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# Experiment : 1

Inference:
The length affects period of oscillation.
Hypothesis:
If length increases then period of oscillation increases.
Aim:
To investigate the relationship between length and period of oscillation.

Variables:
-Manipulated : length, l
-Responding : period of oscillation, T
-Fixed : (mass of pendulum)

## List of Materials and Apparatus:

Pendulum, string, meter rule, G-clamp, stop watch, retort stand
Arrangement of Apparatus:

Retort stand
pendulum l

G-clamp table

Procedure:
-Controlling Manipulated Variable:
i-Begin experiment with l= 10.0 cm measured using meter rule.
-Measuring Responding Variables:
i-Displace pendulum horizontally to one side and then release it so that it oscillates.
ii-Measure T by measuring time taken for 10 complete oscillations using stop watch.
-Repetition:
-Experiment is repeated using l= 20.0 cm, 30.0 cm, 40.0 cm, 50.0 cm
Tabulate Data:

## l/cm 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0

T/s

Analysing Data:
Graph of T against l is plotted

T/s

l/cm
Experiment : 2

Inference:
The mass affects inertia.

Hypothesis:
If mass increases then inertia increases.

Aim:
To investigate the relationship between mass and inertia.

Variables:
-Manipulated : mass, m
-Responding : Inertia, T
-Fixed : Length of jigsaw blade

## List of Materials and Apparatus:

Jigsaw blade, plasticine, G-clamp, stop watch, balance
Arrangement of Apparatus:

table
plasticine
G-clamp

Procedure:
-Controlling Manipulated Variable:
i-Begin experiment with m= 10.0 g measured using triple beam balance.
-Measuring Responding Variables:
i-Displace jigsaw blade horizontally to one side and then release it so that it oscillates.
ii-Measure T by measuring time taken for 10 complete oscillations using stop watch.
-Repetition:
-Experiment is repeated using m= 20.0 g, 30.0 g, 40.0 g, 50.0 g
Tabulate Data:

## m/g 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0

T/s

Analysing Data:
Graph of T against m is plotted

T/s

m/g
Experiment : 3

Inference:
The mass affects acceleration.

Hypothesis:
If mass increases then acceleration decreases.

Aim:
To investigate the relationship between mass and acceleration.

Variables:
-Manipulated : mass, m
-Responding : acceleration, a
-Fixed : force

## List of Materials and Apparatus:

5 trolleys, ticker timer, ticker tape, meter rule, elastic cord, wooden runway, power supply
Arrangement of Apparatus:

Ticker timer
Ticker tape
Elastic cord
trolley

## Power supply runaway

Procedure:
-Controlling Manipulated Variable:
i-Begin experiment with m= 1 trolley.
-Measuring Responding Variables:
i-Switch on ticker timer and pull trolley using an elastic cord stretched to the same length.
ii- Measure ticker tape : D1 and D2 using meter rule.

D1 D2

V= D2 u = D1
0.2 0.2

## t= (6-1)0.2 = 1.0 second

iii-Calculate a:
a=vu
t
iii -Repetition:
Experiment is repeated using m= 2 trolleys, 3 trolleys, 4 trolleys and 5 trolleys.
Tabulate Data:

m/kg 1 2 3 4 5
a/ms-2

Analysing Data:
Graph of a against m is plotted

a/ms-2

m/kg
Experiment : 4

Inference:
The force affects acceleration.

Hypothesis:
If force increases then acceleration increases.

Aim:
To investigate the relationship between force and acceleration.

Variables:
-Manipulated : force, F
-Responding : acceleration, a
-Fixed : mass

## List of Materials and Apparatus:

1 trolley, ticker timer, ticker tape,meter rule, 5 elastic cords, wooden runway, power supply

Arrangement of Apparatus:
Ticker timer
Ticker tape Elastic cord

trolley

## Power supply runaway

Procedure:
-Controlling Manipulated Variable:
i-Begin experiment with F= 1 elastic cord.
-Measuring Responding Variables:
i-Switch on ticker timer and pull trolley using an elastic cord stretched to the same length.
ii- Measure ticker tape : D1 and D2 using meter rule.

D1 D2

V= D2 u = D1
0.2 0.2

## t= (6-1)0.2 = 1.0 second

iii-Calculate a:
a=vu
t

-Repetition:
-Experiment is repeated using F= 2 elastic cords, 3 elastic cords, 4 elastic cords and 5 elastic cords
Tabulate Data:

F/N 1 2 3 4 5
a/ms-2

Analysing Data:
Graph of a against F is plotted

a/ms-2

F/N
Experiment : 5

Inference:
The initial height affects final velocity.

Hypothesis:
If initial height increases then final velocity increases.

Aim:
To investigate the relationship between initial height and final velocity.

Variables:
-Manipulated : initial height, h
-Responding : final velocity, v
-Fixed : mass

## List of Materials and Apparatus:

1 trolley, ticker timer, ticker tape, meter rule, wooden blocks, wooden runway, power supply
Arrangement of Apparatus:
Ticker timer
Ticker tape
trolley

## Power supply h runaway

Procedure:
-Controlling Manipulated Variable:
i-Begin experiment with h= 10.0 cm measured using meter rule.
-Measuring Responding Variables:
i-Switch on ticker timer and release trolley.
ii-Measure v by calculating v from ticker tape:
v=d d= length of last 10 ticks measured using meter rule
t t=0.02 second x 10
-Repetition:
-Experiment is repeated using h= 20 cm, 30 cm, 40 cm and 50 cm.
Tabulate Data:

## h/cm 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0

v/ms-1

Analysing Data:
Graph of v against h is plotted
v/ms-1

h/cm
Experiment 6

Inference:
The depth affects pressure.

Hypothesis:
If depth increases then pressure increases.

Aim:
To investigate the relationship between depth and pressure.

Variables:
-Manipulated : Depth, h
-Responding : Pressure, P
-Fixed : Density of water

## List of Materials and Apparatus:

Measuring cylinder, thistle funnel, rubber tube, manometer, retort stand, meter rule, thin rubber
sheet
Arrangement of Apparatus:
Rubber tube Meter rule

manometer

Thistle funnel h P
Thin rubber sheet
water
water

Procedure:
-Controlling Manipulated Variable:
i-Begin experiment with h= 10.0 cm measured using meter rule.
-Measuring Responding Variables:
i-Measure P by measuring difference in height of manometer using meter rule.
-Repetition:
-Experiment is repeated using h= 20.0 cm, 30.0 cm, 40.0 cm, 50.0 cm
Tabulate Data:

## h/cm 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0

P/cm
Analysing Data:
Graph of P against h is plotted

P/cm

h/cm
Experiment 7

Inference:
The pressure affects depth.

Hypothesis:
If pressure increases then depth increases.

Aim:
To investigate the relationship between pressure and depth.

Variables:
-Manipulated : pressure, P
-Responding : depth, h
-Fixed : area

## List of Materials and Apparatus:

Plasticine, wooden block, 5 different weights, meter rule
Arrangement of Apparatus:

Slotted weight

Wooden block

h plasticine

Procedure:
-Controlling Manipulated Variable:
i-Begin experiment with weight= 10.0 N .
-Measuring Responding Variables:
i-Measure h using meter rule.
-Repetition:
-Experiment is repeated using weight = 20.0 N, 30.0 N, 40.0 N, 50.0 N
Tabulate Data:

## P/Nm-2 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0

h/cm

Analysing Data:
Graph of h against P is plotted

h/cm

P/Nm-2
Experiment 8

Inference:
The area affects depth.

Hypothesis:
If area increases then depth decreases.

Aim:
To investigate the relationship between area and depth.

Variables:
-Manipulated : area, A
-Responding : depth, h
-Fixed : weight

## List of Materials and Apparatus:

Plasticine, 5 wooden plate with different area, a wooden block, weight, meter rule
Arrangement of Apparatus:
Slotted weight

Wooden block

h
plasticine

Wooden plate
Procedure:
-Controlling Manipulated Variable:
i-Begin experiment with area of wooden plate, A= 10.0 cm2 .
-Measuring Responding Variables:
i-Measure h using meter rule.
-Repetition:
-Experiment is repeated using A = 20.0 cm2, 30.0 cm2, 40.0 cm2, 50.0 cm2
Tabulate Data:

## A/cm-2 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0

h/cm

Analysing Data:
Graph of h against A is plotted

h/cm

A/cm-2
Experiment 9

Inference:
The force affects extension.

Hypothesis:
If force increases then extension increases.

Aim:
To investigate the relationship between force and extension.

Variables:
-Manipulated : force, f
-Responding : extension, h
-Fixed : spring constant / hardness

## List of Materials and Apparatus:

Slotted weights, spring, meter rule, retort stand
Arrangement of Apparatus:

meter rule

Retort stand
Retort
spring l s
t
a
slotted weight n
d
G-Clamp
G- table
bl
ce
l
a
m
Procedure:
p
-Controlling Manipulated Variable:
i- Measure initial length, L0 using meter rule.
i-Begin experiment with f= 10.0 N .
-Measuring Responding Variables:
i-Measure final length, Li using meter rule.
ii- Calculate extension using :
h = L i L0
-Repetition:
-Experiment is repeated using f = 20.0 N, 30.0 N, 40.0 N, 50.0 N
Tabulate Data:

## f/N 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0

h/cm
Analysing Data:
Graph of h against f is plotted

h/cm

f/N
Experiment 10

Inference:
The elastic potential energy affects kinetic energy.

Hypothesis:
If elastic potential energy increases then kinetic energy increases.

Aim:
To investigate the relationship between elastic potential energy and kinetic energy.

Variables:
-Manipulated : elastic potential energy, Ep
-Responding : kinetic energy, Ek
-Fixed : mass

## List of Materials and Apparatus:

Trolley, ticker timer, ticker tape, meter rule, power supply, wooden runaway, elastic cord,
Arrangement of Apparatus:

## Ticker timer trolley

Power supply runaway
Elastic cord

X
Procedure:
-Controlling Manipulated Variable:
i-Begin experiment with X = 10.0 cm measured using metre rule.
-Measuring Responding Variables:
i-Switch on ticker timer and release trolley.
ii-Measure v by calculating v from ticker tape:
v=d d= length of last 10 ticks measured using meter rule
t t=0.02 second x 10

-Repetition:
-Experiment is repeated using X = 20.0 cm, 30.0 cm, 40.0 cm and 50.0 cm
Tabulate Data:

x / cm 1 2 3 4 5
v/ms-1

Analysing Data:
Graph of v against x is plotted
v / ms-1

x / cm
Experiment 11

## Inference:The weight of water displaced affects buoyant force.

Hypothesis:If weight of water displaced increases then buoyant force increases.
Aim:To investigate the relationship between weight of water and buoyant force.

Variables:
-Manipulated : weight of water displaced, W
-Responding : Buoyant force, F
-Fixed : density of water

## List of Materials and Apparatus:

Eureka can, water, balance, beaker, newton spring balance, long wooden block,
Arrangement of Apparatus:

Spring balance Wi
Wo

Wooden block

h
water Water displaced

Procedure:
-Controlling Manipulated Variable:
i- Measure weight of wood in air = W0
ii-Begin experiment with depth of wood in water, h = 2 cm measure using meter rule.
-Measuring Responding Variables:
i-Measure weight of wood in water, Wi from Newton spring balance reading.
ii-Calculate buoyance force, F = Wi W0
-Repetition:
-Experiment is repeated using h = 4cm, 6cm, 8 cm, 10 cm
Tabulate Data:

W/ N or 2 4 6 8 10
h/cm
F/N

Analysing Data:
Graph of F against W is plotted

F/N

W/N
Experiment 12

## Inference:The weight affects depth in water.

Hypothesis:If weight increases then depth increases.
Aim:To investigate the relationship between weight and depth.

Variables:
-Manipulated : weight , W
-Responding : depth, h
-Fixed : density of water

## List of Materials and Apparatus:

water, beaker, wooden block,slotted weights, meter rule
Arrangement of Apparatus:

Slotted weight
Wooden block
h
water

Procedure:
-Controlling Manipulated Variable:
ii-Begin experiment with slotted weight, w = 1N
-Measuring Responding Variables:
i-Measure h using meter rule
-Repetition:
-Experiment is repeated using slotted weight, W = 2N, 3N, 4N, 5N

Tabulate Data:

W/ N 1 2 3 4 15
h / cm

Analysing Data:
Graph of h against W is plotted

h/cm

W/N
Experiment 13

## Inference:The weight of water displaced affects buoyant force.

Hypothesis:If weight of water displaced increases then buoyant force increases.
Aim:To investigate the relationship between weight of water and buoyant force.

Variables:
-Manipulated : weight of water displaced, W
(represented by depth in water,h)
-Responding : Buoyant force, F
-Fixed : density of water

## List of Materials and Apparatus:

Eureka can, water, balance, beaker, newton spring balance, long wooden block,
Arrangement of Apparatus:

Spring balance

Wooden block

h
water Water displaced

Procedure:
-Controlling Manipulated Variable:
i- Measure weight of wood in air = W0 , using spring balance.
ii-Begin experiment with depth of wood in water, h = 2 cm measure using meter rule.
-Measuring Responding Variables:
i-Measure weight of wood in water, Wi from Newton spring balance reading.
ii-Calculate buoyance force, F = Wi W0

-Repetition:
-Experiment is repeated using h = 4cm, 6cm, 8 cm, 10 cm
Tabulate Data:

W/ N or 2 4 6 8 10
h/cm
F/N

Analysing Data:
Graph of F against W is plotted

F/N

W/N
Experiment 13

## Inference:The density of water affects depth in water.

Hypothesis:If density of water increases then depth in water decreases.
Aim:To investigate the relationship between density of water and depth in water.

Variables:
-Manipulated : density of water,
(represented by mass of salt dissolved, m)
-Responding : depth in water, h
-Fixed : weight

## List of Materials and Apparatus:

water, salt, triple beam balance, big beaker, wooden block, meter rule
Arrangement of Apparatus:

Wooden block
h
Salt dissolve
in 500 ml water

Procedure:
-Controlling Manipulated Variable:
i-Begin experiment with mass of salt dissolved in water, m = 20 g measure using triple beam
balance.
-Measuring Responding Variables:
i-Measure h using meter rule

-Repetition:
-Experiment is repeated using m = 40 g, 60 g, 80 g, 100 g
Tabulate Data:

m / kg 20 40 60 80 100
h/m

Analysing Data:
Graph of h against m is plotted

h / cm

m/kg
Experiment 14

## Inference: mass affects heat

Hypothesis: If mass increases then heat increases.
Aim:To investigate the relationship between mass and heat.

Variables:
-Manipulated : mass, m
-Responding : heat represented by raise of temperature,
-Fixed : heating time // mass of water

## List of Materials and Apparatus:

Copper bobs, thermometer, beaker, Bunsen burner, water, beaker, balance, stop watch

Arrangement of Apparatus:

thermometer

Copper bob

water

Procedure:

## -Controlling Manipulated Variable:

i-Begin experiment with , m = 1 copper bob measure using triple beam balance.

## -Measuring Responding Variables:

i- Heat the copper bobs for 5 minutes.
ii- Measure the initial temperature of water, T1 using thermometer.
iii- Insert the heated copper bob into the water.
iv- Measure the maximum temperature of the water, T2 using thermometer.
v- Calculate the raise in temperature, = T2 T1 .

-Repetition:
-Experiment is repeated using m = 2 bobs, 3 bobs, 4 bobs, 5 bobs

Tabulate Data:

m / kg 1 2 3 4 5
/C
Analysing Data:
Graph of against m is plotted

/C

m/kg
Experiment 15

## Inference: mass/ volume affects temperature change

Hypothesis: If mass increases then temperature change decreases.
Aim:To investigate the relationship between mass and temperature change.

Variables:
-Manipulated : mass, m
-Responding : heat represented by raise of temperature,
-Fixed : heating time // mass of water

## List of Materials and Apparatus:

Copper bobs, thermometer, beaker, Bunsen burner, water, beaker, balance, stop watch

Arrangement of Apparatus:

thermometer

Copper bob

water

Procedure:

## -Controlling Manipulated Variable:

i-Begin experiment with , m = 1 copper bob measure using triple beam balance.

## -Measuring Responding Variables:

i- Heat the copper bobs for 5 minutes.
ii- Measure the initial temperature of water, T1 using thermometer.
iii- Insert the heated copper bob into the water.
iv- Measure the maximum temperature of the water, T2 using thermometer.
v- Calculate the raise in temperature, = T2 T1 .

-Repetition:
-Experiment is repeated using m = 2 bobs, 3 bobs, 4 bobs, 5 bobs

Tabulate Data:

m / kg 1 2 3 4 5
/C
Analysing Data:
Graph of against m is plotted

/C

m/kg