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Surface Drainage Works

Protection of Culverts and Low-level Crossings


In tro d u ctio n
1 2 Structures built from double twist hexagonal wire mesh gabions and
Reno mattresses are a valid and effective technical solution in the
design and maintenance of culverts and low-level river crossings.
(See tables for specifications).
In inlet works it is necessary to guide the flows into the culvert, thus
avoiding dangerous uncontained flows.
Furthermore, in restoration work one should be aware of erosion of
river beds and banks, which may undermine the structure.
In the case of deeply cut watercourses it is advisable to create structures
capable of both containment and support.
3 4 When the river bed is not well defined it is good practice to extend the
wing walls of the culverts to protect the flanks.
At low-level river crossings, where the water flows directly over the
roadway, protection is needed both upstream and downstream to
prevent erosion which would immediately affect the roadway itself and
render it unusable.
Structures made from gabions and Reno mattresses poses many technical
and economic advantages over other possible systems, such as rip rap,
cement or concrete.

PROPERTIES OF WIRE
These advantages include:
Diameter mm 2.2 2.5 2.7 3.0 3.4 3.9 4.4
Tolerance mm 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 simplicity and ease of installation even on sites with difficult access;
Zinc Coating g/m2 245 260 275 275 275 290 290 ease of finding suitable fill materials locally;
PROPERTIES OF MESH
ease of construction even in arid locations;
b Nominal External Wire Diameter (mm)
Mesh Tolerance unskilled labour can be used;
(mm) Mesh
Type (%)
Galv. PVC flexibility;
60 60 -2 +5 2.2 3.2 reduction of the thickness of filter layers;
80 80 -2 +5 2.7 3.7
MESH TOLERANCE ease of maintenance.
b The tolerance on the opening of mesh b being the distance between
the axis of two consecutive twists according to SANS 1580:2001,
EN 10223-3, EN 10218-2, ASTM A975. The following types will be discussed:
Tolerances and dimensions of the double twist mesh and PVC coated wire are covered by the - Circular culverts.
local and international specifications which may differ from country to country.
LOCAL AND INTERNATIONAL SPECIFICATIONS - Polycentric and pipe arch culverts.
South Africa European American - Reinforced concrete box culverts.
Wire Specifications SANS 675:1993 EN 10223-3 ASTM A975 - Low-level river crossings (sometimes termed Irish crossings,
ASTM A975
Zinc Coating SANS 675:1993 EN 10244-2 fords or causeways).
ASTM A641
PVC Coating SANS 1580:2001 EN 10245-2 ASTM A975
EN 10223-3
Mesh Specifications SANS 1580:2001 ASTM A975
EN 10218-2
5 A
A Without restriction of the section. A Sem restrio da seo.
B With restriction of the section. B Com restrio da seo. a
1 Culvert. 1 Bueiro.
2 Water course section. 2 Seo do curso ddua.
a Absence of lateral scour. a Ausncia de atrito lateral.
b Lateral scour. b Atrito lateral.
c Scour at the end of wing walls. c Atrito ao final das alas.
d, e Correct solution. d,e Soluo correta.

A Sans rtrcissement de section.


B Avec rtrcissement de section.
1 Buse.
From: 1
2 Section courante.
Handbook of steel drainage
and highway products. a Absence drosion latrale.
(American Iron and Steel Drainage) b Erosions latrales. 2
c Erosions lextrmit des murs daile.
d, e Solution optimale.

1. Circular culvert.
2. Polycentric and pipe arch culvert.
3. Reinforced concrete box culvert.
4. Low-level river crossing.
2 5. Influence of wing walls at the outlet section.
I nt r odu o In tro d u ctio n
Estruturas construdas com gabies e colches Reno em malha Les structures en gabions et matelas Reno fabrique de grillage maille
hexagonal de dupla toro, so uma soluo tcnica vlida e hexagonale double torsion, reprsentent une solution correcte et efficace
efetiva para projetos e manuteno de bueiros e passagens pour le calcul et lentretien des buses et des traverses inondables. (Voir
molhadas. (Ver tabela normas) table pour les specifications).
Em algumas obras necessrio direcionar a gua para o bueiro Dans les ouvrages dembouchure, il faut canaliser de faon sre dans des
e v i t a n d o d a n o s g e ra d o s p o r f l u x o s n o c o n t r o l a d o s. buses les dbits deau qui arrivent, afin dviter de dangereux
Alm disso, em obras de restaurao deve-se estar atento s contournements des ouvrages.
eroses do leito do rio e margens, que podem solapar a estrutura. Par ailleurs, dans les restitutions, il faut se mfier de lrosion sur le fond
No caso de obras que alterem drasticamente o curso d'gua du lit et sur les berges qui, en rgressant, risquent de constituer un danger
aconselhvel o uso de estruturas que desenvolvam vrias funes, pour les structures.
tais como: conteno, controle de eroso, revestimento, etc. Dans le cas des cours deau particulirement encaisss, on conseille des
Quando o leito do rio no bem definido costuma-se prolongar structures capables doffrir aussi bien une action de retenue et de
as alas dos bueiros para proteger as margens. soutnement.
Para uma passagem molhada, na qual a gua flui diretamente Lorsque le lit dun cours deau nest pas dtermin de faon certaine, il
sobre a rodovia, se faz necessrio protees a montante e a faut prolonger latralement la protection le long du pied du remblai,
jusante para prevenir eventuais eroses que afetariam a prpria jusquaux conduits souterrains, pour viter un coulement incontrl le
estrada, inutilizando-a. long du remblai.
Estruturas feitas com gabies e colches Reno possuem muitas Dans les traverses inondables, enfin, o leau passe directement sur la
vantagens tcnicas e econmicas se comparadas a outros sistemas chausse, il est ncessaire davoir des protections en amont et en aval du
construtivos, tais como rip-rap, ou concreto. plan de la route, pour empcher lrosion qui sattaquerait immdiatement
lassise de la route mme et la rendrait impraticable.
Estas vantagens incluem: Les ouvrages en gabions et matelas Reno dmontrent une srie davantages
simplicidade de instalao e construo, at mesmo em locais techniques et conomiques par rapport dautres systmes denrochement,
de difcil acesso; perr maonn ou ouvrages en bton prfabriqu.
possibilidade da utilizao de materiais locais para enchimento;
Ces avantages sont:
no exige mo de obra qualificada;
facilit de trouver sur site un matriau de remplissage adquat;
flexibilidade;
facilit de ralisation, mme dans les environnements arides;
reduo da espessura das camadas de filtrao;
utilisation de main doeuvre non spcialise;
fcil manuteno. flexibilit;
rduction de lpaisseur des couches filtrantes;
Os tipos seguintes sero discutidos: possibilit deffectuer un entretien simple.
- Bueiro circulares.
- Bueiros policntricos. On examinera les types douvrages suivants:
- B u e i r o s r e t a n g u l a r e s e m c o n c r e t o a r m a d o. - Buses circulaires;
- Passagens molhadas. - Buses plusieurs centres;
- Buses emboites en bton arm;
- Traverses inondables.

b c d e

1 1 1
1

2 2 2 2

3
Circ ula r Culve rts

Circular culverts with Bueiros circulares com Buses circulaires avec


D < 1.0m D < 1.0m D < 1.0m

Variable
4 3
1.0m 1.0m Longitudinal section
0.5m

1.0m
D
0.23-0.3m

1.0m 2.0m 1.0m 1 2 1.0m 2.0m 1.0m 5


L
4.0m L > 2.5-3 D

4
Inlet

3
2.0m
Outlet

4.0m

1.0m
2.0m

4.0m

2.0m
6

Culverts in braided river beds Bueiros em confluncia de Buses circulaires pour


leitos de rio lits peu profonds

Outlet

0.5m
1.0m
0m
1.

0.23-0.3m
0m
0m

2.
6.

1. Pipeline. 1. Oleoduto. 1. Buse.


2. Base layer. 2. Camada de base. 2. Couche de base.
3. Gabion and mattress protection. 3. Proteo em gabio e colcho. 3. Protection en gabion et matelas.
4. Gabion key. 4. Gabio chave. 4. Gabion dancrage.
5. AG Geotextile. 5. AG Geotxtil. 5. AG Gotextile.

4
Bu e i r o s Cir cular es Buses Circulair e s

Circular culverts with Bueiros circulares com Buses circulaires avec


D >1.0m D >1.0m D > 1.0m

Longitudinal section
3 Variable 4
A B
Variable

3.0m

D 1.0m

0.23-0.3m
1.0m
A B
1 2 L 5
3.0m 1.0m 1.0m L > 2.5-3 D

3
Section A-A

1.0m Variable 1.0m 1.0m


2.0m Variable 2.0m

Section B-B

1.0m

1.0m 5

0.23-0.3m

Variable 1.0m

2.0m Variable 2.0m


8

Circular culverts with drop Bueiros circulares com sada Buses circulaires avec des
structures at the outlet section em degraus. escaliers la restitution

3 Variable 6
Longitudinal section
Variable
4
1.0m
D
1.0m

1.0m
0.23-0.3m
1 2 5

1.0m 3.0m 1.0m 3.0m 2.0m 3.0m 3.0-5.0m

1. Pipeline. 1. Oleoduto. 1. Buse.


2. Base layer. 2. Camada de base. 2. Couche de base.
3. Gabion key. 3. Gabio chave. 3. Gabion dancrage.
4. Gabion protection. 4. Proteo em gabio. 4. Dfense en gabions.
5. AG Geotextile. 5. AG Geotxtil. 5. AG Gotextile.
6. Concrete capping. 6. Revestimento em concreto. 6. Couverture en bton.
5
10 11

12 13

14 15

10. Whale Rock, W. Cape, South Africa. 13. Brazil.


11. Sabi River Sun, Mpumalanga, South Africa. 14. Whale Rock, W. Cape, South Africa.
12. Pretoria, South Africa. 15. USA.
6
11
16 17

1 2 3 4 5
18

4.0m

2.0m 10.0m 2.0m

14.0m

1. Gabion structure. 1. Estrutura em gabies. 1. Structure en gabions.


2. Woven mesh/geogrid reinforcement. 2. Reforo em malha hexagonal 2. Gotextile tiss/
3. AG Geotextile. ou geogrelha tecida. gogrille de renfort.
4. Compacted earth back-filling. 3. AG Geotxtil. 3. AG Gotextile.
5. Crushed stone. 4. Reaterro com solo compactado. 4. Remblai compact.
5. Pedra britada. 5. Pierraille.

19 20

16. Lesotho.
17. Aliano, Matera, Italy.
18. Culvert through mechanically stabilised earth.
19 & 20. South Australia. 7
Polycentric and Pipe
Arch Culverts
Single polycentric culvert with head retaining wall

Longitudinal section Variable


3

Variable A

6
D

0.23-0.3m
4 8 1 2 8 A 4
1.0m 3.0m 2.0m 2.0m
L
6.0m L > 2.5-3 D
21

Single polycentric culvert with drop structure

Longitudinal section
6 Variable 3 7 9

Variable A
0.23-0.3m

0.23-0.3m
1.0m

4 8 1 2 8 0.5m
1.0m 3.0m A

6.0m 2.0m 2.0m 2.0m 2.0m 4.0m 4.0m


22

Multiple polycentric culvert with sloping head wall

Longitudinal section
Variable
4

A Variable

6
D

1.0-1.5m
A
a 8 1 2 8
4.0m 2.0m 2.0m
L
6.0m L > 2.5-3 D
5

23

1. Pipeline.
0.23-0.3m 2. Base layer.
1.0m 3. Head wall.
4. Reno mattress lining.
5. River bed key-in (a, b solutions).
b
6. Upstream gabion key-in at banks.
7. Key-in of drop structure.
2.0m
8 8. AG Geotextile.
9. Concrete capping.
Bue i ro Policnt r ico Buses P lusie u r s
com e Tubo em Arco Centre s
Bueiro policntrico com encabeamento Buse plusieurs centres avec des murs de soutnement
de muros de conteno

Section A-A

1
D
1.5-2
0.23-0.3m

2.0m Variable 2.0m

Bueiro policntrico com estrutura em degraus. Buse plusieurs centres avec des ouvrages en gradins
Section A-A

8
3 D

0.23-0.3m
7 m
1 6.0

1.5-2
0.5m
9 Variable
m
3.0
3.0m 6.0m

Bueiro policntrico mltiplo com Buse plusieurs centres multiple avec revtement de talus
encabeamento em taludes revestidos.

Section A-A

6
D

1
1.0m
1.5-2

8 0.23-0.3m

Variable 2.0m Variable

1. Oleoduto. 1. Buse.
2. Camada de base. 2. Couche de base.
3. Muro de encabeamento. 3. Mur de soutnement.
4. Canalizao em colcho Reno. 4. Revtement en matelas Reno.
5. Leito de rio chave (a,b soluos). 5. Ancrage du lit du cours deau (solution a, b).
6. Margens a montante em gabio chave. 6. Ancrage des gabions en amont sur les berges.
7. Chave em estrutura em degraus. 7. Ancrage avec des ouvrages en gradins.
8. AG Geotxtil. 8. AG Gotextile. 9
9. Revestimento em concreto. 9. Couverture en bton.
24

25

24 & 25. La Lucia, KZN, South Africa.


26. Luanshya, Zambia.
27. Canada.
10 28. Swaziland.
26

27

28

11
Reinforced Concrete
Box Culve rts
Single box culverts in Bueiro retangular em Buses emboites simples
braided river beds confluncia de leito de rio. pour lits peu profonds

3 Variable
1.5-2
1
Longitudinal section Variable

4
D

0.23-0.3m
0.23-0.3m

5 1 2 5
1.0m
1.0m L
3.0m L > 2.5-3 D

Inlet
3
Outlet
4

m
4.0

5 5 ia ble
Var
2.0 2.0
m m
m
3.0 3.0
m 4.0
m
2.0
L m
29

Box culverts with drop structures Bueiro retangular com Buses emboites avec
at the outlet section sada em degraus. des ouvrages en gradins

Section B-B A 1 4

1.0m

1.0m

1.0m
Longitudinal section 3 0.5m
Variable
5
1.5-2 2.0m A 4.0m 2.0m
1 8
B 4

D
0.23-0.3m

5 1 2 B
1.0m 4.0m 1.0m 2.0m
0.23-0.3m

3.0m 1.0m 3 5
30 6.0m

1. Box culvert in reinforced concrete.


2. Reinforced concrete cut-off.
3. Reno mattress lining.
4. Gabion protection.
5. AG Geotextile.
6. Gabion key-in at bank.
7. Reno mattress or gabion apron (0.23-0.3m).
12 8. Concrete capping.
Bue i ro Ret angula r em Buses Emboites
Conc re to A r m ado. en Bton Arm
Outlet section in mobile river beds
Sada de bueiro com leito no revestido
7
Restitution pour des lits non dfinis

m
1.0

m
2.0

m
4.0
le
Va riab
m
2.0
L 4 .0m

Outlet transition to the natural trapezoidal stream section


Transio de sada para a seo trapezoidal natural
Restitution avec raccordement la section trapezodale courante
7

e 6
iabl
Var

2.0 m
m 1.0

6
ia ble
Var

Outlet transition to the natural stream


Transio de sada para o fluxo natural
Restitution avec raccordement la section courante
7

L
2.0
m m
1.0
6 m
4.0

iable
Var
m
4.0
31

1. Bueiro retangular em concreto armado. 1. Embotement en bton arm.


2 Barreira em concreto armado. 2. Talon en bton arm.
3. Canalizao em colcho Reno. 3. Revtement en matelas Reno.
4. Proteo em gabio. 4. Protection en gabions.
5. AG Geotxtil. 5. AG Geotextile.
6. Gabio chave na margem. 6. Ancrage des gabions sur la berge.
7. Apron em colcho Reno ou gabio (0.23-0.3m). 7. Renforcement en matelas Reno ou gabions (0.23-0.3m).
8. Revestimento em concreto. 8. Couverture en bton. 13
32

33

34

32. W. Cape, South Africa.


33. W. Cape, South Africa.
34. Dedza, Malawi.
14
18
35

36

37

35. Mississippi, USA.


36. Minnesota, USA.
37. Outeniqua Pass, W. Cape, South Africa.
15
Low-Leve l River
Crossings
Typical scheme Esquema tpico Schma type
Plan
5 A
3

3.0-4.0m
Road

Variable
6.0-8.0m
3 A
5

Section A-A 5 1 5

0.23 - 0.3m 3 2 4 3 8 0.23 - 0.3m

3.0 - 4.0m Variable 6.0 - 8.0m


38

Alternative solution with Soluo alternativa com Alternative avec des


a gabion curb gabio freio ranges en gabions

5 6 1 6 5

4 8
2
0.23 - 0.3m 0.23 - 0.3m

3.0 - 4.0m 1.0m Variable 1.0m 6.0 - 8.0m


39

Reno mattress or gabion Colcho Reno ou fundao em Matelas Reno en fondation ou


foundation for yielding soils gabio para solos deformveis gabions pour des terrains meubles

5 1 2 6 5

7
0.23 - 0.3m 0.23 - 0.3m
0.15 - 0.5m 8

3.0 - 4.0m 1.0m Variable 1.0m 6.0 - 8.0m


40

1. Road paving. 7. Impermeable membrane. 1. Estrada pavimentada.


2. Sub-base. 8. AG Geotextile. 2. Base granular.
3. Concrete cut-off. 9. Concrete capping. 3. Barreira em concreto.
4. Drainage hardcore. 10. Pipeline. 4. Ncleo drenante.
5. Mattress protection. 11. Dry granular material. 5. Proteo em colcho.
6. Gabion curb. 12. Gabion retaining structure. 6. Gabio freio.
16
Irish Bue iros Tra verse s
C ros si ngs circ ula res Inondab l e s
Crossing with a drop structure Passagem molhada com Traverse avec ressauts
estrutura em degraus.

5 1 9 5

2 8
0.23 - 0.3m
0.23 - 0.3m
3.0 - 4.0m 1.0m Variable 1.0m 6.0 - 8.0m

41

Culvert crossing with small Passagem molhada com descargas Traverse avec buse pour
discharges (causeway) pequenas (calada). des faibles dbits

Longitudinal section

12 10
% Variable Max level B

0.23-0.3m
B
8
Variable

Section B-B

1 11 12

1.0m
5

1.0m

0.23 - 0.3m 0.23 - 0.3m


10 8

3.0 - 4.0m 2.0m Variable 2.0m 4.0 - 6.0m

42

7. Membrana impermevel. 1. Dallage. 7. Gomembrane impermable.


8. AG Geotxtil. 2. Couche de transition. 8. AG Geotextile.
9. Revestimento em concreto. 3. Talon en bton arm. 9. Couverture en bton.
10. Oleoduto. 4. Structure filtrante. 10. Buse.
11. Material granular seco. 5. Protection en matelas. 11. Matriau graveleux.
12. Estrutura de conteno em gabio. 6. Ranges en gabion. 12. Structure de rtention en gabions.
17
43

44

45

43 & 44. Richmond, KZN, South Africa.


45. Italy.

18
46

47

48 49

46. Paarl, W. Cape, South Africa.


47. Chapananga, Malawi
48 & 49. Papua, New Guinea.
19
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ZAF / CULVERTS : Eng - Rev. 01, Feb 2007 Maccaferri SA (Pty) Ltd, Durban, South Africa - Designed by: Wendy Potgieter - Printer: Pro-Print (Pty) Ltd.