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Inference:

The length affects period of oscillation.

Hypothesis:

If length increases then period of oscillation increases.

Aim:

To investigate the relationship between length and period of oscillation.

Variables:

-Manipulated : length, l

-Responding : period of oscillation, T

-Fixed : (mass of pendulum)

Pendulum, string, meter rule, G-clamp, stop watch, retort stand

Arrangement of Apparatus:

Retort stand

pendulum l

G-clamp table

Procedure:

-Controlling Manipulated Variable:

i-Begin experiment with l= 10.0 cm measured using meter rule.

-Measuring Responding Variables:

i-Displace pendulum horizontally to one side and then release it so that it oscillates.

ii-Measure T by measuring time taken for 10 complete oscillations using stop watch.

-Repetition:

-Experiment is repeated using l= 20.0 cm, 30.0 cm, 40.0 cm, 50.0 cm

Tabulate Data:

T/s

Analysing Data:

Graph of T against l is plotted

T/s

l/cm

Experiment : 2

Inference:

The mass affects inertia.

Hypothesis:

If mass increases then inertia increases.

Aim:

To investigate the relationship between mass and inertia.

Variables:

-Manipulated : mass, m

-Responding : Inertia, T

-Fixed : Length of jigsaw blade

Jigsaw blade, plasticine, G-clamp, stop watch, balance

Arrangement of Apparatus:

table

Jigsaw blade

plasticine

G-clamp

Length of jigsaw blade

Procedure:

-Controlling Manipulated Variable:

i-Begin experiment with m= 10.0 g measured using triple beam balance.

-Measuring Responding Variables:

i-Displace jigsaw blade horizontally to one side and then release it so that it oscillates.

ii-Measure T by measuring time taken for 10 complete oscillations using stop watch.

-Repetition:

-Experiment is repeated using m= 20.0 g, 30.0 g, 40.0 g, 50.0 g

Tabulate Data:

T/s

Analysing Data:

Graph of T against m is plotted

T/s

m/g

Experiment : 3

Inference:

The mass affects acceleration.

Hypothesis:

If mass increases then acceleration decreases.

Aim:

To investigate the relationship between mass and acceleration.

Variables:

-Manipulated : mass, m

-Responding : acceleration, a

-Fixed : force

5 trolleys, ticker timer, ticker tape, meter rule, elastic cord, wooden runway, power supply

Arrangement of Apparatus:

Ticker timer

Ticker tape

Elastic cord

trolley

Procedure:

-Controlling Manipulated Variable:

i-Begin experiment with m= 1 trolley.

-Measuring Responding Variables:

i-Switch on ticker timer and pull trolley using an elastic cord stretched to the same length.

ii- Measure ticker tape : D1 and D2 using meter rule.

D1 D2

V= D2 u = D1

0.2 0.2

iii-Calculate a:

a=vu

t

iii -Repetition:

Experiment is repeated using m= 2 trolleys, 3 trolleys, 4 trolleys and 5 trolleys.

Tabulate Data:

m/kg 1 2 3 4 5

a/ms-2

Analysing Data:

Graph of a against m is plotted

a/ms-2

m/kg

Experiment : 4

Inference:

The force affects acceleration.

Hypothesis:

If force increases then acceleration increases.

Aim:

To investigate the relationship between force and acceleration.

Variables:

-Manipulated : force, F

-Responding : acceleration, a

-Fixed : mass

1 trolley, ticker timer, ticker tape,meter rule, 5 elastic cords, wooden runway, power supply

Arrangement of Apparatus:

Ticker timer

Ticker tape Elastic cord

trolley

Procedure:

-Controlling Manipulated Variable:

i-Begin experiment with F= 1 elastic cord.

-Measuring Responding Variables:

i-Switch on ticker timer and pull trolley using an elastic cord stretched to the same length.

ii- Measure ticker tape : D1 and D2 using meter rule.

D1 D2

V= D2 u = D1

0.2 0.2

iii-Calculate a:

a=vu

t

-Repetition:

-Experiment is repeated using F= 2 elastic cords, 3 elastic cords, 4 elastic cords and 5 elastic cords

Tabulate Data:

F/N 1 2 3 4 5

a/ms-2

Analysing Data:

Graph of a against F is plotted

a/ms-2

F/N

Experiment : 5

Inference:

The initial height affects final velocity.

Hypothesis:

If initial height increases then final velocity increases.

Aim:

To investigate the relationship between initial height and final velocity.

Variables:

-Manipulated : initial height, h

-Responding : final velocity, v

-Fixed : mass

1 trolley, ticker timer, ticker tape, meter rule, wooden blocks, wooden runway, power supply

Arrangement of Apparatus:

Ticker timer

Ticker tape

trolley

Procedure:

-Controlling Manipulated Variable:

i-Begin experiment with h= 10.0 cm measured using meter rule.

-Measuring Responding Variables:

i-Switch on ticker timer and release trolley.

ii-Measure v by calculating v from ticker tape:

v=d d= length of last 10 ticks measured using meter rule

t t=0.02 second x 10

-Repetition:

-Experiment is repeated using h= 20 cm, 30 cm, 40 cm and 50 cm.

Tabulate Data:

v/ms-1

Analysing Data:

Graph of v against h is plotted

v/ms-1

h/cm

Experiment 6

Inference:

The depth affects pressure.

Hypothesis:

If depth increases then pressure increases.

Aim:

To investigate the relationship between depth and pressure.

Variables:

-Manipulated : Depth, h

-Responding : Pressure, P

-Fixed : Density of water

Measuring cylinder, thistle funnel, rubber tube, manometer, retort stand, meter rule, thin rubber

sheet

Arrangement of Apparatus:

Rubber tube Meter rule

manometer

Thistle funnel h P

Thin rubber sheet

water

water

Procedure:

-Controlling Manipulated Variable:

i-Begin experiment with h= 10.0 cm measured using meter rule.

-Measuring Responding Variables:

i-Measure P by measuring difference in height of manometer using meter rule.

-Repetition:

-Experiment is repeated using h= 20.0 cm, 30.0 cm, 40.0 cm, 50.0 cm

Tabulate Data:

P/cm

Analysing Data:

Graph of P against h is plotted

P/cm

h/cm

Experiment 7

Inference:

The pressure affects depth.

Hypothesis:

If pressure increases then depth increases.

Aim:

To investigate the relationship between pressure and depth.

Variables:

-Manipulated : pressure, P

-Responding : depth, h

-Fixed : area

Plasticine, wooden block, 5 different weights, meter rule

Arrangement of Apparatus:

Slotted weight

Wooden block

h plasticine

Procedure:

-Controlling Manipulated Variable:

i-Begin experiment with weight= 10.0 N .

-Measuring Responding Variables:

i-Measure h using meter rule.

-Repetition:

-Experiment is repeated using weight = 20.0 N, 30.0 N, 40.0 N, 50.0 N

Tabulate Data:

h/cm

Analysing Data:

Graph of h against P is plotted

h/cm

P/Nm-2

Experiment 8

Inference:

The area affects depth.

Hypothesis:

If area increases then depth decreases.

Aim:

To investigate the relationship between area and depth.

Variables:

-Manipulated : area, A

-Responding : depth, h

-Fixed : weight

Plasticine, 5 wooden plate with different area, a wooden block, weight, meter rule

Arrangement of Apparatus:

Slotted weight

Wooden block

h

plasticine

Wooden plate

Procedure:

-Controlling Manipulated Variable:

i-Begin experiment with area of wooden plate, A= 10.0 cm2 .

-Measuring Responding Variables:

i-Measure h using meter rule.

-Repetition:

-Experiment is repeated using A = 20.0 cm2, 30.0 cm2, 40.0 cm2, 50.0 cm2

Tabulate Data:

h/cm

Analysing Data:

Graph of h against A is plotted

h/cm

A/cm-2

Experiment 9

Inference:

The force affects extension.

Hypothesis:

If force increases then extension increases.

Aim:

To investigate the relationship between force and extension.

Variables:

-Manipulated : force, f

-Responding : extension, h

-Fixed : spring constant / hardness

Slotted weights, spring, meter rule, retort stand

Arrangement of Apparatus:

meter rule

Retort stand

Retort

spring l s

t

a

slotted weight n

d

G-Clamp

G- table

bl

ce

l

a

m

Procedure:

p

-Controlling Manipulated Variable:

i- Measure initial length, L0 using meter rule.

i-Begin experiment with f= 10.0 N .

-Measuring Responding Variables:

i-Measure final length, Li using meter rule.

ii- Calculate extension using :

h = L i L0

-Repetition:

-Experiment is repeated using f = 20.0 N, 30.0 N, 40.0 N, 50.0 N

Tabulate Data:

h/cm

Analysing Data:

Graph of h against f is plotted

h/cm

f/N

Experiment 10

Inference:

The elastic potential energy affects kinetic energy.

Hypothesis:

If elastic potential energy increases then kinetic energy increases.

Aim:

To investigate the relationship between elastic potential energy and kinetic energy.

Variables:

-Manipulated : elastic potential energy, Ep

-Responding : kinetic energy, Ek

-Fixed : mass

Trolley, ticker timer, ticker tape, meter rule, power supply, wooden runaway, elastic cord,

Arrangement of Apparatus:

Power supply runaway

Elastic cord

X

Procedure:

-Controlling Manipulated Variable:

i-Begin experiment with X = 10.0 cm measured using metre rule.

-Measuring Responding Variables:

i-Switch on ticker timer and release trolley.

ii-Measure v by calculating v from ticker tape:

v=d d= length of last 10 ticks measured using meter rule

t t=0.02 second x 10

-Repetition:

-Experiment is repeated using X = 20.0 cm, 30.0 cm, 40.0 cm and 50.0 cm

Tabulate Data:

x / cm 1 2 3 4 5

v/ms-1

Analysing Data:

Graph of v against x is plotted

v / ms-1

x / cm

Experiment 11

Hypothesis:If weight of water displaced increases then buoyant force increases.

Aim:To investigate the relationship between weight of water and buoyant force.

Variables:

-Manipulated : weight of water displaced, W

-Responding : Buoyant force, F

-Fixed : density of water

Eureka can, water, balance, beaker, newton spring balance, long wooden block,

Arrangement of Apparatus:

Spring balance Wi

Wo

Wooden block

h

water Water displaced

Procedure:

-Controlling Manipulated Variable:

i- Measure weight of wood in air = W0

ii-Begin experiment with depth of wood in water, h = 2 cm measure using meter rule.

-Measuring Responding Variables:

i-Measure weight of wood in water, Wi from Newton spring balance reading.

ii-Calculate buoyance force, F = Wi W0

-Repetition:

-Experiment is repeated using h = 4cm, 6cm, 8 cm, 10 cm

Tabulate Data:

W/ N or 2 4 6 8 10

h/cm

F/N

Analysing Data:

Graph of F against W is plotted

F/N

W/N

Experiment 12

Hypothesis:If weight increases then depth increases.

Aim:To investigate the relationship between weight and depth.

Variables:

-Manipulated : weight , W

-Responding : depth, h

-Fixed : density of water

water, beaker, wooden block,slotted weights, meter rule

Arrangement of Apparatus:

Slotted weight

Wooden block

h

water

Procedure:

-Controlling Manipulated Variable:

ii-Begin experiment with slotted weight, w = 1N

-Measuring Responding Variables:

i-Measure h using meter rule

-Repetition:

-Experiment is repeated using slotted weight, W = 2N, 3N, 4N, 5N

Tabulate Data:

W/ N 1 2 3 4 15

h / cm

Analysing Data:

Graph of h against W is plotted

h/cm

W/N

Experiment 13

Hypothesis:If weight of water displaced increases then buoyant force increases.

Aim:To investigate the relationship between weight of water and buoyant force.

Variables:

-Manipulated : weight of water displaced, W

(represented by depth in water,h)

-Responding : Buoyant force, F

-Fixed : density of water

Eureka can, water, balance, beaker, newton spring balance, long wooden block,

Arrangement of Apparatus:

Spring balance

Wooden block

h

water Water displaced

Procedure:

-Controlling Manipulated Variable:

i- Measure weight of wood in air = W0 , using spring balance.

ii-Begin experiment with depth of wood in water, h = 2 cm measure using meter rule.

-Measuring Responding Variables:

i-Measure weight of wood in water, Wi from Newton spring balance reading.

ii-Calculate buoyance force, F = Wi W0

-Repetition:

-Experiment is repeated using h = 4cm, 6cm, 8 cm, 10 cm

Tabulate Data:

W/ N or 2 4 6 8 10

h/cm

F/N

Analysing Data:

Graph of F against W is plotted

F/N

W/N

Experiment 13

Hypothesis:If density of water increases then depth in water decreases.

Aim:To investigate the relationship between density of water and depth in water.

Variables:

-Manipulated : density of water,

(represented by mass of salt dissolved, m)

-Responding : depth in water, h

-Fixed : weight

water, salt, triple beam balance, big beaker, wooden block, meter rule

Arrangement of Apparatus:

Wooden block

h

Salt dissolve

in 500 ml water

Procedure:

-Controlling Manipulated Variable:

i-Begin experiment with mass of salt dissolved in water, m = 20 g measure using triple beam

balance.

-Measuring Responding Variables:

i-Measure h using meter rule

-Repetition:

-Experiment is repeated using m = 40 g, 60 g, 80 g, 100 g

Tabulate Data:

m / kg 20 40 60 80 100

h/m

Analysing Data:

Graph of h against m is plotted

h / cm

m/kg

Experiment 14

Hypothesis: If mass increases then heat increases.

Aim:To investigate the relationship between mass and heat.

Variables:

-Manipulated : mass, m

-Responding : heat represented by raise of temperature,

-Fixed : heating time // mass of water

Copper bobs, thermometer, beaker, Bunsen burner, water, beaker, balance, stop watch

Arrangement of Apparatus:

thermometer

Copper bob

water

Procedure:

i-Begin experiment with , m = 1 copper bob measure using triple beam balance.

i- Heat the copper bobs for 5 minutes.

ii- Measure the initial temperature of water, T1 using thermometer.

iii- Insert the heated copper bob into the water.

iv- Measure the maximum temperature of the water, T2 using thermometer.

v- Calculate the raise in temperature, = T2 T1 .

-Repetition:

-Experiment is repeated using m = 2 bobs, 3 bobs, 4 bobs, 5 bobs

Tabulate Data:

m / kg 1 2 3 4 5

/C

Analysing Data:

Graph of against m is plotted

/C

m/kg

Experiment 15

Hypothesis: If mass increases then temperature change decreases.

Aim:To investigate the relationship between mass and temperature change.

Variables:

-Manipulated : mass, m

-Responding : heat represented by raise of temperature,

-Fixed : heating time // mass of water

Copper bobs, thermometer, beaker, Bunsen burner, water, beaker, balance, stop watch

Arrangement of Apparatus:

thermometer

Copper bob

water

Procedure:

i-Begin experiment with , m = 1 copper bob measure using triple beam balance.

i- Heat the copper bobs for 5 minutes.

ii- Measure the initial temperature of water, T1 using thermometer.

iii- Insert the heated copper bob into the water.

iv- Measure the maximum temperature of the water, T2 using thermometer.

v- Calculate the raise in temperature, = T2 T1 .

-Repetition:

-Experiment is repeated using m = 2 bobs, 3 bobs, 4 bobs, 5 bobs

Tabulate Data:

m / kg 1 2 3 4 5

/C

Analysing Data:

Graph of against m is plotted

/C

m/kg

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