You are on page 1of 26

National Technical University of Athens

School of Chemical Engineering


Department II: Process Analysis and Plant Design

Lecture 8

Instructor: . Kokossis
Laboratory teaching staff: . Nikolakopoulos
Lecture 8

SYNTHESIS OF UTILITY SYSTEMS

2
UTILITY SYSTEMS
Boiler House and
Power Plant

Fuel HP
Steam

MP
Steam Fuel
Steam W
Turbine
LP
Steam
Gas W
Turbine

BFW
Preheat Q Q Q Q Q
Q+W

PROCESS Heat
Pump
W

Q
Q
Furnace
Q
Q Q
Air Preheat
Fuel Refrig - W
eration

Q+W
Cooling
Water
Steam coproduction system

Back -pressure
Turbines HP-Steam

IP-Steam

Boiler G

LP-Steam

Condenser
0.1 bara
Fuel 40OC
C.W.
Condensing
Treated Water Turbine
Problem description

Given requirements of the chemical process for:


Electricity
Power (pumps, compressors)
Steam at different levels High, Medium, Low Pressure (HP, MP,
LP)
Cooling water
Define the minimum cost utility system and its
operating conditions so as to caver the needs and
include:
Steam boilers
Steam Turbines (back pressure, condensing, extraction)
Gas turbines
Electrical motors
Flash Valves
Waste heat boilers
Steam headers)
5
System Equipment
Steam boilers

air
steam
fuel
water

Gas Turbines

) Back pressure

Power generator
Electrical
HP steam energy

P steam

6
System Equipment

Steam turbines
B) Total condensation


Power generator
Electrical
energy
HP steam

Cooling water
Condensate
vacuum

) Extraction

Power generator
Electrical
energy

HP steam

LP steam

P steam 7
System Equipment
Gas turbines
Combined cycle gas turbines with heat recovery


Power generator
air Electrical
energy
Compressor turbine

fule

Effluent gases

Pre-heats the air

8
System Equipment
Flash valves

Power demand: Electrical power demand:


Gas turbine Gas turbine

Steam Turbine Steam Turbine

Electrical motor

9
How to design such a system;

10
Example
Given
Demand in power and steam:

1. 7500 KW Power 1

2. 4500 kW Power 2

3. 25 t/h MP steam

4. 85 t/h LP steam

Steam levels (which T, P: normally it is a design variable but here


we assume they are known):
1. HP 4.83 Mpa, 758 K

2. MP 2.07 Mpa, 623 K

3. LP 0.34 Mpa, 412 K

11
Options
Steam production usually it is required at different levels
Boilers of high/medium pressure

Boilers of low pressure

Flash valves can be used.

Turbines with the specific characteristics (again a design variable but they will be assumed
as fixed):

Back pressure steam turbines from middle to low pressure

Extraction steam turbines from high to middle, to low pressure


Given
1. High pressure efficiency = 60%
2. Medium pressure efficiency = 70%
3. D (from high to middle) = 71 kWh/t
4. D (from middle to low) = 112 kWh/t

Only one turbine can be committed for each power demand


12
Examples (cont.)
Cost functions:

Fixed cost (/y) Variable cost

HP boiler 90000 9600 /y t steam

P boiler 40000 8500 /y t steam

P steam turb. 25000 14.5 / kWyr

HP steam turb. 45000 25 / kWyr

If extraction is used in steam turbines, there is an additional cost of


20000 /y

13
Headers, flash valves and energy constraints

14
Boilers - 1

15
Boilers - 2

16
Steam turbines - 1

17
Steam turbines 2

18
Steam turbines - 3

19
Steam turbines - 4

20
Continuous variables

21
Integer variables

22
Cost functions

Steam turbine 1 cost: C1 = 25000*y1 + 25*W1 + 20000*yE

Costs:
Boilers 1, 2
Turbines 2, 3, 4

23
Balances

Mass balance HP: F1 = F11 + F12 + F13

Mass balances:
at steam heads HP, MP LP
at turbines 1, 2, 3, 4

24
Process requirements equations

Power constraint G1: W1 + W2 4500

Process demands:
In G2 energy
In MP and LP steam

25
Logical constraints

Logical Constraint: F12 y1*U

Logical constraints:
in boiler selection1, 2,
turbines 2, 3, 4
valves v1, v2
extraction stream F121, F131 26