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PHYSIOLOGICAL BASES OF BEHAVIOR Peripheral Nervous System Endocrine System

PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM • Made up of nerves located throughout the body except the brain and spinal cord

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Nerves – stringlike bundles of axons and dendrites that come from the spinal cord and are held together by connective tissue Carries information to and from the spinal cord Have the ability to regrow, regenerate or reattach if severed or damaged.

The conus medullaris is the terminal end of the spinal cord. It occurs near lumbar vertebral levels 1 (L1) and 2 (L2). After the spinal cord tapers out, the spinal nerves continue as dangling nerve roots called cauda equina.

PNS: SOMATIC NS & AUTONOMIC NS • Somatic NS • • • Interacts with the environment Associated with voluntary body movements Consists of the spinal and cranial nerves that connect the CNS to the skin and skeletal muscles • • 12 pairs arising from the brain 1 Olfactory 2 Optic 3 Oculomotor 4 Trochlear 5 Trigeminal 6 Abducens 7 Facial 8 Vestibulocochlear 9 Glossopharyngeal 10 Vagus 11 Spinal Accessory 12 Hypoglossal Cranial Nerves

Spinal Nerves • • 31 pairs arising from the spinal cord Cervical (8), Thoracic (12), Lumbar (5), Sacral (5), Coccygeal (1)


• Sympathetic Prepares the body for energy-expending situations Triggered by threatening situations Promotes increase in heart rate, blood pressure Inhibits digestion Fight or Flight response (state of increased physiological arousal helping the body cope and survive threatening situations)

Bell’s Palsy is caused by paralysis of CN7 or the facial nerve (Hollywood actor George Clooney suffered Bell’s Palsy when he was younger)

Autonomic NS

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM • Made up of numerous glands that are located throughout the body These glands secrete various chemicals, called hormones, which affect organs, muscles and other glands Control center: HYPOTHALAMUS

Participates with the regulation of the body’s internal environment/unconscious activities, regulates heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature and other visceral activities Portions of the autonomic nervous system respond to emotional stress and prepare the body to meet the demands of strenuous physical activity Includes fibers that connect the CNS to viscera

• Parasympathetic Most active during normal conditions Promotes decrease in heart rate and lowering of blood pressure Stimulates digestion Rest and Digest response (promotes calming of the nerves)

Gonads – Ovaries regulate sexual development, ovulation and growth of sex organs. Testes regulate sexual development, production of sperm and growth of sex organs. Lack of sex hormones during puberty results in lack of secondary sexual characteristics such as facial and bodily hari, muscles in males and breasts in females. Pineal gland – regulates sleep cycle, secretes melatonin in response to light conditions outside the body. Dysfunction leads to increase in sleep. Thymus – responsible for the secretion of certain white blood cells, important in the promotion of the immune system

Pituitary Gland - Produces hormones that control the adrenal cortex, pancreas, thyroid and gonads. • Anterior Pituitary releases growth hormone. Too many growth hormones causes gigantism, too little causes dwarfism. • Posterior Pituitary is associated with the regulation of water and salt balance. Dysfunction leads to lack of hormones that causes a less common form of diabetes. Pancreas – regulates the level of sugar in the bloodstream by secreting insulin. Lack of insulin results in the more common form of diabetes, too much causes hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) Thyroid – regulates metabolism. Hormone deficiency during development leads to stunted growth and mental retardation. Undersecretion during adulthood leads to reduction in motivation. Oversecretion results in high metabolism, weight loss and nervousness. Adrenal Glands – regulates salt and sugar balance and help the body resist stress. • Adrenal medulla (central portion of the adrenal glands) secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine. • Adrenal cortex (outer part) secretes cortisol that affects glucose, fat and protein metabolism. Dysfunction leads to inability of the body to cope with stress.

Endocrine Disorders Obesity is defined as excess adipose tissue. Excess adiposity or obesity causes insulin secretion, which can cause insulin resistance that leads to type 2 diabetes. Diabetes: Type 1: insulin deficiency Frequent urination Unusual thirst Extreme hunger Unusual weight loss Extreme fatigue and Irritability Type 2 Diabetes*: insulin resitance Any of the type 1 symptoms Frequent infections Blurred vision Cuts/bruises that are slow to heal Tingling/numbness in the hands/feet Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections *Often people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms

Hyperthyroidism can significantly accelerate your body's metabolism, causing sudden weight loss, a rapid or irregular heartbeat, sweating, and nervousness or irritability. Hypothyroidism is a condition in which your thyroid gland doesn't produce enough of certain important hormones. Untreated hypothyroidism can cause a number of health problems, such as obesity, joint pain, infertility and heart disease.


The most common cause of goiter worldwide is a lack of iodine in the diet. In the United States, where most people use iodized salt, goiter is more often due to the over- or underproduction of thyroid hormones or to nodules that develop in the gland itself.

Images: ve_system

Pinel, J. (2000). Biopsychology. (4

ed.). USA: Allyn & Bacon. S.html pothalamus .htm

Plotnik, R. (2005). Introduction to Psychology. (7 th ed.). Ca: Wadsworth Publishing Company Shier, D., Butler, J. & Lewis, R. (2003). Hole’s essentials of human anatomy and physiology. (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. Smith, E., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Fredrickson, B. & Loftus, G. (2003). Atkinson & Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology. Singapore: Thomson Learning.

I II III IV Olfactory Optic Oculomotor Trochlear Sensory Sensory Sense of smell Sense of vision

Primarily Motor Raising eyelids, eye movements Primarily Motor Eye movements Impulses from surface of the eyes, tear glands, scalp, forehead and upper eyelids, teeth, gum, lips, skin of the face Muscles of mastication and muscles in the floor of the mouth






Primarily Motor Eye movements Mixed Sensory Sense of taste (anterior tongue) Facial expressions, muscles of tear glands, salivary glands Sense of equilibrium, sense of hearing Impulses from pharynx, tonsils, posterior tongue, carotid arteries Swallowing Impulses from pharynx, larynx, esophagus Muscles involved in speech and swallowing Muscles of the soft palate, pharynx and larynx, neck and back

VII Facial VIII Vestibulocochlear





Vagus Spinal Accessory

Mixed Primarily Motor

XII Hypoglossal

Primarily Motor Movement of the tongue