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US 20130303410A1

(19) United States


(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. No.: US 2013/0303410 A1
Wagle et al. (43) Pub. Date: NOV. 14, 2013

(54) INVERT EMULSION DRILLING FLUIDS FOR Publication Classi?cation


FLAT RHEOLOGY DRILLING
(51) Int. Cl.
(71) Applicant: Halliburton Energy Services, Inc., C09K 8/36 (2006.01)
Houston, TX (US) (52) US. Cl.
CPC ...................................... .. C09K 8/36 (2013.01)
(72) Inventorsl Vikrant Bhavanishankar Wagle, USPC ......................................... .. 507/128; 507/129
Mumbai (IN); Shadaab Syed
Maghrabi, Thane (IN); Dhanashree 57 ABSTRACT
Gaj anan Kulkarni, Pune (IN) ( )
An invert emulsion drilling ?uid, and a method of drilling
(21) Appl' NO: 13/939,176 With such ?uid, having substantially ?at or relatively con
_ _ trolled rheology, as demonstrated by the drilling ?uid exhib
(22) Flled' Jul 10 2013 iting little change in its yield point and gel strength across a
. . temperature range of from about 400 F. to about 1800 F., and
Related U's' Apphcatlon Data effected With addition of a fatty dimer diamine additive
(63) Continuation-in-part of application No. 13/468,022, together With an acid and Without the addition of organophilic
?led on May 9, 2012. clays or lignites.
Patent Application Publication Nov. 14, 2013 US 2013/0303410 A1

1 00 \ FQ
L:\ry104
O 106

124 110

H 112/102
122 128 1

///i/////////W////////)$/M y/?
132 mjLNL/kwa
r'\17
118 Z %\'116
_ / = /
w? ' /
/
21%
/ - 2
/ 12s

2f /2

FIG. 1
122/
i ,2
US 2013/0303410 A1 Nov. 14, 2013

INVERT EMULSION DRILLING FLUIDS FOR may acquire clays and/ or lignites from the formation or from
FLAT RHEOLOGY DRILLING mixing With recycled ?uids containing clays and/or lignites.
HoWever, such contamination of clay-free drilling ?uids is
RELATED APPLICATION preferably avoided and organophilic clays and organophilic
lignites should not be deliberately added to clay-free drill
[0001] This application is a continuation in part of US. Ser.
ing ?uids during drilling.
No. 13/468,022, ?led May 9, 2012, pending.
[0010] Invert emulsion-based muds or drilling ?uids (also
BACKGROUND called invert drilling muds or invert muds or ?uids) comprise
a key segment of the drilling ?uids industry, and clay-free
[0002] 1. Field ofthe Disclosure invert emulsion-based muds are becoming increasingly
[0003] The present disclosure relates to compositions and popular.
methods for drilling, cementing and casing boreholes in sub [0011] A limiting factor in drilling a particular portion of a
terranean formations, particularly hydrocarbon bearing for Well is the mud Weight (density of the drilling ?uid) that can
mations. More particularly, the present disclosure relates to be used. If too high a mud Weight is used, fractures are created
compositions for invert emulsion drilling ?uids that have ?at in lost-circulation Zones With resulting loss of drilling ?uid
rheology over broad temperature ranges, such as encountered and other operating problems. If too loW a mud Weight is
in deep Water, When used in drilling boreholes. The disclosure used, formation ?uids can encroach into the Well, borehole
also relates to methods of drilling boreholes using such ?at collapse may occur due to insu?icient hydrostatic support,
rheology invert emulsion drilling ?uids for the recovery of and in extreme cases safety can be compromised due to the
hydrocarbons. possibility of a Well bloWout. Many times, Wells are drilled
[0004] 2. Description of Relevant Art through Weak or lost-circulation-prone Zones prior to reach
[0005] A drilling ?uid or mud is a specially designed ?uid ing a potential producing Zone, requiring use of a loW mud
that is circulated through a Wellbore as the Wellbore is being Weight and installation of sequential casing strings to protect
drilled to facilitate the drilling operation. The various func Weaker Zones above the potential producing Zone. A particu
tions of a drilling ?uid include removing drill cuttings from larly critical drilling scenario is one that combines deepWater
the Wellbore, cooling and lubricating the drill bit, aiding in and shalloW overburden, as is typical of ultra deepWater ?elds
support of the drill pipe and drill bit, and providing a hydro in BraZil. This scenario is characteriZed by high pore ?uid
static head to maintain the integrity of the Wellbore Walls and pressure, loW effective stresses, loW fracturing gradients and
prevent Well bloWouts. narroW mud Weight WindoWs.
[0006] An important property of the drilling ?uid is its [0012] Commercially available clay-free invert emulsion
rheology, and speci?c rheological parameters are intended for drilling ?uids may have less than preferred rheology at loW
drilling and circulating the ?uid through the Well bore. The mud Weights, that is, mud Weights ranging from about 9 ppg
?uid should be suf?ciently viscous to suspend barite and to about 12 ppg, With temperatures up to about 3750 F. or
drilled cuttings and to carry the cuttings to the Well surface. higher. Commercially available invert emulsion drilling ?u
HoWever, the ?uid should not be so viscous as to interfere ids are typically formulated With a type of mineral oil Which
With the drilling operation. is knoWn to have relatively loW viscosity that becomes even
[0007] Speci?c drilling ?uid systems are selected to opti loWer at such higher temperatures as typically encountered in
miZe a drilling operation in accordance With the characteris deep Wells. Such loWer viscosity ?uids also often have
tics of a particular geological formation. Oil based muds are decreased rheology at such temperatures. HoWever, during
normally used to drill sWelling or sloughing shales, salt, gyp drilling offshore, conventional invert emulsion drilling ?uids
sum, anhydrite and other evaporate formations, hydrogen tend to have higher viscosity passing through the drill string
sul?de-containing formations, and hot (greater than about and risers in deep Water, With temperatures averaging about
300 degrees Fahrenheit (0 F.) holes, but may be used in 400 F. Addition of inert solids may improve the rheology, but
other holes penetrating a subterranean formation as Well. result in a decreased rate of penetration during drilling and
[0008] An oil-based or invert emulsion-based drilling ?uid loss of or decline in other bene?ts seen With a clay free
may commonly comprise betWeen about 50:50 to about 95:5 system. Such inert solids include, for example, ?ne siZed
by volume oil phase to Water phase. Such oil-based muds used calcium carbonate, and the term as used herein is not meant to
in drilling typically comprise: a base oil comprising the exter be understood to include or refer to drill cuttings.
nal phase of an invert emulsion; a saline, aqueous solution [0013] Conventionally, loW rheology invert emulsion drill
(typically a solution comprising about 30% calcium chloride) ing ?uids are used for deepWater drilling at cold temperatures
comprising the internal phase of the invert emulsion; emul (typically about 400 F.). Thinners are typically added to an
si?ers at the interface of the internal and external phases; and invert emulsion drilling ?uid for use in deepWater cold tem
other agents or additives for suspension, Weight or density, peratures (typically about 400 F.), to prevent a substantial
oil-Wetting, ?uid loss or ?ltration control, and rheology con increase in the rheology of the ?uid. LoW rheology, hoWever,
trol. In the past, such additives commonly included organo affects the drilling ?uids ability to clean the borehole and the
philic clays and organophilic lignites. HoWever, recent tech ?uids ability to suspend barite and drill cuttings. An ideal
nology as described for example in US. Pat. Nos. 7,462,580 deepWater invert emulsion drilling ?uid exhibits suf?ciently
and 7,488,704 to Kirsner, et al., introduced clay-free invert high and similar rheology from the rig ?oor to the riser and
emulsion-based drilling ?uids, Which offer signi?cant advan along the depth (or length) of the Well. Such an invert emul
tages over drilling ?uids containing organophilic clays. sion drilling ?uid is typically called a ?at rheology drilling
[0009] As used herein, the term clay-free (or clayless) ?uid or a ?at rheology ?uid.
means a drilling ?uid formulated Without addition of any [0014] An invert emulsion drilling ?uid having and main
organophilic clays or organophilic lignites to the drilling ?uid taining a similar rheology along the depth of a borehole leads
composition. During drilling, such clay-free drilling ?uids to a controlled equivalent circulating density (ECD) along
US 2013/0303410 A1 Nov. 14, 2013

that depth. Maintaining a similar rheology leads to less ?uc as the oil or oleaginous phase, and Water comprising a salt
tuation in ECD due to changes in temperature and pressure such as, for non-limiting example, calcium chloride, as the
along the depth. A controlled ECD is particularly important aqueous phase. The drilling ?uid further comprises a rheol
When the ?uid enters a riser or is in the vicinity of a riser at ogy modi?er or additive disclosed herein for rheology stabil
cold temperatures, that is at temperatures of about 40 E. An ity and particularly for a relatively ?at rheological pro?le over
invert emulsion drilling ?uid With a similar yield point (YP) a broad temperature range. Such rheology modi?er is a fatty
and loW-shear yield point (LSYP), Would ensure the loWest dimer diamine in combination With an acid, or an acid deriva
possible frictional losses in the annulus and minimum tive.
hydraulic contribution to ECD. Reducing the hydraulic con [0020] The fatty dimer diamine used in one embodiment is
tribution to ECD, reduces the risk of exceeding the fracture a C36 fatty dimer diamine having the folloWing molecular
gradient of the subterranean formation. Less ?uctuation in structure:
ECDs also leads to feWer instances of lost circulation. Con
tinuously recirculating cold, high rheology drilling ?uid
reduces the temperature of the drilling ?uid in the pits. Colder
drilling ?uid leads to more resistance to ?oW Which in turns
increases the ?uid column hydraulic pressure When the drill
ing ?uid is circulating, Which in turn may lead to exceeding
the fracture gradient of the subterranean formation. Also One commercially available C3 6 dimer diamine contains C18
colder high rheology drilling ?uid necessitates the use of fatty monoamine and C54 fatty trimer triamine Which are
loWer mesh screens to prevent mud losses at the shaker. obtained during the commercial production of the dimer
[0015] Increasingly invert emulsion-based drilling ?uids diamine. Generally, quantities of such a fatty dimer diamine
are being subjected to ever greater performance and cost ranging from about 1 ppb to about 6 ppb are used in some
demands as Well as environmental restrictions. Consequently, embodiments and are effective even When the surrounding
there is a continuing need and industry-Wide interest in neW temperature is as loW as 40 F. or above 120 E, or at a
drilling ?uids that provide improved performance While still temperature in betWeen.
affording environmental and economical acceptance, particu [0021] The acid used in the present disclosure in one
larly for deepWater drilling applications. embodiment is selected from the group of acids generally
consisting of boric acid, sulphonic acid, phosphonic acid and
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING various derivatives thereof. Preferred examples of such acids
[0016] FIG. 1 is a diagram ofa typical drilling ?uid system suitable for use in the embodiment include, Without limita
in Which the ?uids of the disclosure may be used. tion, vinyl phosphonic acid, boric acid, adipic acid, and para
toluene sulphonic acid. One of ordinary skill in the art Will
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF SOME appreciate that acids With similar structures to these might
EMBODIMENTS also provide good performance.
[0022] While the advantages of the ?uids disclosed herein
[0017] The present disclosure provides in one embodiment are especially appreciated in drilling deepWater Wells, the
oil-based, invert emulsion drilling ?uids With substantially ?uids have broader utility, With potential use in drilling bore
?at or relatively controlled and/ or improved rheology at tem holes having a Wide range of temperatures and pressures.
peratures frequently encountered in deep Water drilling, that [0023] In embodiments of the present disclosure providing
is, temperatures ranging from about 40 F. (cold) to about oleaginous or oil-based, invert emulsion drilling ?uids With a
180 F. or higher. These drilling ?uids provide a substantially relatively ?at rheological pro?le over a broad temperature
?at or relatively controlled rheology that does not increase to range, and methods of drilling boreholes in subterranean for
levels that may fracture a subterranean formation When mations employing such drilling ?uids, the term relatively
reduced temperatures and increased pressures are encoun ?at, as used herein With respect to a rheological pro?le, is a
tered, such as may occur in deepWater (at least about 1000 ft relative term based on comparison to the rheological pro?le
depth). The drilling ?uids also exhibit similar yield points, of knoWn prior art ?uids Without the rheology additives of the
loW shear yield points, and gel strengths at temperatures present disclosure. Generally, the drilling ?uids of the present
ranging, or over a range of, from about 40 F. to about 180 F. disclosure are effective in a temperature range of about 40 F.
or higher, indicative of ?at rheology. to at least about 180 F. or higher. The oil base or oleaginous
[0018] The present disclosure also provides in another part of the invert emulsion drilling ?uid may be a natural oil
embodiment an improved method of drilling Wellbores in such as for example diesel oil or mineral oil, or a synthetic
subterranean formations, particularly in deep Water. The base such as, for example, ACCOLADE base comprising
method employs oil-based invert emulsion muds or drilling esters or ENCORE base comprising isomeriZed ole?ns,
?uids disclosed herein, having a relatively ?at rheological both available from Halliburton Energy Services, Inc., in
pro?le over a broad temperature range. As used herein, the Houston, Tex. and Duncan, Okla.
term drilling or drilling Wellbores shall be understood in [0024] An aqueous solution containing a Water activity
the broader sense of drilling operations, Which include run loWering compound, composition or material, comprises the
ning casing and cementing as Well as drilling, unless speci? internal phase of the invert emulsion. Such solution is pref
cally indicated otherWise. erably a saline solution comprising for non-limiting example
[0019] The invert emulsion drilling ?uid of one embodi calcium chloride (typically about 25% to about 30%, depend
ment, or used in the method of another embodiment, com ing on the subterranean formation Water salinity or activity),
prises an oil:Water ratio preferably in the range of 50:50 to although other salts or Water activity loWering materials such
95:5 and preferably employs a natural oil, such as for non as for non-limiting example alcohols, for example, glycerol,
limiting example diesel oil or mineral oil, or a synthetic base, or sugar, knoWn in the art may alternatively or additionally be
US 2013/0303410 A1 Nov. 14, 2013

used. Such other salts may include for non-limiting example high temperatures (HPHT). HPHT is understood in the indus
sodium chloride, sodium bromide, calcium bromide and for try to refer to the Well conditions of a Well having an undis
mate salts. Water preferably comprises less than 50%, or as turbed bottomhole temperature of 2500 F. or greater and a
much as about 50%, of the drilling ?uid and the oil:Water ratio pore pressure of at least 0.8 psi/ ft (~15.3 lbm/gal) or requiring
preferably ranges from about 50:50 to about 95:5. a bloWout preventer (BOP) With a rating in excess of 10,000
[0025] Drilling ?uids of the present disclosure uniquely psi [68.95 MPa] . At HPHT conditions, at changes in pressures
include a fatty dimer diamine in combination With an acid and temperatures from high to loW and hot to cold and various
additive as a rheology modi?er, as Will be discussed further other combinations, and at high pressure-loW temperature
beloW. Further, the drilling ?uids of, or for use in, embodi conditions, embodiments of the invert emulsion drilling ?u
ments of the present disclosure, have added to them or mixed ids comprising the fatty dimer diamine With acid, have stable
With their invert emulsion oil base, other ?uids or materials rheologies that do not increase su?iciently to fracture the
needed to comprise complete drilling ?uids. Such other mate subterranean formation and that provide similar yield point
rials optionally may include, for example: additives for (YP), loW shear yield points (LSYP) and gel strength over
enhancing viscosity, for example, an additive having the trade
Wide temperature and pressure ranges, such as 400 F. to 1800
name RHEMOD LTM (modi?ed fatty acid); additives for pro
viding temporary increased viscosity for shipping (transport F. and 0 psi to about 5000 psi. These advantages are believed
to the Well site) and for use in sWeeps, for example, an addi to be due to the addition of the fatty dimer diamine With the
tive having the trade name TEMPERUSTM (modi?ed fatty acid to the drilling ?uid. The advantages are especially appre
acid); additives for ?ltration control, for example, additives ciated When the drilling ?uid does not also contain organo
having the trade names ADAPTA and BDF-366; additives philic clay or lignite.
for high temperature high pres sure control (HTHP) and emul [0029] Commercially available fatty dimer diamines suit
sion stability, for example, an additive having the trade name able for use in some embodiments include Without limitation
FACTANTTM (highly concentrated tall oil derivative); and VERSAMINE 552 hydrogenated fatty C36 dimer diamine,
additives for emulsi?cation, for example, an additive having andVERSAMlNE 551 fatty C36 dimer diamine, both avail
the trade name EZ MUL NT (polyaminated fatty acid). All
of the aforementioned trademarked products are available
able from Cognis Corporation (functional products) of Mon
from Halliburton Energy Services, Inc. in Houston, Tex., and heim, Germany and Cincinnati, Ohio and PRIAMINETM
Duncan, Okla., U.S.A. As With all drilling ?uids, the exact 1071, PRIAMINETM 1073 and PRIAMINETM 1074 fatty C36
formulations of the ?uids vary With the particular require dimer diamine, both available from Croda lntemationale Plc
ments of the subterranean formation. of Goole East Yorkshire, United Kingdom and NeW Castle,
[0026] The present disclosure advantageously eliminates Del. Typically, an amount of such dimer diamine in the range
the need to include additives to provide thinning at cold of about 1 pound per barrel (ppb) to about 3 ppb is su?icient.
temperatures, for example, additives having the trade names These fatty dimer diamines are prepared commercially from
COLDTROL, ATC, and OMC2TM. The present disclosure fatty dimer diacids Which have been produced from dimeri
also advantageously eliminates the need to include any addi sation of vegetable oleic acid or tall oil fatty acid by thermal
tives for rheology control other than the rheological additive or acid catalyZed methods.
of the present disclosure. [0030] The dimerisation of C1 8 tall oil fatty acids produces
[0027] A commercially available drilling ?uid system for the material leading to the C36 dimer acids. This material is a
use in some embodiments is the INNOVERT drilling ?uid mixture of monocyclic dicarboxylic acid, acyclic dicarboxy
system, having a para?in/mineral oil base, available from lic acid and bicyclic dicarboxylic acid along With small quan
Baroid, a Halliburton Company, in Houston, Tex. and Dun tities of trimeric triacids. These diacids are converted into
can, Okla. The INNOVERT drilling ?uid system may typi diamines via the reaction scheme given beloW:
cally comprise one or more of the folloWing additives, in
addition to the para?in/mineral oil base and brine, for use as
an invert emulsion drilling ?uid: RHEMODTM L modi?ed Reaction Scheme 1
fatty acid suspension and viscosifying agent, BDF-366TM or
ADAPTATM copolymer for HPHT ?ltration control, particu
larly for use at high temperatures, and EZ MUL NT
polyaminated fatty acid emulsi?er/oil Wetting agent, also par
ticularly for use at high temperatures. Commercially avail
able INNOVERT drilling ?uid systems also typically
include TAU-MODTM amorphous/?brous material as a vis
cosi?er and suspension agent. HoWever, With the present
disclosure, Where the drilling ?uid system has uniquely added
thereto a fatty dimer diamine additive With an acid as a rhe
ology modi?er, TAU-MODTM material is not necessary and is
only optionally used if at all. [0031] These diamines are further converted into com
[0028] Embodiments of invert emulsion drilling ?uids of pounds that fall under the scope of fatty dimer diamines.
the present disclosure comprising fatty dimer diamine With an These diamines are converted into cyanoethyl derivatives via
acid, maintain acceptable and even preferred rheology mea cyanoethylation With acrylonitrile; these cyanoethyl deriva
surements in deepWater drilling and do not experience a tives are further reduced into aminopropyl amines via reduc
decreased rate of penetration (and With clay-free invert emul tion as shoWn in the reaction scheme 11 beloW, as taught in
sion drilling ?uids, also do not experience a decline in ?atness US. Pat. No. 4,250,045, issued Feb. 10, 1981 to Coupland, et
of rheolo gy) When in use in drilling even at high pressures and al.
US 2013/0303410 A1 Nov. 14, 2013

-continued
2
Reaction Scheme H HZC/
H Cyanoethylation H
/ via acrylonitrile Reduction H2
RN 4> RN C
\
H HZN/

N
H
/
R N

Aromatic dimer diamine


HZN HZN
\
CH2

Dicyanoethylated dimer diamine is available commercially


as Kemamine DC 3680 and 3695 and di N-aminopropylated \ /
dimer diamine is available commercially as Kemamine DD \ CH2
3680 and 3695 from Chemtura Corporation USA. Different \
NH2
structures of the dimeric fatty dimer diamines are given Acyclic dimer diamine
below:

[0032] Other fatty dimer diamines suitable for use in


NHZ embodiments of the present disclosure include C28 to C48
HZC/ fatty dimer amines Which are correspondingly prepared via
dimeriZation of the relevant C14 to C24 fatty acids. It should
H2 be understood (for example) that C14 means the molecule
C
contains in total 14 carbon atoms.
HZN/ [0033] Acids particularly suited for use in embodiments of
the present disclosure are boric acid, sulphonic acid, phos
phonic acid, and various derivatives thereof. In one embodi
ment, preferred examples of such acids include, Without limi
tation, vinyl phosphonic acid, boric acid, adipic acid, and para
toluene sulphonic acid. In other embodiments, examples of
such acids suitable for use in the invention include, Without
limitation, lactic acid, formic acid, acrylic acid, acetic acid,
chloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid,
tri?uoroacetic acid, propanoic acid, butyric acid, pentanoic
acid, hexanoic acid, heptanoic acid, oxalic acid, malonic acid,
Monocyclic dimer diamine succinic acid, glutaric acid, adipic acid, pimelic acid, suberic
NHZ acid, aZelaic acid, sebacic acid, maleic acid, fumaric acid,
HZC/ aspartic acid, citric acid, isocitric acid, aconitic acid, tartaric
acid, benZoic acid, p-amino benZoic acid, phthalic acid,
H2 terephthalic acid, trimesic acid, sulfuric acid, sulphinic acid,
C
HZN/ sulphamic acid, sulfonic acid, nitric acid, hydro?uoric acid,
hydrochloric acid, phosphinic acid, phosphoric acid, phos
phonic acid, organosulfonic acids, organophosphoric acids,
boric acid, and boronic acid. Acid derivatives suitable for use
in embodiments of the present disclosure, include, Without
limitation, carboxylic acid esters like lactic acid esters; esters
of acetic acid; acetic anhydride; aliphatic polyesters; poly
(lactides); poly(glycolides); poly(anhydrides); poly(ortho
esters); orthoesters; esters of oxalic acid; poly(amino acids);
esters of propionic acid; esters of butyric acid; esters of nitric
acid, hydrolyZable organosulfonic acids, and hydrolyZable
organophosphoric acids. One of ordinary skill in the art Will
Bicyclic dimer diamine appreciate that acids and acid derivatives With similar struc
tures to these might also provide good performance. Such
US 2013/0303410 A1 Nov. 14, 2013

acids and acid derivatives Will preferably have at least 0.1% thermostatically controlled cup is then placed in the annular
W/W (Weight of solute/Weight of solution) solubility in Water space betWeen the tWo concentric cylinders of the FANN 35.
at 68 F. As used herein, the term acid With respect to an The outer cylinder or rotor sleeve is driven at a constant
additive of or a component of the ?uid of the disclosure, shall rotational velocity. The rotation of the rotor sleeve in the ?uid
be understood to include acid derivatives as Well as acids, produces a torque on the inner cylinder or bob. A torsion
as indicated in the examples above, unless speci?cally indi spring restrains the movement of the bob, and a dial attached
cated to the contrary. to the bob indicates displacement of the bob. The dial read
[0034] Laboratory tests demonstrate the effectiveness of ings are measured at different rotor sleeve speeds of 3, 6, 100,
embodiments of the present disclsoure. The following 200, 300 and 600 revolutions per minute (rpm). Generally,
examples are included to demonstrate some embodiments. It Yield Point (YP) is de?ned as the value obtained from the
should be appreciated by those of ordinary skill in the art that Bingham-Plastic rheological model When extrapolated to a
the techniques and compositions disclosed in the examples shear rate of Zero. It may be calculated using 300 rpm and 600
Which folloW represent techniques that function effectively. rpm shear rate readings as noted above on a standard oil?eld
HoWever, those of ordinary skill in the art should, in light of rheometer, such as a FANN 35 or a FANN 75 rheometer.
the present disclosure, appreciate that many changes can be [0036] Similarly, Yield Stress or Tau Zero is the stress that
made in the speci?c embodiments Which are disclosed and must be applied to a material to make it begin to ?oW (or
still obtain a like or similar result Without departing from the yield), and may commonly be calculated from rheometer
scope of the claimed subject matter. readings measured at rates of 3, 6, 100, 200, 300 and 600 rpm.
[0035] General Information Relevant to the Examples fol The extrapolation may be performed by applying a least
loWs: squares ?t or curve ?t to the Herchel-Bulkley rheological
The folloWing abbreviations are sometimes used in describ model. A more convenient means of estimating the Yield
ing the results of experimentation: PV is plastic viscosity, Stress is by calculating the LoW-ShearYield Point (LSYP) by
Which is one variable used in the calculation of viscosity the formula shoWn beloW in Equation 2 except With the 6 rpm
characteristics of a drilling ?uid, measured in centipoise (cp) and 3 rpm readings substituted for the 600-rpm and 300-rpm
units, as further discussed beloW. readings, respectively.
YP is yield point, Which is another variable used in the Plastic Viscosity (PV) is obtained from the Bingham-Plastic
calculation of viscosity characteristics of drilling ?uids, mea rheological model and represents the viscosity of a ?uid When
sured in pounds per 100 square feet (lb/100 ft.2), as further extrapolated to in?nite shear rate. The PV is obtained from the
discussed beloW. 600 rpm and the 300 rpm readings as given beloW in Equation
GELS is a measure of the suspending characteristics, or the l.A loW PV may indicate that a ?uid is capable of being used
thixotripic properties of a drilling ?uid, measured in pounds in rapid drilling because, among other things, the ?uid has
per 100 square feet (lb/100 ft.2). loW viscosity upon exiting the drill bit and has an increased
HTHP is the term used for high-temperature high-pressure ?oW rate. A high PV may be caused by a viscous base ?uid,
?uid loss, measured in milliliters (ml) according to Recom excess colloidal solids, or both.
mended Practice l3B-2, Recommended Practice for Field The PV and YP are calculated by the folloWing set of equa
Testing of Oil-based Drilling Fluids, Fourth Edition, Ameri tions:
can Petroleum Institute, Mar. 1, 2005, knoWn to those of PV:(600 rpm reading)(300 rpm reading) (Equation 1)
ordinary skill in the art.
The necessary components of the claimed drilling ?uids YP:(300 rpm reading)-PV (Equation 2)
include an oil or oleaginous ?uid, an aqueous or a non More particularly, each of the experiments or tests Were con
oleaginous ?uid, an emulsi?erpackage, and a rheology modi ducted in accordance With standard procedures set forth in
?er. Other chemicals used to make-up the system are basi Recommended Practice l3B-2, Recommended Practice for
cally the same as those typically used in formulating Field Testing of Oil-based Drilling Fluids, Fourth Edition,
conventional invert emulsion drilling ?uids. American Petroleum Institute, Mar. 1, 2005, knoWn to those
All trademarked products in the tables beloW are available of ordinary skill in the art.
from Halliburton Energy Services, Inc., in Houston, Tex. and A HTHP test measures static ?ltration behavior of drilling
Duncan, Okla., except Where indicated otherWise. ?uid at elevated temperature, up to about 380 F. [193 C.]
ADAPTA crosslinked copolymer is for HTHP ?ltration maximum according to the speci?cations of API and knoWn
control; to those of ordinary skill in the art. Although the test can
BAROID Weighting agent is ground barium sulfate; simulate doWnhole temperature conditions, it does not simu
EDC 99DW is a base oil for drilling ?uids available from late doWnhole pressure. Total pressure in a cell should not
TOTAL Petrochemicals USA, Inc. in Houston, Tex.; exceed 700 psi [4900 kPa], and the differential pressure
EZ MUL NT emulsi?er, Which is a polyaminated fatty acid; across the ?lter medium is speci?ed as 500 psi [3500 kPa].
REV DUST is an arti?cial drill solid available from MilWhite Because these cells are half the siZe of the ambient ?ltration
Inc, in Houston Tex., that does not comprise any lignite or area, HPHT ?ltrate volumes after 30 minutes are doubled.
organophilic clay. [0037] Experiment 1: Four 12 ppg Invert Emulsion Fluids
The Plastic Viscosity (PV) and Yield Point (Y P) of the invert (IEFs) Were formulated With a 2 ppb C36 fatty dimer diamine
emulsion drilling ?uid Were determined on a direct-indicating in 12 ppg INNOVERT clay-free invert emulsion drilling
rheometer, a FANN 35 rheometer, poWered by an electric ?uid (available from Halliburton Energy Services, Inc., in
motor. The rheometer consists of tWo concentric cylinders, Duncan, Okla. and Houston, Tex.) in a 70:30 oil-Water ratio
the inner cylinder is called a bob, While the outer cylinder is having a 250K ppm CaCl2 Water Phase Salinity (WPS) One
called a rotor sleeve. The drilling ?uid sample is placed in a of these IEFs included no acid and the other three included
thermostatically controlled cup and the temperature of the acids of the present disclsoure, that is, one included 1.75 ppb
?uid is adjusted to 120 (:2)0 F. The drilling ?uid in the vinyl phosphonic acid, one included 5 ppb boric acid, and one
US 2013/0303410 A1 Nov. 14, 2013

included 2.75 ppb paratoluene sulphonic acid. All four ?uids TABLE 2
Were hot rolled for 16 hours at 250 F. and the rheologies
determined on a FANN 35 rheometer according to API 13B-2 Mixing
at 120 F. The results are provided in Table 1. time,
min Base-Fluid 1

TABLE 1
EDC 99DW, ppb 148.90
Mixing Base EZ MUL NT, ppb 2 11.00
time, min Fluid 1 Fluid 2 Fluid 3 Fluid 4 Lime, ppb 2 1.30
ADAPTA , ppb 5 2.00
EDC 99DW, ppb 148.90 149.50 149.50 149.50
EZ MULNT,ppb 2 11.00 11.00 11.00 11.00 CaCl2, ppb 5 29.30
Lime, ppb 2 1.30 1.30 1.30 1.30 Water, ppb 84.70
ADAPTA , ppb 5 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 Revdust, ppb 5 20.00
Vinyl phosphonic acid, 5 0.00 1.75 0.00 0.00 BAROID , ppb 10 203.20
ppb Fatty Dimer Diamine, 5 2.00
Boric acid, ppb 5 0.00 0.00 5.00 0.00
Paratoluene sulphonic 5 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.75
ppb
acid, ppb
CaCl2, ppb 5 29.30 29.30 29.30 29.30 Hot rolled
Water, ppb 84.70 84.70 84.70 84.70 @ 250 F., 16 hrs, 40 F. 80 F. 120 F. 150 F.
Revdust, ppb 5 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00
BAROID , ppb 10 203.20 202.88 202.88 202.88
Fatty Dimer 5 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 600 rpm 15 6 81 54 42
Diamine, ppb 300 rpm 94 47 31 23
Hot rolled @ 250 F., 16 hrs, Rheology @ 120 F. 200 rpm 72 36 22 15
100 rpm 48 24 14 9
600 rpm 54 87 74 91
300 rpm 31 60 47 56 6 rpm 15 6 4 3
200 rpm 22 49 37 40 3 rpm 12 5 3 2
100 rpm 14 36 26 26 PV 63 34 23 19
6 rpm 4 17 10 8 YP 32 13 8 4
3 rpm 3 16 10 7
PV 23 27 27 35 LSYP 9 2 2
YP 8 33 20 21 GELS 10 sec 12 6 5
LSYP 2 15 10 6 GELS 10 min 14 9 8 8
GELS 10 sec 6 20 14 12
HTHP, ml/30 min 2.0
GELS 10 min 8 29 25 22
HTHP, ml/30 min i 2.0 20 1.6 20 (250 F.)
(250 F.)

[0038] Table 1 shoWs that the base formulation of the invert TABLE 3
emulsion ?uid With the fatty dimer diamine (Fluid Formula Mixing
tion 1) (but no acid additive) had aYP of 8 and an LSYP of 2, time,
min Adipic acid-Fluid 5
Whereas the formulations including the acid as Well as the
fatty dimer diamine each shoWed signi?cantly better rheol EDC 99DW, ppb 148.90
ogy. That is, the formulation With vinyl phosphonic acid EZ MUL NT, ppb 2 11.00
(Fluid Formulation 2) had a YP of 38 (312% better than the Lime, ppb 2 1.30
ADAPTA , ppb 5 2.00
base formulation) and an LSYP of 15 (650% better than the Adipic acid, ppb 5 2.50
base formulation); the formulation With boric acid (Fluid CaCl2, ppb 5 29.30
Formulation 3) had a YP of 20 (120% better than the base Water, ppb 84.70
Revdust, ppb 5 20.00
formulation) and an LSYP of 10 (400% better than the base BAROID , ppb 10 202.00
formulation); and the formulation With para toluene sul Fatty Dimer Diamine, 5 2.00
phonic acid (Fluid Formulation 4) had a YP of 21 (162% ppb
better than the base formulation) and an LSYP of 6 (200% Hot rolled
better than the base formulation). Thus, this experiment @ 250 F., 16 hrs, 40 F. 80 F. 120 F. 150 F.
shoWed that addition of the acid to the fatty dimer diamine
600 rpm 188 1 18 97 81
rheology modi?er enhanced the rheological properties of the 300 rpm 107 73 60 52
invert emulsion ?uid. 200 rpm 82 57 48 41
100 rpm 53 40 34 30
[0039] Experiment 2: Experiment 1 Was repeated except 6 rpm 15 15 14 17
the rheology of samples of the different ?uid formulations 3 rpm 14 13 13 15
Were tested at different temperatures for comparison of sta PV 81 45 37 29
YP 26 28 23 23
bility and dependence on temperature. That is, rheology mea LSYP 13 11 12 13
surements Were taken at 40 F., 80 F., 120 F., and 150 F. to GELS 10 sec 26 17 22 22
determine Whether addition of the acid With the fatty dimer GELS 10 min 34 39 30 30
diamine Would yield or impart better performance, i.e., less HTHP, ml/30 min 2.0
temperature dependence, to the invert emulsion ?uid. The (250 F.)
results are provided in Tables 2 (base ?uid), 3 (With adipic
acid), 4 (With vinyl phosphonic acid) and 5 (With boric acid).
US 2013/0303410 A1 Nov. 14, 2013

TABLE 4 increase in temperature. The YP for Fluid Formulation 1, the


base ?uid, Was 32 at 40 F. and gradually decreased to 4 at
Mixing 1500 F. The Gel at 10 minutes Was 14 and gradually decreased
time, to 8 at 1500 F. The 10 minute Gel provides a measure of ?uid
min Vinyl phosphonic acid-Fluid 2
suspension.
EDC 99DW, ppb 149.50 [0041] Table 3 presents the formulation and results for the
EZ MUL NT, ppb 2 11.00
Lime, ppb 2 1.30
base ?uid With a fatty dimer diamine and adipic acid rheology
ADAPTA , ppb 5 2.00 modi?er of the present disclosure. The YP for this formula
Vinyl phosphonic acid, 5 1.75 tion Was in the range of 23 to 28 from 40 F. to 1500 F., the
Ppb LSYP Was in the range of 11 to 13 from 40 F. to 1500 F. and
CaCl2, ppb 5 29.30 the 10 minute Gel Was in the range of 30 to 39 from 40 F. to
Water, ppb 84.70
Revdust, ppb 5 20.00 1500 F. These results indicate a relatively or substantially ?at
BAROID , ppb 10 202.88 rheology, relatively or substantially independent of tempera
Fatty Dimer Diamine, 5 2.00 ture, according to the present disclosure.
Ppb
[0042] Table 4 presents the formulation and results for the
Hot rolled base ?uid With a fatty dimer diamine and vinyl phosphonic
@ 250 F., 16 hrs, 40 F. 80 F. 120 F. 150 F. acid rheology modi?er of the present disclosure. The YP for
this formulation Was in the range of 26 to 33 from 40 F. to
600 rpm 142 109 87 79
300 rpm 84 71 60 56 1500 F., the LSYP Was in the range of 15 to 16 from 40 F. to
200 rpm 66 58 49 47 1500 F. and the 10 minute Gel Was in the range of 27 to 38
100 rpm 47 43 36 36 from 40 F. to 1500 F. These results also indicate this invert
6 rpm 20 17 17 20
emulsion ?uid formulated according to the present disclosure
3 rpm 18 16 16 18
PV 58 38 27 23 has a relatively or substantially ?at rheology relatively or
YP 26 33 33 33 substantially independent of temperature.
LSYP 16 15 15 16 [0043] Table 5 presents the formulation and results for the
GELS 10 sec 22 19 20 20
GELS 10 min 38 32 29 27
base ?uid With a fatty dimer diamine and boric acid rheology
HTHP, ml/30 min 2.0 modi?er of the present disclosure. The YP for this formula
(250 F.) tion Was in the range of 15 to 21 from 40 F. to 1500 F., the
LSYP Was in the range of 10 to 12 from 40 F. to 1500 F. and
the 10 minute Gel Was in the range of 24 to 25 from 40 F. to
1500 F. Again, these results indicate ?at rheology and a ?uid
TABLE 5
relatively independent of temperature, according to the
Mixing present disclosure.
time, [0044] In these experiments above, the yield point (YP) and
min Boric acid-Fluid 3
the loW shear yield point (LSYP) of the invert emulsion base
EDC 99DW, ppb 149.50 ?uid, Which is a typical invert emulsion base ?uid for drilling,
EZ MUL NT, ppb 2 11.00 Without the rheology additive disclosed herein, When mea
Lime, ppb 2 1.30 sured at 1500 F., varied more than 500% and 250% respec
ADAPTA , ppb 5 2.00
Boric acid, ppb 5.0 tively When compared to the YP and LSYP measured at 40 F.
CaCl2, ppb 5 29.30 In contrast, the YP of that drilling ?uids With the rheology
Water, ppb 84.70 additive disclosed herein, Fluids 2, 3, and 5 above, measured
Revdust, ppb 5 20.00 at 1500 F., did not vary by more than 30% over a temperature
BAROID , ppb 10 202.88
Fatty Dimer Diamine, 5 2.00 range of about 40 F. to about 1800 F., and the LSYP of the
Ppb drilling ?uid With the rheology additive disclosed herein,
measured at 1500 F., did not vary by more than 20% over a
Hot rolled
temperature range of about 40 F. to about 1800 F.
@ 250 F., 16 hrs, 40 F. 80 F. 120 F. 150 F.
[0045] The rheology modi?er of the present disclosure,
600 rpm 139 94 74 67 When used With invert emulsion ?uids, enables the ?uids to be
300 rpm 77 56 47 44 used at loW temperatures, such as encountered in deepWater
200 rpm 53 44 37 35
100 rpm 30 32 26 25
drilling, Without need for a thinner. The rheology modi?er of
6 rpm 11 15 10 12 the present disclosure thus simpli?es the formulation for the
3 rpm 11 13 10 12 invert emulsion drilling ?uid and consequently saves costs.
PV 62 38 27 23 The ?at rheology afforded by the rheology modi?er of the
YP 15 18 20 21
LSYP 11 11 10 12
present disclosure also results in a better performing invert
GELS 10 sec 17 17 14 14 emulsion drilling ?uid. With ?at rheology or substantially ?at
GELS 10 min 24 25 25 24 rheology, the ?uid Will have substantially controlled ECD
HTHP, ml/30 min 1.6 (equivalent circulating density) along the drill string, not
(250 F.) withstanding a change in the temperature surrounding the
string. A controlled ECD avoids lost circulation of the ?uid
[0040] The results of Experiment 2 show that the rheologi and signi?cantly reduces the risk of formation fractures dur
cal properties of the base formulation (Fluid Formulation 1) ing drilling.
for the invert emulsion ?uid, Without the acid With the fatty [0046] The advantages of the method of the present disclo
dimer diamine for the rheology modi?er, Were temperature sure may be obtained by employing a drilling ?uid of the
dependent. The rheological properties decreased With the present disclosure in drilling operations. The drilling opera
US 2013/0303410 A1 Nov. 14, 2013

tionsiWhether drilling a vertical or directional or horizontal ?uid 122 is deposited into a nearby retention pit 132 (i.e., a
borehole, conducting a sweep, or running casing and cement mud pit). While illustrated as being arranged at the outlet of
ingimay be conducted as knoWn to those of ordinary skill in the Wellbore 116 via the annulus 126, those skilled in the art
the art With other drilling ?uids. That is, a drilling ?uid is Will readily appreciate that the ?uid processing unit(s) 128
prepared or obtained and circulated through a Wellbore as the may be arranged at any other location in the drilling assembly
Wellbore is being drilled (or sWept or cemented and cased) to 100 to facilitate its proper function, Without departing from
facilitate the drilling operation. The drilling ?uid removes the scope of the scope of the disclosure.
drill cuttings from the Wellbore, cools and lubricates the drill [0050] One or more of the disclosed additives may be added
bit, aids in support of the drill pipe and drill bit, and provides to the drilling ?uid 122 via a mixing hopper 134 communi
a hydrostatic head to maintain the integrity of the Wellbore cably coupled to or otherWise in ?uid communication With
Walls and prevent Well bloWouts. The speci?c formulation of the retention pit 132. The mixing hopper 134 may include, but
the drilling ?uid is optimiZed for the particular drilling opera is not limited to, mixers and related mixing equipment knoWn
tion and for the particular subterranean formation character to those skilled in the art. In other embodiments, hoWever, the
istics and conditions (such as temperatures). For example, the disclosed additives may be added to the drilling ?uid 122 at
?uid is Weighted as appropriate for the formation pressures any other location in the drilling assembly 100. In at least one
and thinned as appropriate for the formation temperatures. embodiment, for example, there could be more than one
The ?uids of the present disclosure afford real-time monitor retention pit 132, such as multiple retention pits 132 in series.
ing and rapid adjustment of the ?uidto accommodate changes Moreover, the retention pit 132 may be representative of one
in such subterranean formation conditions. Further, the ?uids or more ?uid storage facilities and/or units Where the dis
of the present disclosure may be recycled during a drilling closed additives may be stored, reconditioned, and/or regu
operation such that ?uids circulated in a Wellbore may be lated until added to the drilling ?uid 122.
recirculated in the Wellbore after returning to the surface for [0051] As mentioned above, the disclosed additives may
removal of drill cuttings for example. The drilling ?uid may directly or indirectly affect the components and equipment of
even be selected for use in a drilling operation to reduce loss the drilling assembly 100. For example, the disclosed addi
of drilling mud during the drilling operation and/ or to comply tives may directly or indirectly affect the ?uid processing
With environmental regulations governing drilling operations unit(s) 128 Which may include, but is not limited to, one or
in a particular subterranean formation. more of a shaker (e.g., shale shaker), a centrifuge, a hydro
[0047] The exemplary rheology additives disclosed herein cyclone, a separator (including magnetic and electrical sepa
may directly or indirectly affect one or more components or rators), a desilter, a desander, a separator, a ?lter (e. g., diato
pieces of equipment associated With the preparation, delivery, maceous earth ?lters), a heat exchanger, any ?uid reclamation
recapture, recycling, reuse, and/or disposal of the disclosed equipment, The ?uid processing unit(s) 128 may further
additives. For example, and With reference to FIG. 1, the include one or more sensors, gauges, pumps, compressors,
disclosed additives may directly or indirectly affect one or and the like used store, monitor, regulate, and/ or recondition
more components or pieces of equipment associated With an the exemplary additives.
exemplary Wellbore drilling assembly 100, according to one [0052] The disclosed additives may directly or indirectly
or more embodiments. It should be noted that While FIG. 1 affect the pump 120, Which representatively includes any
generally depicts a land-based drilling assembly, those conduits, pipelines, trucks, tubulars, and/or pipes used to
skilled in the art Will readily recogniZe that the principles ?uidically convey the additives doWnhole, any pumps, com
described herein are equally applicable to subsea drilling pressors, or motors (e.g., topside or doWnhole) used to drive
operations that employ ?oating or sea-based platforms and the additives into motion, any valves or related joints used to
rigs, Without departing from the scope of the disclosure. regulate the pressure or ?oW rate of the additives, and any
[0048] As illustrated, the drilling assembly 100 may sensors (i.e., pressure, temperature, ?oW rate, etc.), gauges,
include a drilling platform 102 that supports a derrick 104 and/or combinations thereof, and the like. The disclosed addi
having a traveling block 106 for raising and loWering a drill tives may also directly or indirectly affect the mixing hopper
string 108. The drill string 108 may include, but is not limited 134 and the retention pit 132 and their assorted variations.
to, drill pipe and coiled tubing, as generally knoWn to those [0053] The disclosed additives may also directly or indi
skilled in the art. A kelly 110 supports the drill string 108 as rectly affect the various doWnhole equipment and tools that
it is loWered through a rotary table 112. A drill bit 114 is may come into contact With the additives such as, but not
attached to the distal end of the drill string 108 and is driven limited to, the drill string 108, any ?oats, drill collars, mud
either by a doWnhole motor and/or via rotation of the drill motors, doWnhole motors and/or pumps associated With the
string 108 from the Well surface. As the bit 114 rotates, it drill string 108, and any MWD/LWD tools and related telem
creates a borehole 116 that penetrates various subterranean etry equipment, sensors or distributed sensors associated With
formations 118. the drill string 108. The disclosed additives may also directly
[0049] A pump 120 (e.g., a mud pump) circulates drilling or indirectly affect any doWnhole heat exchangers, valves and
?uid 122 through a feed pipe 124 and to the kelly 110, Which corresponding actuation devices, tool seals, packers and other
conveys the drilling ?uid 122 doWnhole through the interior Wellbore isolation devices or components, and the like asso
of the drill string 108 and through one or more ori?ces in the ciated With the Wellbore 116. The disclosed additives may
drill bit 114. The drilling ?uid 122 is then circulated back to also directly or indirectly affect the drill bit 114, Which may
the surface via an annulus 126 de?ned betWeen the drill string include, but is not limited to, roller cone bits, PDC bits,
108 and the Walls of the borehole 116. At the surface, the natural diamond bits, any hole openers, reamers, coring bits,
recirculated or spent drilling ?uid 122 exits the annulus 126 etc.
and may be conveyed to one or more ?uid processing unit(s) [0054] While not speci?cally illustrated herein, the dis
128 via an interconnecting ?oW line 130. After passing closed additives may also directly or indirectly affect any
through the ?uid processing unit(s) 128, a cleaned drilling transport or delivery equipment used to convey the additives
US 2013/0303410 A1 Nov. 14, 2013

to the drilling assembly 100 such as, for example, any trans 11. The method of claim 1 Wherein the acid derivative is
port vessels, conduits, pipelines, trucks, tubulars, and/or selected from the group of acid derivatives consisting of:
pipes used to ?uidically move the additives from one location lactic acid esters and other carboxylic acid esters; esters of
to another, any pumps, compressors, or motors used to drive acetic acid; acetic anhydride; aliphatic polyesters; poly(lac
the additives into motion, any valves or related joints used to tides); poly(glycolides); poly(anhydrides); poly(ortho
regulate the pressure or ?oW rate of the additives, and any esters); orthoesters; esters of oxalic acid; poly(amino acids);
sensors (i.e., pressure and temperature), gauges, and/or com esters of propionic acid; esters of butyric acid; esters of nitric
binations thereof, and the like. acid, hydrolyZable organosulfonic acids, hydrolyZable orga
[0055] The foregoing description is intended to be a nophosphoric acids; and mixtures of said acid derivatives.
description of some embodiments. Various changes in the 12. The method of claim 1 Wherein the oleaginous phase
details of the described drilling ?uids and additives and meth comprises an oil selected from the group consisting of: a
ods of use can be made Without departing from the intended synthetic oil comprising an ester or ole?n; a diesel oil; a
scope of this disclosure as de?ned by the appended claims. mineral oil selected from the group consisting of n-paraf?ns,
What is claimed is: iso-paraf?ns, cyclic alkanes, branched alkanes; and mixtures
1. A method for drilling in a subterranean formation com
thereof.
prising providing or using in the drilling an invert emulsion 13. The method of claim 1 Wherein the non-oleaginous
drilling ?uid having an oleaginous continuous phase, a non discontinuous phase is an aqueous solution containing a
oleaginous discontinuous phase, and a rheology modi?er Water activity loWering material selected from the group con
comprising a fatty dimer diamine having 28 to 48 carbon sisting of: alcohols; sugar; salts selected from the group con
atoms per molecule and an acid or an acid derivative. sisting of calcium chloride, calcium bromide, sodium chlo
2. The method of claim 1 Wherein the drilling ?uid is ride, sodium bromide, and formate; and combinations
thereof.
formulated Without the addition of organophilic clays or lig
14. The method of claim 1 Wherein the drilling ?uid has a
nites and organophilic clays and lignites are not added to the
mud Weight in the range of about 9 to about 18 ppg.
drilling ?uid during drilling.
15. The method of claim 1 Wherein the drilling ?uid com
3. The method of claim 1 Wherein the yield point and the
prises from about 0.25 ppb to about 18 ppb of fatty dimer
loW shear yield point of the drilling ?uid is substantially the diamine.
same at temperatures ranging from about 40 F. to about 180
16. The method of claim 1 Wherein the drilling ?uid com
F.
prises from about 0.25 ppb to about 10 ppb of acid or acid
4. The method of claim 3 Wherein the yield point and the derivative.
loW shear yield point of the drilling ?uid is about the same at
17. The method of claim 1 Wherein the drilling ?uid has an
pressures ranging from about 0 to about 5000 psi.
oil:Water ratio in the range of about 50:50 to about 95:5.
5. The method of claim 1 Wherein the 10 min gel strength 18. The method of claim 1 Wherein the drilling ?uid With
of the drilling ?uid is substantially the same at temperatures
the rheology modi?er, When compared to the drilling ?uid
ranging from about 40 F. to about 180 F.
Without the rheology modi?er, has a characteristic selected
6. The method of claim 5 Wherein the 10 min gel strength from the group consisting of: an increased yield point; an
of the drilling ?uid is about the same at pressures ranging increased loW shear yield point; an increased gel strength; and
from about 0 to about 5000 psi. any combination thereof.
7. The method of claim 1 Wherein the fatty dimer diamine 19. An invert emulsion drilling ?uid comprising a continu
has 36 carbon atoms per molecule. ous oleaginous phase and a discontinuous non-oleaginous
8. The method of claim 1 Wherein the yield point of the phase in an oil:Water ratio in the range of about 50:50 to about
drilling ?uid measured at 150 F. does not vary by more than 95:5, a rheology modi?er comprising a C36 fatty dimer
30% over a temperature range of about 40 F. to about 180 F., diamine having the folloWing molecular structure:
and the loW shear yield point of the drilling ?uid measured at
150 F. does not vary by more than 20% over a temperature
range of about 40 F. to about 180 F.
9. The method of claim 1 Wherein the acid has at least 0.1%
W/W solubility in Water at 68 F.
10. The method of claim 1 Wherein the acid is selected from
the group of acids consisting of: lactic acid; formic acid; and an acid, Wherein the drilling ?uid is formulated Without
acrylic acid; acetic acid; chloroacetic acid; dichloroacetic the addition of organophilic clays or lignites, and such that the
acid; trichloroacetic acid; tri?uoroacetic acid; propanoic yield point and gel strength of the drilling ?uid is substantially
acid; butyric acid; pentanoic acid; hexanoic acid; heptanoic the same at temperatures ranging from about 40 F. to about
acid; oxalic acid; malonic acid; succinic acid; glutaric acid; 180 F.
adipic acid; pimelic acid; suberic acid; aZelaic acid; sebacic 20. The invert emulsion drilling ?uid of claim 19 Wherein
acid; maleic acid; fumaric acid; aspartic acid; citric acid; the acid is selected from the group consisting of adipic acid,
isocitric acid; aconitic acid; tartaric acid; benZoic acid; boric acid, sulphonic acid, para toluene sulphonic acid, phos
p-amino benZoic acid; phthalic acid; terephthalic acid; tri phonic acid, vinyl phosphonic acid, and derivatives and mix
mesic acid; sulfuric acid; sulphinic acid; sulphamic acid; tures thereof.
sulfonic acid; nitric acid; hydro?uoric acid; hydrochloric 21. A drilling ?uid system comprising a drilling ?uid and
acid; phosphinic acid; phosphoric acid; phosphonic acid; assembly Wherein the drilling ?uid affects one or more com
organosulfonic acids; organophosphoric acids; boric acid; ponents or equipment comprising the assembly and the drill
boronic acid; carboxylic acid; para toluene sulphonic acid; ing ?uid comprises an invert emulsion having an oleaginous
vinyl phosphonic acid; and mixtures of said acids. continuous phase, a non-oleaginous discontinuous phase, and
US 2013/0303410 A1 Nov. 14, 2013
10

a rheology modi?er comprising a fatty dimer diamine having


28 to 48 carbon atoms per molecule and an acid or an acid
derivative.