e a m did not f r i g h t e n h e r ; she m e r e l y r e - o u t e r w o r l d b e g i n s . T h i s p h a s e generally b r i n g s
m e m b e r e d that she h a d b a d such a d r e a m . Hut a n u m b e r o f p a i n f u l s h o c k s . At the s a m e t i m e ,
the fact that she did not r e a c t e m o t i o n a l l y to s o m e c h i l d r e n b e g i n to feel very d i f f e r e n t from
her s t r a n g e e n c o u n t e r with the d e m o n o f the o t h e r s , a n d this feeling of b e i n g u n i q u e b r i n g s
cold o f c o n g e a l e d life did not a u g u r well for a c e r t a i n sadness t h a t is p a r t o f the loneliness
the future a n d was itself a b n o r m a l . It was with o f m a n y y o u n g s t e r s . T h e i m p e r f e c t i o n s o f the
a cold, u n f e e l i n g h a n d that she l a t e r put an e n d w o r l d , a n d the evil w i t h i n o n e s e l f as well as o u t -

A child, adapting to the outside


w o r l d , receives m a n y p s y c h o l o g i c a l
s h o c k s : far left, t h e f e a r f u l first
d a y at s c h o o l ; center, t h e surprise
and pain resulting from an attack
by a n o t h e r c h i l d , left, t h e g r i e f
a n d b e w i l d e r m e n t of t h e first
e x p e r i e n c e of d e a t h A s in effect
a protection from such shocks, the
c h i l d m a y d r e a m or d r a w a c i r c u l a r ,
quadrangular, nuclear motif (above)
t h a t s y m b o l i z e s t h e all i m p o r t a n t
c e n t e r of t h e p s y c h e

'6 5
side, b e c o m e c o n s c i o u s p r o b l e m s ; t h e c h i l d must a l o n g by t h e d y n a m i s m o f i n h e r i t e d a n d i n s t i n c -
try to c o p e w i t h u r g e n t ( b u t n o t y e t u n d e r s t o o d ) tive a r c h e t y p a l pat terns. T h e s e y o u n g p e o p l e a r e
i n n e r i m p u l s e s as well as t h e d e m a n d s o f t h e not c o n c e r n e d a b o u t the deeper m e a n i n g oflife,
outer world. because t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s with love, nature,
I f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s is dis- sport, and work contain an i m m e d i a t e a n d
t u r b e d in its n o r m a l unfolding, children fre- satisfying m e a n i n g for t h e m . T h e y a r e n o t n e c e s -
q u e n t l y r e t i r e from o u t e r o r i n n e r difficulties sarily m o r e s u p e r f i c i a l ; usually t h e y a r e c a r r i e d
into a n i n n e r " f o r t r e s s " ; a n d w h e n t h a t h a p - by t h e s t r e a m of life with less friction a n d dis-
p e n s , t h e i r d r e a m s a n d s y m b o l i c d r a w i n g s of t u r b a n c e t h a n t h e i r m o r e i n t r o s p e c t i v e fellows.
u n c o n s c i o u s m a t e r i a l often r e v e a l to a n u n u s u a l I f I travel in a c a r o r train w i t h o u t l o o k i n g o u t ,
degree a type o f circular, q u a d r a n g u l a r , a n d it is only t h e stops, s t a r t s , a n d s u d d e n t u r n s t h a t
" n u c l e a r " m o t i f ( w h i c h I will e x p l a i n l a t e r ) . m a k e m e realise I a m moving at all.
This refers to t h e p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d p s y c h i c T h e actual process o f individuation the con-
n u c l e u s , t h e vital c e n t e r of t h e p e r s o n a l i t y f r o m scious c o m i n g - t o - t e r m s w i t h o n e ' s o w n i n n e r
w h i c h t h e w h o l e s t r u c t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t of c o n - center (psychic nucleus) or Selfgenerally be-
sciousness s t e m s . It is n a t u r a l t h a t t h e i m a g e o f gins with a w o u n d i n g o f the p e r s o n a l i t y a n d t h e
the ( C i l l e r s h o u l d a p p e a r in an especially strik- s u f f e r i n g that a c c o m p a n i e s it. T h i s initial shock
ing way w h e n t h e p s y c h i c life o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a m o u n t s to a sort o f " c a l l , " a l t h o u g h it is not
is t h r e a t e n e d . F r o m this c e n t r a l n u c l e u s (as f a r often r e c o g n i z e d as s u c h . O n t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e
as we k n o w t o d a y ) , t h e w h o l e b u i l d i n g u p o f e g o e g o feels h a m p e r e d in its will o r its desire a n d
c o n s c i o u s n e s s is d i r e c t e d , t h e e g o a p p a r e n t l y b e - usually p r o j e c t s t h e o b s t r u c t i o n o n t o s o m e t h i n g
ing a d u p l i c a t e o r s t r u c t u r a l c o u n t e r p a r t ol t h e external. T h a t is. t h e e g o a c c u s e s G o d o r Un-
original center. e c o n o m i c s i t u a t i o n o r t h e boss o r t h e marriage-
I n this e a r l y p h a s e t h e r e a r e m a n y children p a r t n e r o f b e i n g r e s p o n s i b l e for w h a t e v e r is
w h o e a r n e s t l y seek f o r s o m e m e a n i n g in life t h a t o b s t r u c t i n g it.
c o u l d h e l p t h e m to d e a l with t h e c h a o s b o t h O r p e r h a p s e v e r y t h i n g s e e m s o u t w a r d l y all
within a n d outside themselves. T h e r e are others, r i g h t , b u t b e n e a t h t h e s u r f a c e a person is suffer-
h o w e v e r , w h o a r e still u n c o n s c i o u s l y carried ing from a deadly b o r e d o m t h a t m a k e s e v e r y -

166
thing seem meaningless and empty. Many It is e x a c t l y t h e s a m e in t h e i n i t i a l crisis in
myths a n d fairy tales s y m b o l i c a l l y d e s c r i b e this t h e life o f a n i n d i v i d u a l . O n e is s e e k i n g s o m e -
initial stage in t h e p r o c e s s o f i n d i v i d u a t i o n b y t h i n g t h a t is i m p o s s i b l e to find o r a b o u t w h i c h
telling o f a k i n g w h o has fallen ill or g r o w n o l d . n o t h i n g is k n o w n . I n s u c h m o m e n t s all well-
Other f a m i l i a r story p a t t e r n s a r e t h a t a r o y a l m e a n t , s e n s i b l e a d v i c e is c o m p l e t e l y u s e l e s s -
couple is b a r r e n ; o r t h a t a m o n s t e r steals all t h e a d v i c e t h a t urges o n e to try to b e r e s p o n s i b l e ,
women, c h i l d r e n , horses, a n d w e a l t h o f t h e k i n g - to t a k e a h o l i d a y , n o t to w o r k so h a r d (or to
dom; or t h a t a d e m o n keeps t h e king's a r m y w o r k h a r d e r ) , to h a v e m o r e ( o r less) h u m a n c o n -
or his ship f r o m p r o c e e d i n g on its c o u r s e ; o r t a c t , or to t a k e u p a h o b b y . N o n e o f t h a t h e l p s ,
that darkness h a n g s o v e r t h e l a n d s , wells d r y o r a t best o n l y r a r e l y . T h e r e is o n l y o n e t h i n g
up, a n d flood, d r o u g h t , a n d frost afflict t h e t h a t s e e m s to w o r k ; a n d t h a t is to t u r n d i r e c t l y
country. T h u s it seems as i f t h e initial e n c o u n t e r toward the a p p r o a c h i n g darkness without pre-
with the S e l f casts a d a r k s h a d o w a h e a d of j u d i c e a n d t o t a l l y n a i v e l y , a n d to try to find
time, or as if t h e " i n n e r f r i e n d " c o m e s a t first out w h a t its s e c r e t a i m is a n d w h a t it w a n t s
like a t r a p p e r to c a t c h t h e helplessly s t r u g g l i n g from you.
ego in his s n a r e . T h e hidden purpose o f the o n c o m i n g dark-
I n myths o n e finds t h a t t h e m a g i c or t a l i s m a n ness is g e n e r a l l y s o m e t h i n g so u n u s u a l , so u n i q u e
that c a n c u r e t h e m i s f o r t u n e o f t h e k i n g o r his a n d u n e x p e c t e d , t h a t as a r u l e o n e c a n find o u t
country a l w a y s p r o v e s to b e s o m e t h i n g very w h a t it is o n l y b y m e a n s o f d r e a m s a n d f a n t a -
special. I n o n e t a l e " a w h i t e b l a c k b i r d " ' or " a sies w e l l i n g up f r o m t h e u n c o n s c i o u s . I f o n e
fish that c a r r i e s a g o l d e n r i n g in its gills'" is focuses a t t e n t i o n on t h e u n c o n s c i o u s without
needed to r e s t o r e t h e k i n g ' s h e a l t h . I n a n o t h e r , rash a s s u m p t i o n s o r e m o t i o n a l r e j e c t i o n , it often
the king w a n t s " t h e w a t e r o f life'" o r " t h r e e b r e a k s t h r o u g h in a flow o f helpful symbolic
golden hairs f r o m t h e h e a d o f t h e d e v i l " o r " a i m a g e s . B u t n o t a l w a y s . S o m e t i m e s it first offers
woman's g o l d e n p l a i t " ( a n d a f t e r w a r d , n a t u r - a series o f p a i n f u l r e a l i z a t i o n s o f w h a t is w r o n g
ally, the o w n e r o f t h e p l a i t ) . W h a t e v e r it is, t h e with o n e s e l f a n d o n e ' s c o n s c i o u s a t t i t u d e s . T h e n
thing that c a n d r i v e a w a y t h e evil is a l w a y s o n e m u s t b e g i n t h e process by s w a l l o w i n g all
unique a n d h a r d to find. sorts o f b i t t e r t r u t h s .

Far left, a w o o d c u t f r o m a 1 7 t h -
century a l c h e m i c a l m a n u s c r i p t
d e p i c t s a k i n g w h o has f a l l e n ill
a c o m m o n s y m b o l i c i m a g e of t h e
emptiness a n d b o r e d o m ( i n t h e
consciousness) t h a t c a n m a r k t h e
initial stage of t h e i n d i v i d u a t i o n
process. Left, f r o m t h e 1 9 6 0 Italian
film La Dolce Vita, a n o t h e r i m a g e
of this p s y c h o l o g i c a l state: G u e s t s
explore the r u n - d o w n interior o f
a decayed a r i s t o c r a t ' s castle.

Right, a p a i n t i n g b y t h e m o d e r n
Swiss artist Paul Klee e n t i t l e d
Fairy Tale. It illustrates a t a l e
of a y o u n g m a n w h o s o u g h t a n d
found the " b l u e b i r d of h a p p i n e s s . "
and so c o u l d m a r r y a p r i n c e s s .
In many fairy tales s u c h a t a l i s m a n
is necessary t o c u r e illness or
misfortune, s y m b o l s of o u r
feelings of e m p t i n e s s a n d f u t i l i t y .
The realization of the shadow

W h e t h e r t h e u n c o n s c i o u s c o m e s up at first in people such things as e g o t i s m , m e n t a l laziness,


a helpful or a n e g a t i v e f o r m , a f t e r a t i m e the and sloppiness; unreal fantasies, schemes, and
need usually arises to r e a d a p t the conscious plots; carelessness a n d c o w a r d i c e ; inordinate
a t t i t u d e in a b e t t e r w a y to the u n c o n s c i o u s f a c - love o f m o n e y a n d possessions in s h o r t , all Un-
tors therefore to a c c e p t what seems to be lit tie sins a b o u t w h i c h he might previously h a v e
"criticism" from the unconscious. Through told h i m s e l f : "That doesn't matter; nobody
d r e a m s o n e b e c o m e s a c q u a i n t e d with a s p e c t s of will n o t i c e it, a n d in a n y c a s e o t h e r people
o n e ' s o w n p e r s o n a l i t y t h a t for v a r i o u s r e a s o n s d o it t o o . "
o n e has p r e f e r r e d not to look at too c l o s e l y . I f you feel a n o v e r w h e l m i n g r a g e c o m i n g up
This is w h a t J u n g c a l l e d " t h e r e a l i z a t i o n of t h e in you w h e n a friend r e p r o a c h e s you a b o u t a
s h a d o w . " ( H e used t h e t e r m " s h a d o w " for this f a u l t , you c a n b e fairly s u r e t h a t at this point
u n c o n s c i o u s p a r t o f the p e r s o n a l i t y b e c a u s e it you will find a p a r t o f y o u r s h a d o w , o f w h i c h
a c t u a l l y often a p p e a r s in d r e a m s in a p e r s o n i - you a r e u n c o n s c i o u s . It is, of c o u r s e , n a t u r a l to
fied f o r m . ) b e c o m e annoyed when others who are " n o bet-
T h e s h a d o w is not the w h o l e o f t h e u n c o n - t e r " c r i t i c i z e you b e c a u s e o f s h a d o w faults. But
scious p e r s o n a l i t y . It r e p r e s e n t s u n k n o w n or w h a t c a n you say i f y o u r o w n d r e a m s a n i n n e r
l i t t l e - k n o w n a t t r i b u t e s a n d q u a l i t i e s of t h e e g o j u d g e in y o u r o w n b e i n g reproach you? T h a t
a s p e c t s that m o s t l y b e l o n g to the p e r s o n a l is t h e m o m e n t w h e n t h e e g o gets c a u g h t , a n d
s p h e r e a n d t h a t c o u l d j u s t as well b e c o n s c i o u s . t h e result is usually e m b a r r a s s e d s i l e n c e . A f t e r -
In s o m e a s p e c t s , t h e s h a d o w c a n also consist o f w a r d the p a i n f u l a n d l e n g t h y w o r k o f s e l f - e d u -
collective factors that stem from a source out- cation begins a w o r k , we m i g h t say, that is
side the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l life. t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l e q u i v a l e n t o f the l a b o r s o f
W h e n an i n d i v i d u a l m a k e s an a t t e m p t to see H e r c u l e s . T h i s u n f o r t u n a t e h e r o ' s first task, you
his s h a d o w , he b e c o m e s a w a r e of ( a n d often will r e m e m b e r , was to c l e a n u p in o n e d a y t h e
ashamed o f those q u a l i t i e s a n d i m p u l s e s he A u g e a n S t a b l e s , in w h i c h h u n d r e d s of c a t t l e h a d
d e n i e s in himself b u t c a n p l a i n l y see in o t h e r d i o p p r d theii d u n g for m a i n d e c a d e s a task

T h r e e e x a m p l e s of a " c o l l e c t i v e
infection'" that can w e l d people
into an irrational m o b and to
w h i c h t h e shadow ( t h e dark side of
t h e e g o - p e r s o n a l i t y ) is v u l n e r a b l e
Left, a s c e n e f r o m a 1 9 6 1 P o l i s h
film concerning 1 7th century
French nuns w h o were possessed
by t h e d e v i l " R i g h t , a d r a w i n g
by B r u e g h e l d e p i c t s t h e a f f l i c t i o n
(largely p s y c h o s o m a t i c ) called " S t
Vitus' Dance." w h i c h was widespread
in t h e M i d d l e A g e s Far right, t h e
f i e r y - c r o s s e m b l e m of t h e Ku Klux
K l a n , t h e w h i t e s u p r e m a c y "secret
s o c i e t y " of A m e r i c a s S o u t h w h o s e
racial i n t o l e r a n c e has o f t e n led
t o a c t s of m o b v i o l e n c e
so e n o r m o u s that the o r d i n a r y m o r t a l w o u l d b e t h e d r e a m e r . T h e f o l l o w i n g d r e a m m a y serve
overcome by discouragement at the mere as a n e x a m p l e . T h e d r e a m e r was a m a n o f 4 8
thought o f it. w h o tried to live very m u c h for a n d bv h i m -
T h e s h a d o w does not consist o n l y o f o m i s - self, w o r k i n g h a r d a n d d i s c i p l i n i n g himself, r e -
sions. It shows u p just as often in a n i m p u l s i v e pressing pleasure and spontaneity to a far
or i n a d v e r t e n t a c t . B e f o r e o n e has t i m e to t h i n k , g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n suited his real n a t u r e .
the evil r e m a r k pops o u t , t h e plot is h a t c h e d ,
the w r o n g d e c i s i o n is m a d e , a n d o n e is c o n - 1 owned and inhabited a very big house in
fronted with results t h a t w e r e n e v e r i n t e n d e d town, and I didn't yet know all its different parts.
or consciously w a n t e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , the s h a - So I took a walk through it and discovered,
dow is e x p o s e d to c o l l e c t i v e i n f e c t i o n s to a m u c h mainly in the cellar, several rooms about which
I knew nothing and even exits leading into other
greater e x t e n t t h a n is t h e c o n s c i o u s p e r s o n a l i t y .
cellars or into subterranean streets. I felt uneasy
When a m a n is a l o n e , for i n s t a n c e , he feels r e l a -
when I found that several of these exits were not
tively all r i g h t ; b u t as soon as " t h e o t h e r s " d o locked and some had no locks at all. Moreover,
dark, p r i m i t i v e t h i n g s , he b e g i n s to f e a r t h a t i f there were some laborers at work in the neighbor-
he doesn't j o i n in, he will b e c o n s i d e r e d a fool. hood who could have sneaked in. . . .
Thus he gives w a y to i m p u l s e s t h a t d o not r e a l l y When I came up again to the ground floor, I
belong to h i m at all. It is p a r t i c u l a r l y in c o n - passed a back yard where again I discovered dil-
ferent exits into the street or into other houses.
tacts with p e o p l e o f the s a m e sex t h a t one
When I tried to investigate them m o t e closely, a
stumbles o v e r b o t h o n e ' s o w n s h a d o w a n d those man came up to me laughing loudly and calling
of other p e o p l e . A l t h o u g h we d o see t h e s h a d o w out that we were old pa Is from the elementary
in a person o f the o p p o s i t e sex, w e a r e usually school. I remembered him too, and while he was
much less a n n o y e d by it a n d c a n m o r e easily telling me about his life, I walked along with him
toward the exit and strolled with him through the
pardon it.
streets.
In d r e a m s a n d m y t h s , t h e r e f o r e , the s h a d o w T h e r e was a strange chiaroscuro in the air as
appeals as a person o f t h e s a m e sex as t h a t o f we walked through an enormous circular street
and arrived at a green lawn where three gallop- d i s a p p e a r , a n d o n e does not k n o w w h e r e o r how
ing horses suddenly passed us. T h e y were beauti- t h e y h a v e g o n e . It is such a lost c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
ful, strong animals, wild but well-groomed, and o f t h e d r e a m e r t h a t n o w r e t u r n s ( f r o m the b a c k
they had no rider with them. (Had they run away
yard) a n d tries to m a k e friends a g a i n . This
from military service?)
figure probably stands for the dreamer's
T h e m a z e o f strange passages, c h a m b e r s , a n d n e g l e c t e d c a p a c i t y for e n j o y i n g life a n d for his
unlocked exits in the cellar recalls the old e x t r a v e r t e d s h a d o w side.
Egyptian representation o f the underworld, B u t we soon l e a r n w h y t h e d r e a m e r feels " u n -
w h i c h is a w e l l - k n o w n s y m b o l o f t h e u n c o n - easy " j u s t b e f o r e m e e t i n g this s e e m i n g l y h a r m -
scious w i t h its u n k n o w n possibilities. It also less old f r i e n d . W h e n he strolls with h i m in the
shows h o w o n e is " o p e n " to o t h e r i n f l u e n c e s in street, t h e horses b r e a k loose. T h e dreamer
one's unconscious shadow side, and how un- thinks t h e y m a y h a v e e s c a p e d f r o m military
c a n n y a n d a l i e n e l e m e n t s c a n b r e a k in. T h e s e r v i c e ( t h a t is to s a y , f r o m t h e c o n s c i o u s disci-
cellar, one can s a y , is the b a s e m e n t o f the p l i n e t h a t has h i t h e r t o c h a r a c t e r i z e d his life).
dreamer's psyche. In the b a c k yard of the T h e f a c t t h a t t h e horses h a v e n o r i d e r shows
s t r a n g e b u i l d i n g ( w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s the still u n - t h a t i n s t i n c t i v e drives c a n get a w a y f r o m c o n -
perceived psychic scope of the dreamer's person- scious c o n t r o l . In this old f r i e n d , a n d in the
a l i t y ) a n old s c h o o l f r i e n d s u d d e n l y t u r n s u p . horses, all the positive f o r c e r e a p p e a r s t h a t was
T h i s p e r s o n o b v i o u s l y personifies a n o t h e r a s p e c t l a c k i n g b e f o r e a n d t h a t was b a d l y n e e d e d by
o f the d r e a m e r h i m s e l f a n aspect that had the d r e a m e r .
b e e n p a r t o f his life as a c h i l d but t h a t he h a d
T h i s is a p r o b l e m t h a t often c o m e s u p w h e n
f o r g o t t e n a n d lost. It often h a p p e n s t h a t a p e r -
o n e m e e t s o n e ' s " o t h e r s i d e . " T h e s h a d o w usu-
son's c h i l d h o o d q u a l i t i e s (for i n s t a n c e , g a i e t y ,
ally c o n t a i n s v a l u e s t h a t a r e n e e d e d by c o n s c i -
i r a s c i b i l i t y , o r p e r h a p s trustfulness) suddenly
ousness, b u t t h a t exist in a f o r m t h a t m a k e s it

i 70
Left, Anxious Journey by t h e m o d e r n
Italian artist d e C h i r i c o . T h e t i t l e
and g l o o m y passages of t h e p a i n t i n g
express t h e n a t u r e of t h e first
contact w i t h t h e u n c o n s c i o u s w h e n
the i n d i v i d u a t i o n p r o c e s s b e g i n s .
The u n c o n s c i o u s is o f t e n s y m b o l i z e d
by c o r r i d o r s , l a b y r i n t h s , or m a z e s :
Right, o n a p a p y r u s (c, 1 4 0 0 B . C . ) ,
the seven d o o r s of t h e E g y p t i a n
u n d e r w o r l d , itself seen as a m a z e .
B e l o w , d r a w i n g s of t h r e e m a z e s :
left to r i g h t , a F i n n i s h s t o n e m a z e
(Bronze A g e ) : a 1 9 t h c e n t u r y B r i t i s h
turf maze: a n d a m a z e ( i n t i l e s ) o n
the f l o o r of C h a r t r e s C a t h e d r a l
(it c o u l d b e w a l k e d as a s y m b o l i c
pilgrimage to the Holy Land).

difficult t o i n t e g r a t e t h e m i n t o o n e ' s life. T h e w e a p p r o a c h t h e exit, b u t I a m on my g u a r d . A


passages a n d t h e l a r g e h o u s e in this d r e a m also tall, p o r t l y m a n ( r a t h e r rich a n d influential) s u d -
d e n l y leans a g a i n s t t h e wall beside m e , feeling ill.
show t h a t the d r e a m e r d o e s n o t yet k n o w his
I q u i c k l y g r a b t h e o p p o r t u n i t y to kill t h e official
o w n p s y c h i c d i m e n s i o n s a n d is n o t y e t a b l e t o
b y s t a b b i n g his h e a r t . " O n e o n l y notices a bit of
fill t h e m o u t . m o i s t u r e " t h i s is said like a c o m m e n t . N o w I
T h e s h a d o w i n t h i s d r e a m is t y p i c a l for a n a m safe, for t h e F r e n c h m a n w o n ' t a t t a c k m e since
i n t r o v e r t fa m a n w h o t e n d s t o r e t i r e t o o m u c h t h e m a n w h o g a v e h i m his o r d e r s is d e a d . ( P r o b -
a b l y t h e official a n d t h e successful p o r t l y m a n
from o u t e r l i f e ) . I n t h e c a s e o f a n c x t r a v e r t , w h o
are the same person, the latter somehow replacing
is t u r n e d m o r e t o w a r d o u t e r o b j e c t s a n d o u t e r the former.)
life, t h e s h a d o w w o u l d l o o k q u i t e different.
A y o u n g m a n w h o h a d a v e r y lively t e m p e r a -
ment e m b a r k e d a g a i n a n d a g a i n on successful T h e d e s p e r a d o r e p r e s e n t s t h e o t h e r side of
enterprises, w h i l e at t h e s a m e t i m e his d r e a m s the dreamerhis introversion which has
insisted t h a t h e s h o u l d finish off a p i e c e o f p r i - r e a c h e d a c o m p l e t e l y d e s t i t u t e s t a t e . H e lies o n
vate c r e a t i v e w o r k he h a d b e g u n . T h e follow- a c o u c h ( i . e . h e is p a s s i v e ) a n d p u l l s t h e c o v e r
ing w a s o n e o f t h o s e d r e a m s : o v e r h i s f a c e b e c a u s e h e w a n t s t o b e left a l o n e .
T h e official, o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , a n d t h e p r o s p e r -
A m a n is lying o n a c o u c h a n d h a s p u l l e d t h e ous portly m a n (who are secretly the s a m e per-
cover o v e r his face. H e is a F r e n c h m a n , a d e s - son ) personify t h e d r e a m e r ' s successful o u t e r re-
perado w h o would take on any criminal j o b . An s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a n d activities. T h e s u d d e n illness
official is a c c o m p a n y i n g m e d o w n s t a i r s , a n d I
o f t h e p o r t l y m a n is c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e fact t h a t
know t h a t a plot has b e e n m a d e a g a i n s t m e :
t h i s d r e a m e r h a d in fact b e c o m e ill s e v e r a l t i m e s
namely, t h a t t h e F r e n c h m a n s h o u l d kill m e as if
by c h a n c e . ( T h a t is h o w it w o u l d look from t h e w h e n h e h a d a l l o w e d his d y n a m i c e n e r g y to e x -
outside.) H e a c t u a l l y s n e a k s u p b e h i n d m e w h e n p l o d e t o o f o r c i b l y in his e x t e r n a l life. B u t t h i s

'7'
s u c c e s s f u l m a n h a s n o b l o o d in h i s v e i n s only
a sort of m o i s t u r e w h i c h m e a n s that these ex-
t e r n a l a m b i t i o u s a c t i v i t i e s of t h e d r e a m e r c o n -
t a i n n o g e n u i n e life a n d no passion, but are
b l o o d l e s s m e c h a n i s m s . T h u s it w o u l d b e n o r e a l
loss if t h e p o r t l y m a n w e r e k i l l e d . A t t h e e n d of
t h e d r e a m , t h e F r e n c h m a n is s a t i s f i e d ; h e o b v i -
ously represents a positive s h a d o w figure who
had turned negative and dangerous only be-
c a u s e t h e c o n s c i o u s a t t i t u d e of t h e d r e a m e r d i d
not agree with him.
T h i s d r e a m s h o w s us t h a t t h e s h a d o w can
consist of many different elements for in-
s t a n c e , of u n c o n s c i o u s a m b i t i o n ( t h e s u c c e s s f u l
p o r t l y m a n ) a n d of i n t r o v e r s i o n (the French-
m a n ) . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r d r e a m e r ' s association to
the French, moreover, was that they know how
to h a n d l e love affairs v e r y well. T h e r e f o r e the
two shadow figures also r e p r e s e n t two well-
k n o w n d r i v e s : p o w e r a n d sex. T h e p o w e r d r i v e
a p p e a r s m o m e n t a r i l y in a d o u b l e f o r m , b o t h as
a n official a n d a s a s u c c e s s f u l m a n . T h e o f f i c i a l ,
or civil s e r v a n t , personifies c o l l e c t i v e adapta-
tion, w h e r e a s t h e successful m a n d e n o t e s a m b i -
tion ; but naturally both serve the p o w e r drive.
When t h e d r e a m e r s u c c e e d s in s t o p p i n g this
d a n g e r o u s i n n e r f o r c e , t h e F r e n c h m a n is s u d -
denly no longer hostile. In o t h e r w o r d s , the
e q u a l l y d a n g e r o u s a s p e c t of t h e sex d r i v e has
also s u r r e n d e r e d .

O b v i o u s l y , t h e p r o b l e m of t h e s h a d o w plays
a g r e a t r o l e i n all p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t s . If t h e m a n
w h o h a d this d r e a m h a d not b e e n sensible a b o u t
his s h a d o w p r o b l e m , h e c o u l d e a s i l y h a v e i d e n -
tified t h e d e s p e r a t e F r e n c h m a n w i t h t h e " d a n -
g e r o u s C o m m u n i s t s ' ' of o u t e r life, o r t h e official
plus the prosperous m a n with the "grasping
c a p i t a l i s t s . " I n this w a y he w o u l d h a v e a v o i d e d "For over live years this man
has been chasing around Europe
seeing that he h a d within him such warring
like a madman in search of
e l e m e n t s . If p e o p l e o b s e r v e t h e i r o w n uncon- something he could set on lire.
s c i o u s t e n d e n c i e s in o t h e r p e o p l e , t h i s is c a l l e d Untoitunalely he again and
again finds hirelings who
a " p r o j e c t i o n . " P o l i t i c a l a g i t a t i o n i n all c o u n - open the gates ol their country
t r i e s is full o f s u c h p r o j e c t i o n s , j u s t as m u c h a s to this international incendiaiy "

the b a c k - y a r d gossip of little g r o u p s a n d i n d i -


viduals. Projections of all k i n d s o b s c u r e our
v i e w o f o u r f e l l o w m e n , s p o i l i n g its o b j e c t i v i t y ,
and thus spoiling all possibility of genuine
human relationships.

'72
A n d t h e r e is a n a d d i t i o n a l d i s a d v a n t a g e i n I t w o u l d b e r e l a t i v e l y e a s y if o n e c o u l d i n t e -
projecting o u r s h a d o w . If w e identify o u r o w n grate the shadow into the conscious personality
shadow with, say, the C o m m u n i s t s or the capi- j u s t by a t t e m p t i n g to be honest a n d to use o n e ' s
talists, a p a r t o f o u r o w n p e r s o n a l i t y remains insight. But, unfortunately, such an attempt
on t h e o p p o s i n g s i d e . T h e r e s u l t is t h a t w e s h a l l d o e s n o t a l w a y s w o r k . T h e r e is s u c h a p a s s i o n a t e
constantly (though involuntarily) do things he- d r i v e w i t h i n the s h a d o w y p a r t of oneself t h a t
hind o u r o w n b a c k s t h a t s u p p o r t this o t h e r side, r e a s o n m a y n o t p r e v a i l a g a i n s t it. A b i t t e r e x -
and thus we shall u n w i t t i n g l y h e l p o u r e n e m y . perience c o m i n g from the outside m a y occa-
If, o n t h e c o n t r a r y , w e r e a l i z e t h e p r o j e c t i o n a n d s i o n a l l y h e l p ; a b r i c k , so t o s p e a k , h a s t o d r o p
can discuss m a t t e r s w i t h o u t fear or hostility, o n o n e ' s h e a d to p u t a stop to s h a d o w drives
dealing with the o t h e r person sensibly, then a n d impulses. At times a heroic decision may
t h e r e is a c h a n c e o f m u t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g or serve to halt them, but such a superhuman
at l e a s t o f a t r u c e . e f f o r t is u s u a l l y p o s s i b l e o n l y if t h e C r e a t Man
W h e t h e r the s h a d o w b e c o m e s o u r friend or w i t h i n ( t h e Self) helps t h e i n d i v i d u a l to c a r r y
e n e m y d e p e n d s largely u p o n ourselves. As the it t h r o u g h .
d r e a m s of t h e u n e x p l o r e d h o u s e a n d t h e F r e n c h T h e fact t h a t t h e s h a d o w c o n t a i n s t h e o v e r -
d e s p e r a d o b o t h s h o w , t h e s h a d o w is n o t n e c e s - w h e l m i n g p o w e r of i r r e s i s t i b l e i m p u l s e d o e s n o t
sarily a l w a y s a n o p p o n e n t . I n f a c t , h e is e x a c t l y mean, however, that the drive should always be
like a n y h u m a n b e i n g w i t h w h o m o n e h a s t o g e t h e r o i c a l l y r e p r e s s e d . S o m e t i m e s t h e s h a d o w is
along, s o m e t i m e s by g i v i n g in, s o m e t i m e s by r e - p o w e r f u l b e c a u s e t h e u r g e o f t h e S e l f is p o i n t -
sisting, s o m e t i m e s by g i v i n g love whatever the ing in t h e s a m e d i r e c t i o n , a n d so o n e d o e s n o t
situation requires. T h e s h a d o w becomes hostile k n o w w h e t h e r it is t h e S e l f o r t h e s h a d o w t h a t
o n l y w h e n h e is i g n o r e d o r m i s u n d e r s t o o d . is b e h i n d t h e i n n e r p r e s s u r e . I n t h e u n c o n s c i o u s ,
S o m e t i m e s , t h o u g h not often, a n individual o n e is u n f o r t u n a t e l y i n t h e s a m e s i t u a t i o n a s i n
feels i m p e l l e d t o l i v e o u t t h e w o r s e s i d e o f h i s a moonlit landscape: All the contents arc
n a t u r e a n d to r e p r e s s his b e t t e r side. I n s u c h blurred and merge into one another, and one
cases t h e s h a d o w a p p e a r s a s a p o s i t i v e figure in never knows exactly w h a t or where anything
his d r e a m s . B u t t o a p e r s o n w h o l i v e s o u t h i s is, o r w h e r e o n e t h i n g b e g i n s a n d e n d s . ( T h i s is
natural e m o t i o n s a n d feelings, the s h a d o w m a y k n o w n as t h e " c o n t a m i n a t i o n " of u n c o n s c i o u s
a p p e a r a s a c o l d a n d n e g a t i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l ; it contents.)
then personifies poisonous j u d g m e n t s a n d n e g a - W h e n J u n g c a l l e d o n e a s p e c t of t h e u n c o n -
tive t h o u g h t s t h a t have been held back. So, scious personality the s h a d o w , he was referring
whatever form it takes, the function of the to a relatively well-defined factor. But some-
s h a d o w is t o r e p r e s e n t t h e o p p o s i t e s i d e o f t h e t i m e s e v e r y t h i n g t h a t is u n k n o w n t o t h e e g o is
ego a n d to e m b o d y j u s t t h o s e q u a l i t i e s t h a t o n e mixed up with the shadow, including even the
dislikes m o s t in o t h e r p e o p l e . m o s t v a l u a b l e a n d h i g h e s t f o r c e s . W h o , for i n -

Rather t h a n face o u r d e f e c t s as
revealed by t h e s h a d o w wepro/ect
them o n t o o t h e r s for instance,
on t o o u r p o l i t i c a l e n e m i e s A b o v e
left, a p o s t e r m a d e for a p a r a d e
in C o m m u n i s t C h i n a s h o w s A m e r i c a
as an evil s e r p e n t ( b e a r i n g N a z i
s w a s t i k a s ) k i l l e d by a C h i n e s e h a n d
Left, H i t l e r d u r i n g a s p e e c h ; t h e
q u o t a t i o n is his d e s c r i p t i o n of
C h u r c h i l l P r o j e c t i o n s also f l o u r i s h
in m a l i c i o u s g o s s i p ( r i g h t f r o m
the B r i t i s h t e l e v i s i o n series
Coronation Street)
A b o v e , the w i l d w h i t e stallion f r o m
t h e 1 9 5 3 F r e n c h f i l m Crin Blanc
W i l d horses o f t e n s y m b o l i z e t h e
uncontrollable instinctive drives
that can erupt from the u n c o n s c i o u s
a n d t h a t m a n y p e o p l e try t o repress.
In t h e f i l m , t h e horse a n d a b o y
form a strong attachment (though
t h e h o r s e still r u n s w i l d w i t h his
h e r d ) . B u t local h o r s e m e n set o u t
t o c a p t u r e t h e w i l d horses. T h e
s t a l l i o n a n d his b o y rider are
p u r s u e d for miles; finally they
are c o r n e r e d o n t h e seashore.
Rather than submit to capture, the
b o y a n d t h e horse p l u n g e i n t o t h e
sea t o be s w e p t a w a y S y m b o l i c a l l y ,
t h e s t o r y ' s e n d s e e m s t o represent
an e s c a p e i n t o t h e u n c o n s c i o u s
( t h e sea) as a w a y t o a v o i d f a c i n g
reality in t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d .
stance, could be quite sure w h e t h e r the F r e n c h ally saved it for its o w n e r s because pirates
d e s p e r a d o in t h e d r e a m I q u o t e d w a s a useless w e r e o n t h e i r w a y t o s t e a l it. A s it is, t h e fisher-
t r a m p or a most valuable introvert? A n d the m e n c a n s a l v a g e it. T h e h a n d s o m e y o u n g m a n
bolting horses of t h e p r e c e d i n g d r e a m s h o u l d w a s o n h i s w a y t o c o m m i t a c r i m e , a n d b y kill-
they b e a l l o w e d to r u n free o r n o t ? I n a c a s e ing him K h i d r saved his pious p a r e n t s from
when the d r e a m itself d o e s n o t m a k e things i n f a m y . By r e s t o r i n g t h e w a l l , t w o p i o u s y o u n g
clear, the conscious personality will h a v e to m e n w e r e saved from ruin because their trea-
make the decision. s u r e w a s b u r i e d u n d e r it. M o s e s , w h o h a d b e e n
If t h e s h a d o w figure c o n t a i n s v a l u a b l e , vital so m o r a l l y i n d i g n a n t , s a w n o w ( t o o l a t e ) that
forces, t h e y o u g h t t o b e a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o a c t u a l his j u d g m e n t h a d b e e n t o o h a s t y . K h i d r ' s d o i n g s
e x p e r i e n c e a n d n o t r e p r e s s e d . I t is u p t o t h e e g o h a d s e e m e d to b e t o t a l l y evil, b u t in fact t h e y
to g i v e u p its p r i d e a n d p r i g g i s h n e s s a n d t o l i v e were not.
out s o m e t h i n g t h a t s e e m s to b e d a r k , b u t a c t u - Looking at this story naively, one might
ally m a y n o t b e . T h i s c a n r e q u i r e a sacrifice a s s u m e t h a t K h i d r is t h e l a w l e s s , c a p r i c i o u s ,
just as h e r o i c as t h e c o n q u e s t of p a s s i o n , but evil s h a d o w of p i o u s , l a w - a b i d i n g M o s e s . But
in a n o p p o s i t e s e n s e . t h i s is n o t t h e c a s e . K h i d r is m u c h m o r e t h e p e r -
T h e e t h i c a l difficulties t h a t arise w h e n one sonification of s o m e secret c r e a t i v e a c t i o n s of
meets o n e ' s s h a d o w a r e well d e s c r i b e d in the t h e G o d h e a d . ( O n e c a n find a s i m i l a r m e a n i n g
18th B o o k o f t h e K o r a n . In this tale Moses in t h e f a m o u s I n d i a n s t o r y of " T h e K i n g a n d
meets K h i d r ( " t h e G r e e n O n e " or "first a n g e l t h e C o r p s e " as i n t e r p r e t e d b y H e n r y Z i m m e r . )
of G o d " ) i n t h e d e s e r t . T h e y w a n d e r a l o n g t o - I t is n o a c c i d e n t t h a t I h a v e n o t q u o t e d a d r e a m
gether, a n d K h i d r expresses his fear t h a t M o s e s to illustrate this s u b t l e p r o b l e m . I h a v e chosen
will n o t b e a b l e t o w i t n e s s h i s d e e d s without this w e l l - k n o w n story from the K o r a n because
i n d i g n a t i o n . If M o s e s c a n n o t b e a r w i t h h i m a n d it s u m s u p t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f a l i f e t i m e , w h i c h
trust h i m , K h i d r will h a v e to l e a v e . would very rarely be expressed with such clarity
Presently K h i d r scuttles the fishing b o a t of in a n i n d i v i d u a l d r e a m .
some p o o r villagers. T h e n , before Moses's eyes, W h e n d a r k figures t u r n u p i n o u r d r e a m s a n d
he kills a h a n d s o m e y o u n g m a n , a n d finally he seem to w a n t s o m e t h i n g , w e c a n n o t be sure
restores t h e fallen wall of a city of u n b e l i e v e r s . w h e t h e r t h e y personify m e r e l y a s h a d o w y p a r t of
Moses c a n n o t h e l p e x p r e s s i n g his i n d i g n a t i o n , o u r s e l v e s , o r t h e Self, o r b o t h a t t h e s a m e t i m e .
a n d so K h i d r h a s t o l e a v e h i m . B e f o r e h i s d e - D i v i n i n g in a d v a n c e w h e t h e r o u r d a r k p a r t n e r
p a r t u r e , h o w e v e r , h e e x p l a i n s t h e r e a s o n s for symbolizes a shortcoming that we should
his a c t i o n s : By s c u t t l i n g the boat he actu- overcome or a meaningful b i t o f life t h a t we

T h e s h a d o w c a n be said t o h a v e t w o
aspects, one d a n g e r o u s , the other
v a l u a b l e T h e p a i n t i n g of t h e H i n d u
g o d V i s h n u , far left, i m a g e s s u c h
a duality: Usually considered a
b e n e v o l e n t g o d , V i s h n u here a p p e a r s
in a d e m o n i c a s p e c t , t e a r i n g a m a n
apart Left, f r o m a J a p a n e s e
t e m p l e ( A D 7 5 9 ) , a s c u l p t u r e of
B u d d h a also e x p r e s s e s d u a l i t y :
The g o d ' s many arms hold symbols
of b o t h g o o d a n d evil R i g h t , t h e
d o u b t - s t r i c k e n Martin Luther
( p o r t r a y e d by A l b e r t F i n n e y in t h e
1 9 6 1 p l a y Luther by B r i t a i n ' s J o h n
O s b o r n e ) : L u t h e r w a s never sure
w h e t h e r his break f r o m t h e C h u r c h
w a s i n s p i r e d by G o d or arose f r o m
his o w n p r i d e a n d o b s t i n a c y ( i n
s y m b o l i c t e r m s , t h e " e v i l " side
of his s h a d o w ) .
should accept t h i s is o n e o f t h e m o s t difficult to look to his o w n p r o b l e m a n d try to d e t e r m i n e
p r o b l e m s t h a t w e e n c o u n t e r on the w a y to indi- w h a t is r i g h t for h i m s e l f . A s a n o l d Z e n Budd-
viduation. Moreover, the dream symbols are hist M a s t e r said, w e m u s t follow t h e e x a m p l e
often so s u b t l e a n d c o m p l i c a t e d t h a t o n e c a n - of t h e c o w h e r d w h o w a t c h e s his ox " w i t h a
not b e sure of their i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . In such a s t i c k s o t h a t it w i l l n o t g r a z e o n o t h e r p e o p l e ' s
s i t u a t i o n a l l o n e c a n d o is a c c e p t t h e d i s c o m - meadows."
fort o f e t h i c a l d o u b t m a k i n g n o final d e c i s i o n s T h e s e n e w discoveries of d e p t h psychology
or c o m m i t m e n t s a n d c o n t i n u i n g to w a t c h the a r e b o u n d to m a k e s o m e c h a n g e in o u r collective
d r e a m s . T h i s r e s e m b l e s t h e s i t u a t i o n of C i n d e r - e t h i c a l v i e w s , for t h e y w i l l c o m p e l u s t o j u d g e
ella w h e n h e r s t e p m o t h e r t h r e w a h e a p of g o o d all h u m a n a c t i o n s in a m u c h m o r e i n d i v i d u a l
a n d b a d p e a s in front of h e r a n d a s k e d h e r to a n d s u b t l e w a y . T h e d i s c o v e r y of t h e uncon-
s o r t t h e m o u t . A l t h o u g h it s e e m e d q u i t e h o p e - s c i o u s is o n e o f t h e m o s t f a r - r e a c h i n g discov-
less, C i n d e r e l l a b e g a n p a t i e n t l y t o s o r t t h e p e a s , eries of recent times. But the fact that
a n d s u d d e n l y d o v e s (or a n t s , in s o m e versions) r e c o g n i t i o n o f its u n c o n s c i o u s r e a l i t y involves
c a m e to h e l p her. T h e s e c r e a t u r e s symbolize h o n e s t s e l f - e x a m i n a t i o n a n d r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of
helpful, deeply unconscious impulses that can o n e ' s life c a u s e s m a n y p e o p l e t o c o n t i n u e to
o n l y b e felt i n o n e ' s b o d y , a s it w e r e , a n d that b e h a v e a s if n o t h i n g a t a l l h a s h a p p e n e d . It
p o i n t to a w a y o u t . t a k e s a lot of c o u r a g e to t a k e t h e unconscious
S o m e w h e r e , right at t h e b o t t o m of o n e ' s o w n s e r i o u s l y a n d t o t a c k l e t h e p r o b l e m s it r a i s e s .
being, one generally does know where one Most people a r e too indolent to think deeply
should go a n d w h a t one should do. But there a b o u t e v e n t h o s e m o r a l a s p e c t s of t h e i r b e h a -
a r e times w h e n t h e c l o w n w e call " I " b e h a v e s vior of w h i c h t h e y a r e c o n s c i o u s ; t h e y a r e cer-
in s u c h a d i s t r a c t i n g fashion t h a t t h e i n n e r v o i c e tainly too lazy to c o n s i d e r h o w t h e u n c o n s c i o u s
c a n n o t m a k e its p r e s e n c e felt. affects t h e m .

S o m e t i m e s all a t t e m p t s to u n d e r s t a n d the
h i n t s of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s fail, a n d in s u c h a
difficulty o n e c a n o n l y h a v e t h e c o u r a g e to d o
w h a t seems to be right, while being r e a d y to
c h a n g e c o u r s e if t h e s u g g e s t i o n s o f t h e u n c o n -
scious s h o u l d s u d d e n l y p o i n t in a n o t h e r d i r e c -
tion. It may also happen (although this is
unusual) t h a t a p e r s o n will find it b e t t e r to
resist t h e u r g e of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s , e v e n at t h e
p r i c e of feeling w a r p e d by d o i n g so, r a t h e r t h a n
d e p a r t t o o far f r o m t h e s t a t e o f b e i n g human.
(This would b e t h e s i t u a t i o n of p e o p l e who
h a d t o l i v e o u t a c r i m i n a l d i s p o s i t i o n in o r d e r
tf) b e c o m p l e t e l y t h e m s e l v e s . )
T h e strength a n d i n n e r clarity n e e d e d by the
e g o in o r d e r to m a k e such a decision stem
secretly from the Great Man, who appar-
ently does not w a n t to reveal himself too clearly.
It m a y b e t h a t t h e S e l f w a n t s t h e e g o t o m a k e
a free c h o i c e , o r it m a y b e t h a t t h e Self d e p e n d s
on h u m a n consciousness a n d its d e c i s i o n s to
h e l p h i m t o b e c o m e m a n i f e s t . W h e n it c o m e s
to s u c h difficult e t h i c a l p r o b l e m s , n o o n e c a n
t r u l y j u d g e t h e d e e d s of o t h e r s . E a c h m a n has

176
The anima: the w o m a n within

Difficult a n d s u b t l e e t h i c a l p r o b l e m s a r e n o t in- A particularly good example of h o w the


v a r i a b l y b r o u g h t u p b y t h e a p p e a r a n c e of t h e a n i m a is e x p e r i e n c e d a s a n i n n e r figure in a
shadow itself. O f t e n another "inner figure" m a n ' s p s y c h e is f o u n d i n t h e m e d i c i n e m e n a n d
e m e r g e s . I f t h e d r e a m e r is a m a n , h e w i l l d i s - prophets (shamans) among the Eskimo and
cover a female personification of his uncon- o t h e r arctic tribes. S o m e of these e v e n wear
s c i o u s ; a n d it w i l l b e a m a l e figure in t h e case w o m e n ' s clothes, or have breasts depicted on
of a w o m a n . O f t e n this s e c o n d s y m b o l i c figure t h e i r g a r m e n t s , in o r d e r to m a n i f e s t t h e i r i n n e r
turns up behind the shadow, bringing up new feminine side the side t h a t e n a b l e s t h e m to
and different problems. J u n g called its male connect with the "ghost l a n d " (i.e. w h a t we
and female forms " a n i m u s " a n d "anima." call t h e u n c o n s c i o u s ) .
T h e a n i m a is a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f a l l f e m i n i n e O n e r e p o r t e d c a s e tells o f a y o u n g m a n w h o
psychological t e n d e n c i e s in a m a n ' s p s y c h e , such was being initiated by an older s h a m a n and
as v a g u e feelings a n d m o o d s , p r o p h e t i c h u n c h e s , w h o w a s b u r i e d b y h i m i n a s n o w h o l e . H e fell
r e c e p t i v e n e s s t o t h e i r r a t i o n a l , c a p a c i t y for p e r - i n t o a s t a t e of d r e a m i n e s s a n d e x h a u s t i o n . In
s o n a l l o v e , f e e l i n g for n a t u r e , a n d l a s t b u t n o t this coma he suddenly saw a woman who
l e a s t h i s r e l a t i o n t o t h e u n c o n s c i o u s . I t is n o emitted light. She instructed him in all he
m e r e c h a n c e t h a t in o l d e n t i m e s priestesses (like needed to k n o w and later, as his protective
the G r e e k Sibyl) w e r e used to f a t h o m t h e d i v i n e spirit, h e l p e d h i m to p r a c t i c e his difficult pro-
will a n d t o m a k e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e g o d s . fession b y r e l a t i n g h i m t o t h e p o w e r s of t h e b e -

T h e a n i m a ( t h e f e m a l e e l e m e n t in
a m a l e p s y c h e ) is o f t e n p e r s o n i f i e d
as a w i t c h or a priestess w o m e n
w h o have l i n k s w i t h " f o r c e s of
d a r k n e s s " a n d " t h e spirit w o r l d "
(i.e. t h e u n c o n s c i o u s ) . Left, a
sorceress w i t h imps and d e m o n s
(in a 1 7 t h - c e n t u r y e n g r a v i n g ) .
B e l o w , a s h a m a n of a S i b e r i a n tribe,
w h o is a m a n d r e s s e d as a w o m a n
b e c a u s e w o m e n are t h o u g h t t o be
m o r e a b l e t o c o n t a c t spirits.

A b o v e , a w o m a n s p i r i t u a l i s t or
m e d i u m ( f r o m t h e 1 9 5 1 f i l m The
Medium, based o n an o p e r a b y G i a n
Carlo M e n o t t i ) . The majority of
m o d e r n m e d i u m s are p r o b a b l y
w o m e n ; t h e belief is still w i d e s p r e a d
t h a t w o m e n are m o r e r e c e p t i v e t h a n
m e n to the irrational.

'77
y o n d . S u c h a n e x p e r i e n c e s h o w s t h e a n i m a as a n i m a is p e r s o n i f i e d b y t h e Q u e e n o f t h e N i g h t
the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of a m a n ' s u n c o n s c i o u s . i n M o z a r t ' s Magic Flute.) T h e Greek Sirens or
I n its i n d i v i d u a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n t h e c h a r a c t e r the G e r m a n Lorelei also personify this dan-
of a m a n ' s a n i m a is a s a r u l e s h a p e d by his g e r o u s a s p e c t of t h e a n i m a , w h i c h in this form
m o t h e r . If h e feels t h a t h i s m o t h e r h a d a n e g a - symbolizes destructive illusion. T h e following
tive i n f l u e n c e o n h i m , his a n i m a will often e x - S i b e r i a n t a l e i l l u s t r a t e s t h e b e h a v i o r of s u c h a
press itself in irritable, depressed moods, destructive a n i m a :
uncertainty, insecurity, and touchiness. (If,
O n e d a y a lonely h u n t e r sees a beautiful
h o w e v e r , h e is a b l e t o o v e r c o m e t h e negative
w o m a n e m e r g i n g from t h e d e e p forest on the
assaults o n himself, t h e y c a n e v e n serve to re- o t h e r side of t h e river. S h e w a v e s at h i m a n d
inforce his m a s c u l i n i t y . ) W i t h i n t h e soul of s u c h sings:
a m a n the negative m o t h e r - a n i m a figure will O h . c o m e , lonely h u n t e r in t h e stillness of dusk.
endlessly repeat this t h e m e : " I am nothing. C o m e , c o m e ! I miss y o u . I miss y o u !
N o t h i n g m a k e s a n y sense. W i t h o t h e r s it's differ- Now I will e m b r a c e y o u . e m b r a c e y o u !
C o m e , c o m e ! M y nest is n e a r , my nest is n e a r .
e n t , b u t for m e . . . I enjoy n o t h i n g . " These
C o m e , c o m e , lonely h u n t e r , now in t h e stillness
" a n i m a m o o d s " c a u s e a sort of d u l l n e s s , a fear of dusk.
of disease, of i m p o t e n c e , or of a c c i d e n t s . The H e t h r o w s oil his clothes a n d s w i m s across the
w h o l e o f life t a k e s o n a sad and oppressive river, but s u d d e n l y she Hies awav in the form "I
aspect. Such dark moods can even lure a m a n an owl. l a u g h i n g m o c k i n g l y at h i m . W h e n he
to s u i c i d e , in w h i c h c a s e t h e a n i m a b e c o m e s a tries to swim b a c k to find his clothes, he d r o w n s
in t h e cold river.
death demon. She appears in this role in
Cocteau's film Orphee.
I n this tale the a n i m a symbolizes a n unreal
The French call s u c h an anima figure a d r e a m of l o v e , h a p p i n e s s , a n d m a t e r n a l w a r m t h
femme fatale. (A milder version of this dark (her nest) a d r e a m t h a t lures m e n a w a y from

T h e a n i m a ( l i k e t h e s h a d o w ) has
t w o aspects, benevolent and malefic
(or n e g a t i v e ) Left, a s c e n e f r o m
Orphee (a f i l m v e r s i o n by C o c t e a u
of t h e O r p h e u s m y t h ) : T h e w o m a n
c a n be seen as a lethal a n i m a . f o r
she has led O r p h e u s ( b e i n g c a r r i e d
by d a r k " u n d e r w o r l d ' ' f i g u r e s ) t o
his d o o m . A l s o m a l e v o l e n t are t h e
Lorelei of T e u t o n i c m y t h ( b e l o w ,
in a 1 9 t h - c e n t u r y d r a w i n g ) , w a t e r
spirits w h o s e s i n g i n g lures m e n
to their death. B e l o w right, a
parallel f r o m S l a v o n i c m y t h : t h e
Rusalka. These beings were thought
to b e spirits of d r o w n e d g i r l s w h o
b e w i t c h and d r o w n passing men.

.78
reality. T h e h u n t e r is d r o w n e d b e c a u s e h e r a n this sort c a n t u r n m e n i n t o sentimentalists, o r
after a wishful fantasy that could not be they m a y b e c o m e as t o u c h y as old m a i d s or as
fulfilled. sensitive as t h e fairy-tale princess w h o c o u l d
A n o t h e r w a y in w h i c h t h e n e g a t i v e a n i m a in feel a p e a u n d e r 3 0 m a t t r e s s e s . A still more
a man's personality can be revealed is in subtle manifestation of a negative anima
waspish, poisonous, effeminate remarks by a p p e a r s in s o m e fairy tales in t h e form of a
which h e d e v a l u e s e v e r y t h i n g . R e m a r k s o f t h i s p r i n c e s s w h o asks h e r suitors to a n s w e r a series
sort a l w a y s c o n t a i n a c h e a p t w i s t i n g o f t h e t r u t h of riddles or, p e r h a p s , to h i d e t h e m s e l v e s u n d e r
and a r e in a s u b t l e w a y d e s t r u c t i v e . T h e r e a r e h e r n o s e . I f t h e y c a n n o t g i v e t h e a n s w e r s , o r if
legends t h r o u g h o u t the world in which "a s h e c a n find t h e m , t h e y m u s t d i e a n d she in-
poison d a m s e l " ( a s t h e y c a l l h e r i n t h e O r i e n t ) v a r i a b l y wins. T h e a n i m a in this guise involves
a p p e a r s . S h e is a b e a u t i f u l creature who has m e n in a destructive intellectual g a m e . W e c a n
weapons h i d d e n in h e r b o d y o r a secret poison n o t i c e t h e effect o f t h i s a n i m a t r i c k i n a l l t h o s e
with w h i c h s h e kills h e r l o v e r s d u r i n g t h e i r first neurotic pseudo-intellectual dialogues that in-
night t o g e t h e r . I n t h i s g u i s e t h e a n i m a is a s hibit a m a n from g e t t i n g into direct t o u c h with
cold a n d r e c k l e s s a s c e r t a i n u n c a n n y a s p e c t s o f life a n d its r e a l d e c i s i o n s . H e r e f l e c t s a b o u t life
n a t u r e itself, a n d i n E u r o p e is o f t e n expressed so m u c h t h a t h e c a n n o t l i v e it a n d loses a l l h i s
to this d a y b y t h e b e l i e f i n w i t c h e s . s p o n t a n e i t y a n d o u t g o i n g feeling.
II, o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , a m a n ' s e x p e r i e n c e o f The most frequent manifestation of the
his m o t h e r h a s b e e n p o s i t i v e , t h i s c a n a l s o a f f e c t anima takes t h e form of erotic fantasy. Men
his a n i m a in t y p i c a l b u t d i f f e r e n t w a y s , w i t h m a y be d r i v e n to nurse their fantasies by look-
the r e s u l t t h a t h e e i t h e r b e c o m e s e f f e m i n a t e o r i n g a t films a n d s t r i p - t e a s e s h o w s , o r b y d a y -
is p r e y e d u p o n b y w o m e n a n d t h u s is u n a b l e d r e a m i n g o v e r p o r n o g r a p h i c m a t e r i a l . T h i s is a
to c o p e w i t h t h e h a r d s h i p s o f life. A n a n i m a o f c r u d e , p r i m i t i v e a s p e c t of t h e a n i m a , which

A b o v e , four scenes from the 1 9 3 0


G e r m a n f i l m The Blue Angel, w h i c h
concerns a strait-laced professor's
i n f a t u a t i o n w i t h a c a b a r e t singer,
clearly a negative anima figure
T h e girl uses her c h a r m t o d e g r a d e
the professor, even m a k i n g him
a b u f f o o n in her c a b a r e t act.
R i g h t , a d r a w i n g of S a l o m e w i t h
t h e h e a d of J o h n t h e B a p t i s t ,
w h o m s h e h a d k i l l e d t o p r o v e her
p o w e r over King Herod
A b o v e , a p a i n t i n g by t h e 1 5 t h c e n t u r y A b o v e right, a British cinema poster T h e f o l l o w i n g is a d e s c r i p t i o n
Italian artist S t e f a n o d i G i o v a n n i a d v e r t i s i n g t h e F r e n c h f i l m Eve ( t a k e n f r o m t h e p o s t e r a b o v e ) of
d e p i c t i n g St. A n t h o n y c o n f r o n t e d by (1 9 6 2 ) . T h e f i l m is c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r of t h e f i l m
an a t t r a c t i v e y o u n g g i r l . B u t her t h e e x p l o i t s of a femme fatale (a m e l o d r a m a t i c d e s c r i p t i o n , b u t o n e
b a t - l i k e w i n g s reveal t h a t she is ( p l a y e d by t h e F r e n c h actress J e a n n e t h a t m i g h t fit m a n y p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s
a c t u a l l y a d e m o n , o n e of t h e m a n y M o r e a u ) a w i d e l y k n o w n term for of t h e n e g a t i v e a n i m a ) : " M y s t e r i o u s
t e m p t a t i o n s o f f e r e d t o St. A n t h o n y the " d a n g e r o u s " w o m e n whose tantalizing alluring - w a n t o n -
a n d a n o t h e r e m b o d i m e n t of t h e relationships w i t h m e n clearly image but d e e p w i t h i n her b u r n i n g t h e
deadly anima figure. t h e n a t u r e of t h e n e g a t i v e a n i m a . v i o l e n t fires t h a t d e s t r o y a m a n . "

becomes compulsive only w h e n a m a n does not a c c o m p a n y i n g difficulties. A b e a r a b l e solution


sufficiently c u l t i v a t e his feeling r e l a t i o n s h i p s - t o s u c h a d r a m a c a n b e f o u n d o n l y if t h e a n i m a
when his feeling attitude toward life has is r e c o g n i z e d a s a n i n n e r p o w e r . T h e s e c r e t a i m
r e m a i n e d infantile. of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s in b r i n g i n g a b o u t s u c h a n
All t h e s e a s p e c t s o f t h e a n i m a h a v e t h e s a m e e n t a n g l e m e n t is t o f o r c e a m a n t o d e v e l o p a n d
t e n d e n c y t h a t w e h a v e o b s e r v e d in t h e s h a d o w : t o b r i n g h i s own b e i n g t o m a t u r i t y b y i n t e g r a t -
That is, t h e y c a n be projected so t h a t they i n g m o r e of his u n c o n s c i o u s p e r s o n a l i t y and
a p p e a r to t h e m a n to b e t h e q u a l i t i e s of s o m e b r i n g i n g it i n t o h i s r e a l life.
particular woman. I t is t h e p r e s e n c e o f the But I h a v e said e n o u g h a b o u t the negative
a n i m a that causes a m a n t o fall s u d d e n l y in side of t h e a n i m a . T h e r e a r e j u s t as m a n y i m -
l o v e w h e n h e s e e s a w o m a n for t h e first time portant positive aspects. The anima is, for
a n d k n o w s a t o n c e t h a t t h i s is " s h e . " I n this i n s t a n c e , r e s p o n s i b l e for t h e f a c t t h a t a m a n is
s i t u a t i o n , t h e m a n feels a s if h e h a s k n o w n t h i s a b l e t o find t h e r i g h t m a r r i a g e p a r t n e r . A n o t h e r
w o m a n i n t i m a t e l y for a l l t i m e ; h e falls for h e r f u n c t i o n is a t l e a s t e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t : When-
so h e l p l e s s l y t h a t it l o o k s t o o u t s i d e r s l i k e c o m - e v e r a m a n ' s l o g i c a l m i n d is i n c a p a b l e o f d i s -
plete m a d n e s s . W o m e n w h o a r e of " f a i r y - l i k e " c e r n i n g facts t h a t a r e h i d d e n in his u n c o n s c i o u s ,
character especially attract such a n i m a projec- the anima helps him to d i g t h e m o u t . Even
tions, because m e n c a n a t t r i b u t e almost any- m o r e v i t a l is t h e r o l e t h a t t h e a n i m a p l a y s i n
thing to a creature who is s o fascinatingly p u t t i n g a m a n ' s m i n d in t u n e w i t h t h e right
v a g u e , a n d c a n thus proceed to w e a v e fanta- inner values and thereby opening the way into
sies a r o u n d h e r . m o r e p r o f o u n d i n n e r d e p t h s . It is as if a n i n n e r
T h e p r o j e c t i o n of t h e a n i m a in s u c h a s u d - " r a d i o " b e c o m e s t u n e d to a c e r t a i n w a v e l e n g t h
d e n a n d p a s s i o n a t e form as a love affair can that excludes irrelevancies but allows the voice
greatly disturb a m a n ' s m a r r i a g e a n d can lead of t h e G r e a t M a n to b e h e a r d . I n e s t a b l i s h i n g
to the so-called "human triangle," with its this i n n e r " r a d i o " r e c e p t i o n , t h e a n i m a takes

too
A m a n ' s stress o n i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m
c a n be d u e t o a n e g a t i v e a n i m a
o f t e n r e p r e s e n t e d in l e g e n d s a n d
m y t h s by t h e f e m a l e f i g u r e w h o
asks r i d d l e s t h a t m e n m u s t a n s w e r
or d i e . A b o v e , a 1 9 t h - c e n t u r y
French painting depicts Oedipus
a n s w e r i n g the S p h i n x ' s riddle.

Left, a t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w of t h e
d e m o n i c a n i m a as an u g l y w i t c h
in a 1 6 t h - c e n t u r y G e r m a n w o o d c u t ,
"The Bewitched Groom "

T h e a n i m a a p p e a r s in c r u d e , c h i l d i s h
f o r m in m e n ' s e r o t i c f a n t a s i e s
w h i c h many men indulge through
f o r m s of p o r n o g r a p h y . B e l o w , part
of a s h o w in a m o d e r n B r i t i s h
strip-tease night club.

I8I
In t h e 1 9 5 3 J a p a n e s e f i l m Ugetsu
Monogatan, a man comes under the
spell of a g h o s t p r i n c e s s ( c e n t e r ,
a b o v e ) a n i m a g e of a p r o j e c t i o n
of t h e a n i m a o n t o a " f a i r y - l i k e "
w o m a n , producing a destructive
fantasy relationship

In Madame Bovary t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y
French novelist Flaubert describes
a " l o v e m a d n e s s " c a u s e d by an a n i m a
p r o j e c t i o n : " B y her c o n s t a n t l y
c h a n g i n g moods, sometimes mystical,
sometimes gay, n o w talkative, n o w
silent, s o m e t i m e s passionate,
sometimes superior she k n e w h o w
to e v o k e a t h o u s a n d desires in h i m ,
a thousand instincts and memories
S h e w a s t h e b e l o v e d o n e o f all
n o v e l s , t h e h e r o i n e of all p l a y s ,
t h e s h e ' of all p o e m s he h a d e v e r
read O n her s h o u l d e r s he f o u n d
t h e a m b e r g l o w ' of t h e b a t h i n g
O d a l i s q u e ; she h a d t h e l o n g w a i s t
of ladies in t h e c h i v a l r i c age;
she a l s o l o o k e d like t h e p a l e lady
of B a r c e l o n a ' ; b u t she w a s a l w a y s
an a n g e l . " Left, E m m a B o v a r y ( i n
t h e 1 9 4 9 f i l m of t h e n o v e l ) w i t h
her h u s b a n d ( l e f t ) a n d lover.

I 82
on t h e r o l e of g u i d e , o r m e d i a t o r , t o t h e w o r l d
w i t h i n a n d t o t h e Self. T h a t is h o w s h e a p p e a r s
in t h e e x a m p l e o f t h e i n i t i a t i o n s o f s h a m a n s
t h a t I d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r ; t h i s is t h e r o l e o f B e a -
t r i c e i n D a n t e ' s Paradiso, a n d also of t h e g o d -
dess Isis w h e n she a p p e a r e d in a d r e a m to
Apuleius, the famous author of The Golden
Ass, i n o r d e r t o i n i t i a t e h i m i n t o a h i g h e r , m o r e
s p i r i t u a l f o r m o f life.
T h e d r e a m of a 4 5 - y e a r - o l d psychotherapist
may help to m a k e clear h o w the a n i m a c a n be
an i n n e r g u i d e . As h e w a s g o i n g to b e d o n t h e
e v e n i n g before h e h a d this d r e a m , he t h o u g h t
to h i m s e l f t h a t it w a s h a r d t o s t a n d a l o n e i n
M e n project the anima on to things
life, l a c k i n g t h e s u p p o r t o f a c h u r c h . H e f o u n d
as w e l l as w o m e n . For i n s t a n c e ,
himself e n v y i n g p e o p l e w h o a r e p r o t e c t e d by s h i p s are a l w a y s k n o w n as " s h e " '
above, the female figurehead on
the m a t e r n a l e m b r a c e of a n o r g a n i z a t i o n . ( H e
the o l d British clipper ship
had been b o r n a Protestant b u t n o longer h a d Cutty Sark. T h e c a p t a i n of a s h i p
any religious affiliation.) This w a s his d r e a m : is s y m b o l i c a l l y " h e r " h u s b a n d ,
w h i c h m a y b e w h y he m u s t
(according to tradition) g o d o w n
w i t h t h e s h i p if " s h e " s i n k s .

I a m in t h e aisle of a n old c h u r c h filled w i t h


people. T o g e t h e r w i t h m y m o t h e r a n d m y wife,
I sit at t h e e n d of t h e aisle in w h a t s e e m to b e
extra seats.
I a m to c e l e b r a t e t h e M a s s as a priest, a n d I
have a b i g M a s s b o o k in m y h a n d s , or, r a t h e r , a
p r a y e r b o o k o r a n a n t h o l o g y of p o e m s . T h i s book
is not familiar to m e , a n d I c a n n o t find t h e r i g h t
text. I a m v e r y e x c i t e d b e c a u s e I h a v e to b e g i n
soon, a n d , to a d d to m y t r o u b l e s , m y m o t h e r a n d
A car is a n o t h e r k i n d of p o s s e s s i o n
wife d i s t u r b m e by c h a t t e r i n g a b o u t u n i m p o r t a n t
t h a t is u s u a l l y f e m i n i z e d i.e. t h a t
trifles. N o w t h e o r g a n s t o p s , a n d e v e r y b o d y is c a n b e c o m e t h e f o c u s of m a n y m e n ' s
waiting for m e , so I get u p in a d e t e r m i n e d w a y a n i m a p r o j e c t i o n s . Like s h i p s , cars
and ask o n e of t h e n u n s w h o is k n e e l i n g b e h i n d are c a l l e d " s h e . ' ' a n d t h e i r o w n e r s
caress a n d p a m p e r t h e m ( b e l o w )
me to h a n d m e h e r M a s s b o o k a n d p o i n t o u t t h e
like f a v o r i t e m i s t r e s s e s .
right p l a c e w h i c h s h e does in a n o b l i g i n g m a n -
ner. N o w , like a sort of s e x t o n , this s a m e n u n p r e -
cedes m e to t h e a l t a r , w h i c h is s o m e w h e r e b e h i n d
me a n d to t h e left, as if w e a r e a p p r o a c h i n g it
from a side aisle. T h e M a s s book is like a sheet of
pictures, a sort of b o a r d , t h r e e feet l o n g a n d a
foot w i d e , a n d on it is t h e text w i t h a n c i e n t p i c -
tures in c o l u m n s , o n e b e s i d e t h e o t h e r .
First t h e n u n h a s to r e a d a p a r t of t h e l i t u r g y
before I b e g i n , a n d 1 h a v e still not found t h e right
place in t h e text. S h e h a s told m e t h a t it is N u m -
ber 15, b u t t h e n u m b e r s a r e n o t c l e a r , a n d I c a n -
not find it. W i t h d e t e r m i n a t i o n , h o w e v e r , I t u r n
toward t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n , a n d n o w I h a v e found
N u m b e r 15 ( t h e n e x t to t h e last o n t h e b o a r d ) ,
although I d o n o t yet k n o w if I shall b e a b l e to
d e c i p h e r it. I w a n t to try all t h e s a m e . I w a k e u p .

I 83
' I l l i s d r e a m e x p r e s s e d in a s y m b o l i c w a y a n
a n s w e r from t h e u n c o n s c i o u s to the thoughts
that the d r e a m e r had had the e v e n i n g before.
It s a i d t o h i m , in e f f e c t : " Y o u y o u r s e l f must
b e c o m e a priest in y o u r o w n i n n e r c h u r c h in
the church of y o u r soul."" T h u s the dream
shows that the d r e a m e r does have the helpful
s u p p o r t o f a n o r g a n i z a t i o n : h e is c o n t a i n e d in
a church not an external c h u r c h but one that
exists i n s i d e his o w n s o u l .
The people (all h i s o w n psychic qualities)
w a n t h i m t o f u n c t i o n as t h e p r i e s t a n d c e l e b r a t e
t h e M a s s himself. N o w the d r e a m c a n n o t m e a n
t h e a c t u a l M a s s . for its M a s s b o o k is v e r y dif-
f e r e n t f r o m t h e r e a l o n e . It s e e m s t h a t t h e i d e a
o f t h e M a s s is u s e d a s a s y m b o l , a n d therefore
it m e a n s a s a c r i f i c i a l a c t in w h i c h t h e D i v i n i t y
is p r e s e n t so t h a t m a n c a n c o m m u n i c a t e with
it. T h i s s y m b o l i c s o l u t i o n is. o f c o u r s e , n o t g e n -
erally valid but relates to this particular
dreamer. It is a t y p i c a l s o l u t i o n for a P r o t e s -
t a n t , b e c a u s e a m a n w h o t h r o u g h r e a l f a i t h is

T w o s t a g e s in t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of
t h e a n i m a : First, p r i m i t i v e w o m a n
( a b o v e , f r o m a p a i n t i n g by G a u g u i n ) ;
s e c o n d , r o m a n t i c i z e d b e a u t y a s in
t h e i d e a l i z e d p o r t r a i t , left, o f a
R e n a i s s a n c e Italian girl w h o is
d e p i c t e d as C l e o p a t r a T h e s e c o n d
s t a g e w a s classically e m b o d i e d in
H e l e n of T r o y ( b e l o w , w i t h Pans)

184
still c o n t a i n e d in t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h usually
experiences his anima in the image of the
C h u r c h h e r s e l f , a n d h e r s a c r e d i m a g e s a r e for
him the s y m b o l s of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s .
O u r d r e a m e r did not h a v e this ecclesiastical
e x p e r i e n c e , a n d t h i s is w h y h e h a d t o f o l l o w a n
inner w a y . F u r t h e r m o r e , the d r e a m told him
what he should do. It s a i d : "Your mother-
boundness and your cxtravcrsion represented
by t h e wife w h o is a n c x t r a v e r t distract you
a n d m a k e y o u feel i n s e c u r e , a n d b y meaning-
less t a l k k e e p y o u f r o m c e l e b r a t i n g t h e inner
M a s s . But if y o u f o l l o w t h e n u n ( t h e i n t r o v e r t e d
a n i m a . s h e will l e a d y o u a s b o t h a s e r v a n t a n d
a priest. She o w n s a s t r a n g e M a s s book w h i c h
is c o m p o s e d o f 16 four t i m e s four ancient pic-
tures. Y o u r M a s s consists of y o u r c o n t e m p l a t i o n
of t h e s e psychic images that your religious
a n i m a r e v e a l s t o y o u . " ' I n o t h e r w o r d s , if t h e
dreamer overcomes his inner uncertainty,
c a u s e d b y his m o t h e r c o m p l e x , h e will find t h a t
his life (ask h a s t h e n a t u r e a n d q u a l i t y of a
r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e a n d t h a t if h e m e d i t a t e s a b o u t
the s y m b o l i c m e a n i n g o f t h e i m a g e s in h i s s o u l ,
A b o v e , t h e a n i m a ' s t h i r d s t a g e is
i h c \ will l e a d h i m t o t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n .
personified a s t h e Virgin M a r y (in
In t h i s d r e a m t h e a n i m a a p p e a r s in h e r p r o - a p a i n t i n g by v a n E y c k ) . T h e red of
her r o b e is t h e s y m b o l i c c o l o r of
per positive role t h a t is. a s a m e d i a t o r b e t w e e n f e e l i n g (or eros): but in t h i s s t a g e
the e g o a n d t h e Self. T h e f o u r - t i m e s - f o u r con- t h e eros has b e c o m e s p i r i t u a l i z e d .
B e l o w , t w o e x a m p l e s of t h e f o u r t h
figuration o f t h e p i c t u r e s p o i n t s t o t h e fact t h a t
s t a g e : t h e Greek g o d d e s s of w i s d o m
t h e c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h i s i n n e r M a s s is p e r f o r m e d A t h e n a ( l e f t ) , a n d t h e Mona Lisa.

in t h e s e r v i c e o f t o t a l i t y . A s J u n g h a s d e m o n -
strated, the n u c l e u s of the p s y c h e (the Sell"
n o r m a l l y e x p r e s s e s itself in s o m e k i n d of four-
fold s t r u c t u r e . T h e number f o u r is a l s o con-
n e c t e d w i t h t h e a n i m a b e c a u s e , as J u n g n o t e d ,
t h e r e a r e f o u r s t a g e s in its d e v e l o p m e n t . The
first s t a g e is b e s t s y m b o l i z e d b y t h e figure of
Eve, w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s p u r e l y i n s t i n c t u a l and
b i o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s . T h e s e c o n d c a n b e s e e n in
Faust's H e l e n : S h e personifies a r o m a n t i c a n d
a e s t h e t i c l e v e l t h a t is. h o w e v e r , still c h a r a c t e r -
ized b y s e x u a l e l e m e n t s . T h e t h i r d is r e p r e s e n -
ted, for i n s t a n c e , b y t h e V i r g i n M a r y a figure
who raises love eros to t h e h e i g h t s of s p i r i t u a l
devotion. The fourth type is s y m b o l i z e d by
Sapientia. wisdom transcending even the most
holy a n d t h e m o s t p u r e . O f t h i s a n o t h e r s y m b o l
is t h e S h u l a m i t e in t h e S o n g o f S o l o m o n . ( I n t h e

'85
psychic d e v e l o p m e n t of m o d e r n m a n this stage t h e p r o c e s s of i n d i v i d u a t i o n g r a d u a l l y b e c o m e s
is r a r e l y r e a c h e d . I h e M o n a L i s a c o m e s n e a r e s t t h e s i n g l e r e a l i t y a n d c a n u n f o l d i n its t r u e f o r m .
to such a w i s d o m a n i m a . ) Many examples from literature show the
At this s t a g e I a m o n l y p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t the a n i m a as a g u i d e a n d m e d i a t o r to t h e inner
concept of fourfoldness frequently occurs in world: Francesco Colonna's Hypnerolomachia,
certain types of s y m b o l i c m a t e r i a l . T h e essen- R i d e r H a g g a r d ' s She, o r " t h e e t e r n a l f e m i n i n e "
t i a l a s p e c t s o f t h i s will b e d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . in G o e t h e ' s Faust. In a m e d i e v a l mystical text,
But w h a t d o e s t h e role of t h e a n i m a as g u i d e an anima figure explains her own nature
to the i n n e r w o r l d mean in p r a c t i c a l terms? as f o l l o w s :
This p o s i t i v e f u n c t i o n o c c u r s w h e n a m a n t a k e s
seriously the feelings, m o o d s , e x p e c t a t i o n s , a n d I a m t h e flower of the field a n d t h e lily of the
f a n t a s i e s s e n t b y h i s a n i m a a n d w h e n h e fixes valleys. I a m the m o t h e r of lair love a n d of fear
a n d of k n o w l e d g e a n d of holy h o p e . . . . I a m
t h e m in s o m e f o r m for e x a m p l e , in w r i t i n g ,
t h e m e d i a t o r of t h e e l e m e n t s , m a k i n g o n e to a g r e e
painting, sculpture, musical composition, or witli a n o t h e r ; t h a t w h i c h is w a r m I m a k e cold
d a n c i n g . W h e n h e w o r k s at this p a t i e n t l y a n d a n d t h e r e v e r s e , a n d t h a t w h i c h is d r y I m a k e
slowly, o t h e r m o r e d e e p l y unconscious m a t e r i a l moist a n d t h e reverse, a n d t h a t w h i c h is h a r d I
wells u p from the d e p t h s a n d c o n n e c t s w i t h the soften. . . . I a m t h e law in t h e priest a n d the
w o r d in t h e p r o p h e t a n d t h e c o u n s e l in t h e wise.
e a r l i e r m a t e r i a l . A f t e r a f a n t a s y h a s b e e n fixed
I will kill a n d I will m a k e to live a n d t h e r e is
in s o m e s p e c i f i c f o r m , it m u s t b e e x a m i n e d b o t h
n o n e t h a t c a n d e l i v e r o u t of m y h a n d .
intellectually a n d ethically, with an evaluating
f e e l i n g r e a c t i o n . A n d it is e s s e n t i a l t o r e g a r d it In the M i d d l e Ages t h e r e took place a per-
as b e i n g a b s o l u t e l y r e a l ; t h e r e m u s t b e n o l u r k - ceptible spiritual differentiation in religious,
i n g d o u b t t h a t t h i s is " o n l y a f a n t a s y . " " If t h i s poetical, and other cultural matters; and the
is p r a c t i c e d w i t h d e v o t i o n o v e r a l o n g p e r i o d , fantasy world of the unconscious was recog-

Left, a 1 7 t h - c e n t u r y e n g r a v i n g
d o m i n a t e d by t h e s y m b o l i c f i g u r e
of t h e a n i m a as m e d i a t o r b e t w e e n
this w o r l d (the m o n k e y , probably
representing man's instinctual
n a t u r e ) a n d t h e next ( t h e h a n d of
G o d , reaching from the c l o u d s ) .
T h e a n i m a f i g u r e s e e m s t o parallel
t h e w o m a n of t h e A p o c a l y p s e , w h o
also w o r e a c r o w n of 1 2 stars;
antiquity's m o o n goddesses; the
Old Testament's Sapientia (the
f o u r t h s t a g e of t h e a n i m a , p. 1 8 5 ) ;
a n d t h e E g y p t i a n g o d d e s s Isis ( w h o
also h a d f l o w i n g hair, a h a l f - m o o n
at her w o m b , a n d s t o o d w i t h o n e
foot on land and one on w a t e r ) .

R i g h t , t h e a n i m a as m e d i a t o r (or
g u i d e ) in a d r a w i n g by W i l l i a m
B l a k e : It i l l u s t r a t e s a s c e n e f r o m
t h e " P u r g a t o r i o " of D a n t e ' s Divine
Comedy, a n d s h o w s B e a t r i c e l e a d i n g
Dante along a symbolically tortuous
m o u n t a i n p a t h Far r i g h t , f r o m
an early f i l m of Rider H a g g a r d ' s
n o v e l She, a m y s t e r i o u s w o m a n
leads e x p l o r e r s t h r o u g h m o u n t a i n s .

18b
nizcd m o r e clearly t h a n before. During this
period, the knightly cult of the lady signified
a n a t t e m p t t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e f e m i n i n e s i d e of
m a n ' s n a t u r e in r e g a r d to t h e o u t e r w o m a n as
well a s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i n n e r w o r l d .
T h e l a d y to w h o s e service the k n i g h t p l e d g e d
himself, a n d for w h o m h e p e r f o r m e d h i s h e r o i c
deeds, was naturally a personification of t h e
anima. The n a m e of t h e c a r r i e r of t h e G r a i l ,
in W o l f r a m v o n E s c h c n b a c h ' s version of t h e
l e g e n d , is e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t : Conduir-amour
( " g u i d e in love m a t t e r s " ) . S h e t a u g h t t h e h e r o
to d i f f e r e n t i a t e both his feelings a n d his b e -
havior t o w a r d w o m e n . L a t e r , h o w e v e r , this in-
d i v i d u a l a n d p e r s o n a l e f f o r t of d e v e l o p i n g t h e
relationship with the a n i m a was abandoned
w h e n h e r s u b l i m e a s p e c t fused w i t h t h e figure
of t h e V i r g i n , w h o t h e n b e c a m e t h e o b j e c t o f
boundless devotion and praise. When the
a n i m a , as V i r g i n , w a s c o n c e i v e d as b e i n g all-
positive, h e r n e g a t i v e aspects found expression
in t h e b e l i e f i n w i t c h e s .

In C h i n a the figure p a r a l l e l to t h a t of M a r y
is t h e goddess Kwan-Yin. A more popular

A c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n the motif of
f o u r a n d t h e a n i m a a p p e a r s a b o v e in
a p a i n t i n g by t h e S w i s s artist Peter
Birkhauser A four eyed anima
a p p e a r s as an o v e r w h e l m i n g , t e r r i f y i n g
vision The four eyes have a s y m b o l i c
s i g n i f i c a n c e similar t o that of the
1 6 p i c t u r e s in t h e d r e a m q u o t e d o n
p. 1 8 3 : T h e y a l l u d e t o t h e f a c t t h a t
the anima contains the possibility
of a c h i e v i n g w h o l e n e s s .

In t h e p a i n t i n g , r i g h t , b y t h e
m o d e r n artist S l a v k o , t h e
Self is s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e a n i m a
b u t still m e r g e d w i t h n a t u r e . T h e
p a i n t i n g can be called a " s o u l
l a n d s c a p e " : O n t h e left sits a
dark-skinned, naked w o m a n the
a n i m a . O n t h e r i g h t is a bear, t h e
a n i m a l s o u l or i n s t i n c t Near t h e
a n i m a is a d o u b l e t r e e
symbolizing the individuation process
in w h i c h t h e i n n e r o p p o s i t e s u n i t e
In t h e b a c k g r o u n d o n e at first sees
a glacier, but on l o o k i n g closely
o n e sees t h a t it is also a f a c e .
This face (from w h i c h t h e life-
s t r e a m f l o w s ) is t h e Self. It has
f o u r eyes, a n d l o o k s s o m e t h i n g like
an a n i m a l , b e c a u s e it c o m e s f r o m
instinctive nature (The painting
thus provides a good example of
t h e w a y an u n c o n s c i o u s s y m b o l c a n
i n a d v e r t e n t l y f i n d its w a y i n t o
a fantasy landscape.)
Chinese anima-figure is the "Lady of the
M o o n , " w h o b e s t o w s t h e gift o f p o e t r y o r m u s i c
on her favorites a n d can even give t h e m im-
m o r t a l i t y . I n I n d i a t h e s a m e a r c h e t y p e is r e p r e -
sented by Shakti, Parvati, Rati, and many
others; among the Moslems she is chiefly
F a t i m a , t h e d a u g h t e r of M o h a m m e d .
W o r s h i p of t h e a n i m a as a n officially r e c o g -
nized religious figure brings the serious disad-
v a n t a g e t h a t s h e loses h e r i n d i v i d u a l aspects.
On t h e o t h e r h a n d , if s h e is r e g a r d e d as a n
e x c l u s i v e l y p e r s o n a l b e i n g , t h e r e is t h e d a n g e r
t h a t , if s h e is p r o j e c t e d i n t o t h e o u t e r w o r l d , it
is o n l y t h e r e t h a t s h e c a n b e f o u n d . T h i s l a t t e r
s t a t e of affairs c a n c r e a t e endless t r o u b l e , be-
cause man becomes either the victim o f his
erotic fantasies or compulsively d e p e n d e n t on
one actual woman.
O n l y the painful (but essentially simple) de-
cision to t a k e o n e ' s fantasies a n d feelings seri-
ously c a n at this stage p r e v e n t a c o m p l e t e stag-
n a t i o n of the i n n e r process of individuation,
b e c a u s e o n l y in this w a y c a n a m a n discover
w h a t t h i s figure m e a n s a s a n i n n e r r e a l i t y . T h u s
the a n i m a b e c o m e s a g a i n w h a t she originally
wasthe "woman within," who conveys the
v i t a l m e s s a g e s o f t h e Self.

M e d i e v a l E u r o p e ' s idea of "courtly


l o v e " w a s i n f l u e n c e d by t h e w o r s h i p
of t h e V i r g i n M a r y : L a d i e s t o w h o m
k n i g h t s p l e d g e d love w e r e b e l i e v e d
t o be as p u r e as t h e V i r g i n ( o f
w h o m a typical medieval image w a s
t h e d o l l - l i k e c a r v i n g , t o p of p a g e ,
c. 1 4 0 0 ) . O n a 1 5 t h - c e n t u r y s h i e l d ,
far left, a k n i g h t k n e e l s t o h i s
lady, w i t h d e a t h b e h i n d h i m . T h i s
i d e a l i z e d v i e w of w o m a n p r o d u c e d
an o p p o s i n g v i e w : t h e b e l i e f in
w i t c h e s . Left, a 1 9 t h - c e n t u r y
p a i n t i n g of a w i t c h e s ' s a b b a t h .

W h e n t h e a n i m a is p r o j e c t e d o n t o
an " o f f i c i a l " p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n , she
t e n d s t o fall apart i n t o a d o u b l e
a s p e c t , s u c h as M a r y a n d w i t c h
Left, a n o t h e r o p p o s i n g d u a l i t y
(from a 15th-century manuscript):
personifications of the C h u r c h
(on the right, identified w i t h
M a r y ) a n d of t h e S y n a g o g u e (here
identified w i t h the sinful Eve).

88
The animus: the man within

T h e m a l e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s in ( T h e a n i m u s n e v e r believes in e x c e p t i o n s . ) O n e
woman the animus exhibits both good and can rarely contradict an animus opinion be-
b a d a s p e c t s , a s d o e s t h e a n i m a in m a n . B u t t h e c a u s e it is u s u a l l y r i g h t i n a g e n e r a l w a y ; y e t
a n i m u s d o e s n o t so o f t e n a p p e a r i n t h e f o r m o f it s e l d o m s e e m s t o fit t h e i n d i v i d u a l situation.
a n e r o t i c f a n t a s y o r m o o d ; it is m o r e a p t to I t is a p t t o b e a n o p i n i o n t h a t s e e m s r e a s o n a b l e
take the form of a h i d d e n " s a c r e d " conviction. but beside the point.
When such a conviction is p r e a c h e d with a J u s t as t h e c h a r a c t e r of a m a n ' s a n i m a is
loud, insistent, m a s c u l i n e voice or i m p o s e d on s h a p e d b y h i s m o t h e r , s o t h e a n i m u s is b a s i c a l l y
others by m e a n s of b r u t a l e m o t i o n a l scenes, the influenced by a w o m a n ' s father. The father
underlying masculinity in a w o m a n is e a s i l y e n d o w s his d a u g h t e r ' s a n i m u s w i t h t h e special
r e c o g n i z e d . H o w e v e r , e v e n in a w o m a n w h o is c o l o r i n g of u n a r g u a b l e , i n c o n t e s t a b l y "true"
outwardly very feminine the a n i m u s can be an convictions convictions that never include the
equally hard, inexorable power. O n e m a y sud- p e r s o n a l reality of t h e w o m a n herself as she
denly find o n e s e l f u p a g a i n s t s o m e t h i n g in a a c t u a l l y is.
w o m a n t h a t is o b s t i n a t e , c o l d , a n d completely T h i s is w h y t h e a n i m u s is s o m e t i m e s , l i k e t h e
inaccessible. a n i m a , a d e m o n of d e a t h . F o r e x a m p l e , in a
O n e ol t h e f a v o r i t e t h e m e s t h a t t h e a n i m u s g y p s y f a i r y t a l e a h a n d s o m e s t r a n g e r is r e c e i v e d
r e p e a t s e n d l e s s l y in t h e r u m i n a t i o n s o f t h i s k i n d b y a l o n e l y w o m a n in s p i t e of t h e fact t h a t s h e
of w o m a n g o e s l i k e t h i s : " T h e o n l y t h i n g i n h a s h a d a d r e a m w a r n i n g h e r t h a t h e is t h e
t h e w o r l d t h a t I w a n t is l o v e a n d h e d o e s n ' t king of the d e a d . After he has b e e n w i t h her
love m e " ; o r " I n t h i s s i t u a t i o n t h e r e a r e o n l y for a t i m e , s h e p r e s s e s h i m t o tell h e r w h o h e
two possibilities and both are equally bad." r e a l l y is. A t first h e r e f u s e s , s a y i n g t h a t s h e w i l l

A b o v e , J o a n of A r c ( p l a y e d by I n g r l d
B e r g m a n in t h e 1 9 4 8 f i l m ) , w h o s e
animus t h e m a l e side of t h e f e m a l e
p s y c h e t o o k t h e f o r m of a " s a c r e d
c o n v i c t i o n " R i g h t , t w o i m a g e s of
the n e g a t i v e a n i m u s : a 1 6 t h - c e n t u r y
p a i n t i n g of a w o m a n d a n c i n g w i t h
death; a n d ( f r o m a m a n u s c r i p t c
1500) Hades w i t h Persephone, w h o m
he a b d u c t e d t o t h e u n d e r w o r l d .

[89
H e a t h c h f f , t h e sinister p r o t a g o n i s t
of t h e B r i t i s h a u t h o r E m i l y B r o n t e ' s
n o v e l , Wuthenng Heights ( 1 8 4 7 ) , is
partly a n e g a t i v e , d e m o n i c a n i m u s
figure p r o b a b l y a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of
Emily B r o n t e ' s o w n a n i m u s . In t h e
montage above, Heathcliff (played
by L a u r e n c e O l i v i e r in t h e 1 9 3 9
f i l m ) c o n f r o n t s Emily (a p o r t r a i t
by her b r o t h e r ) ; in t h e b a c k g r o u n d ,
W u t h e n n g H e i g h t s as it is t o d a y .

T w o e x a m p l e s of d a n g e r o u s a n i m u s
f i g u r e s : Left, an i l l u s t r a t i o n ( b y
t h e 1 9 t h - c e n t u r y F r e n c h artist
G u s t a v e D o r e ) t o t h e folk tale of
B l u e b e a r d H e r e B l u e b e a r d w a r n s his
w i f e against o p e n i n g a certain d o o r
( O f c o u r s e , she d o e s so and finds
t h e c o r p s e s of B l u e b e a r d ' s f o r m e r
w i v e s . S h e is c a u g h t , a n d j o i n s
her p r e d e c e s s o r s ) R i g h t , a 1 9 t h
c e n t u r y p a i n t i n g of t h e h i g h w a y m a n
Claude Duval, w h o once robbed a
lady traveler b u t g a v e his b o o t y b a c k
o n t h e c o n d i t i o n t h a t she d a n c e
w i t h h i m by t h e r o a d s i d e

19"
d i e if h e tells h e r . S h e i n s i s t s , h o w e v e r , and trigue, w h i c h get her into a state w h e r e she
suddenly he reveals to h e r that h e is death e v e n w i s h e s d e a t h t o o t h e r s . ( " W h e n o n e o f us
himself. T h e w o m a n i m m e d i a t e l y dies of fright. d i e s , I'll m o v e to t h e R i v i e r a , " said a w o m a n
Viewed mythologically, the beautiful stran- to h e r husband when she saw the beautiful
g e r is p r o b a b l y a p a g a n f a t h e r - i m a g e o r g o d - M e d i t e r r a n e a n coast a thought that was ren-
i m a g e , w h o a p p e a r s h e r e as k i n g of t h e d e a d d e r e d r e l a t i v e l y h a r m l e s s b y r e a s o n ol t h e f a c t
dike Hades' abduction of P e r s e p h o n e ) . But that she said it! I
psychologically he represents a p a r t i c u l a r form By n u r s i n g s e c r e t d e s t r u c t i v e a t t i t u d e s , a w i f e
ol t h e a n i m u s t h a t l u r e s w o m e n a w a y f r o m a l l c a n drive her h u s b a n d , a n d a m o t h e r her chil-
human relationships and especially from all d r e n , i n t o illness, a c c i d e n t , or e v e n d e a t h . Or
contacts with real m e n . H e personifies a cocoon she may decide to keep the children from
o f d r e a m y t h o u g h t s , filled w i t h d e s i r e a n d j u d g - m a r r y i n g a d e e p l y h i d d e n f o r m of evil that
m e n t s a b o u t h o w things " o u g h t to b e , " w h i c h rarely c o m e s to the surface of the m o t h e r ' s con-
c u t a w o m a n off f r o m t h e r e a l i t y o f life. scious m i n d . (A n a i v e old w o m a n o n c e said to
T h e negative a n i m u s does not a p p e a r only m e , w h i l e s h o w i n g m e a p i c t u r e of h e r son, w h o
as a d e a t h - d e m o n . I n m y t h s a n d f a i r y t a l e s h e w a s d r o w n e d w h e n h e w a s 2 7 : " I p r e f e r it t h i s
p l a y s t h e role of r o b b e r a n d murderer. One w a y ; it's b e t t e r t h a n g i v i n g h i m a w a y to a n -
e x a m p l e is B l u e b e a r d , w h o s e c r e t l y kills all his other woman.")
w i v e s in a h i d d e n c h a m b e r . In this form the A s t r a n g e p a s s i v i t y a n d p a r a l y s i s of a l l feel-
a n i m u s personifies all t h o s e s e m i c o n s c i o u s , c o l d , ing, or a d e e p insecurity that can lead almost
d e s t r u c t i v e r e f l e c t i o n s t h a t i n v a d e a w o m a n in to a sense of n u l l i t y , m a y s o m e t i m e s be the
the s m a l l h o u r s , especially w h e n she has failed r e s u l t of a n u n c o n s c i o u s a n i m u s o p i n i o n . In t h e
to r e a l i z e s o m e o b l i g a t i o n of f e e l i n g . It is t h e n d e p t h s of t h e w o m a n ' s b e i n g , t h e a n i m u s w h i s -
that she begins to t h i n k a b o u t the family herit- pers: "You are hopeless. What's the u s e of
age a n d m a t t e r s of t h a t k i n d a sort of w e b of t r y i n g ? T h e r e is n o p o i n t i n d o i n g anything.
c a l c u l a t i n g t h o u g h t s , filled w i t h m a l i c e a n d i n - Life w i l l n e v e r c h a n g e for t h e b e t t e r . "

The a n i m u s is o f t e n p e r s o n i f i e d as
a g r o u p of m e n A n e g a t i v e g r o u p
a n i m u s m i g h t a p p e a r as a d a n g e r o u s
band of c r i m i n a l s like t h e w r e c k e r s
( a b o v e , in an 1 8 t h - c e n t u r y Italian
painting) w h o o n c e lured ships o n t o
rocks w i t h l i g h t s , k i l l e d s u r v i v o r s ,
and l o o t e d t h e w r e c k s

1
9
A f r e q u e n t p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of t h e B e l o w , an i l l u s t r a t i o n by Fuseli of
n e g a t i v e g r o u p a n i m u s in w o m e n ' s S h a k e s p e a r e ' s Midsummer Night's
d r e a m s has b e e n t h e b a n d of r o m a n t i c Dream. T h e fairy q u e e n h a s b e e n
but d a n g e r o u s o u t l a w s . A b o v e , an c a u s e d ( b y m a g i c ) t o fall in l o v e
o m i n o u s g r o u p of b a n d i t s f r o m t h e w i t h a p e a s a n t w h o has b e e n g i v e n
1 9 5 3 B r a z i l i a n f i l m The Bandit. an ass's h e a d , also by m a g i c . T h i s
c o n c e r n i n g an a d v e n t u r o u s w o m a n is a c o m i c t w i s t o n t h e tales in
s c h o o l t e a c h e r w h o falls in l o v e w h i c h a g i r l ' s l o v e releases a m a n
w i t h a b a n d i t leader. f r o m a m a g i c spell
U n f o r t u n a t e l y , w h e n e v e r o n e of these per- T h e sadistic aspect of these t w o figures was
sonifications of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s takes possession w e l l k n o w n t o t h e d r e a m e r , for i n r e a l i t y s h e
o f o u r m i n d , it s e e m s a s if w e o u r s e l v e s a r e h a v - f r e q u e n t l y suffered b a d a t t a c k s of a n x i e t y d u r -
ing s u c h t h o u g h t s a n d feelings. T h e ego i d e n t i - ing w h i c h she was h a u n t e d by the t h o u g h t t h a t
fies w i t h t h e m t o t h e p o i n t w h e r e it is u n a b l e people she loved w e r e in great d a n g e r o r even
t o d e t a c h t h e m a n d s e e t h e m for w h a t t h e y a r e . t h a t t h e y w e r e d e a d . B u t t h e fact t h a t t h e a n i -
O n e is r e a l l y " p o s s e s s e d " b y t h e figure f r o m t h e m u s f i g u r e i n t h e d r e a m is d o u b l e s u g g e s t s t h a t
u n c o n s c i o u s . O n l y after the possession h a s fallen t h e b u r g l a r s p e r s o n i f y a p s y c h i c f a c t o r t h a t is
away does one realize with horror that one has d u a l i n its e f f e c t , a n d t h a t c o u l d b e s o m e t h i n g
said a n d d o n e t h i n g s d i a m e t r i c a l l y o p p o s e d to quite different from these t o r m e n t i n g thoughts.
one's real thoughts a n d feelingsthat one has T h e sister of t h e d r e a m e r , w h o r u n s a w a y from
b e e n t h e p r e y of a n alien p s y c h i c factor. t h e m e n , is c a u g h t a n d t o r t u r e d . I n r e a l i t y t h i s
Like the a n i m a , the a n i m u s does not merely sister d i e d w h e n fairly y o u n g . S h e h a d been
consist of n e g a t i v e q u a l i t i e s s u c h as b r u t a l i t y , artistically gifted, b u t h a d m a d e v e r y little use
recklessness, e m p t y talk, a n d silent, o b s t i n a t e , of h e r t a l e n t . N e x t the d r e a m reveals t h a t the
evil i d e a s . H e t o o h a s a v e r y p o s i t i v e a n d v a l u - veiled burglars are actually disguised artists,
able s i d e ; h e too c a n b u i l d a b r i d g e to t h e Self a n d t h a t if t h e d r e a m e r r e c o g n i z e s t h e i r gifts
through his c r e a t i v e activity. The following ( w h i c h a r e h e r o w n ) , t h e y will give u p t h e i r evil
d r e a m of a w o m a n of 4 5 m a y h e l p t o i l l u s t r a t e intentions.
this p o i n t : W h a t is t h e d e e p e r m e a n i n g o f t h e d r e a m ?
I t is t h a t b e h i n d t h e s p a s m s o f a n x i e t y t h e r e is
T w o veiled figures c l i m b o n t o t h e b a l c o n y a n d indeed a genuine and mortal danger; but there
into t h e h o u s e . T h e y a r e s w a t h e d in b l a c k h o o d e d
is a l s o a c r e a t i v e p o s s i b i l i t y for t h e dreamer.
coats, a n d t h e y seem to w a n t to t o r m e n t m e a n d
my sister. S h e hides u n d e r t h e b e d , b u t t h e y pull S h e , like t h e sister, h a d s o m e t a l e n t as a p a i n t e r ,
her o u t w i t h a b r o o m a n d t o r t u r e h e r . T h e n it is b u t she d o u b t e d w h e t h e r p a i n t i n g could be a
my t u r n . T h e l e a d e r of t h e t w o p u s h e s m e a g a i n s t meaningful a c t i v i t y for h e r . N o w h e r dream
the w a l l , m a k i n g m a g i c a l g e s t u r e s before m y face. tells h e r i n t h e m o s t e a r n e s t w a y t h a t s h e m u s t
In t h e m e a n t i m e his h e l p e r m a k e s a sketch o n
live o u t this talent. If she o b e y s , t h e d e s t r u c -
the w a l l , a n d w h e n I see it, I say (in o r d e r to
tive, t o r m e n t i n g a n i m u s will b e transformed
seem f r i e n d l y ) , " O h ! B u t this is well d r a w n ! "
Now s u d d e n l y m y t o r m e n t o r h a s t h e n o b l e h e a d into a creative and meaningful activity.
of an artist, a n d he says p r o u d l y , " Y e s , i n d e e d , " As in this d r e a m , t h e a n i m u s often appears
and begins to c l e a n his spectacles. as a g r o u p of m e n . I n this w a y t h e u n c o n s c i o u s
s y m b o l i z e s t h e fact t h a t t h e a n i m u s r e p r e s e n t s
a collective r a t h e r than a personal element.

A b o v e left, t h e s i n g e r Franz Grass


B e c a u s e of this c o l l e c t i v e - m i n d e d n e s s women
in the title role of W a g n e r ' s o p e r a h a b i t u a l l y r e f e r ( w h e n t h e i r a n i m u s is s p e a k i n g
The Flying Dutchman, based o n t h e
t h r o u g h t h e m ) to " o n e " or " t h e y " or " e v e r y -
tale of t h e sea c a p t a i n d o o m e d t o
sail a g h o s t s h i p u n t i l a w o m a n ' s b o d y , " a n d in such c i r c u m s t a n c e s their speech
love breaks t h e c u r s e o n h i m . frequently contains the words " a l w a y s " and
"should" and "ought."
A v a s t n u m b e r o f m y t h s a n d f a i r y t a l e s tell o f
In many m y t h s a w o m a n ' s lover is a prince, t u r n e d by witchcraft into a wild ani-
a figure of m y s t e r y w h o m she m u s t
never try t o see. Left, a late 1 8 t h - m a l o r m o n s t e r , w h o is r e d e e m e d b y t h e l o v e
century e n g r a v i n g of an e x a m p l e of a girl a process s y m b o l i z i n g t h e m a n n e r in
from Greek m y t h : T h e m a i d e n P s y c h e ,
loved by Eros b u t f o r b i d d e n t o try
which the a n i m u s becomes conscious. (Dr. Hen-
to look at h i m . E v e n t u a l l y she d i d derson has c o m m e n t e d on the significance of
so and he left her; she w a s able t o
this " B e a u t y a n d t h e B e a s t " m o t i f in t h e p r e -
regain his love o n l y after a l o n g
search a n d m u c h s u f f e r i n g . c e d i n g c h a p t e r . ) V e r y o f t e n t h e h e r o i n e is n o t

193
a l l o w e d to ask q u e s t i o n s a b o u t h e r m y s t e r i o u s ,
u n k n o w n lover a n d h u s b a n d ; or she meets him
only in t h e d a r k a n d m a y n e v e r look at him.
T h e i m p l i c a t i o n is t h a t , b y b l i n d l y t r u s t i n g a n d
l o v i n g h i m , s h e will b e a b l e to r e d e e m her
bridegroom. But this never succeeds. She
always breaks her promise and finally finds her
lover a g a i n o n l y after a l o n g , difficult q u e s t a n d
much suffering.
T h e p a r a l l e l i n life is t h a t t h e c o n s c i o u s a t t e n -
tion a w o m a n has to give to h e r a n i m u s p r o b -
l e m t a k e s m u c h t i m e a n d i n v o l v e s a lot o f suf-
f e r i n g . B u t if s h e r e a l i z e s w h o a n d w h a t her
a n i m u s is a n d w h a t h e d o e s t o h e r , a n d if s h e
faces t h e s e r e a l i t i e s i n s t e a d of a l l o w i n g herself
to be possessed, h e r a n i m u s c a n t u r n into a n
invaluable inner companion who endows her
w i t h t h e m a s c u l i n e q u a l i t i e s of initiative, c o u r -
age, objectivity, a n d spiritual wisdom.
T h e a n i m u s , j u s t like t h e a n i m a , e x h i b i t s four
s t a g e s of d e v e l o p m e n t . He first a p p e a r s as a
personification of m e r e physical powerfor
i n s t a n c e , as a n athletic c h a m p i o n or "muscle
m a n . " I n t h e n e x t s t a g e h e possesses i n i t i a t i v e
and t h e c a p a c i t y for p l a n n e d action. In the
third phase, the animus becomes the "word,"
often a p p e a r i n g as a professor o r clergyman.
F i n a l l y , in his f o u r t h m a n i f e s t a t i o n , t h e a n i m u s
is t h e i n c a r n a t i o n o f meaning. O n this highest
level h e b e c o m e s (like t h e a n i m a ) a m e d i a t o r
o f t h e r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e w h e r e b y life a c q u i r e s
new meaning. H e gives the w o m a n spiritual
firmness, an invisible inner s u p p o r t that c o m -
p e n s a t e s for h e r o u t e r s o f t n e s s . T h e a n i m u s in
his m o s t d e v e l o p e d form s o m e t i m e s connects
the w o m a n ' s mind with the spiritual evolution

E m b o d i m e n t s of t h e f o u r s t a g e s A b o v e r i g h t , an I n d i a n m i n i a t u r e
of t h e a n i m u s : First, t h e w h o l l y of a girl g a z i n g w i t h l o v e at a
physical man the fictional man's portrait. A w o m a n falling
l u n g l e h e r o T a r z a n ( t o p , p l a y e d by in l o v e w i t h a p i c t u r e ( o r a f i l m
J o h n n y Weismuller). Second, the star) is c l e a r l y p r o j e c t i n g her
" r o m a n t i c " m a n the 19th century a n i m u s o n t o the m a n . The actor
British poet Shelley (center l e f t ) : R u d o l p h V a l e n t i n o ( r i g h t , in a
or t h e " m a n of a c t i o n " A m e r i c a ' s f i l m m a d e in 1 9 2 2 ) b e c a m e t h e
Ernest H e m i n g w a y , w a r h e r o , h u n t e r , f o c u s of a n i m u s p r o j e c t i o n f o r
etc. T h i r d , t h e bearer of t h e " w o r d " t h o u s a n d s of w o m e n w h i l e he
L l o y d G e o r g e , t h e great p o l i t i c a l l i v e d a n d e v e n a f t e r he d i e d
orator Fourth, the wise guide to Far r i g h t , part o f t h e i m m e n s e f l o r a l
spiritual t r u t h o f t e n projected t r i b u t e sent by w o m e n all o v e r t h e
on to Gandhi (left). w o r l d t o V a l e n t i n o ' s f u n e r a l in 1 9 2 6

I'M
of h e r a g e , a n d can thereby make her even
more receptive than a m a n to n e w creative
i d e a s . I t is for t h i s r e a s o n t h a t i n e a r l i e r t i m e s
w o m e n w e r e used by m a n y n a t i o n s as diviners
a n d seers. T h e creative boldness of their posi-
tive a n i m u s at times expresses t h o u g h t s and
ideas t h a t s t i m u l a t e m e n to n e w enterprises.
T h e "inner m a n " within a w o m a n ' s psyche
c a n lead to m a r i t a l troubles similar to those
m e n t i o n e d in t h e s e c t i o n o n t h e a n i m a . What
m a k e s t h i n g s e s p e c i a l l y c o m p l i c a t e d is t h e f a c t
t h a t t h e possession of o n e p a r t n e r by the a n i m u s
(or a n i m a ) m a y automatically exert such an
i r r i t a t i n g effect u p o n t h e o t h e r t h a t h e (or she)
becomes possessed too. Animus and anima
a l w a y s t e n d to d r a g c o n v e r s a t i o n d o w n to a
v e r y low level a n d to p r o d u c e a d i s a g r e e a b l e ,
irascible, emotional a t m o s p h e r e .
As I m e n t i o n e d before, t h e positive side of
the a n i m u s c a n personify a n e n t e r p r i s i n g spirit,
c o u r a g e , t r u t h f u l n e s s , a n d in t h e h i g h e s t f o r m ,
spiritual profundity. Through him a woman
c a n e x p e r i e n c e t h e u n d e r l y i n g processes of h e r
cultural a n d personal objective situation, and
c a n find h e r w a y t o a n i n t e n s i f i e d s p i r i t u a l a t t i -
t u d e t o life. T h i s n a t u r a l l y p r e s u p p o s e s t h a t h e r
a n i m u s ceases to represent opinions t h a t are
above criticism. The woman must find the
c o u r a g e a n d inner b r o a d m i n d e d n e s s to question
the sacredness of h e r o w n convictions. Only
t h e n will s h e b e a b l e to t a k e in t h e s u g g e s t i o n s
of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s , especially w h e n t h e y c o n -
t r a d i c t h e r a n i m u s o p i n i o n s . O n l y t h e n will the
manifestations of the Self get t h r o u g h to her,
a n d will s h e b e a b l e c o n s c i o u s l y to u n d e r s t a n d
their meaning.
The Self: symbols of totality

If a n i n d i v i d u a l h a s wrestled seriously e n o u g h left h e r , she visits a little h o u s e n e a r t h e M o o n


a n d long e n o u g h w i t h the a n i m a (or a n i m u s ) G h o s t ' s m a n s i o n . T h e r e s h e finds a tiny w o m a n
p r o b l e m s o t h a t h e , o r s h e , is n o l o n g e r p a r t i a l l y c l o t h e d in t h e " i n t e s t i n a l m e m b r a n e of t h e
b e a r d e d seal," w h o warns the heroine against the
i d e n t i f i e d w i t h it, t h e u n c o n s c i o u s a g a i n c h a n g e s
S p i r i t of t h e M o o n , s a y i n g t h a t h e p l a n s to kill
its d o m i n a n t c h a r a c t e r a n d a p p e a r s i n a n e w h e r . (It a p p e a r s t h a t h e is a killer of w o m e n , a
s y m b o l i c f o r m , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e Self, t h e i n n e r - sort of B l u e b e a r d . ) T h e tiny w o m a n fashions a
m o s t n u c l e u s of t h e p s y c h e . I n t h e d r e a m s of a l o n g r o p e b y m e a n s of w h i c h t h e girl c a n d e s c e n d
w o m a n t h i s c e n t e r is u s u a l l y p e r s o n i f i e d a s a to e a r t h a t t h e t i m e of t h e n e w m o o n , w h i c h is
t h e m o m e n t w h e n t h e little w o m a n c a n w e a k e n
superior female figurea priestess, sorceress,
t h e M o o n S p i r i t . T h e girl c l i m b s d o w n , b u t w h e n
e a r t h m o t h e r , or g o d d e s s of n a t u r e or love. I n
she a r r i v e s o n e a r t h , she does n o t o p e n h e r eyes
t h e case of a m a n , it m a n i f e s t s itself as a m a s - as q u i c k l y as t h e little w o m a n told h e r to. Because
culine initiator a n d g u a r d i a n (an I n d i a n guru), of this, she is t u r n e d i n t o a s p i d e r a n d c a n n e v e r
a wise o l d m a n , a s p i r i t of n a t u r e , a n d so f o r t h . become h u m a n again.
T w o folk t a l e s i l l u s t r a t e t h e r o l e t h a t s u c h a
figure c a n p l a y . T h e first is a n A u s t r i a n tale: As w e h a v e n o t e d , t h e d i v i n e m u s i c i a n in t h e
first t a l e is a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e " w i s e o l d
A k i n g h a s o r d e r e d soldiers to k e e p t h e n i g h t m a n , " a t y p i c a l p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e Self. H e
w a t c h beside t h e c o r p s e of a b l a c k princess, w h o is a k i n to the sorcerer Merlin of medieval
h a s b e e n b e w i t c h e d . E v e r y m i d n i g h t s h e rises a n d l e g e n d o r to t h e G r e e k g o d H e r m e s . T h e little
kills t h e g u a r d . A t last o n e soldier, w h o s e t u r n it w o m a n i n h e r s t r a n g e m e m b r a n e - c l o t h i n g is a
is to s t a n d g u a r d , d e s p a i r s a n d r u n s a w a y i n t o
parallel figure, symbolizing the Self as it
the woods. T h e r e he meets an "old guitarist who
is o u r L o r d H i m s e l f . " T h i s old m u s i c i a n tells h i m a p p e a r s in the feminine psyche. T h e old musi-
w h e r e to h i d e in t h e c h u r c h a n d i n s t r u c t s h i m cian saves t h e h e r o from t h e destructive a n i m a ,
o n h o w to b e h a v e so t h a t t h e b l a c k princess c a n - a n d t h e little w o m a n p r o t e c t s t h e girl a g a i n s t
not get h i m . W i t h this d i v i n e h e l p t h e soldier t h e E s k i m o " B l u e b e a r d " ( w h o is, i n t h e f o r m o f
a c t u a l l y m a n a g e s to r e d e e m t h e princess a n d the M o o n Spirit, h e r a n i m u s ) . I n this case, h o w -
m a r r y her.
ever, things go w r o n g a point t h a t I shall take
u p later.
C l e a r l y , " t h e o l d g u i t a r i s t w h o is o u r L o r d
T h e Self, h o w e v e r , d o e s n o t a l w a y s t a k e t h e
H i m s e l f " is, i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e r m s , a s y m b o l i c
form of a wise old m a n o r wise old woman.
p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e Self. W i t h h i s h e l p t h e
These paradoxical personifications are attempts
e g o a v o i d s d e s t r u c t i o n a n d is a b l e t o o v e r c o m e
t o e x p r e s s s o m e t h i n g t h a t is n o t e n t i r e l y c o n -
a n d even redeem a highly dangerous aspect
tained in timesomething simultaneously
of his a n i m a .
y o u n g a n d old. T h e d r e a m of a middle-aged
I n a w o m a n ' s p s y c h e , as I h a v e said, t h e Self
m a n s h o w s t h e Self a p p e a r i n g as a y o u n g m a n :
a s s u m e s f e m i n i n e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s . T h i s is i l l u s -
trated in t h e second story, a n E s k i m o tale:
C o m i n g from t h e street, a y o u t h r o d e d o w n
into our garden. (There were no bushes a n d no
A lonely girl w h o h a s b e e n d i s a p p o i n t e d in love fence as t h e r e a r e in real life, a n d t h e g a r d e n lay
m e e t s a w i z a r d t r a v e l i n g in a c o p p e r b o a t . H e is o p e n . ) I d i d n o t q u i t e k n o w if h e c a m e o n p u r -
t h e " S p i r i t of t h e M o o n , " w h o h a s g i v e n all t h e pose, or if t h e horse c a r r i e d h i m h e r e a g a i n s t
a n i m a l s to m a n k i n d a n d w h o also bestows luck in his will.
h u n t i n g . H e a b d u c t s t h e girl to t h e h e a v e n l y I stood on t h e p a t h t h a t leads to m y s t u d i o a n d
r e a l m . O n c e , w h e n t h e S p i r i t of t h e M o o n h a s w a t c h e d t h e a r r i v a l w i t h g r e a t p l e a s u r e . T h e sight

i g6
The S e l f t h e i n n e r c e n t e r of t h e
total p s y c h e is o f t e n p e r s o n i f i e d
in d r e a m s as a s u p e r i o r h u m a n
figure T o w o m e n , t h e Self m i g h t
appear as a w i s e a n d p o w e r f u l
goddess l i k e the ancient Greek
mother g o d d e s s D e m e t e r ( r i g h t ,
s h o w n w i t h her s o n T r i p t o l e m u s
and d a u g h t e r Kore. in a f i f t h -
century-B.c. relief). The "fairy
g o d m o t h e r " of m a n y tales is also
a s y m b o l i c p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of t h e
female Self: a b o v e . C i n d e r e l l a ' s
godmother (from an illustration
by G u s t a v e D o r e ) . B e l o w , a h e l p f u l
old w o m a n ( a l s o a fairy g o d m o t h e r )
rescues a girl in an i l l u s t r a t i o n of a
Hans C h r i s t i a n A n d e r s e n tale

1(
>7
P e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s of t h e Self in
m e n ' s dreams often take the f o r m
o f "wise o l d m e n . " Far left, t h e
magician Merlin of the Arthurian
legends (in a 1 4 t h - c e n t u r y English
m a n u s c r i p t ) C e n t e r , a guru
( w i s e m a n ) f r o m an 1 8 t h - c e n t u r y
I n d i a n p a i n t i n g . Left, a w i n g e d
o l d m a n like t h i s a p p e a r e d in o n e
of Dr. J u n g ' s o w n d r e a m s c a r r y i n g
k e y s : a c c o r d i n g t o Dr. J u n g he
r e p r e s e n t e d "superior i n s i g h t . "

T h o m a s S u l l y . W a s h i n g t o n at t h e
Passage of the Delaware. Courtesy
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

T h e Self u s u a l l y a p p e a r s in d r e a m s
at c r u c i a l t i m e s in t h e d r e a m e r ' s
l i f e t u r n i n g p o i n t s w h e n his basic
a t t i t u d e s a n d w h o l e w a y of life are
c h a n g i n g T h e c h a n g e itself is
o f t e n s y m b o l i z e d by t h e a c t i o n o f
c r o s s i n g w a t e r . A b o v e , an a c t u a l
river c r o s s i n g t h a t a c c o m p a n i e d
an i m p o r t a n t u p h e a v a l : G e o r g e
W a s h i n g t o n ' s c r o s s i n g of t h e
D e l a w a r e River d u r i n g t h e A m e r i c a n
Revolution (ina 19th-century
A m e r i c a n p a i n t i n g ) . Left, a n o t h e r
major event that involved crossing
w a t e r : t h e first a t t a c k l a u n c h e d
against the N o r m a n d y beaches o n
D-day, J u n e 1944

1 8
9
T h e Self Is n o t a l w a y s p e r s o n i f i e d
as a s u p e r i o r old p e r s o n . Left, a
p a i n t i n g ( o f a d r e a m ) by Peter
B i r k h a u s e r , in w h i c h t h e Self
a p p e a r s as a m a r v e l o u s y o u t h .
W h i l e t h e artist w a s w o r k i n g o n
the p a i n t i n g , other associations and
ideas c a m e u p f r o m his u n c o n s c i o u s
T h e r o u n d o b j e c t like a s u n b e h i n d
t h e y o u t h is a s y m b o l o f t o t a l i t y ,
a n d t h e b o y ' s f o u r a r m s recall o t h e r
" f o u r f o l d " symbols that characterize
p s y c h o l o g i c a l w h o l e n e s s . Before the
b o y ' s h a n d s h o v e r s a f l o w e r a s if
he n e e d o n l y raise his h a n d s a n d a
m a g i c a l f l o w e r w i l l a p p e a r . H e is
b l a c k b e c a u s e of his n o c t u r n a l (i.e.
unconscious) origin.

of the b o y o n his b e a u t i f u l horse i m p r e s s e d m e " I d i o t ! " I yelled o u t . O n t h e o t h e r side of t h e


deeply. r i v e r t h r e e little girls w e r e p l a y i n g , a n d o n e of
T h e horse w a s a s m a l l , w i l d , powerful a n i m a l , t h e m s t r e t c h e d o u t h e r h a n d as if to h e l p m e . I
a symbol of e n e r g y (it r e s e m b l e d a b o a r ) , a n d it t h o u g h t t h a t h e r small h a n d w a s n o t s t r o n g
had a thick, bristly, s i l v e r y - g r a y c o a t . T h e b o y e n o u g h to h e l p m e , b u t w h e n I took it, she suc-
rode past m e b e t w e e n t h e s t u d i o a n d h o u s e , c e e d e d , w i t h o u t t h e slightest effort, in p u l l i n g m e
j u m p e d off his h o r s e , a n d led h i m carefully a w a y across a n d u p t h e b a n k on t h e o t h e r side.
so t h a t h e w o u l d n o t t r a m p l e o n t h e flower b e d
with its beautiful r e d a n d o r a n g e tulips. T h e
flower b e d h a d b e e n n e w l y m a d e a n d p l a n t e d by The dreamer is a religious person, but
my wife fa d r e a m o c c u r r e n c e ) . a c c o r d i n g t o h e r d r e a m s h e c a n n o t r e m a i n in
t h e C h u r c h ( P r o t e s t a n t ) a n y l o n g e r ; in fact, s h e
s e e m s t o h a v e lost t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f e n t e r i n g it,
T h i s y o u t h s i g n i f i e s t h e Self, a n d w i t h it r e -
a l t h o u g h s h e t r i e s t o k e e p t h e a c c e s s t o it a s
n e w a l o f life, a c r e a t i v e elan vital, and a new
c l e a n as she c a n . A c c o r d i n g to t h e d r e a m , s h e
spiritual o r i e n t a t i o n b y m e a n s of w h i c h e v e r y -
m u s t n o w cross a s t a g n a n t river, a n d this i n d i -
t h i n g b e c o m e s full o f life a n d e n t e r p r i s e .
cates that the flow of life is s l o w e d down
If a m a n d e v o t e s h i m s e l f t o t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s b e c a u s e of t h e u n r e s o l v e d religious problem.
of his o w n u n c o n s c i o u s , it c a n b e s t o w t h i s gift, ( C r o s s i n g a r i v e r is a f r e q u e n t s y m b o l i c i m a g e
so t h a t s u d d e n l y life, w h i c h h a s b e e n s t a l e a n d for a f u n d a m e n t a l c h a n g e of attitude.) The
dull, t u r n s i n t o a r i c h , u n e n d i n g i n n e r a d v e n - s t u d e n t was i n t e r p r e t e d by the d r e a m e r herself
t u r e , full o f c r e a t i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s . I n a w o m a n ' s as t h e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of a t h o u g h t t h a t she h a d
psychology, this s a m e youthful personification p r e v i o u s l y h a d n a m e l y , t h a t s h e m i g h t satisfy
of t h e S e l f c a n a p p e a r a s a s u p e r n a t u r a l l y g i f t e d her spiritual y e a r n i n g by a t t e n d i n g high school.
girl. T h e d r e a m e r i n t h i s i n s t a n c e is a w o m a n O b v i o u s l y t h e d r e a m d o e s n o t t h i n k m u c h of
in h e r l a t e f o r t i e s : this p l a n . W h e n she d a r e s to cross t h e river
a l o n e , a personification of t h e Self (the girl),

I stood in front of a c h u r c h a n d w a s w a s h i n g small but s u p e r n a t u r a l l y powerful, helps her.


the p a v e m e n t w i t h w a t e r . T h e n I r a n d o w n t h e But the form of a h u m a n being, whether
street j u s t a t t h e m o m e n t w h e n t h e s t u d e n t s from y o u t h f u l o r o l d , is o n l y o n e o f t h e m a n y ways
the high school w e r e let o u t . I c a m e to a s t a g n a n t
in w h i c h t h e Self c a n appear in d r e a m s or
river across w h i c h a b o a r d o r t r e e t r u n k h a d b e e n
laid; b u t w h e n I w a s a t t e m p t i n g to w a l k across, v i s i o n s . T h e v a r i o u s a g e s it a s s u m e s s h o w n o t
a m i s c h i e v o u s s t u d e n t b o u n c e d o n t h e b o a r d so o n l y t h a t it is w i t h u s t h r o u g h o u t t h e w h o l e o f
that it c r a c k e d a n d I n e a r l y fell i n t o t h e w a t e r . life, b u t also t h a t it e x i s t s b e y o n d the con-

199
M a n y people today personify the
Self in t h e i r d r e a m s as p r o m i n e n t
public figures J u n g i a n psychologists
f i n d t h a t , in m e n ' s d r e a m s .
Dr. A l b e r t S c h w e i t z e r (far left) a n d
Sir W i n s t o n C h u r c h i l l ( l e f t )
o f t e n a p p e a r ; in w o m e n ' s d r e a m s ,
Eleanor R o o s e v e l t ( r i g h t ) a n d
Q u e e n E l i z a b e t h II (far r i g h t , a
p o r t r a i t o n an A f r i c a n h o u s e ) .

sciously realized flow o f life w h i c h is what W e h a v e a l r e a d y seen that symbolic struc-


c r e a t e s o u r e x p e r i e n c e of t i m e . tures t h a t s e e m to refer to t h e process of indi-
J u s t a s t h e S e l f is n o t e n t i r e l y c o n t a i n e d in v i d u a t i o n t e n d to b e b a s e d o n t h e m o t i f of the
o u r c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e of t i m e (in o u r s p a c e - number four such as t h e four functions of
t i m e d i m e n s i o n ) , it is a l s o s i m u l t a n e o u s l y o m n i - consciousness, or the four stages of the anima
p r e s e n t . M o r e o v e r , it a p p e a r s f r e q u e n t l y i n a or animus. It r e a p p e a r s here in t h e cosmic
form that hints at a special o m n i p r e s e n c e ; that s h a p e of P ' a n K u . O n l y u n d e r specific c i r c u m -
is, it m a n i f e s t s itself as a g i g a n t i c , symbolic stances do other combinations of numbers
h u m a n being w h o embraces and contains the a p p e a r in t h e p s y c h i c m a t e r i a l . T h e n a t u r a l u n -
w h o l e c o s m o s . W h e n this i m a g e t u r n s u p in t h e hampered manifestations of the center are
d r e a m s o f a n i n d i v i d u a l , w e m a y h o p e for a characterized by fourfoldness- t h a t is t o s a y , b y
c r e a t i v e s o l u t i o n to his conflict, b e c a u s e now h a v i n g four divisions, or s o m e o t h e r s t r u c t u r e
t h e v i t a l p s y c h i c c e n t e r is a c t i v a t e d (i.e. the d e r i v i n g f r o m t h e n u m e r i c a l s e r i e s o f 4 , 8, 16,
w h o l e b e i n g is c o n d e n s e d i n t o o n e n e s s ) i n o r d e r a n d so o n . N u m b e r 16 p l a y s a p a r t i c u l a r l y i m -
to o v e r c o m e t h e difficulty. p o r t a n t r o l e , s i n c e it is c o m p o s e d o f f o u r f o u r s .
I t is n o w o n d e r t h a t t h i s f i g u r e o f t h e C o s m i c I n o u r W e s t e r n c i v i l i z a t i o n , s i m i l a r i d e a s of
Man appears in many myths and religious a C o s m i c M a n h a v e a t t a c h e d themselves to the
t e a c h i n g s . G e n e r a l l y h e is d e s c r i b e d a s s o m e - s y m b o l of A d a m , t h e F i r s t M a n . T h e r e is a
thing helpful and positive. He appears as Jewish legend that when God created Adam,
Adam, as t h e Persian Gayomart, or as the h e first g a t h e r e d r e d , b l a c k , w h i t e , a n d y e l l o w
Hindu Purusha. This figure m a y even be de- d u s t from t h e four c o r n e r s of t h e w o r l d , and
s c r i b e d as t h e basic p r i n c i p l e of t h e w h o l e w o r l d . t h u s A d a m " r e a c h e d from o n e e n d of t h e w o r l d
T h e a n c i e n t C h i n e s e , for i n s t a n c e , t h o u g h t t h a t to t h e o t h e r . " W h e n h e b e n t d o w n , his h e a d
before a n y t h i n g w h a t e v e r was created, there was in the East and his feet in the West.
w a s a colossal d i v i n e m a n called P ' a n K u who According to another Jewish tradition, the
gave heaven a n d earth their form. W h e n he w h o l e o f m a n k i n d w a s c o n t a i n e d in A d a m f r o m
c r i e d , his tears m a d e t h e Y e l l o w R i v e r a n d t h e the b e g i n n i n g , w h i c h m e a n t t h e soul of every-
Yangtze River; when he breathed, the wind body who would ever be born. T h e soul of
rose; w h e n he spoke, t h u n d e r was loosed; and A d a m , t h e r e f o r e , w a s " l i k e t h e wick of a l a m p
w h e n he looked a r o u n d , lightning flashed. If h e composed of i n n u m e r a b l e strands." In this
w a s in a g o o d m o o d , t h e w e a t h e r w a s fine; if s y m b o l t h e i d e a of a t o t a l o n e n e s s of all h u m a n
h e w a s s a d , it c l o u d e d o v e r . W h e n h e d i e d , h e e x i s t e n c e , b e y o n d a l l i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s , is c l e a r l y
fell a p a r t , and from his b o d y the five holy expressed.
m o u n t a i n s of C h i n a s p r a n g i n t o existence. His In ancient Persia, the s a m e original First
head became the T'ai mountain in t h e East, Man called G a y o m a r t was depicted as a
his t r u n k b e c a m e t h e S u n g m o u n t a i n in t h e c e n - h u g e figure e m i t t i n g l i g h t . W h e n h e d i e d , e v e r y
ter, his r i g h t a r m t h e H e n g m o u n t a i n in the k i n d of m e t a l s p r a n g from his b o d y , a n d from
N o r t h , h i s left a r m t h e H e n g m o u n t a i n i n t h e h i s s o u l c a m e g o l d . H i s s e m e n fell u p o n the
S o u t h , a n d h i s feet t h e H u a m o u n t a i n in t h e e a r t h , a n d f r o m it c a m e t h e first h u m a n c o u p l e
West. His eyes b e c a m e the sun a n d moon. in t h e f o r m o f t w o r h u b a r b s h r u b s . I t is s t r i k i n g

2 0 0
Cosmic M a n the gigantic, all-
e m b r a c i n g figure that personifies and
c o n t a i n s the entire u n i v e r s e i s a
c o m m o n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e Self in
m y t h s a n d d r e a m s . Left, t h e title p a g e
of Leviathan, b y t h e 1 7 t h - c e n t u r y
English philosopher T h o m a s Hobbes.
T h e g i g a n t i c f i g u r e of L e v i a t h a n
is m a d e u p of all t h e p e o p l e o f t h e
" c o m m o n w e a l t h " H o b b e s ' s ideal
s o c i e t y , in w h i c h t h e p e o p l e c h o o s e
t h e i r o w n c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y (or
"sovereign," hence Leviathan's
c r o w n , s w o r d , and scepter). A b o v e ,
t h e c o s m i c f i g u r e of a n c i e n t
C h i n a ' s P a n K u s h o w n c o v e r e d in
leaves t o i n d i c a t e t h a t C o s m i c M a n
(or First M a n ) s i m p l y e x i s t e d , like
a p l a n t , g r o w n in nature. B e l o w ,
o n a leaf f r o m an 1 8 t h - c e n t u r y
Indian illuminated manuscript, the
Cosmic Lion Goddess h o l d i n g the
s u n ( t h e l i o n is m a d e u p of m a n y
people and animals)

201
o l d I n d i a , t h i s f i g u r e is k n o w n a s t h e P u r u s h a ,
a name that simply means "man" or "per-
son." The Purusha lives w i t h i n the heart of
every i n d i v i d u a l , a n d yet at the s a m e t i m e he
fills t h e e n t i r e c o s m o s .
A c c o r d i n g to t h e t e s t i m o n y of m a n y m y t h s ,
t h e C o s m i c M a n is n o t o n l y t h e b e g i n n i n g b u t
also the final g o a l o f a l l life o f t h e w h o l e of
c r e a t i o n . " A l l c e r e a l n a t u r e m e a n s w h e a t , all
treasure nature means gold, all generation
m e a n s m a n , " says the m e d i e v a l sage Meister
E c k h a r t . A n d if o n e l o o k s a t t h i s f r o m a p s y -
c h o l o g i c a l s t a n d p o i n t , it is c e r t a i n l y s o . The
w h o l e i n n e r p s y c h i c r e a l i t y of e a c h individual
is u l t i m a t e l y o r i e n t e d t o w a r d this archetypal
s y m b o l o f t h e Self.
In p r a c t i c a l t e r m s this m e a n s t h a t t h e exist-
e n c e of h u m a n b e i n g s will n e v e r b e satisfactorily
e x p l a i n e d in t e r m s of i s o l a t e d i n s t i n c t s o r p u r -
posive m e c h a n i s m s u c h as h u n g e r , p o w e r , sex,
s u r v i v a l , p e r p e t u a t i o n of t h e species, a n d so on.
T h a t is, m a n ' s m a i n p u r p o s e is n o t t o e a t , d r i n k ,
e t c . , b u t lo be human. Above and beyond these
drives, o u r i n n e r psychic reality serves to m a n i -
fest a l i v i n g m y s t e r y t h a t c a n b e e x p r e s s e d o n l y
that the Chinese P'an K u w a s also depicted b y a s y m b o l , a n d for its e x p r e s s i o n t h e u n c o n -
c o v e r e d b y l e a v e s l i k e a p l a n t . P e r h a p s t h i s is s c i o u s often c h o o s e s t h e p o w e r f u l i m a g e of t h e
b e c a u s e t h e F i r s t M a n w a s t h o u g h t o f a s a self- Cosmic Man.
g r o w n , living unit that just existed w i t h o u t a n y In o u r W e s t e r n civilization the Cosmic M a n
a n i m a l i m p u l s e o r self-will. A m o n g a g r o u p of has b e e n identified to a g r e a t e x t e n t w i t h Christ,
p e o p l e w h o live o n t h e b a n k s of t h e Tigris. a n d in t h e E a s t w i t h K r i s h n a o r w i t h Buddha.
A d a m is s t i l l , a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , w o r s h i p e d a s I n the O l d T e s t a m e n t this s a m e s y m b o l i c figure
the hidden "super-soul" or mystical "protective t u r n s u p as the " S o n of M a n " and in later
s p i r i t " of t h e e n t i r e h u m a n r a c e . T h e s e p e o p l e Jewish mysticism is c a l l e d Adam Kadmon.
say t h a t he c a m e from a d a t e p a l m another C e r t a i n religious m o v e m e n t s of late a n t i q u i t y
r e p e t i t i o n of t h e p l a n t motif. simply called him A n t h r o p o s (the Greek word
In t h e East, a n d in s o m e gnostic circles in t h e for m a n ) . L i k e a l l s y m b o l s t h i s i m a g e p o i n t s t o
West, people soon recognized that the Cosmic
M a n was more an inner psychic image than a
T o p left, a R h o d e s i a n rock p a i n t i n g
concrete outer reality. According to Hindu
of a c r e a t i o n m y t h , in w h i c h t h e
t r a d i t i o n , for i n s t a n c e , h e is s o m e t h i n g t h a t l i v e s First M a n ( t h e m o o n ) m a t e s w i t h
w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l h u m a n b e i n g a n d is t h e t h e m o r n i n g star a n d e v e n i n g star
t o p r o d u c e t h e c r e a t u r e s of e a r t h .
o n l y p a r t t h a t is i m m o r t a l . T h i s i n n e r Great C o s m i c M a n o f t e n a p p e a r s as a n
M a n redeems the individual by leading him A d a m - l i k e o r i g i n a l m a n a n d Christ,
t o o , has b e c o m e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h
o u t o f c r e a t i o n a n d its s u f f e r i n g s , b a c k i n t o h i s
t h i s p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of t h e Self:
original e t e r n a l s p h e r e . But h e c a n d o this o n l y T o p r i g h t , a p a i n t i n g by t h e 1 5 t h -
c e n t u r y G e r m a n artist G r u n e w a l d
if m a n r e c o g n i z e s h i m a n d rises f r o m h i s s l e e p
s h o w s t h e f i g u r e of C h r i s t w i t h
in o r d e r t o b e l e d . I n t h e s y m b o l i c m y t h s o f all t h e m a j e s t y o f C o s m i c M a n

202
an unknowable secret to the ultimate un-
k n o w n m e a n i n g of h u m a n existence.
As w e h a v e n o t e d , c e r t a i n t r a d i t i o n s assert
t h a t t h e C o s m i c M a n is t h e g o a l o f c r e a t i o n ,
b u t t h e a c h i e v e m e n t of this s h o u l d n o t b e u n d e r -
stood as a possible external h a p p e n i n g . From
t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e H i n d u , for e x a m p l e , it
is n o t s o m u c h t h a t t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d w i l l o n e
d a y dissolve into the original G r e a t M a n , but
that the ego's extraverted orientation toward
t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d will d i s a p p e a r in o r d e r to
m a k e w a y for t h e C o s m i c M a n . T h i s h a p p e n s
w h e n t h e e g o m e r g e s i n t o t h e Self. T h e e g o ' s
d i s c u r s i v e flow o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s ( w h i c h goes
from o n e t h o u g h t to a n o t h e r ) a n d its d e s i r e s
(which r u n from o n e object to a n o t h e r ) calm
d o w n w h e n t h e G r e a t M a n w i t h i n is e n c o u n t -
e r e d . I n d e e d , w e m u s t n e v e r f o r g e t t h a t for u s
o u t e r r e a l i t y exists o n l y in so far as w e p e r c e i v e
it c o n s c i o u s l y , a n d t h a t w e c a n n o t p r o v e t h a t
it e x i s t s " i n a n d b y i t s e l f . "

The many e x a m p l e s c o m i n g from various


civilizations a n d different periods show the uni-

E x a m p l e s of t h e "royal c o u p l e " (a T h e Greek h e a d , b e l o w left, w a s


s y m b o l i c i m a g e of p s y c h i c t o t a l i t y s h o w n b y Dr. J u n g t o be s u b t l y t w o -
a n d t h e S e l f ) : left, a t h i r d - c e n t u r y s i d e d (i.e. h e r m a p h r o d i t i c ) . In
A D . I n d i a n s c u l p t u r e of Siva a n d a letter t o t h e o w n e r J u n g a d d e d
Parvati, hermaphroditically joined; t h a t t h e h e a d "has, like his a n a l o g s
b e l o w , the H i n d u deities Krishna A d o n i s , T a m m u z , a n d . . B a l d u r , all
a n d R a d h a in a g r o v e . t h e g r a c e a n d c h a r m of e i t h e r s e x . "

203
R i g h t , a p r e - R o m a n s c u l p t u r e of t h e
C e l t i c bear g o d d e s s A r t i o , f o u n d
at B e r n e ( w h i c h m e a n s " b e a r " ) .
She w a s probably a mother goddess,
r e s e m b l i n g t h e s h e - b e a r in t h e
d r e a m q u o t e d o n this page. Further
correspondences to symbolic images
in t h i s d r e a m : C e n t e r , A u s t r a l i a n
a b o r i g i n e s w i t h their " s a c r e d
stones," w h i c h they believe contain
t h e s p i r i t s of t h e d e a d B o t t o m ,
from a 17th-century alchemical
manuscript, the s y m b o l i c royal
c o u p l e as a pair of l i o n s .

versality of t h e s y m b o l of t h e G r e a t M a n . His
i m a g e is p r e s e n t in t h e m i n d s o f m e n a s a s o r t
of goal or expression of the basic m y s t e r y of
o u r life. B e c a u s e t h i s s y m b o l represents that
w h i c h is w h o l e a n d c o m p l e t e , it is o f t e n con-
c e i v e d of as a b i s e x u a l b e i n g . In this form the
s y m b o l reconciles o n e of the most important
pairs of psychological opposites male and
female. T h i s u n i o n also a p p e a r s frequently in
d r e a m s as a d i v i n e , r o y a l , o r o t h e r w i s e d i s t i n -
g u i s h e d c o u p l e . T h e following d r e a m of a m a n
o f 4 7 s h o w s t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e S e l f in a dra-
matic way:

I a m o n a p l a t f o r m , a n d below m e I see a h u g e ,
b l a c k , beautiful s h e - b e a r w i t h a r o u g h b u t well-
g r o o m e d c o a t . S h e is s t a n d i n g o n h e r h i n d legs,
a n d o n a s t o n e slab she is p o l i s h i n g a flat oval
black s t o n e , w h i c h b e c o m e s i n c r e a s i n g l y shiny.
N o t far a w a y a lioness a n d h e r c u b d o t h e s a m e
t h i n g , but t h e stones t h e y a r e p o l i s h i n g a r e b i g g e r
a n d r o u n d in s h a p e . After a w h i l e t h e s h e - b e a r
t u r n s i n t o a fat, n a k e d w o m a n with b l a c k h a i r
a n d d a r k , fiery eyes. I b e h a v e in a n erotically p r o -
v o c a t i v e w a y t o w a r d her, a n d s u d d e n l y she m o v e s
n e a r e r in o r d e r to c a t c h m e . I get f r i g h t e n e d a n d
take refuge u p o n t h e b u i l d i n g of scaffolding
w h e r e I w a s before. L a t e r I a m in t h e midst of
m a n y w o m e n , half of w h o m a r e p r i m i t i v e a n d
h a v e rich b l a c k h a i r (as if t h e y a r c t r a n s f o r m e d
from a n i m a l s ) ; t h e o t h e r h a l f a r e o u r w o m e n [of
the s a m e n a t i o n a l i t y as t h e d r e a m e r ] a n d h a v e
b l o n d e o r b r o w n h a i r . T h e p r i m i t i v e w o m e n sing
a very s e n t i m e n t a l s o n g in m e l a n c h o l y , h i g h -
p i t c h e d voices. N o w , in a h i g h e l e g a n t c a r r i a g e ,
t h e r e c o m e s a y o u n g m a n w h o w e a r s on his h e a d
a r o y a l g o l d e n c r o w n , set w i t h s h i n i n g r u b i e s -

204
a very b e a u t i f u l sight. Beside h i m sits a b l o n d e In d r e a m s a m i r r o r c a n s y m b o l i z e
y o u n g w o m a n , p r o b a b l y his wife, b u t w i t h o u t a t h e p o w e r of t h e u n c o n s c i o u s t o
" m i r r o r " the individual objectively
c r o w n . It seems t h a t t h e lioness a n d h e r c u b h a v e
g i v i n g h i m a v i e w of h i m s e l f t h a t
been t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o this c o u p l e . T h e y b e l o n g he m a y never h a v e h a d b e f o r e O n l y
to t h e g r o u p of p r i m i t i v e s . N o w all t h e w o m e n through the unconscious can such a
(the p r i m i t i v e s a n d t h e o t h e r s ) i n t o n e a s o l e m n v i e w ( w h i c h often shocks and upsets
song, a n d t h e r o y a l c a r r i a g e slowly travels t o w a r d the c o n s c i o u s m i n d ) be o b t a i n e d
j u s t as in G r e e k m y t h t h e G o r g o n
the h o r i z o n .
M e d u s a , w h o s e look turned m e n to
s t o n e , c o u l d be g a z e d u p o n o n l y in
a mirror. B e l o w , M e d u s a reflected
Here the inner nucleus of the dreamer's in a s h i e l d (a p a i n t i n g b y t h e 1 7 t h -
p s y c h e s h o w s i t s e l f a t first in a t e m p o r a r y v i s i o n c e n t u r y artist C a r a v a g g i o ) .

of t h e r o y a l c o u p l e , w h i c h e m e r g e s f r o m the
d e p t h s of his a n i m a l n a t u r e a n d t h e p r i m i t i v e
l a y e r of his u n c o n s c i o u s . T h e s h e - b e a r in the
b e g i n n i n g is a s o r t o f m o t h e r g o d d e s s . ( A r t e m i s ,
for i n s t a n c e , w a s w o r s h i p e d in G r e e c e a s a s h e -
bear. ) T h e d a r k oval stone that she rubs a n d
polishes p r o b a b l y symbolizes the d r e a m e r ' s in-
n e r m o s t b e i n g , his t r u e p e r s o n a l i t y . Rubbing
a n d p o l i s h i n g s t o n e s is a w e l l - k n o w n , exceed-
ingly a n c i e n t a c t i v i t y of m a n . I n E u r o p e " h o l y "
s t o n e s , w r a p p e d in b a r k a n d h i d d e n in c a v e s ,
h a v e b e e n f o u n d in m a i n p l a c e s ; as c o n t a i n e r s
of d i v i n e p o w e r s t h e y w e r e p r o b a b l y k e p t t h e r e
by m e n of t h e S t o n e A g e . A t t h e p r e s e n t time
s o m e of t h e A u s t r a l i a n a b o r i g i n e s b e l i e v e t h a t
t h e i r d e a d a n c e s t o r s c o n t i n u e to exist in s t o n e s
as v i r t u o u s a n d d i v i n e p o w e r s , a n d t h a t if t h e y
rub these stones, the power increases (like
c h a r g i n g t h e m w i t h e l e c t r i c i t y ) for t h e b e n e f i t
of b o t h t h e l i v i n g a n d t h e d e a d .

T h e m a n w h o h a d the d r e a m wc are discus-


sing h a d h i t h e r t o refused to a c c e p t a marital
b o n d w i t h a w o m a n . His fear of b e i n g c a u g h t
b y t h i s a s p e c t o f life c a u s e d h i m , i n t h e d r e a m , d r e a m e r r u n s a w a y to a h i g h e r p l a c e - i.e. i n t o
to flee f r o m t h e b e a r - w o m a n t o t h e s p e c t a t o r ' s all sorts of reflections b y w h i c h h e c a n e s c a p e
platform w h e r e he could passively w a t c h things t h e d e m a n d s o f life. T h e d r e a m t h e n s h o w s h i m
without becoming entangled. Through the t h a t if h e r u n s a w a y f r o m t h e d e m a n d s o f life,
m o t i f of t h e s t o n e b e i n g r u b b e d b y t h e b e a r , t h e o n e p a r t of his soul (his a n i m a ) will remain
u n c o n s c i o u s is t r y i n g t o s h o w h i m t h a t h e s h o u l d u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , a fact s y m b o l i z e d b y t h e g r o u p
let h i m s e l f c o m e i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h t h i s s i d e o f of n o n d e s c r i p t w o m e n t h a t splits a p a r t i n t o a
life; it is t h r o u g h t h e f r i c t i o n s o f m a r r i e d life p r i m i t i v e half a n d a m o r e civilized one.
t h a t his i n n e r b e i n g c a n b e s h a p e d a n d p o l i s h e d . T h e lioness a n d h e r son, w h i c h t h e n a p p e a r
W h e n t h e s t o n e is p o l i s h e d , it w i l l b e g i n t o o n the scene, personify the mysterious urge to-
shine like a m i r r o r so t h a t t h e b e a r c a n see h e r - w a r d i n d i v i d u a t i o n , i n d i c a t e d by t h e i r w o r k at
self in i t ; t h i s m e a n s t h a t o n l y b y accepting s h a p i n g t h e r o u n d s t o n e s . ( A r o u n d s t o n e is a
earthly contact a n d suffering can the human s y m b o l o f t h e Self.) T h e l i o n s , a r o y a l c o u p l e ,
soul b e t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a m i r r o r in w h i c h t h e a r e in t h e m s e l v e s a s y m b o l of t o t a l i t y . I n m e d i -
divine powers can perceive themselves. But the eval s y m b o l i s m , the " p h i l o s o p h e r ' s s t o n e " (a

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p r e - e m i n e n t s y m b o l o f m a n ' s w h o l e n e s s ) is r e -
presented as a p a i r of lions o r as a human
c o u p l e r i d i n g o n lions. S y m b o l i c a l l y , this points
to t h e fact t h a t often t h e u r g e t o