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TITLE 1: Battery Monitoring System using Microcontroller

AUTHOR: S. N. Patil, Sangmeshwar S. Kendre

YEAR: 2011


Battery management system (BMS) forms a crucial system component in various

applications like electric vehicles (EV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV),
uninterrupted power supplies (UPS), telecommunications and so on. The accuracy
of these systems has always been a point of discussion as they generally give an
error of maximum 10% considering all the parameters together. In this paper a
system is presented which is developed using low cost microcontrollers for
measurement of electrolyte temperature, electrolyte level and no. of backup hours
parameters of lead-acid batteries. Since the batteries, which would be used in the
hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), are lead-acid batteries, they will be the focus of this
project. While the present prototype system accounts only for measuring backup
hours of a car in a stationary as well as in a running mode. With the help of this, we
are able to know the battery life span and its efficiency. Data backup is also
provided to save the all records of battery

TITLE 2: Battery Monitoring System

AUTHOR: Pavuluri Mounika* , M.Anil Kumar

YEAR: 2013

The project of BMS (Battery Monitoring System) gives online and offline status of
batteries which are monitored by the bank so that we can prevent the batteries prior
to failure However, Battery Monitoring System specifically measure, record and
analyze the individual cell and battery module parameters in detail. Continuous
monitoring and analysis of these parameters can be used to identify battery or cell
deterioration, hence prompting action to avoid unplanned power interruption.
Battery Monitoring System (BMS) is a microprocessor based intelligent system
capable of monitoring the health of battery bank. BMS calculates the batterys
capacity, deterioration of batteries in battery bank during the charge / discharge
cycles and actual efficiency of the batteries .It continuously monitors each cell in
the battery bank to identify deterioration in the cell prior to failure, identifies the
net charge in the battery bank by monitoring charging and discharging currents.

TITLE 3: Monitoring Battery Life with a Microcontroller

AUTHOR: Alan Everdeen

YEAR: 2013


Microcontrollers are prevalent in all aspects of human life today. They are found in
washing machines, ATMs, cars, and many other common electronic devices people
interact with every day. These microcontrollers provide a large range of functions
and are extremely versatile and useful. Microcontrollers are also a cheap and
effective way to accomplish simple tasks like controlling a thermostat, blender, or
refrigerator. Monitoring battery life is an important function that needs to be
implemented in most applications that use batteries as their power source. This
application note explains the concept of battery monitoring and how to use a
microcontroller to monitor the remaining charge in a 12V lead-acid battery.

AUTHOR: Ryan Savage

YEAR: 2014


A shift in global energy prices contributed to an increased number of electric

vehicles on the roads today, especially in urban environments. Monitoring
remaining energy in an electric vehicle proves to be more challenging than
determining the remaining fuel in a conventional vehicle. In addition, the range of
many contemporary electric vehicles is below that of many conventional vehicles
and the time required to refuel an electric vehicle is typically on the order of
several hours rather than the several minutes taken to refuel a conventional vehicle.
The difficulty in determining remaining operating range coupled with the necessity
of knowing how much further the vehicle can drive requires a system known as a
battery monitoring system. This paper outlines the process in creating a battery
monitoring system for the Texas Christian University Engineering Department
Electric Vehicle. The system uses several circuits to measure the voltage across
each battery and aggregates the data for later analysis using an Arduino
microcontroller. This data can then be imported into MATLAB or another similar
programming environment to study battery usage patterns and monitor battery
state-of-health. The system outlined is designed to allow for future improvements,
including real-time in-vehicle monitoring of battery charge and other vehicle
performance metrics. Overall, this system will improve the TCU Engineering EV
project by allowing future students to study different usage patterns and even
battery types.
TITLE 5: Advanced Integrated Bidirectional AC/DC and DC/DC Converter for
Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

AUTHOR: Alireza Khaligh, Ali Emadi

YEAR: 2009


Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technology provides an effective solution for

achieving higher fuel economy, better performance, and lower emissions,
compared with conventional vehicles. Plug-in HEVs (PHEVs) are HEVs with
plug-in capabilities and provide a more all-electric range; hence, PHEVs improve
fuel economy and reduce emissions even more. PHEVs have a battery pack of high
energy density and can run solely on electric power for a given range. The battery
pack can be recharged by a neighborhood outlet. In this paper, a novel integrated
bidirectional ac/dc charger and dc/dc converter (henceforth, the integrated
converter) for PHEVs and hybrid/plug-in-hybrid conversions is proposed. The
integrated converter is able to function as an ac/dc battery charger and to transfer
electrical energy between the battery pack and the high-voltage bus of the electric
traction system. It is shown that the integrated converter has a reduced number of
high-current inductors and current transducers and has provided fault-current
tolerance in PHEV conversion.

TITLE 6: Recent Advances in Lithium-Ion and Lithium-Polymer Batteries

AUTHOR: H. V. Venkatasetty and Y. U. Jeong

YEAR: 2002

In recent years, there have been increasing efforts to develop new and novel
electrolytes and electrode materials to improve the capacity, energy density, cycle
life, and the performance of lithium batteries with enhanced safety. These batteries
have the potential to meet the needs of several new medical device applications as
well as the growing needs of portable electronic devices. Improved cathode
materials are being developed and composite anodes are being prepared and
evaluated with some success. On the electrolyte side, investigations are being
carried out in developing new materials with high conductivity and
electrochemical stability to reduce the size and weight of the batteries. This paper
will describe our recent work on the synthesis of new and novel lithium salts and
copolymers and the properties of solid polymer electrolyte films (SPE). The
performance characteristics of prototype cells with SPE films as well as solutions
of super acid-based lithium salts are presented and their results are discussed in
terms of their structure and properties.

TITLE 7: Battery Management System Based on Battery Nonlinear Dynamics


AUTHOR: Antoni Szumanowski and Yuhua Chang

YEAR: 2008


This paper presents a method of determining electromotive force and battery

internal resistance as time functions, which are depicted as functions of state of
charge (SOC) because SOC = f(t). The model is based on battery discharge and
charge characteristics under different constant currents that are tested by a
laboratory experiment. This paper further presents the method of determining the
battery SOC according to a battery modeling result. The influence of temperature
on battery performance is analyzed according to laboratory-tested data, and the
theoretical background for calculating the SOC is obtained. The algorithm of
battery SOC indication is depicted in detail. The algorithm of the battery SOC
online indication considering the influence of temperature can be easily used in
practice by a microprocessor. An NiMH battery is used in this paper to depict the
modeling method. In fact, the method can also be used for different types of
contemporary batteries, as well as Li-ion batteries, if the required test data are

TITLE 8: Batteries and Battery Management Systems for Electric Vehicles

AUTHOR: M. Wenger, F. Baronti, G. Fantechi,

YEAR: 2012


The battery is a fundamental component of electric vehicles, which represent a step

forward towards sustainable mobility. Lithium chemistry is now acknowledged as
the technology of choice for energy storage in electric vehicles. However, several
research points are still open. They include the best choice of the cell materials and
the development of electronic circuits and algorithms for a more effective battery
utilization. This paper initially reviews the most interesting modeling approaches
for predicting the battery performance and discusses the demanding requirements
and standards that apply to ICs and systems for battery management. Then, a
general and flexible architecture for battery management implementation and the
main techniques for state-of-charge estimation and charge balancing are reported.
Finally, we describe the design and implementation of an innovative BMS, which
incorporates an almost fully-integrated active charge equalizer.
TITLE 9: Electrochemical Methods: Fundamentals and Applications

AUTHOR: A. J. Bard and L. R. Faulkner

YEAR: 2001


Modern electrochemistry has been evolving for almost a century, and it is rather
difficult to choose a new approach to any of its classical fields. According to
classes of substances investigated, electrochemistry can be divided into several
main branches as follows: ionic conductivity of liquids and solids; solid state
electrochemistry including semiconductors and intercalation phenomena; electro
catalysis and electrochemistry of surfaces; corrosion and electro crystallization;
classical electrochemistry of reactants in solutions in contact with electrodes. This
latter branch of electrochemistry is the subject of this textbook. This field of
electrochemistry is so firmly bound with the study of mass transport in liquids that
the transport rate is generally used as a scaling factor for the evaluation of reaction
kinetics. The well-known book by Paul Delahey was based on this principle and so
also is the present book which offers a general view of investigations of electrode
reactions. A fruitful idea is the parallel with the theory of dynamic systems which
uses terms such as perturbation, transfer function of the system and the response of
the system; the apparent equivalence of any transient technique follows
immediately from this idea, at least for chemical kinetic problems. However, the
behaviors of real solid electrodes and electro catalysts permit a much less
optimistic view. All mechanistic considerations are a mere speculation if based
solely on electrochemistry. The book therefore includes a representative selection
of both classical and most recent techniques for the detection of reaction
intermediates and for the investigation of changes in the electrode surface and its
physical properties, which have been combined successfully with electrochemistry.
The reader is also informed about digital data processing on computers and
methods such as convolution voltammeter. Fourier transforms and digital
simulations are briefly and clearly explained. As is usual in electrochemistry, the
complex operator treatment of impedances has not been accepted fully, nor has the
difference between the physically plausible equivalent circuit and the real and
imaginary components of impedance. Better consistency in this respect would
result in the use of methods developed in the theory of electric circuits and in the
removal of irrational components such as frequency-dependent resistors with zero
phase shift.

TITLE 10: Design of An Embedded System For Monitoring and Controlling

Temperature and Light

AUTHOR: A. Goswami1 , T. Bezboruah2 and K.C. Sarma1

YEAR: 2009


Each and every part of our life is somehow linked with the embedded products.
Embedded systems are the product of hardware and software co design .Embedded
system is becoming an integral part of Engineering design process for efficient
analysis and effective operation. From data analysis to hardware work, everywhere
embedded products are the main interest because of its reliability and time bound
perfection. There is not much time with anyone now a day to give enough in all
aspects, so demand of embedded products which serve as we want is high on
demand. The present paper describes the design of an embedded system for the
control of Temperature & Light intensity with continuous monitoring in a single
system using sensors, microcontroller and LCD .It describes the controlling action
incorporated in the hardware to control any device connected when specific
conditions are met. Further set up is made such that data can be stored for future
offline analysis.