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Guide to the most common superfoods
by Four Sigma Foods
Sovereign Superfoods - Guide to the most common superfoods

By LUONTOlife Ltd -- Real Superfoods. Healthier Lifestyle. A New Mindset.

Based on an eBook Superfoodit - Suoraan Ytimeen written in Finnish by Jaakko Halmetoja, a LUONTOlife nutritional advisor

Translated to English by Mikael Makinen, a LUONTOlife Business Advisor

Editorial Design by Markus Karjalainen, a LUONTOlife Community Manager
Drawings by Pauli Kangasniemi, a LUONTOlife Graphic Designer
Photo sources: and

The purpose of this book is to share health information and knowledge, for study and educational purposes only. The book is not
intended to replace professional advice or treatment, such as a physicians services. The authors intent is not to describe or prescribe any
product for the cure, treatment or prevention of any disease. The reader is wholly responsible for the use of any information in this
book, and any results or consequences of that use, regardless of whether the reader sought medical advice or not. The author is not
responsible for any loss, harm or damage connected with any persons use of this books information, directly or indirectly.

All rights reserved by LUONTOlife Ltd 2011...

Chapter 1 Introduction

Chapter 2 Raw cacao

Chapter 3 Goji berry

Chapter 4 Maca

Chapter 5 Spirulina

Chapter 6 Hemp products

Chapter 7 Bee products

Chapter 8 Coconut products

Chapter 9 Chlorella
Chapter 10 Sources
Chapter 1

ore than 1.8 million unique living species have been identified on our planet, from
the elegantly simple, single-celled amoeba to the marvelously complex human being.
Among all this rich variety exist an abundance of species which are sources of intensely
nutrient-rich foods. Some of these foods have held significant, even divine status in
the histories of Earths cultures. It may sound unbelievable, but at least one of these foods
was even used by some as currency, just over one hundred years ago.

More recently, a number of these exceptional foods have been given a somewhat
commercialized but not inappropriate new name: Superfoods.

Today we are privileged to enjoy abundant opportunities in the natural world around us.
Thanks to current knowledge and technologies, we can reap the benefits of the natures
most nutrient-rich ingredients from the wildest Amazon jungles, to the remote Tibetan

How do you like the idea of having a meal, right at your own table, made up of the finest
of nutritional ingredients gathered from continents and cultures around the world? The
very idea would have seemed impossible just a few decades ago. In addition to enticing and
exotic flavors, adding these mega-nutritional ingredients to your diet offers a staggering
array of benefits, from enhanced sexual drive to maximized brain function.

Each of the superfoods contains remarkably high concentrations of nutrients vital to

our bodily functions: vitamins, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids, and a wide range of
phytonutrients (plant-derived nutrients). Such nutrients and their many health benefits are
ours when we make these organic, natural, whole-food ingredients a regular part of our diets.

In this book I have assembled a wealth of information about several of the most important
superfoods now widely available. I hope youll seek them out, and dive deeply into these
rich sources of personal health and performance.

Enjoyable reading moments to you!

The LUONTOlife Team,

6 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods
For every illness, somewhere in the world
there exists a plant which is the cure.
- Rudolf Steiner

Chapter 2

Raw cacao
{ Theobroma cacao }
Africa, Asia (more than 80 percent of the worlds cacao production)
Indonesia, South America (1015 percent of cacao production)
Central America (5 percent of cacao production)

Other names
Chocolate, cocoa, cacaoyer

Most common species

Criollo (Theobroma cacao, Theobroma armaica)
Forastero (Theobroma cacao sphaerocarpum)
Trinitario (Theobroma cacao trinitario)

8 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods
The food of the Gods
The blood of the heart

Nutrients and bioactive ingredients (/100g)

Calories: 611 kcal

Proteins: 15.4 %
Carbohydrates: 29.4 %
Fat: 48 %

Magnesium 550 mg
Calcium 106 mg
Iron 202 mg
Phosphorus 537 mg
Copper 3.6 mg
Zinc 7.6 mg
Manganese 3.8 mg
Potassium 58 mg
Sodium 53 mg
Vitamin A
Vitamin C 44 mg
Vitamin B1 0.170.24 mg
Vitamin B2 0.140.41 mg
Vitamin B3 1.7 mg
Vitamin E 0.2 mg
Tryptophan 200-500 mg
Phenylethylamine (PEA) 2.2 g
Omega 6 fatty acids
Palmitic (2030 %)
Stearic acid (3035 %)
Oleic acid (3035 %)
Linoleic acid (24 %)
Linolenic acid (00.3 %)
Antioxidants (polyphenols, catechins, epicatechins)
Alkaloids (methylxanthines, theobromine, caffeine) 0.9 %

A short history of cacao:
Money does grow on trees
Peruvian mythology includes a plenty of stories relating to cacao.
According to one, the god of storm, Khuno, destroyed a village with
heavy rain to punish villagers who had burned acres of lush jungle,
seeking to increase their crop lands. When the terrible storm had
passed, all that was left was a solitary cacao tree, standing alone amid
the devastation. The event taught the villagers a vital lesson about
living in harmony with nature.

It is believed that cacao use may have begun as early as 15,000 years
ago. The earliest clear archeological evidence shows cacao use in
the area of modern Honduras, at about 2,000 years BC. The first
known cacao-using civilization was the Olmecs, who lived in an area
of what is now Mexico.

The Olmecs are best known historically for the huge stone sculptures
they quarried and carved, and for originating the word cacao.
After the Olmecs, the Mayans were known to use vast amounts of
cacao. Mayan history even tells of several gods connected with the
substance Chac, Hobnil and Ek Chuah.

Mayan shamans utilized cacao for various purposes, including a

variety of rituals. Once the Maya culture collapsed, the Aztecs
adopted the old Mayan cacao traditions. The Aztecs generally
linked cacao with prosperity, quality and nobility. The modern word
chocolate comes from the Aztec chocoatl, which meant bitter drink
or bitter water.

10 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods

European explorers were introduced to cacao when Columbus first

traded with the Aztecs. Columbuss crew at first mistook cacao beans
for almonds, and wondered greatly at the Aztecs fervor in gathering
up fallen pods. What the explorers did not realize was that cacao
Photos: beans served the Aztecs as currency just as they had served the
Mayans before them.

An interesting and radical twist in cacaos history occurred in 1519,

when Hernan Cortes landed in what is now Mexican territory. Cortes
kidnapped famed Aztec chieftain Montezuma, ruler of the city of
Tenochtitlan in the vicinity of our modern Mexico City. Montezuma
is known to have had a severe chocolate addiction. Tales recount
his habit of imbibing an incredible 50 cups of hot chocolate before
visits to his harem!

Cacaos value among the Aztecs might best be illustrated by accounts

of Spanish raids on Montezumas treasure chambers. There they
found neither gold nor silver, but rather vast stores of cacao beans,
estimated at some 960 million pieces! In fact, cacao beans were
honored as valid currency in the Mexico City region until as recently
as 1887.

When Cortes returned to Spain in 1528, he was probably the first

to bring cacao beans to Europe. The event had many far-reaching
consequences that Cortes never could have imagined.

Europeans were the first to come up with the idea of mixing white
sugar with cacao. American Indians had traditionally favored bitter
cacao and chocolate, though. And today we know how white sugar
ravages the bodys mineral reserves. We know of its drying effects,
and that it is in fact a highly addictive substance. Cacao originally
prized as a medicine and healing food, had its future radically
Photos: changed when people began mixing it with refined sugar.

In 1828, German chemist Johannes Van Houten was awarded a The cacao fruit is an important food source for many jungle creatures,
patent for a process to produce a new low-fat cacao product. For a such as monkeys, parrots and bats. As the fruits are eaten, beans
dozen years he had been searching for a way to use heat to extract fat often drop to the ground, where some develop into new trees. The
from the cacao bean, before finally discovering an efficient method cacao tree germinates quite easily and develops rapidly. Under good
that utilized a hydraulic press, instead. growing conditions, the tree can bear fruit after only five years
Cacaos natural fat content is around 50 percent. With Van Houtens
machine, this could be reduced by almost half, to around 27 percent. A full-grown Theobroma cacao produces about 50 fruits over the
After fat extraction, the cacao was ground to a fine powder, which course of a year, and is usually harvested twice yearly. Most cacao
Van Houten named cocoa. Van Houten also discovered that by trees grow at latitudes between 20 degrees north or south of the
adding two alkali salts to the powder (sodium and potassium equator roughly the zone between Mexico and southern Brazil. The
carbonate) it could be much more easily dissolved in warm water. trees optimum growth temperature is 21 degrees centigrade (70 F).

Van Houtens methods opened the door to cheap mass production The traditional first processing of harvested cacao fruit involved
of cocoa making the tasty powder available to millions. Later scraping the insides (pulp and beans) onto large leaves on the jungle
came the arrival of a popular new variation: milk chocolate. This floor. After 3 to 5 days, the fermenting pulp liquefied and trickled
lighter, creamier treat was the result of cooperation between Swiss away, freeing the beans for a few weeks of drying in the sun.
chemist Henri Nestl (1824-1890) and Swiss chocolate producer
Daniel Peter (1836-1919). Modern cacao fruit processing is normally more controlled, though
procedures vary from area to area. In general, the beans and pulp
In 1867, Henri Nestl developed a method for producing powdered are first separated from the fruits skin, and allowed to ferment. As
milk. This invention alone made the business bearing his name the pulp ferments, it is transformed into an alcoholic liquid which
the worlds largest food company. A short time later, Daniel Peter drains away from the beans. The fermentation process is crucial,
discovered how to use Nestls new milk powder in the chocolate for several reasons. It generates considerable heat, which stimulates
production process. And so, in 1879, The worlds first milk chocolate enzyme activity. The temperature must be prevented from climbing
bar was born. too high, though it must be kept below 50 degrees centigrade
(122 F), or enzyme activation may be inhibited. The enzymes digest
Raw cacao vs. normal cocoa the beans proteins, liberating amino acids which give processed
In making normal chocolate or cocoa powder, raw cacao is heated to cacao its characteristic flavor, well known to chocolate lovers. These
120-130 degrees (248-266 F), resulting in cocoa. To this are normally amino acids play another important role, too: they are more easily
added milk powder, various chemicals, white sugar, and lecithin. The absorbed and utilized by our bodies than the beans unprocessed
lecithin itself is commonly derived from genetically modified soya. proteins would be.
These additives radically alter the chocolates properties. Todays
chocolate production process has strayed so far from its origins With the fermentation step complete, the cacao beans are spread
that many modern chocolate factory workers have never even seen out to dry often in the open, where they can naturally dry in the
raw cacao beans. sun. Drying time depends on local conditions; it may take as much
as a few weeks. During the drying process a fibrous shell or hull
forms around the bean, protecting its precious contents from mold
and bacteria.

the uncooked, unprocessed cacao bean?

The cacao tree fruit and raw cacao processing Raw cacaos varied forms
Cacao is produced using the fruits of the Theobroma cacao tree. The - Whole cacao beans
tree usually reaches from three to ten meters in height, and produces - Cacao nibs (crushed cacao from whole beans)
fruit year-round. The trees leaves are 10-25 cm long and 5-8 cm - Cacao mass (100 percent cacao, milled from shelled,
wide. Cacao flowers are small and pale yellow, and grow directly from roasted beans into a uniform mass)
the trees trunk and branches. Mature cacao fruits are usually green, - Cacao butter (fat cold-pressed from cacao mass)
eventually turning to red, orange, yellow or turquoise. Cacao fruit - Various products and product mixes made from raw cacao
is about 18-20 cm in length, and takes five to six months to mature. (e.g., raw chocolate bars and superfood mixes)
Each fruit contains 20 to 50 cacao beans, each little larger than an
almond and surrounded by the fruits meat. The beans found in
a single fruit provide enough cacao for three to four high-quality
dark chocolate bars.

12 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods
Benefits of cacao use
The cacao trees scientific name, Theobroma, comes from Greek
words meaning food of the gods. Historical grounds for using such a
term are strong. Raw cacao is one of the worlds most nutrition-rich Amazingly enough, there have been more than 300 chemically
and complex food substances, containing more than 1,200 active identified volatile compounds found in the raw cacao bean.
ingredients. A staggering 10 percent of cacaos weight is antioxidants,
elevating cacao to a totally new level as an antioxidant source, in The following compounds play particularly
comparison with virtually any other food substance. significant roles in cacaos influence on pleasure
and brain activity:
Cacaos antioxidant compounds (polyphenols) are particularly 1) Anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamide or AEA)
effective in preventing oxidation of LDL cholesterol (also known Anandamide is a neurotransmitter, occurring naturally in the human
as bad cholesterol). Thus cacao is seen as effective in protection brain where it is synthesized in the brain center responsible for
against various heart diseases. Polyphenols also have blood- higher thought processes. It is classified as a cannabinoid, having a
thinning attributes that can reportedly prevent heart attacks. As a mood-heightening effect and always excreted when we feel happy.
remarkable comparison, the levels of antioxidants in cacao have Cacao is the only food substance currently known to include the
been described as higher than those of blueberry, goji berry, red compound. Anandamide plays a role in generating feelings of well-
wine and pomegranate combined. being, in memory improvement, in eliminating depression and in
experiencing feelings of community. It also stimulates the centers
Cacao is a perfect source of several vitally important minerals, in of the brain associated with motivation.
particular magnesium, iron, manganese, chromium, sulfur, copper,
and zinc. Cacao is also a rich source of fiber and vitamin C. The The abbreviation THC suggests an association with an active
unique attributes of raw cacao are most clearly linked, however, to ingredient of cannabis, 9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Anandamide has
our brain function and feelings of well-being. long been known as a substance which naturally locks in to THC
receptors in the human body. When this occurs, transmission of
Raw cacao is nutritious, aids digestion, urination and breathing, information through the cell membrane is facilitated, and we feel
prevents allergies, and stimulates the heart and brain. Theobromine, a bit high. To be clear, the anandamide excreted during physical
a constituent of cacao, expands the coronary arteries and relaxes exertion or introduced into the system by eating cacao should not be
muscles. Catechins another type of antioxidant found in cacao considered a drug. However, runners high and cacao flow, familiar
prevent heart diseases and cancer. Cacao is also reputed to have to many, do aptly describe the feelings associated with anandamides
aphrodisiac properties, mainly due to its content of phenylethylamine presence.
(PEA) and amino acids (especially arginine) which expand blood
vessels. In addition, the xanthine found in cacao is an inhibitor of In addition to anandamide itself, raw cacao contains anandamide
cyclical GMP phosphodiesterase, and may cause effects similar to inhibitors (N-oleolethanolamine and N-linoleoylethanolamine)
Viagra. Cacao also has thermogenic effects, meaning it causes body which slow the bodys ability to break down anandamide. They
temperature increase and stimulates the metabolism. have the effect of prolonging the feelings of well-being brought
about by the presence of anandamide in the system.


As the human bodys endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide has when we fall in love. In people suffering from depression, PEA
also been termed an endocannabinoid. Effects attributed to the levels are low. So it may well be that the supposed positive effects
substance include hypnotic, hallucinogenic, sedative, and somnolent. of chocolate on our love lives are not too far from the truth.
Endocannabinoids have the structure of eicosanoids, or derivatives PEA activates neurotransmitters in our brains associated with
of arachidonic acid. concentration and perception. It has been found to increase when
our thoughts are deepened, for example in reading a good book, or
Two types of cannabinoid receptors have been identified in the engaging in a project or sporting activity.
body, but only the brains CB1 receptors are associated with the
psychoactive effects of cannabis (THC). Evidently THC mimics The phenomenon known as cacao flow is typically described as loss
the bodys endocannabinoids. It attaches to cannabinoid receptors of the sense of time, with an increase in physical performance. PEA
with only moderate strength, yet slightly more strongly than naturally also increases the effect of noradrenaline on the body, leading to an
occurring anandamide. upsurge in feelings of happiness and pleasure. Raw cacao contains at
least seven different phenylethylamines which are in large measure
Endocannabinoids have a function in protecting the nervous system. destroyed when the cacao is heated.
They are part of the brains reward system, and decrease pain.
Vigorous exercise, as in strenuous sports, increases the production 4) Magnesium
of anandamide. Feelings of euphoria after such activity are attributed Cacao is the richest natural food source of magnesium. There is
to elevated levels of endocannabinoids. more magnesium in 50 grams of cacao than in the typical magnesium
tablets sold as supplements. About 70 percent of our bodys
The endocannabinoid system is involved in a variety of psychological magnesium is found in the bones, and magnesium is one of the
processes including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, memory, and most important minerals for building and maintaining strong bone
coordination of movement. The brain has a higher density of structure. Magnesium is a catalyst for nearly all enzymes connected
cannabinoid receptors than of any other receptor type, and the with neuron function, as well as for the ATP-ADP reaction in cellular
endocannabinoid system affects all known physiologic systems. energy production.

2) Theobromine Brain activity is dependent upon ATP, and magnesium is required

Many suppose that the cheering-up effect of raw cacao is due to its for ATP utilization. Hence, when magnesium levels in the brain
caffeine content. However, cacao contains only about 1/20th of are adequate, clear thinking is possible. Cerebrospinal fluid, which
the caffeine found in the coffee. Cacao does contain theobromine, surrounds the brain and spinal cord, contains more magnesium
however, in addition to its relatively low caffeine content. than blood plasma. Magnesium is essential to the functioning of
Theobromine extremely rare in nature is caffeines sister molecule more than 300 different enzymes in the body many related to
(both are methylxanthines). Theobromines refreshing effect is quite brain function and thought. Magnesium is also necessary for proper
long-lasting, since the livers enzymes break it down slowly; only pituitary gland function the master gland of the endocrine system,
about 50 percent of the amount of theobromine taken in has been regulating relay of chemical signals (hormones) throughout the body.
metabolized, six to ten hours after consumption. Theobromine does
not stimulate the nervous system in the same way caffeine does. In 5) MAOI (monoamine oxidase inhibitors)
fact, its nerve-stimulating effect is only about one-fourth that caused When we are young, our bodies secrete greater quantities of
by drinking coffee. neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, and
adrenaline. This may explain why young people seem to experience
NOTE: Dogs are missing the enzyme necessary for processing theobromine greater enjoyment and enthusiasm, and tend to be more adventurous.
so giving a dog chocolate or cacao may have serious consequences.
Certain enzymes in our brains (MAO-A and MAO-B) use and
3) Phenylethylamine (PEA) recycle neurotransmitters. As we age, these enzymes become more
Phenylethylamine is a neurotransmitter in the brain, similar to aggressive, and can begin recycling neurotransmitters too quickly
anandamide. Our levels of phenylethylamine increase, for example, resulting in lowered neurotransmitter levels in our brains.

14 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods
Top 10
ways to use
a whole cacao bean
1. Eat whole cacao beans just as they are, one by
one. Chew carefully, and enjoy the flavor of native
2. Mix cacao beans in smoothies to add an interesting
Low neurotransmitter levels have been linked to feelings of discomfort, flavor (and all cacaos benefits).
and to depression. The prospect of keeping neurotransmitter levels
high has led to production of synthetic MAOIs, for use in certain 3. Dip cacao beans in raw agave nectar or organic
narcotics and antidepressants. These MAOIs can also be found in honey, and enjoy their flavor in its simplicity.
nature, for example in ayahuacha and tobacco. Though there is as yet
no concrete research data to prove the presence of MAOIs in raw 4. Freeze cacao beans coated with agave nectar or
cacao, the prevailing belief is that it does include these substances. organic honey and enjoy cold a heavenly snack!

Disadvantages of use 5. Include cacao beans in herbal teas; especially

Many types of beans including the cacao bean contain toxins as good along with maca powder.
a natural protection mechanism. Because cacao beans do contain
toxins (alkaloids), as well as histamine, excessive intake should be 6. Serve crushed cacao beans with ice cream.
avoided. Raw cacao may cause tiredness, headache and muscle
soreness. These effects may be due to hypersensitivity to histamine, 7. Add crushed cacao beans to muesli or other
or simply due to the fact that cacao doesnt fit harmoniously with cereals.
everyones bodily makeup and balances.
8. Add cacao beans to your favorite snack mix.
Cacao contains oxalic acid, as do many other foods such as spinach,
rhubarb and beetroot. Oxalic acid binds up a certain amount of 9. Make raw chocolate and enjoy the worlds
the bodys calcium, so its a good idea to eat plenty of calcium-rich healthiest delicacy!
foods when using cacao, to avoid a calcium deficiency. Cacaos oxalic
acid concentration is generally between 1,520 and 5,000 ppm (parts 10. Package cacao beans in a fancy wrapping or bag
per million). By comparison, spinach contains two to six times that and give them as gifts to friends and loved ones.

Another reason not to eat cacao in excess is its high concentration

of arginine. Too much arginine can cause sores in the mouth. Cacao
can also act as a laxative, so overconsumption may lead to diarrhea.

NOTE: Many who believe they are allergic to cacao are actually experiencing
allergic reaction to fillers used chocolate production, such as milk powder. Further,
some who have an allergic reaction to cacao which has been heated (as in the
roasting step of chocolate manufacture) experience no such reaction to raw cacao.

Selected research
Interestingly, researchers have found that kissing with chocolate in
the mouth causes greater feelings of enjoyment than kissing with no
chocolate present. Couples in their twenties wearing heart rate and
brain function monitors kissed with and without melted chocolate
in their mouths, and readings were compared. In the presence of
chocolate, heart rates were doubled (in some cases going from a
60 beat per minute resting rate up to 140 bpm). Participants also
reported greater (more lasting) pleasure. Though normal kissing
also increases heart rate, the effect is not as persistent as when
chocolate is present.

How do I recognize Size
The best quality cacao beans are large (bigger

quality cacao beans?

than almonds nearly the size of Brazil nuts),
heavy and soft. The shell of a quality cacao bean
is papery and loose.
Quality cacao beans are always organic and grown Color
in nutrient-rich soil. Cacao beans can be found in many different
colors white, violet, red, metallic gray, copper
Fermentation and perhaps the most popular, varying shades of
It is useful to understand the effects of different brown. The beans color doesnt really indicate
cacao processing and production methods on the anything about its quality. Taste is the more
final products nutritional properties. The most important factor.
important factor influencing cacao quality is the
fermentation process (and whether the beans have Taste
been fermented or not). Processed or badly stored cacao can be
recognized by its taste. If you detect a bitter,
Both fermented and non-fermented cacao grassy, moldy, rubbery or smoky flavor, quality
beans are good to eat. Non-fermented beans is far from the best. One important factor in
do not always have the usual characteristic tasting cacao beans is to notice the variety of
chocolate flavor, but their effects on some bodily different flavors during the first twenty chews or
functions such as neurotransmission may so. Three to five different flavors emerge from
be stronger. Antioxidant compounds associated quality cacao. Inferior cacao presents the taste
with violet-pigmented foods are present in buds with very few different flavors. The overall
higher concentrations in non-fermented cacao taste of quality cacao should be cooling and a bit
beans. Non-fermented cacao bean mass contains dry, oily and naturally sweet, slightly bitter, and
approximately 11-13 percent antioxidants (of with a waxy texture.
which 65-70 percent are polyphenols). During
fermentation, polyphenols go through certain Texture
reactions, with peptides and proteins, for example, When you bite into a cacao bean, it should have
reducing their concentration by as much as 80 a firm texture. If a bean is light, airy and soft, it
percent. has probably been stored for too long a period,
and become musty. When crushing beans, look
In fully fermented cacao beans, the cacaos carefully for any green or white mold inside them.
naturally resident (friendly) bacteria eat all There should be no mold or fungus present.
foreign bacteria on the surface of the beans. Quality cacao has a slick exterior. Crushed beans
have various shades and tints. It is possible to
About half of the alkaloids found in a beans shell check the quality of cacao by spraying hydrogen
(such as caffeine) are absorbed into the bean itself, peroxide (e.g., a 3 percent H2O2 solution) on
but in an adaptogenic form. An adaptogen is a food the surface of the bean, then observing for any
substance or herb which helps the body adapt to reaction. Unfavorable anaerobic organisms on
environmental factors such as stress. Adaptogens the beans shell will cause a bubbling reaction.
balance our bodys hormone, circulation and
lymphatic system functions, allowing the body
to function more energetically or more calmly,
as appropriate. In a way, adaptogens control our
bodys accelerator and brake pedal, adapting to
the needs of the moment.

16 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods
How to use?
Raw cacao is traditionally used in producing
various beverages. Its also a great addition to a
wide variety of drinks. Whole cacao beans can be
eaten just as they are, or as part of a snack mix
or dipped in organic honey. Whole cacao beans
should be peeled, to avoid possible alkaloids or
impurities on the shell. Adding cacao nibs to raw
chocolate also gives it a more pleasant feel in the
mouth. Nibs are also easy to add to smoothies
or cereals. Cacao drinks can be made from cacao
powder, which can also be added to porridge
or used in making cocoa, smoothies or various
desserts. Cacao mass is good by itself; it can
also be grated over ice cream or other desserts.
Grated cacao mass is also perfect for making raw

Melted cacao butter makes a great base for raw

chocolate. The butter is also good for external What to do to a
whole cacao bean?
use it contains plenty of powerful antioxidants,
making it an excellent body cream, especially for
sunbathing. It can protect sensitive skin areas such
as the lips and eyelids. When applied to the skin, Top three ways to peel a cacao bean
cacao butter liquefies its melting point is 35 1. Peel the shell away carefully with your thumbnail
degrees centigrade (95 F). or a small knife.

2. Soak in water for about 30 minutes the

softened shell should pull off easily.

What other 3. Soak in water for one to two hours, then dry
under warm heat the shell should turn dry and

foods combine
crisp, easy to remove.

well with cacao?

Recommended usage
Recommended daily usage of cacao beans is 10-
20 beans.
If youre looking for a maximum combination
of benefits, try combining raw cacao with the For cacao nibs, this means around four to five
following: vanilla, mango, mulberry, papaya, tablespoons (20-25 grams). Experience users and
passion fruit, citrus fruits, goji berry, Inca berry, those of larger body size might take up to 60-70
durian, raspberry, agave, pollen, carob, raw cashews, beans in a day.
ginger, cacao products, maca, spirulina, aloe vera,
AFA (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae), cherry, mint, Recommended usage of cacao powder is one to
chili, cayenne, spinach, hemp products, and bee three tablespoons (6-18 grams) a day. Up to 40
products. grams of powder may be used, if split up into
smaller quantities taken throughout the day.

Another way to calculate good daily usage is to

figure on one cacao bean for every eight to ten
kilograms of body weight. More experienced users
can take as much as one bean per one to four

Chapter 3

{ Lycium barbarum }
The goji berry had its origins in Tibet. At this time it is nearly impossible
to obtain Tibetan goji berries, due to their limited crops. Most goji
berries now on the market come from China and Mongolia, though
they are cultivated worldwide, including in Europe.

Other names for the goji berry

Wolfberry, lycium, boxthorn, matrimony vine, desert thorn, red diamond,
Duke of Argyles tea plant, gou qi zi, bastard jasmine, ningxia quoqi,

Most common species

Lycium barbarum, Lycium chinensis, Lycium andersonii, Lycium
berlandieri, Lycium brevipes, Lycium californicum, Lycium
carolinianum, Lycium cooperi, Lycium exsertum, Lycium fermontii,
Lycium halimifolium, Lycium pallidum. Lycium parishii, Lycium
puberlum, Lycium torreyi, Lycium eleganus.

18 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods
Tibetan goji
The berry of longevity
The berry of jollity
Red diamond

Nutrients and bioactive ingredients (/100g)

Calories: 391 kcal
Proteins: 11.7 %
Carbohydrates: 67.7 %
Fat: 0.9 %

Vitamin B1 0.15 mg
Vitamin B2 1.3 mg
Vitamin B6
Vitamin A 120 ug
Vitamin C <173 mg
Vitamin E
Omega 6 fatty acids

22 minerals among others

Zinc 2 mg
Iron 11 mg
Calcium 112 mg
Potassium 1132 mg
Selenium 50 ug
Sodium 24 mg
Germanium 124 ppm
16 amino acids (whole protein so contains all 8
amino acids that are necessary to our bodies)
Polysaccharides (3036 %)
Beta-sitosterol and other phytosterols
Carotenoids (zeaxanthin, lutein, xanthophyll, cryptoxanthin)
Sesquiterpenes (cyperone, solavetivone)

Goji berry The school of learning
The Greek word lyceum (source of Lycium in the gojis scientific centimeters long. At this stage plant growth accelerates dramatically,
name) means school of learning. The Chinese have traditionally sometimes reaching as much as 150 cm in a single month. As the
believed that there is so much information inherent in the goji berry, flowers are shed, the berries begin to ripen.
that it teaches its eater the secrets of herbalism and life in general.
Goji berries vary in color from pale yellow to bright orange to dark
Well-known Li Ching-Yuen, whose legend has made both the goji red. They are not picked bare-handed, as the oils present on human
berry and ginseng root famous, is said to have lived to the age of skin turn the berries black. About the size of a raisin, the berries are
256 years (16771933). Lis legend tells of how, at the age of 13, usually oval in shape, similar to an American football.
he met three Taoist wise men reputed to be more than 300 years
of age. They taught Li the significance of spring water, herbalism In Asia alone there are 85 different goji species. Some 15 species have
and proper nutrition. Later, at around the age of 50, Li met a Taoist been successfully cultivated in the Americas. Most of the worlds
who claimed to be more than 500 years old. When Li asked him the berries come from Ningxia province in central China, or from the
secret of his long life, the sage advised the younger man to eat soup western province of Xijia.
made of goji berries every day. Li Ching-Yuen is said to have lectured
at the University of Beijing when he was more than 200 years old. Available forms of goji
His daily tea was known to include goji berries, ginseng and reishi. - Dried berries
- Powders
Chinese, Mongolians and Tibetans have cultivated goji berries for the - Extracts
last 5,000 years. Traditionally, goji berries were picked at a specific - Juices
time and dried in the dark. Next the berries were soaked overnight
in wine, then dried for 94 days in an open place, so they could
absorb energy from the sun and moon. When the treated berries
were ready, they were milled, mixed with honey and formed into
vitamin pills. Today the berry is usually dried to a raisin-like form,
easy to store and use.

Goji berry characteristics and treatment

Goji plants adapt extremely well to various environments, and can
grow almost any kind of soil. The plant can reach a few meters
in height, and normally have roots about one meter deep. The
plants oval leaves vary in size from about three to ten centimeters,
depending upon the species and growing conditions. During the
summer, autumn and winter the goji may drop its leaves, making
recognition more difficult. In spring, though, new leaves appear and
the plant blooms, white and purple flowers filling its branches. About
ten weeks after they appear in spring, the plants leaves are several Photo:

The goji berry is considered

a secret to a long life, known
for thousands of years as
the berry of longevity.


20 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods
The benefits of use
The goji berry is considered the most nutrient-rich fruit in the world.
(Botanically, the berry is classified as a fruit.) This miracle berry of
the Himalayas is generally suitable for all blood groups and body
types, and may even have medicinal properties (1).

The goji has a strong history in Chinese medicine, with many

authorities claiming it to be the very best of the 8,000 herbs of
traditional Chinese medicine. The goji berry is considered a secret
to a long life, known for thousands of years as the berry of longevity.

Goji berries contain very high concentrations of valuable

antioxidants such as carotenoids and flavonoids, guarding the body
against oxidation. The goji is reported to have significant positive
effects in relation to various cardiovascular and inflammatory
diseases (2)(3)(4).

Goji also contains two important antioxidants linked to healthy

vision: zeaxanthin and lutein. Various vision problems have
traditionally been treated with goji. Modern research confirms that The berrys content of polysaccharides (very large, long-chain sugar
it may have favorable effects, for example in treatment of glaucoma molecules) is particularly high, at 30-36 percent. The polysaccharides
(5)(10)(11). found in goji may also provide strong immune system support (8).

As already mentioned, the goji berrys antioxidant content is quite Beta-carotene intensifies thymus gland function and increases the
high. For example, gojis typically contain 2.4 times more antioxidants immunesystem-stimulating effect of interferons.
that blueberries. However, the greatest benefits attributed to the berry
are its strengthening effects on the immune system. Its potential Goji helps the body to form choline, which combats free radicals.
effect as an immunomodulator seems particularly promising (9). Free radicals in the body oxidize cells, and have been linked to
Current studies suggest the goji berrys immune system support neurological decay and Alzheimers disease.
is mainly due to three of its constituent nutrients: polysaccharides
(LBP 1-4), beta-carotene, and germanium. The presence of oxidized cholesterol in the bloodstream has been
linked to heart disease. When free radicals oxidize cholesterol
molecules, they can adhere to blood vessel walls and form a stiff
coating called plaque. Plaque can accumulate and combine with other
materials, eventually blocking blood flow. When such a blood vessel
blockage occurs in one of the arteries supplying the heart muscle,
a heart attack can result.

Fortunately, the body has a natural defense mechanism that helps

prevent free radicals from oxidizing cholesterol. An enzyme known
as SOD (superoxide dismutase) is an extremely strong antioxidant
that can prevent cholesterol oxidation. Chinese research shows
taking goji berries can increase the bodys production of SOD (4).

Goji contains 22 minerals and 18 amino acids. This super berry

provides all the amino acids essential to our bodys functions, and
10-14 percent of its weight is protein.

Photo: Sten Porse (Wikipedia)

In the human body, a substance called growth hormone influences Certain phytonutrients found in goji support and improve the livers
the function of all other hormones. Substances called sesquiterpenes cleansing function. Gojis contain betaine, which cleanses the liver
stimulate the pineal and pituitary glands to increase growth hormone and guards against the effects of the toxic amino acid homocysteine
production. Goji berries are the only known natural food source in the circulation.
of these sesquiterpenes. Goji also contains significant quantities of
L-glutamine and L-arginine, which work together to support growth Note: Goji berries are not an especially good source of vitamin
hormone production. C, though many sources claim otherwise. For example, a point
commonly seen in advertisements for goji is something on the order
A 70-year-olds body produces only about one tenth the amount of of 500 times more vitamin C than an orange. That would mean
growth hormone as a 20-year-olds. The gojis stimulation of growth vitamin C would account for one fourth of a gojis weight, which
hormone production must be one of the reasons the berry has such is simply not the case. However, according to various researchers,
a strong traditional connection to youth and longevity. dried goji berries do contain roughly same amount of vitamin C
as most citrus fruits (29-148 mg/100 g) which would be a fairly
Goji is also strongly linked to increased sexual drive. This is well high amount. Another study, however, found the berries to contain
described in the Chinese saying: He who travels 1,000 miles from considerably less than that.
home should not eat goji berries.
Disadvantages of use
The goji is considered an adaptogen. This is a term given to medicinal Goji berries are not reported to have caused allergic reactions or
plants which help body adapt to challenging conditions such as other dangerous effects in users. Goji does contain a tiny amount
stress. Continuous stress can have a weakening effect on the immune of the toxic alkaloid atropine, but at around 119 parts per million,
system, and disrupt digestion and hormone activity all leading to a it is well below poisonous levels.
decline in vitality and energy. Adaptogens guard against these effects
by supporting immune function, helping to balance the endocrine Selected research
system and stimulating body and mind. Perhaps these factors have Observational study on combining goji berries polysaccharides
contributed to gojis reputation as an aphrodisiac. with LAK/IL-2 therapy in 75 cancer patients (Cao Yang and Du
1994): 75 patients with advanced cancer were given lymphocyte-
Examples of traditional uses of the goji berry in natural activated killer cells and interleukin-2. Some of them were also
medicine include: given polysaccharide extract from goji berries. Remission rate for
the patients who only received immunotherapy was 16.1 percent.
- Protecting and cleansing the liver However, the patients who also received polysaccharide extract had
- Increasing kidney function and hydrating the body a remission rate of 40.9 percent. The length of remission for the
- Cleansing the blood and stabilizing blood sugar latter patients was also of longer duration.
- Improving eye sight and treating eye diseases
- Strengthening sexual drive
- Increasing immunity and preventing infections
- Extending life
- Alkalizing the body

22 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods
How to recognize
quality goji Berries
Some goji berries from China might be labeled with an organic Recommended usage
stamp, even though the producers lack a valid organic farming Recommended daily usage for dried goji berries is one handful (15-
certificate. The FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) has found 45 grams). For powdered goji, this translates to about one teaspoon
high concentrations of various pesticides and fertilizers in Chinese- or more daily. As for goji extract, it is possible to gain beneficial
grown goji berries during the 2000s. Chinese regulations are also effects from use of one gram of extract per kilogram of body
somewhat loose regarding radiation of foods. weight.

Here are some factors to consider when choosing goji berries.

1. Favor organically grown goji berries. Many wild goji berries have
been treated with sulfur dioxide or other chemicals.
2. Find out the berries origin. Chinese berries are often radiated
many times, and may be sold and shipped without quality standards
3. Choose soft and slightly moist berries. Avoid berries that are
hard and dry.
4. The size of the berry doesnt tell anything about the quality.
5. Choose berries that have dark red color (but not unusually dark).
6. A good-quality goji berry is a dark red, raisin-like, dried berry. The
flavor is somewhere between cranberry and cherry, with a slightly
herbal aftertaste.

How to use?
Goji berries are quite easy to use. The dried berry can be eaten just
as it is simply snacking on them is probably the simplest way to
add them to your diet. Gojis can also be added to snack mixes or
trail mixes, porridges, rice, salads, desserts or raw chocolate.

Goji berries mix well with tea. When steeped, the berries valuable
polysaccharides are made even more easily absorbed and utilized.
Add 10-15 berries to your tea before steeping. The water should be
heated to 60-65 degrees centigrade (140-150 F) but dont boil. This
is roughly finger temperature hot, but not so hot that you cant put
your finger in the water. Berries can also be added to soups.

Dried gojis can be soaked in water before using. Drinking the soaking
water afterwards is also a good idea it contains valuable nutrients.

Goji berries are an especially good superfood for children they

often fall in love with the candy-like berries immediately!

What goes well

Powdered goji berries are well suited for the same uses as other
dried or powdered berries: smoothies, porridge, raw chocolate, etc.

Store goji berries in an airtight container they readily absorb

moisture from the environment.
with goji berries?
Goji berries are traditionally used together with wild yam, mulberry,
NOTE: Many commercially available juice drinks containing goji are boiled ginseng and licorice. Try taking the berries with raw cacao, maca,
as part of their processing. Since this can destroy or seriously reduce the value of cashews or mint. The very high antioxidant composition of both
many of the gojis important nutrients, such products should not be considered goji berries and raw cacao support each other, and their synergistic
the same as those containing unprocessed goji berries. Always favor original, raw qualities double the effect in our bodies. Goji berries and cacao
superfoods with the least possible processing. High heat can be especially damaging nibs blend well in a snack mix! Goji berries improve digestion, so
to superfoods sensitive raw materials such as phytonutrients and enzymes. It its great to blend them with foods that are harder to digest, such
is highly recommended that you enjoy all valuable superfoods in their original as nuts and seeds.
and unheated form.

Chapter 4

{Lepidium meyenii}

Other names
Maca root, Peruvian ginseng, mace, maca-
maca, maino, ayak chichira, ayak willku

Most common species

Lepidium meyenii, Lepidium peruvianum

24 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods
Natures Viagra
Perus ginseng

Nutrients and bioactive ingredients (/100g)

Calories: 368 kcal

Proteins: 10.2 %
Carbohydrates: 59 %
Fat: 2.2 %

Vitamin C 286 mg
Vitamin B1 5650 ug
Vitamin B2 390 ug
Vitamin B6 1140 ug
Fatty acids (e.g. palmitic, stearin, linoleic, and arachidonic acids)
18 amino acids (7 indispensable)
Arginine 994 mg
Valine 793 mg
Methionine 280 mg
Isoleucine 474 mg
Leucine 910 mg
Lysine 545 mg
Glutamine 1565 mg
Alanie 631 mg
Tyrosine 306 mg
Tryptophan 49 mg
Serine 504 mg
Proline 5 mg
Phenylalanine 553 mg
Phytoterols 50-100 ug (e.g. beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol,
brassicasterol, ergosterol, campesterol, ergostadienol)
Alkaloids (macaina 1-4, macamides)
Potassium 1600-2000 mg
Calcium 300-350 mg
Phosphorus 300-350 mg
Iron 15 mg
Manganese 800 ug
Copper 6 ug
Zinc 380 ug
Sodium 2005 mg
Iodine 520 ug
Saponins and tannins (e.g. beta-ecdysone,
Fibers 9 %


Today, when Peruvians are asked why
one should use maca, the answer is
quite direct: For the sex, of course.

Short history of maca

According to archaeological evidence, maca has been cultivated in According to old Peruvian shamans (Pacos), When maca root is used,
the Peruvian Andes for about 2,600 years. Early findings of maca the spirits are close. Today, when Peruvians are asked why one should
cultivation date as far back as 1,400 B.C. According to one legend, use maca, the answer is quite direct: For the sex, of course.
a warrior tribe known as the Pumpush came to the Andes from the
Amazon rainforest and began cultivating maca around 1,200 B.C. Maca root and its collection
Later, the Yaros came to the Andean highlands and continued to Maca is a cruciferous vegetable, related to the turnip, rutabaga,
grow large maca plantations, about 1100-1470 A.D. cabbage and radish. Maca roots are white, yellow or red, with the
yellow varieties considered the finest in Peru. The maca root is
Maca is most commonly associated with strong Inca warriors, who typically a bit larger than a turnip, at about five to eight centimeters in
were told to consume plenty of maca before going to battle. The diameter. The plants root is a little smaller than many of its relatives,
same warriors were forbidden to use maca though, once an enemy and its leaves grow low to the ground. The plants blossoms are
village was conquered. The idea was to protect village women white, and similar to other cruciferous vegetables. It is propagated
from sexually attuned warriors. When Spanish conquerors arrived by distribution of seeds.
in the Andes, their cattle suffered from the high altitude. Locals
recommended feeding the cattle maca. The Spaniards were amazed Maca grows wild under extremely challenging conditions, at altitudes
at the positive effect on the cattle. Some even began using maca as of 3,500-4,800 meters accounting for some of the plants special
a form of currency. characteristics.

Gerhard Walpers named maca Lepidium meyenii in 1846. Based on Even though maca is natively a perennial plant, it is grown as an
a sampling conducted in the 1960s, researchers believe that most of annual. In June or July, seven to nine months after planting, the
maca sold as Lepidium meyenii is actually from the roots of a newer root is harvested.
species, Lepidium peruvianumin.
Maca grows in exceptionally harsh conditions and at such high
In the 1900s, maca plantations nearly vanished from the Andes. In altitudes that there are normally no trees or grass growing near to
1979, Perus agricultural department recorded only 70 acres devoted it. Daytime temperatures can fluctuate between +18 and -10 degrees
to maca cultivation. Largely due to animal testing done by Peruvian centigrade (64 and 14 F). Perhaps because maca has had to adapt to
biologist Dr. Gloria Chanon de Popovic, macas popularity has grown such extreme conditions, it has body-warming qualities that make
exponentially across the world. Today, the Quechua tribe cultivates it an excellent superfood, especially for hikers and people living in
maca at altitudes of 2,700-3,000 meters. Maca can even be found colder climates.
growing at more than 4 kilometers, high in the Andes making it
the highest-altitude food crop in the world.

26 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods

The maca root tends to harden rapidly after harvesting, so

traditionally it is dried and preserved, then ground to a powder for
use. Dried maca root remains good for up to seven years.

Maca has long been valued as a trade crop. For example, maca
brought from high in the mountains was exchanged for raw cacao
from lowland rainforests, and the two foods have historically been
used in combination.

Available forms of maca

- Powders (for a video on maca powder production, go to
- Capsules (capsules protect powder from oxidation, preserving
- Pieces of whole root
- Tablets
- Gelatin powders
- Different species, such as red maca


The benefits of use - energy,
vitality and sexual function
Maca is a potent adaptogen, supporting kidney function, increasing According to research done in 1961, maca increased fertility in
physical performance and energy, and relieving stress. The term rats. Research followed into whether it would have similar effects
adaptogen is given to medicinal plants that help the body adapt to in hamsters, sheep, cows, and finally humans (18). Maca was, for
challenging conditions such as stress. In addition, maca supports example, found to increase the quality and quantity of semen in rams.
the endocrine system and balances hormones. It has been shown Some of this effect is thought to stem from macas high levels of
to enhance fertility in both men and women. arginine, a substance clinically linked to increased semen production.

Maca is used to treat impotence and erectile dysfunction, increase In 2002, human experiments conducted over a period of four
vitality, ease menopausal troubles, relieve mood fluctuations, and months found that dosages of 1.5 to 3 grams of maca increased
to alleviate problems caused by mucosal dehydration. Maca is also sexual drive and semen quality in a study group of Asian men. Sexual
used to help regulate the menstrual cycle, clear the mind, enhance desire reportedly increased by 180 percent, and levels of DHEA
memory, relieve depression, and improve sleep quality. (dehydroepiandrosterone related to testosterone production)
increased for most of the men studied, while stress levels decreased.
Maca has traditionally been used to relieve stress and balance the In light of these results (7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)
hormone system. Many report that it helps remarkably in controlling (18)(19) maca has established its position around the world as a
menstrual pain, premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and stress (1)(2)(3). superherb, improving sexual drive and fertility.

Continuous stress can weaken the immune system, disrupt digestion, Maca can safely be used together with diindolylmethane (DIM) to
and adversely affect hormone activity. This leads to declines in vitality support prostate function. Research studies have shown that DIM
and energy. Adaptogens help guard the body against such effects, can prevent conversion of testosterone to estrogen. Increase in
bolster the immune system and stimulate both mind and body (4). testosterone compared to estrogen is linked to a healthy prostate.

Different adaptogens achieve these effects in different ways. Peruvian Scientific research also shows that an increase in DIM raises levels
biologist Gloria Chacon de Popovic believes that maca influences of good estrogen (2-hydroxyestrogen) and lowers the levels of
the body through the hypothalamus, adrenal gland and pituitary. She bad estrogen (16-hydroxyestrogen). Nettles have been found to be
developed a theory that maca increases energy, vitality and sexual effective supplements for protecting this same function. Maca can
desire by stimulating the function of these glands. Other researchers be used together with other herbs or products (e.g., progesterone,
believe macas influence is simply based on its tremendous nutrient DHEA, wild yam, nettle) to improve hormone activity.
density. When the body receives an abundance of nutrients, energy
and mood improves. Macas nutrient density probably explains most, Traditionally, maca has also been used to improve memory and
but not all of its effects. learning (20)(21)(22). Maca may also be useful in treating various
addictions, and might even have anti-carcinogenic effects (23)(24).
Maca has become well known in the sporting world for its ability to
increase energy, endurance, physical performance, blood oxygenation Many users will notice macas effects in as little as one or two days.
and release of neurotransmitters in the brain (5). Adaptogens support Others may not notice this adaptogens results sooner than two
immune function and are reported to increase general energy levels weeks or so.
by 10-15 percent on average. Maca is an extremely constructive food,
containing 18 different amino acids as well as various phytosterols.
Athletes have long used maca also in combination with other
supplements such as steroids, because it appears to decrease side

Maca is efficient at stabilizing hormone activity in both sexes (6).

Its effect of increasing sexual desire is well known in traditional
Peruvian cultures, and information on this area is slowly finding its
way to our attention. In 1999, an article in the Miami Herald called
maca a natural Viagra. Maca is becoming an alternative to Viagra
for some, the difference being that Viagra is effective on the physical
side of intercourse, while maca apparently acts to increase libido.
Maca is particularly recommended for people using antidepressants,
since such medications may decrease sexual drive.

28 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods
Maca has traditionally been used in treating such ailments as: Taking large quantities of maca can lead to formation of intestinal
- Anemia gases. For this reason, when consuming large amounts of maca it
- Chronic fatigue is advisable to also take digestion-enhancing supplements such as
- Depression probiotics, enzymes or goji berries.
- Low sexual appetite
- Malnutrition People who have suffered from hormone-derived cancer (e.g., breast
- Menstrual disturbances and menopause and prostate cancer) should avoid using maca.
- Stomach cancer
- Stress Selected research
- Memory disorders Perhaps the best-known effect of maca is its enhancement of sexual
- Concentration problems drive, in either sex. In a study of rats with erectile problems, maca
- Thyroid gland ache increased copulation 400 percent compared to a control group
- Sleeping problems (Zheng, Urology, April 2000). In a study group of men and women,
- High blood pressure and elevated cholesterol levels maca helped to increase sexual desire, vaginal lubrication and semen
- Tuberculosis production by almost 30 percent, semen quality by 184 percent, and
semen composition by 204 percent (Gonzales). Semen quantity
Disadvantages of use increases were noted in study animals just 72 hours after consuming
Research studies have not discovered evidence of toxic or harmful maca (Chacon).
impact of maca. These findings are supported by thousands of years
of daily use in Peru (25).

No clear delineation has been made regarding use of maca by

athletes. However, no adaptogens were included in the doping list
published in 2009 by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), so maca
may safely be used without fear of doping charges.




How to recognize quality maca?
1. Quality maca smells strong and heavy.
2. Quality maca has a strong flavor, for many slightly pungent.
3. High protein content usually indicates optimal growth environment and quality- conscious
production methods.
4. Quality maca is cultivated by natural methods, in its natural environment (2,000-4,000 meters
altitude) and harvested at maturity.

How to use?
Maca is an excellent addition to a morning smoothie. Morning is a particularly opportune time
to take maca because of its energizing and refreshing effects and a smoothie is so fast and easy
to make. Maca mixes well in porridge, tea or coffee (macoffee) and also has its place in super-
smoothies, desserts and raw chocolate. Maca can also be mixed with various juices.

NOTE: Maca should be stored in the refrigerator or some other cool place.

Is it possible to eat too much maca? Of course it is moderation in all things is a good principle
to remember and follow. Nonetheless, research hasnt found maca-related toxic effects. In some
animal tests, the more maca the animals ate, the greater their sexual drive and desire became. Id
like to emphasize the moderation principle with regard to maca use, particularly until the body
has become accustomed to it.

Recommended usage
Recommended daily usage for maca powder is two to four tablespoons (10-20 grams). However,
its good to start out with small portions (perhaps one tablespoon) and gradually increase.

In using any adaptogen, it is recommended that you adopt a routine that includes break periods.
For example: Take maca daily for three months, then do not use it for a month; then begin
another three-month use period, and so on. Similarly, you might use maca for three weeks, take
a weeks break and begin use again.

What goes well with maca?

The best possible effects have been found when maca is used in combination with coconut oil,
lucuma, raw cacao, tribulus, muira puama, raw guarana, spirulina, hemp seeds, suma root or goji

30 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods
Photo: Navitas Naturals

Chapter 5

{Arthospira platensis, Arthospira maxima}
Most spirulina comes from Hawaii or
Asian countries such as Taiwan.

Most common species

Spirulina pacifica
Spirulina azteca
Spirulina maxima
Spirulina platensis
Spirulina fusiformis

32 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods
Worlds most nutritious food
Perfect food

Nutrients and bioactive ingredients (/100g)

Calories: 293 kcal

Proteins: 71 %
Carbohydrates: 16.9 %
Fat: 7 %

Vitamin B1 1.02 mg
Vitamin B2 990 mcg
Vitamin B3 6.21 mg
Vitamin B6 130 mcg
Vitamin B12 0.2 mg
Vitamin E 19 mg
Vitamin A 15,030 IU
Inositol 10.4 mcg
Biotin 0.4 mg/kg
Folic acid 0.9 mcg
Beta-carotene 100 mg
Chlorophyll 237 mg
Calcium 120 mg
Magnesium 144 mg
Iron 58 mg
Phosphorus 312 mg
Potassium 1.54 mg
Sodium 456 mg
Manganese 2.5 mg
Zinc 360 mcg
Selenium 0.04 mg
Boron 0.3 mg
Molybdenum 30 mcg
Omega 3 fatty acids (DHA 0.435 mg)
Omega 6 fatty acids (GLA 300 mg)
Super oxide dismutase (SOD) 26,400 IU
Zeaxantina 36.1 mg
Lutein 28.9 mg
Cryptoxanthin 55.6 mg
Phycocyanin 3330 mg


Short history of spirulina
Historically, two civilizations are known to have been heavy Spirulina is harvested from growing pools every 24 hours. The
consumers of spirulina: Peoples who lived in area of modern Mexico process is closely monitored using laboratory tests and measurement
City, and in the area of Lake Chad, in Africa. For thousands of years techniques.
in the Mexico City area, spirulina was primarily used as a protein
source. Before the coming of the Spanish conquistadors in 1519, the After the spirulina biomass has been collected, it is washed and dried.
Aztecs used spirulina, often mixing it with raw cacao. Lake Texcoco The result is the familiar powdered form of spirulina.
near Mexico City still produces some of the highest-quality spirulina
in the world. Since the 1970s, spirulinas use has radically increased. The entire process, from pool to powder, takes less than 15 minutes.
More than 1,000 tons of spirulina are harvested annually; this figure
is expected to grow to some 220,000 tons by 2020. The product is packaged in powder form, or through additional
steps in capsules or tablets.
Spirulina and its production
Spirulina is a microscopic, single-celled cyanobacteria that has lived Spirulina is green in many ways
on earth since the beginnings of life. The densely nutrition-rich Not only is spirulina one of the most nutrient-rich foods in the
superfood people commonly call spirulina is actually the biomass world, its also an extremely ecology-friendly choice as a protein
formed by the bacteria, dried and packaged. Though spirulina is source. Spirulina production doesnt require anywhere near the
actually a kind of bacteria, most people think of and refer to it as a amount of resources needed for meat production.
type of algae. Well refer it to it that way throughout the rest of this
book. The name spirulina comes from the spiral-shaped strands Producing a single pound (0.454 kilograms) of meat destroys an
that make up the biomass. Its strong blue-green color is the result average of 145 pounds (66 kilograms) of cultivated land. That is,
of its rich chlorophyll content, and an exotic blue pigment called for every pound of beef produced, renders 145 pounds of land
phycocyanin. infertile for several years. It is possible to obtain about 200 times
more protein per acre than if the same acreage were used to raise
Spirulina, like other microscopic algae and plankton, is one of the meat animals, and more than 20 times the protein than would be
most fundamental parts of the entire food chain. These algae form obtained growing soy.
proteins, fatty acids, carbohydrates and almost all nutrients necessary
for life, through the process of photosynthesis. Spirulina has evolved Production of spirulina requires only two percent of the water
so that it can survive high temperatures. For example, it can dry on needed for meat production. Yet spirulina contains about three times
stones at temperatures of 70 degrees centigrade (158 F), and still the protein of a similar amount of meat and spirulinas protein is
revive when returned to water. This heat resistance is fortunate for four times more absorbable by the body.
us, since it allows the spirulina to retain its vital nutrients despite high
temperatures encountered during processing and transport. Spirulina Spirulina cells do not have nuclei, and its cell walls are formed from
and chlorella are cultivated by hydroponic methods. different materials than animal or plant cells making spirulina cells
easier to break down, releasing the nutrients within.
The spirulina family of organisms belong to the phylum Cyanophyta,
and the order Oscillatoriacea. There are many species in the spirulina Spirulina also contains as much iron as red meat, and in easily
family, but two in particular have commercial significance: Spirulina absorbable form (26).
maxima, cultivated in Mexico, and Spirulina platensis, cultivated in
Thailand and in California. Plants are known to be able to convert carbon dioxide into oxygen
(usually one to four tons/hectare/year). This is the major reason
Blue-green algae are microscopically small organisms that prosper in rain forests are protected today. Not many are aware, though,
alkaline environments. Usually spirulina is grown in tropical areas, in that spirulina is one of the worlds best oxygen producers. And
pools of alkaline water. The algaes optimum growth temperature is since growing spirulina requires only brackish water and open
35-38 degrees centigrade (95-100 F); the minimum is 15-20 degrees containers, it can turn otherwise infertile desert lands into powerful
(59-68 F). There arent many places on earth with conditions that oxygen factories. Spirulinas rapid growth rate makes production
would allow year-round spirulina cultivation; most facilities are in very efficient, and theres no need for environmentally unfriendly
production for from 7 to 12 months yearly. This is due partially to pesticides or chemicals in its cultivation.
temperature ranges, but also to rainfall. Some locations that could
support year-round production in terms of temperature also happen Available forms of spirulina
to have heavy rainy seasons which disrupt growth conditions.
- Powder
Spirulina production can be divided to four phases; each phase - Powder, combined with lecithin
influences end-product quality: - Tablet
- Capsule
1. Cultivation
2. Harvesting
3. Drying
4. Packaging

34 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods

Spirulina is considered to be one of the best sources of gamma
linolenic acid (GLA), second only to breast milk. GLA is an
extremely useful anti-inflammatory fatty acid, benefiting the nervous
system in particular. It also improves skin condition and may prevent
development of allergies. For people who never have had breast milk,
it is recommended to have 150-350 mg of GLA (2 tablespoons of
spirulina contains 131 mg of GLA).

Spirulina is a great source of antioxidants, with strong antioxidant

and anti-inflammatory effects (28). From its beginnings, the organism
had to protect itself from the suns UV radiation. The earths early
atmosphere was much thinner, offering less protection from the sun;
plants often used bluish colors to protect themselves. When we take
spirulina, its blue-green pigment may protect our body from UV
radiation, even at the cellular level.

Spirulinas most important known antioxidants

- Beta-carotene (and several hundred other carotenoids)

- Chlorophyll or leaf-green
- Zeaxantina (an extremely important antioxidant, especially for
our eyes)
- Superoxide dismutase, or SDO (a metabolic enzyme, one of the
strongest known antioxidants) (24)
- Phycocyanin (exotic blue-green pigment whose effects include
stimulation of stem cell production) (20)

Spirulina offers powerful immune system protection (12-16, 18, 22,

27). In this regard, its most influential phytonutrients are:
- Beta-carotene
- Lipo-polysaccharides (LPS)
- The unique blue-green pigment phycocyanin

Phycocyanin is the source of spirulinas dark blue-green color.

The benefits of use

It has been found to affect the basal cells of the bone marrow
and support more efficient blood formation, mimicking the effect
of the hormone erythropoietin. According to Chinese scientists,
Spirulina is full of valuable nutrients, especially for athletes and phycocyanin also regulates the production of white blood cells,
vegetarians. It is the worlds most efficient protein-producing even when the bone marrows basal cells have been destroyed (for
organism, and contains 65-71 percent usable protein. This makes it example, through the effects of chemicals or radiation).
perhaps the richest protein source in the world.
Another rare ingredient found in spirulina is phenethylamine (PEA).
Spirulina contains high concentrations of minerals vital to the body, Our bodies phenethylamine levels increase, for example, when we fall
such as calcium, selenium and sulfur. Spirulinas high quantities of in love. Conversely, people with depression have low PEA levels. PEA
sulfurous amino acids (methionine, cysteine) and a rare polypeptide activates the neurotransmitters necessary for good concentration and
called phycocyanin benefit the nervous system and aid the liver in perception. PEA increases when our minds, for example, concentrate
cleansing the body of harmful toxins. on a good book, project or athletic performance.

Researchers consider spirulina a perfect tool for clearing the body PEA also increases the effect of norepinephrine in the body, leading
of trace heavy metals like mercury, cadmium, lead, and arsenic (5). to increased feelings of happiness and pleasure.
Spirulina may help people suffering from ADHD (Attention Deficit
Hyperactivity Disorder) by removing aluminum, carbon tetrachloride
and other toxics (Torres-Duran et al. 1998; Vadiraja et al. 1998).
It is the worlds most
Spirulina has an especially high vitamin content, including B vitamins
(B1, B2, B6), beta-carotene, and vitamins E and K.
efficient protein-producing
organism, and contains 65-
Most algae contain significant amounts of essential fatty acids. These
are vital for optimal functioning of nearly all the bodys mechanisms.
71 percent usable protein.
They maintain cell structure and cell walls, and are important in
preventing infections.

36 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods
Scientific investigation of spirulina began in the 1960s, but its One of the main functions of vitamin B12 is to use
real breakthrough came in the 1970s, when scientists discovered 5-deoxyadenosylcobalamin as a coenzyme in the conversion of
it contained an extremely high concentration of proteins. This the methylmalonyl-CoA enzyme to succinyl-CoA. If B12 is not
discovery led to serious speculation about spirulinas potential as a available, levels of methylmalonyl-CoA increase and it converts to
solution to the Third Worlds hunger problems. The World Health methylmalonylacid (MMA). Since B12 is the only coenzyme which
Organization (WHO) uses spirulina as part of various nutrition enables the formation of MMA, analysis of MMA concentrations in
projects, for example in India and Africa. the urine is the latest method to monitor vitamin B12 deficiency. It
may be that in the future, a new algae or other food combination will
Spirulinas nutrient-richness is also illustrated by the fact that NASA be found that increases levels of vitamin B12 in our body. However,
(U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration) has chosen the research is still pending and there are no exact results that would
to include spirulina as food for its astronauts travelling into space. suggest any seaweed increasing the levels of B12.

In 1996 in-vitro experiments, spirulina was found to inhibit the Disadvantages of use
reproduction of HIV-1, herpes simplex, human cytomegalo virus Spirulina has been found to be safe for human use, and in animal
(HCM), influenza A virus, mumps virus and measles virus. It is tests it has also been shown to be safe for use during pregnancy
thought that spirulina may also be useful in treating HIV-infected (9-11)(19)(29). NOTE: Spirulina is grown in isolated farm pools. It does
patients (1)(2)(21). not grow in contaminated ocean waters, or other contaminated environments.
Spirulina only rarely causes allergic reactions, and it may be helpful in the
Mucopolysaccharides found in spirulina support healthy intestinal treatment of allergies (23).
flora, and support the function of probiotics. Spirulina also acts as
a prebiotic, increasing, for example, quantities of lactobacillus in Selected research
our intestinal tracts (25). 270 children living in a highly radioactive area close to Chernobyl
suffered from chronic illnesses and increased immunoglobulin E
Research has even shown that spirulina may prevent heart attacks, (lgE) values an indicator of high allergy sensitivity, caused by
and improve recovery from them (2). radiation. 35 pre-school-age children from this group were given
20 spirulina tablets (about 5 g) daily for 45 days. Subsequent testing
Spirulina can also be useful for the normalization of cholesterol. In showed their blood levels of lgE decreased, and their allergy
one study, spirulina decreased total cholesterol, increased the amount sensitivity normalized.
of HDL (good) cholesterol, reduced the amount of triglycerides,
and decreased both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Spirulina has been shown to assist in treatment of allergic rhinitis.

In the area of weight reduction, one research group given an 8.4 g
daily dose of spirulina lost 1.5 kg during a four-week test period
double the amount lost by a control group who were given a placebo.
Spirulina has also been shown to improve memory and learning (3).

NOTE: Spirulina contains lots of vitamin B12 a difficult vitamin for

vegetarians to obtain in sufficient quantity. However, spirulina alone is not able
to fulfill our vitamin B12 needs. Many vegetarians expect to receive adequate
vitamin B12 from algae, but at least 15 studies confirm that more than 80
percent of vegetarians and people following the living food diet suffer vitamin
B12 deficiency after six to ten years (e.g., Dong & Scott). Over time, our body
gradually uses up its stores of vitamin B12 (we use up about 3 g of vitamin
B12 each day).

Although certain algae (e.g., spirulina, AFA, kelp, nori, dulse, kombu,
wakame, cocolithophorid) contain significant amounts of vitamin
B12 in active from, there are also plenty of vitamin B12 analogues
which compete with active vitamin B12 in the body. Previously,
vitamin B12 deficiencies have been looked for using blood tests.
Bloods B12 serum content, however, is no longer considered to be a
valid measurement, since a serum level of B12 registering as normal
doesnt necessarily indicate healthy B12 levels overall.

How to recognize quality spirulina?
1. Organically grown and processed.
2. High-quality spirulina smells fresh. When spirulina starts to go bad, the smell is rancid and bitter.
3. High-quality spirulina is packed in a dark glass jar to protect the valuable ingredients from light.
4. Prefer spirulina products which do not contain binding ingredients. Spirulina tablets remain
firm naturally. They dont require binding additives.
5. Spirulina pacifica and Spirulina platensis are the most common and mild-tasting species. A
rarer species with a stronger taste, Spirulina azteca, was cultivated by the Aztecs.

How to use?
Spirulina extracts are easy to tuck away at suitable times during the day. Its good to include
powdered spirulina in smoothies, and it also works well mixed in soups and salad dressings, or
sprinkled directly over a salad. Many simply drink spirulina powder mixed with water or juices.
Spirulinas unique pigment creates a monster color thats typical for this alga, though. No need
to be frightened. Spirulina also works well, for example, with chocolate; it brings enormous
amount of nutrients to sweets, making them more like real food.

Remember that superfoods are whole foods, not drugs! You can safely eat even a handful of
spirulina tablets, then, as a side effect, you may need to make a few more toilet visits the same day.
If you eat a few spirulina tablets daily, you get about one gram of spirulina just ten percent of
the recommended daily intake. So even if the jar says recommended daily intake should not be
exceeded, it is good to understand that its impossible to achieve therapeutic dosage amounts
with just a few spirulina tablets, and that the text on the jar is there just for bureaucratic reasons.

If you use both spirulina and chlorella in your diet for cleansing purposes, take them in a 2:1
ration of spirulina to chlorella.

Spirulina has a cooling and moisturizing effect on the body, making it particularly beneficial to
use it in hot, dry weather.

Recommended daily usage

- Dosage for beginners or children: one teaspoon to one tablespoon (3-5 g)
- Normal dosage: 1-2 tablespoons (6-10 g)
- Therapeutic dosage: 2-4 tablespoons (11-20 g)
- Top athletes dosage: 6+ tablespoons (+30 g)

What goes together with spirulina?

If you want to maximize the synergistic effects of spirulina, try it together with the following
foods: coconut, noni, turmeric, raw cacao, hemp seed, tomato, chlorella, MSM, maca, goji berry,

Animal studies have shown that mixed carotenoids, such as those found in the spirulina and
dunaliella species of algae, have significantly greater tumor-killing ability than beta-carotene alone.
No antioxidant vitamin or flavonoid should be taken alone.

38 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods

Chapter 6

Hemp products
{Cannabis sativa}
Other used names
Indian hemp, cannabis, marijuana, hashish, ganja, giggles, muggle, dagga, weed, grass, pot

Hemp is originally from Central Asia, but is now cultivated in all temperate and dry tropical areas
for fiber and oil.

Most common species

Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, Cannabis ruderalis

40 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods
The perfect food
The most whole food of the world
The superfood of the future
Poors heaven

Nutrients and bioactive ingredients (/100g)

Calories: 503 kcal

Proteins: 35 %
Carbohydrates: 12 %
Fat: 47 %
Fiber: 35.1 % out of which 3 % solubles

Omega 3 fatty acids (ALA 20.25 % and SDA 2%)

Omega 6 fatty acids (LA 55 % and GLA 1-4 %)
Omega 9 fatty acids (OA 13.1 %)
Vitamin E 30 mg/g
Vitamin C 14 mg/g
Vitamin B1 9 mg/g
Vitamin B2 11 mg/g
Vitamin B3 25 mg/g
Vitamin B6 3 mg/g

20 aminoacids among others

Arginine 123 mg/g
Histidine 27 mg/g
Methionine 23 mg/g

21 minerals among others

Silicon 11.9 %
Potassium 20.28 %
Magnesium 5.7 %
Sulfur 0.19 %
Iron 1 %
Calcium 23.64 %
Chlorine 0.08 %
Phosphorus 36.46 %
Phytosterols 438 mg


Short history of hemp
Hemp production is one of humanitys oldest industries. Its roots of hemp, she gave Shiva some to smoke upon his next return home
go back nearly ten thousand years to the era of the Babylonians and after which they experienced heavenly bliss together.
Sumerians. Hemp cultivation was probably begun in northeast China
and southeast Siberia between 4,200 and 3,200 B.C., after which the Hemp is the worlds strongest, most durable and longest natural fiber.
Scythians brought cannabis to Eastern Europe around 700 B.C. For more than 3,000 years until the end of the 1800s hemp was
perhaps the most widely grown and important agricultural product
Hemp has traditionally been used for food and medicine, and as in the world, with thousands of different uses. Most of the worlds
material for paper, rope, sail cloth, fishing nets and clothing. The fiber, fabric, lighting oil, paper, fragrances, medicines, and protein
Chinese were pioneers in paper manufacturing; they were already nutrients came from hemp.
producing wrapping paper a hundred years before the Common Era.
In 105, Tsai Lun, minister of the Chinese imperial palace, managed In the 1930s, hemp experienced its most significant historical
to produce writing paper from fiber crops such as hemp. The oldest changes, the effects of which can still be seen today. Wealthy
known hemp papers have been found in the Gobi Desert, dating American banking families had invested fortunes to support the
from 265-334. Hemp paper and fabrics later became widely used petroleum industry. They sponsored research into new uses for
around the world. For example, virtually all of Rembrandts, Van petroleum, such as artificial fibers like nylon. Publishing giant William
Goghs and Cezannes works were painted on hemp fabric. Randolph Hearst collaborated with bankers, petroleum interests and
politicians in an effort to alter the general publics conception of
In India, hemp is dedicated to the Hindu deity Shiva. Referred to as hemp. The idea was to throw hemp into disfavor and undermine its
the Lord of Bhang, Shiva is considered the creator and destroyer of use for inexpensive fuel and textiles eliminating it as a competitor
the world, and said to have lived in the Himalayas with his heavenly to petroleum products. Hearst used his powerful position with the
wife, Parvati. He never stayed at home but entertained himself with press to blur the distinction between hemp in general and the drug
nymphs and goddesses. This saddened Parvati, and she tried to find marijuana. In 1937, when hemp was outlawed in the US, there were
ways to keep her unfaithful husband at home. Discovering the effects only a handful of people who knew hemp as anything other than

42 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods

Mexican killer grass. The effects of this propaganda campaign are

still clearly evident today. Most people think of cannabis only in
terms of its use as a drug, with no idea of its value as one of the
worlds most potent superfoods.

What is the difference between hemp and marijuana Hemp and hemp processing
- are there intoxicating ingredients in hemp? Hemp grows in almost any kind of environment, and is often viewed
Although the drug marijuana does come from a variety of the hemp as a kind of weed. It is usually grown in one-year cycles, and does
plant, it is important to understand that the plant has hundreds of not spread widely on its own. Hemp belongs to the same group of
other varieties. Those meant for industrial use are bred and cultivated plants as the mulberry known as the most genetically complex plant
to produce as much fiber and oil-seed as possible. Varieties cultivated in the world, with the ability to adapt to virtually all Earths climates
for drug use are instead bred to maximize their production of the and environments. Hemp shares this family trait of adaptability.
psychoactive ingredient THC (9-tetrahydrocannabinol), reaching Hemp generally grows one to two meters tall, but can sometimes
concentrations from two to as high as 20 percent or more. Hemp reach as high as five meters.
seeds sold as food have no intoxicating properties, and eating them
does not adversely affect drug tests! Hemp is a dioecious and anemophilous plant. Its hand-shaped,
serrated leaves, with long, thin fingers, grow in groups of three to
From a pharmacological standpoint, there are three different seven leaves. The plant is very hardy, and its phenolic compounds
common varieties of hemp; the distinction in based on their and strong smell protect it from pests. For this reason it is usually
concentration of the THC, and the pharmacologically inactive unnecessary to use pesticides or herbicides (and little if any fertilizer)
substance CBN (cannabinol). The rosin-type hemp variety contains in hemp cultivation.
greater than one percent THC, and no CBN. Fiber-type plants
contain less than 0.3 percent THC, and a high percentage of CBN. Almost the entire hemp plant is useful. The leaves can be eaten, and
There is also an intermediate type, containing strong concentrations are a particularly good a source of silicon (important to the condition
of both THC and CBN. Just two to three percent of the worlds of skin, nails and bone). The leaves are also an excellent source of
Cannabis varieties can be categorized as marijuana based on THC fiber, and they can be used in making teas. The plants fruits (usually
concentration. called seeds) can be eaten; they can also be pressed to extract their
oil, which has a wide range of nutritional and industrial uses.

Most people think of cannabis only in terms

of its use as a drug, with no idea of its value as
one of the worlds most potent superfoods.


Hemp is green in many ways

Hemp fiber has a long history of use in textiles. One acre of hemp Rudolph Diesels original diesel engine was designed to run on hemp
can produce three to four times more useful fiber than an acre of seed oil and other vegetable oils. Hemp oil is well suited for fuel use
most trees. Further, it can take decades to grow trees to maturity, the plant is among the most rapid producers of biomass known, and
while hemp can be ready for harvest in only four months. fuel from its oil does not release hydrocarbons when burned. And
most any diesel engine can still be adjusted to burn hemp seed oil!
Hemp cloth is four times warmer, three times more durable, and
repels water four times better than cotton. Further, if at least half Free trade means high profits. In free trade areas it has never been
of the fiber in a garment is hemp, the fabric can protect skin from popular to favor products that are simple and naturally made over
up to 95 percent of UV radiation. those that are processed and synthetic. It is estimated that 82 percent
of all products on the worlds stock exchanges are directly linked to
A few hundred years ago, production of durable ship sails was energy production:
extremely important. Here hemp established itself as a raw material
of choice. For example, sails made of linen lasted through only about - Energy producers, oil wells, mines, power plants
three months exposure to salt water and wind. Hemp sails, on the - Energy transmission, transport, maintenance
other hand, required changing only every second or third year. - Refineries and distributors

As mentioned earlier, hemp is a very hardy plant, and growing it does These same sources of fossil-fuel energy produce four fifths of our
not require the use of pesticides. Cotton plants, by comparison, are planets pollution. A very cheap alternative to these fuels happens
usually treated with pesticides seven times during a single growing to be uniformly distributed sunlight, and with sunlight it is possible
season. to grow vast amounts of biomass from hemp.

Hemp has long been used in manufacturing paper. Prior to 1883, Available forms of hemp
more than 75 percent of all paper produced each year was made - Hemp seeds (shelled or without shell)
with hemp fiber. - Hemp seed oil
- Skin care products
Hemp has been found useful in decontaminating soils of various - Hemp fiber clothing
heavy metals, thus enriching the growth medium. - Hemp protein powders
- Hemp seed butter or hempini
Paper made of hemp can be recycled as many as ten times, while - Hemp seed grain or flour
ordinary wood pulp paper can usually be recycled only twice. - Various finished products (e.g., hemp cookies)

44 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods
Hemp seed is close to being a perfect food ingredient. It truly
deserves its superfood title because of its extreme versatility and
nutrient density. Hemp seeds are a perfect source of protein,
containing all 8 essential amino acids and 12 other amino acids.

Hemp seed unlike animal proteins is a raw, whole and complete

protein source, just as its harvested. It doesnt need to be heated
at any stage to destroy bacteria, so all its powerful nutrients are left
intact. More than 65 percent of the hemp seeds proteins are readily
absorbed edestins. The remaining 35 percent is albumin, also an
extremely well-absorbed protein type. Both edestin and albumin
are hypoallergenic (rarely causing allergic reactions). By comparison,
many people are allergic to common protein sources such as milk
proteins (casein, whey) or soy.

Photo: Hemp seed is the worlds best source of building materials for
globulins. Thus, the seeds strongly support immune function, which

The benefits of use

needs alpha, beta and gamma globulins for defense. Hemp seed has
plenty of plant sterols (48 mg/100 g) which have been shown to
lower total serum cholesterol by an average of ten percent, and the
Even Aladdins lamp burned hemp seed oil, and hemp is one of the LDL cholesterol an average of 13 percent (5)(7). These phytosterols
most versatile superfoods to be found on our planet. Two percent of could also prevent the development of breast, prostate and bowel
the carbohydrates in hemp seeds are in sugar form, with a staggering cancers (13).
six percent in fiber form. Hemp seed contains three times more
vitamin E than flaxseed. For three thousand years, hemp was one of the most important
and widely used medicinal plants in the world. In the United
Hemp seed is rich in lecithin, which consists mainly of choline and States, cannabis extracts were used as medicines for fatigue, cough,
inositol. Lecithin can be found in all living cells, and is the primary rheumatism, arthritis, asthma, drunken madness, epilepsy, menstrual
building block of our cell membranes. Hemp seed is one of the problems and depression. Cannabis was the most common painkiller
few seeds that contains chlorophyll. before aspirin appeared on the market, around 1900. Cannabis
contains more than 60 compounds that are known to have medicinal
Hemp seed is a brilliant source of essential fatty acids. Its fatty acids effects.
support, for example, the heart and circulatory system (2). They
are also powerful antioxidants, protecting our skin and fighting Disadvantages of use
infections. Essential fatty acids nourish our brain and eyes. Hemp Hemp seed shells easily stick to the teeth and gums. If you have
contains about 80 percent polyunsaturated fatty acids. Its omega 3 eaten hemp seeds, remember to check your mouth and teeth in a
and 6 fatty acids are in perfect form for human absorption and use. mirror before venturing out to public places.
These have been found to aid in preventing neurological diseases,
and in improving quality of life for Alzheimers disease patients (1) Selected research
(6)(14-15)(21). Controlled clinical tests at the University of Kuopio in Finland
have shown that people suffering from atopy (atopic syndrome a
The typical Western diets ratio of omega 3 and 6 fatty acids is tendency toward being hyperallergic) had fewer atopic symptoms
badly wrong. We receive mainly omega 6 fatty acids from the foods such as dry and itchy skin, after taking hemp seed oil. The study
we commonly eat but the optimum ratio of omega 3 to omega dosage was two tablespoons per day. The easing of symptoms led
6 is 1:3.38, according to a leading expert on fats, Udo Erasmus. to a reduction in the need for medication (J. Callaway, U. Schwab,
Hemp grown in the Northern Hemisphere generally has a higher I. Harvima, P. Halonen, O. Mykknen, P. Hyvnen & T. Jrvinen,
concentration of omega 3 fatty acids, since the plants need for these Efficacy of dietary hempseed oil in patients with atopic dermatitis.
is greater in colder conditions. Journal of Dermatological Treatment, 2005; 16: 8794.)

Several studies indicate that hemp seeds quality polyunsaturated

fatty acids aid in prevention of heart failures and lethal arrhythmias
(3)(4). Hemp seed has a high content of gamma linolenic acid (GLA)
which has been shown to be useful in treating several cancer types,
atopic dermatitis and psoriasis (8-12)(21). In addition, GLA has been
found effective in treating tenosynovitis and rheumatoid arthritis
(17-19). Hemps GLA and vitamin D also offer good results in
treating and preventing osteoporosis (20).

Photo: Photo:

How to recognize hemp seeds? How to use?

1. Organically grown. (Note! Many hemp seeds are cultivated without Hemp seed is certainly one of the most versatile
fertilizers and pesticides even though they havent received official superfoods it may be used with almost everything. It
organically grown certification. Check with the manufacturer or is ideal, for example, in soups, smoothies, salads or even
grower.) as a tasty topping, sprinkled over ice cream. Hemp seeds
(like all the other seeds and nuts) should be soaked before
2. High-quality hemp seeds have a greasy exterior, and are small. use, to neutralize the natural enzyme inhibitor agents they
contain. Soak hemp seeds in water at least four to eight
hours to soften the seeds appropriately. Hemp seeds can
also be germinated in order to maximize nutrient values.
How to recognize hemp seed oil? Try adding seeds to porridge or snack mixes, or make
delicious hemp milk.
1. Cold-pressed.
2. Stored in a dark glass bottle. Hemp seed oil can be used as a base for salad dressing, or
3. The bottle is sealed carefully. sprinkled directly onto a salad by itself. The oil can also
be added to smoothies, or eaten just as it is.

This oil is also ideal for external use. Try applying it to

Recommended usage your skin after showering, allow it to absorb for about 20
minutes, then off any excess oil off.
Beginners or children: 15-30 grams/day
Young people: 30-50 grams/day

What to use with hemp?

Adults: 50-75 grams/day
Athletes: up to 140 grams/day

If you want to maximize synergetic effects, try hemp seeds

together with the following foods: cold-pressed coconut
oil, maca, spirulina, raw cacao, tomato, mesquite, MSM.

46 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods
Chapter 7

{Apis mellifera, spp; Apis dorsata}
Superfoods produced by bees
Royal jelly

48 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods
Pollens nutrients and bioactive ingredients (/100g)

Calories: 503 kcal

Proteins: 35 %
Carbohydrates: 12 %
Fat: 47 %

Vitamin E
Vitamin C 700-1500 mg
Vitamin D
Vitamin K
Vitamin F
Vitamin H
Vitamin B
Vitamin B1 920 mg
Vitamin B2 1850 mg
Vitamin B3
Vitamin B5 27600 mg
Vitamin B6 500 mg
Folic acid 500 mg
All 22 amino acids

59 minerals among others



At the ancient Olympic Games, honey was us
both internally and externally, and sports drink
were made by mixing honey and water.

Heres a short bee fact sheet:

- Bees must visit around two million different flowers to produce a
400-gram jar of honey.
- A colonys bees fly around 88,500 kilometers to produce a 400-
gram jar of honey.
- A single honey bee produces in average of 1/12 teaspoon of honey
during its lifetime.
- All worker honey bees are females.
- Bees communicate by dancing, and can understand messages even
in total darkness.
- A queen bee can lay 3,000 eggs in one day.
- A bee colony may include as many as 80,000 bees. One queen, a
few hundred drones (males) and the rest worker females.
- The total distance a colonys bees fly to produce 4.5 liters of honey
is equivalent to a trip to the moon and back.
- Bees fly at an average speed of 20-24 km/h.
Short history of bee products - The bees of a single colony visit around 225,000 plants daily. A
There may be more mystique, legends and stories surrounding bee single bee typically visits 50-1000 flowers, but the amount may be
products than any other type of food. The only food in the world in the several thousands.
that comes even close to the history and magic of bee products is - The interior temperature of a bee hive is nearly 40 degrees
raw cacao (chocolate). centigrade (104 F).
- Bees eat around 3.6 kilos of honey to produce 450 grams of
The ancient Egyptians appear to have been the first to figure out propolis.
how to keep bees, so they could more easily take advantage of the - The average lifetime of a bee is around three to six weeks.
bees medicinal products. There are enormous numbers of ancient - A honey bees brain is approximately one cubic millimeter in size,
Egyptian hieroglyphs and papyrus records that include depictions but its neural tissue has more powerful computational ability than
of bees and bee hives. The Egyptians sacrificed honey and pollen in any other animal.
to their gods, and bee products played central roles in their rituals. - A bee has a magnetic band of tissue around its head, to help it
Bee products have a strong history nearly the world over. Take - To gather one teaspoon of pollen, a bee must work the equivalent
the Greek and Roman cultures, for example. In his epic Iliad and of eight hours per day for a month.
Odyssey, Homer mentions honey and pollen several times. At - Bees have lived on Earth for approximately 150 million years, and
the ancient Olympic Games, honey was used both internally and there are more than 30,000 bee species around the globe.
externally, and sports drinks were made by mixing honey and water. - Honey is the only food known to remain unspoiled naturally.
It has been said that the famous Greek mathematician Pythagoras Edible honey has been found, for example, in the tombs of Egyptian
and his pupils ate honey daily. In Arabia, the prophet Mohammed pharaohs.
told followers that honey brings health and happiness, and said,
Honey is the cure for all the diseases.

There is considerable magic connected with bees functions and
activities. Probably the most well-known example is the sophisticated
dance language they use to communicate to one another about the
location of nectar and pollen sources. A worker bee, returning to
the hive after having located a good source, moves in an intricate,
repeating pattern that resembles a dance. The motions represent the
position of the source in relation to the sun. Other workers watch,
then fly unerringly off to gather up the nectar. The workings of this
dance mechanism were observed and reported by Karl von Frisch,
who was awarded a 1973 Nobel Prize for his work. Photo:

50 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods
Bees collect nectar from flowers, then carry it back to their hive for
storage. The bees enzymes mix with the collected nectar to form
honey. Nectar has a long history as a universal medicine, sweetener
and source of nutrients. Organic, raw honey is rich in minerals,
antioxidants, probiotics and enzymes. Honey has been considered
an extremely powerful spiritual food, and is said to be the most
sattvic food in the world.

Advantages of use
Studies conducted in Russia have shown raw, unprocessed honey to
have higher enzyme content than any other food. Honey has been
found to improve numerous conditions and faculties, including
reflexes, observational skills, and even IQ!

How to recognize quality honey?

It is important to know that bees are often inhumanely treated in
the production of non-organic and cooked honey and pollen. In
practice, this means some commercial beekeepers feed their bees
nutrient-poor, unnatural refined white sugar, and do not allow them
to eat any of their own honey. Further, chemical solutions containing
nicotine are often sprayed on plants and flowers near the bees hives.
The worlds bee population has decreased at a frightening pace, and
at this time it is extremely important to support producers who
employ organic and sustainable beekeeping methods. High-quality
honey is organic, raw (unpasteurized) and ideally from your own Photo:
local area.

There are also several medicinal honey types around the world, External use of honey has a long tradition, such as for treatment of
found to have antibiotic, antiviral and antifungal effects. These burns, wounds, insect bites and in beauty care. Honey can be applied
types include Manuka from New Zealand, Noni and Lehua from directly to the skin this works well in the sauna.
Hawaii, and Sidr from Yemen. Many honeys from New Zealand
have a medicinal value (e.g., UMF 3+, 10+, 18+). Illustrating this is Disadvantages of use
the efficacy of honey against Helicobacter pylori, a microaerophilic Raw honey is an unprocessed live food, so it is possible it could
bacterium found in the stomach. contain spores of Clostridium botulinum, a toxic bacterium
responsible for botulism (a serious paralytic disease, often fatal).
Some honey gathering and processing methods include centrifuging These spores are quite commonly found in soil and dust. Entering
spinning honeycomb to separate the honey from the wax. Just- the gastrointestinal tract, the spores may cause illness in children of
centrifuged honey is runny, but quite soon begins to crystallize. The breastfeeding age, since the normal flora of the digestive tract (which
speed of crystallization depends on the type of plants the nectar protect older children and adults) have not yet developed. For this
was gathered from. Soft honey is crystallized honey that has been reason, it is recommended that children less than one year old NOT
mechanically mixed before packaging. The mixing breaks up the be given honey. Investigation of infant botulism cases occurring in
honeys crystal structure, which prevents hardening. the Nordic countries between 1997 and 1999 isolated honey as the
source of the illness. It should be noted that expectant or breast
How to use? feeding mothers can safely consume honey any spores that might
It is always recommended that you enjoy honey raw (unheated), be present in the honey cannot be transferred to the breast milk,
since heating above 41 degrees centigrade (106 F) destroys valuable and so to the baby.
enzymes. Honey is easy to use in combination with other superfoods,
and can enhance their effectiveness for example, it can improve Bees living in areas where there is a high environmental concentration
absorption of minerals. Use one tablespoon a day. of toxins (such as extensive use of potent pesticides in crop
cultivation) may contain small amounts of harmful residues.
Medicinal honey (such as Manuka) is helpful in cases of stomach Therefore, always choose organic bee products.
ulcer: three tablespoons, one to two times a day, on an empty

Pollen collected by bees is perhaps the most holistic food on our How to recognize quality pollen?
planet. When the longest-lived people in Russia were examined, the - Organic.
clear common denominator among them was found to be the use of - The composition of fresh pollen is soft and light, and it has a
honey and pollen. Most of the longest-living people were beekeepers. strong, rich taste.
Beekeepers collect pollen by placing filters at the openings of their
beehives. When bees pass over the filter on entering the hive, it Use of pollen
collects about 10-15 percent of the pollen they are carrying. Thus Begin by taking one tablespoon a day (children above five years and
pollen is easily collected, while leaving plenty for the bees to use adults). You may steep the pollen in water for 12 hours this makes
themselves. Properly designed filters do not harm the bees in any way. its nutrients absorb even better. Favor freeze-dried pollen.

Advantages of use Storage

Pollen is alkaline food which, for example, includes vitamin B9 (all Fresh or dried pollen will remain perfectly if it is stored in cold
the B vitamins except B12), vitamins C, D and E, all the 22 amino (in the freezer). Properly preserved pollen stays good for up to 12
acids, 12 enzymes essential to our digestion, and up to 60 different years! Pollen does not freeze because its moisture content is around
minerals (e.g., barium, boron, calcium, cooper, gold, iodine, iron, three percent. Pollen doesnt stay fresh quite as long if kept in the
manganese, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, silicon, sulfur, sodium refrigerator (rather than in the freezer) especially if it is regularly
and zinc). In addition, the pollen contains carotenoids such as beta- taken out and allowed to reach room temperature.
carotene and xanthophylls, plenty of lecithin, choline, 31 different
fatty acids, and nucleic acids DNA and RNA. Pollen is considered
one of the best sources of protein, and contains 25 percent protein in
very easily absorbable form. According to clinical tests, the nutrients
in pollen, taken orally, absorb quickly into our blood circulation
from the stomach (shown two hours later in our blood and urine).

Pollen is potentially an aphrodisiac, and may improve the function

of the prostate and genitals. Pollen increases energy, performance
and speed, and improves recovery from sports activity. The excellent
amino acid content of pollen efficiently supports muscle growth.
For example, Antti Lananaki, coach of Finnish track and field team
that swept in the Olympics in 1972, said that nearly the whole team
used pollen, since it was found clearly to improve performance,
without side effects. Pollen has been shown to reduce the production
of histamine, which is why it neutralizes many allergies. Pollen has
been found to assist people suffering from anemia, constipation,
and asthma. In the books The Worlds Only Perfect Food: The Bee
Pollen Bible by Royden Brown and Bee Pollen and Your Health by
Carlson Wade, it is said that a human can live on only water and bee
pollen. According to Carlson, only 20-30 grams a day is sufficient.
This claim was put into practice in Belgium and France by the
researcher Robert Delperee. He did rat experiments that concluded
that different generations of rats stay healthy and reproducing well
by eating bee pollen.

Disadvantages of use
More than 40 scientific researches show that pollen is safe to use,
but for some people pollen might cause strong allergic reactions,
even in small quantities.

52 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods
Propolis RoYAl Jelly
Propolis is a wax which bees produce to protect their hives. The Royal jelly is perhaps one of the greatest superfoods and as yet
word propolis comes from Greek, and means protector of the city. we understand little about it. This milky fluid, secreted from glands
The risk of spreading diseases in a warm beehive is high. Millions by worker bees tending the hives queen, contains ingredients which
years ago, bees solved this problem by collecting sticky resin from cause the queen to grow several times larger than her sisters, the
trees. Trees use resin to repair damage and protect themselves from worker bees. Royal jelly is a remarkable food, which through history
disease. Similarly, bees use the resin they collect to produce propolis, has been considered a source of youth and beauty. Its numerous
to protect the hive. For example, bees use propolis to patch cracks benefits include improving skin condition, increasing libido and
in the hive, and to build pathways through the hive. preventing depression.

Advantages of use Advantages of use

Propolis has strong medicinal and anti-bacterial properties, in Among royal jellys myriad nutritional constituents are B vitamins
particular supporting the human immune system. It has been used (second-richest natural source of vitamin B5 known), potassium,
for centuries, from ancient healers and alchemists, to modern calcium, zinc, iron, manganese and amino acids. It is the worlds
herbalists and natural healers. richest source of acetylcholine a neurotransmitter which plays
a crucial role in transmitting nerve impulses and helping us think
The bioflavonoids in propolis have powerful antibiotic, antibacterial clearly. Half the composition of royal jelly is protein; another 20
and antifungal properties. Propolis is also rich in minerals, amino percent consists of carbohydrates, and 14 percent is fat.
acids, fatty acids and vitamins such as B, C, E and beta-carotene.
In the 1960s, remarkable results were obtained during research into
Use of propolis the possibility that royal jelly might aid in preventing the spread of
Propolis tinctures (alcohol extracts) can be taken using a pipette or cancer.
dropper, placing drops under the tongue. It can also be used as a
soothing eye drop. Use of royal jelly
Half a teaspoon a day, taken by mouth, supports vitamin B needs
(especially vitamin B5) and reportedly increases longevity.

Bee poison (stings)

Royal jelly should be stored at low temperature, in the freezer or
refrigerator; this will protect its beneficial properties for up to several
Many people believe the poison from bee stings to be the quickest
and most effective treatment for arthritis. Though thousands of
cases supporting this idea have been recorded around the world,
researchers do not yet understand the underlying healing mechanism.


Bee bread is lactic-acid-fermented pollen, processed by bees. Bees
store bee bread in their hives combs, and use it as food. Lactic
acid fermentation is brought about by bacteria in the bees saliva.
The fermentation softens the hard shells of the pollen grains; the
resulting bread is easier for the human body to absorb and utilize
than unfermented pollen. Perga is collected from the combs of the
hive by hand!
Photo: Waugsberg (Wikipedia)

Chapter 8

{ Cocos nucifera }
Country of origin
The coconut palm is believed to have originated in southern
Asia. Coconuts grow naturally in tropical areas. They are
currently cultivated in Asia (Philippines, India, Sri Lanka,
Indonesia), Central and South America (Mexico, Brazil) and
Africa (largest producers are Mozambique, Tanzania and

54 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods
A tree that offers everything
necessary to life

Coconuts nutrients and bioactive ingredients (/100g): Unsaturated fatty acids 6.2 % out of which:

Calories: 354 kcal Oleic acid (C-18) 6.2 %

Proteins: 3.3 % (monounsaturated fatty acid)
Carbohydrates: 15.23 %
Fat: 33.49 % Coconut water includes (/100g):
Fibers: 9 %
Iron 2.43 mg
Coconut oils fatty acid composition Calcium 14 mg
Magnesium 32 mg
Saturated fatty acids 92.1 % out of which: Phosphorus 113 mg
Potassium 356 mg
Short-chain fatty acids: Zinc 1.1 mg
Caproic (C-6) 0.5 % Vitamin C 3.3 mg
Vitamin B1 0.066 mg
Medium-chain fatty acids: Vitamin B2 0.02 mg
Caprylic acid (C-8) 8 % Vitamin B3 0.54 mg
Capric (C-10) 10 % Vitamin B6 0.054 mg
Lauric acid (C-12) 48 %

Long-chain fatty acids:

Myristic acid (C-14) 17 %
Palmitic acid (C-16) 9 %
Stearic acid (C-18) 2 %
Linolenic acid (C-18) 2.1 % (polyunsaturated fatty acid)

Short history of coconut Association (ASA), Corn Producers Corporation (CPC) and the
The first part of the coconuts Latin name (Cocos nucifera) derives Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) began a systematic
from the word coco, meaning monkey, which was used in connection program of denouncing all saturated fats.
with the coconut by the Spanish conquistadors. This is probably
because coconut fruits resemble a monkeys face. Nucifera, on the False science was used to convince the public that all types of
other hand, means person carrying a nut. According to a Polynesian saturated fat are unhealthy despite the fact that some saturated
legend, the first coconut palm grew from the head of a monster fats (such as lauric acid) are known to contain an abundance of
eel called Te Tuna. medium-chain fatty acids, and are actually quite healthy. These
organizations were able to gain support from the U.S. Food and
The coconut has been used for food and medicine for at least the Drug Administration (FDA) which has many staff who either
last 4,000 years. began their careers in the vegetable oil industry, or plan to pursue
careers there in the future.
In Hawaii, coconuts were sacrificial gifts in traditional religious
rites, and in Tahiti coconut flowers have been used in religious The result of this misleading campaign was that many Americans
rituals. Coconuts have also been offered as sacrificial gifts in Hindu turned away from the tropical oils they had been using, and switched
ceremonies. instead to vegetable oil. Tropical-oil-producing countries, such as
Malaysia and the Philippines, were too poor to rebut the false claims
In many tropical countries, the coconut is thought to have magical with a valid information campaign of their own. Only recently have
and mythical connections, as well as being an important source of the health benefits of tropical oils started to regain public attention.
food. Women in Bali are not permitted to touch a coconut tree,
lest the trees fertility disappear.

Today, the coconut is considered by some to be an unhealthy

fat source. This is not true, however. One might ask how the
coconut got a bad reputation with some, since numerous studies
demonstrating the coconuts many healthful properties have been
known and available for many years. The answer is to be found
in the realms of politics and economics. Just a few decades ago,
coconut oil was in very broad use in the USA, in baking, frying,
making desserts, preparing popcorn and so on. Then, in the 1980s,
some very influential organizations such as the American Soybean

The coconut has been used

for food and medicine for at
least the last 4,000 years.


56 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods
Collection and processing of coconut In another extraction method, the coconut meat is pulverized into
The coconut palm is long-lived, with specimens flourishing for up thick, liquid cream. This step has the added benefit of making
to 100 years. It grows 20-30 meters tall and produces 50-100 nuts some of its nutrients, such as arginine, more bioactive. Virgin oil is
annually (the palms nuts are actually botanically classified as seeds then separated from the cream by mechanical compression at low
or fruits). Coconut requires a warm and humid environment to temperature. Residual water and solid particles are separated from
grow well optimum temperature is 27 degrees centigrade (81 F), the virgin oil with paper filters.
with growth slowing considerably below 21 degrees. The coconut
copes poorly in dry conditions; it enjoys heavy rainfall and plenty of Coconut oil is very high in saturated fatty acids. With a melting point
sunlight. Coconuts grow between 26 degrees north and 26 degrees of 23-28 degrees, the oil is often solid at room temperature.
south latitude. The nuts themselves can survive several months in
seawater so with the help of ocean currents, they can travel very In a sealed container, the oil has a shelf life of as long as two years.
long distances before being washed ashore and sprouting. Virgin coconut oil is relatively expensive because of the manpower
and time required to produce it.
Beneath the nuts tough and fibrous outer husk lies a hard, woody
shell, usually less than a centimeter thick. Under the shell lies a few The trunk of the coconut palm supplies building timber, and raw
centimeters (250-350 grams) of dense, white, fibrous meat. About material for making tools and utensils.
35 percent of the meat is coconut oil; much of the remainder is
fiber. There is a hollow space at the center of the meat, partially Palm wine is produced from the palms sugar-bearing sap. A palm
filled with three to ten deciliters of a watery liquid known as coconut liquor known as arrack can also be made by distilling palm wine.
water. Shaking a whole, fresh nut, the water can be heard splashing Mats, baskets and ropes are made from the trees fronds, while fibers
around inside. from nuts shell are woven into twine and rope.

At one end of the brown, woody shell there are three dark spots, a Interestingly, in Thailand and Malaysia, monkeys are sometimes
bit thinner than the rest of the shell. If you want to neatly recover trained to collect coconuts.
the nuts water without splitting it in half, you can do so by punching
a hole through one or two of these spots and pouring it out.

A sharp blow (such as with a hammer) anywhere around the shells

middle will break it open, so the flesh can be pried or scooped out.

Solid coconut flesh can be eaten as is, or grated for use for example,
in desserts or salads.

The familiar coconut milk is really a mixture of coconut water and

ground coconut meat.

Commercial coconut processing methods vary from place to place.

Often, immediately after harvest, the ripe coconut is cut in half, and
the coconut water inside is collected. The meat is chipped away from
the shell and grated by hand, using a kind of rotary cutter blade. To
maintain oil quality, processing continues without delay.

Raw oil can be obtained by drying the meat, then cold-pressing

it. The dried coconut meat is known as copra. To shorten drying
time for hygienic reasons and to prevent enzymes such as lipase
and lipoxidase from breaking down the oil, the meat may be dried
in warm air or on heated metal racks. Drying temperatures are
between 60 and 80 degrees centigrade (140-176 F); moisture content
is reduced to about eight percent before pressing.

fruit. The whole process usually takes about nine months! The
sterile water inside the coconut fruit is one of the most electrolyte-
concentrated liquids in the world, and nearly identical in makeup
to human blood plasma. During the Second World War, between
1941 and 1945, coconut water was used as a substitute for blood
plasma in treating wounded soldiers. As a sport drink, coconut
water wins the competition its rehydrating qualities beat all
the rest! In fact, coconut water contains around five times more
electrolytes and 15 times more potassium than sugared drinks
like Gatorade.

Young coconut meat is also said to be a superior building material

for mens seminal fluid. According to ayurvedic teachings, it takes
about 35 days for food to transform into semen, going through
seven transformation phases. Semen can be built from coconut in
a single day. For women, coconut meat increases the production
of milk making it an excellent food for pregnant women and
nursing mothers.

If you are traveling to a tropical country where coconuts are

available, you should eat at least 3-4 young coconuts a day!

Interesting facts
A fluid called plasma makes up 55 percent of our blood; red
blood cells make up most of the remainder. It is the hemoglobin
contained in the red blood cells that gives blood its characteristic
red color, and is the key to bloods ability to transport oxygen. You
may already know the interesting fact that chlorophyll the green
pigment in most plants has an almost identical chemical structure
to hemoglobin. (In chlorophyll, the central atom is magnesium; in
hemoglobin, it is iron.) If we were to make a mixture of 55 percent
Photo: young coconut water and 45 percent chlorophyll-rich liquid (such
as wheat grass juice) we would almost have chemically a

The benefits of use

substitute for blood!

Long ago it was observed that animals that were fed coconut oil
Coconut is known as a nourishing and strengthening never became obese. On the other hand, animals fed oils such as
plant, and its products have been used for thousands hydrogenated soybean oil gained weight quickly.
of years in folk medicine. Traditionally, coconut
has been used in treating asthma, bronchitis, colds, Medium-chain fatty acids are known for their antibacterial,
tuberculosis, pneumonia, abscesses, baldness, wounds, antifungal and antiviral properties. This is a major reason that
burns, bruising, constipation, dysentery, ear pain, coconut oil is an excellent fat source for people prone to yeast
toothache, gingivitis, weakness, nausea, menstrual pain, infections.
malnutrition, scurvy, and swelling. Modern medicine
has now confirmed the link between coconut and - Coconut oil improves digestion and absorption of fat-soluble
prevention of many of the afflictions in the list above. vitamins and amino acids.
- Coconut oil supports the immune system and fights against
Coconut oil contains more than 90 percent raw, viruses, bacteria and fungi.
saturated fatty acids, which are rare and important - Coconut oil promotes absorption of calcium and magnesium.
building blocks of every cell of our body. These fatty - Coconut oil has strong antioxidant properties.
acids support our immune systems functioning, the - Coconut oil helps our bodies utilize essential fatty acids
thyroid, the nervous system, the production of semen (omega-3, omega-6, omega-9) and phospholipids (such as choline
and breast milk, and the skins condition; theyre and lecithin). Coconut oil is excellent to enjoy in combination with
especially helpful to aging skin. They also provide foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as fish and fish oils, and
quick energy. Medium-chain fatty acids stimulate vegetable sources like hemp, flax or chia seeds, and phytoplankton.
the metabolism and so support weight loss. Oil and The effects of omega-3 fatty acids may be as much as doubled by
food from younger coconuts have the most health- combining them with coconut oil.
promoting qualities. - Coconut oil can aid in regulating blood sugar levels and may
reduce symptoms of hypoglycemia.
The coconut palm functions as a natural water filter. - Coconut oils medium-chain fatty acids support the functions
Water rises from the roots, up through the trees various of the immune system, thyroid, nervous system and skin, and
layers which act as filters until it finally reaches the provide quick energy.

58 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods
- Coconut oil supports the endocrine system and hormone
regulation. Coconut oil is a precursor for hormone-like anti-aging
substances such as pregnenolone.
- Coconut oil stimulates the thyroid, which is good for people
suffering from hypothyroidism.
- Coconut oil contains fewer calories per unit of weight than any
other fat, and the body does not store coconut oil in the same way
as other fats. Coconut oil stimulates lipid metabolism, making it a
significant aid to weight loss.
- Coconut oil doesnt contain cholesterol, and actually supports
heart and vascular health. Coconut oil supports the formation of
healthy cholesterol (high-density lipoprotein, HDL) in the liver (1).
- Coconut oil oxidizes at 92 degrees centigrade (198 F).

Medium-chain fatty acids

I use cold-pressed coconut oil as a source for antimicrobial fatty acids. Udo
Erasmus, the worlds leading expert on fats, in his book Fats that
Heal, Fats that Kill.

Fatty acids are composed of carbon atom chains of different

lengths, surrounded by hydrogen atoms. The length of the carbon
chains determines many of the fatty acids properties. Coconut oil
consists primarily of saturated fats, but its fatty acids are mainly
the medium-chain type (8-12 carbon atoms long). For comparison,
meats saturated fatty acids are usually 14-24 carbon atoms long.
Digestion of shorter-chain fatty acids requires less energy and less
enzyme action, which is why coconut oil is an ideal energy source,
particularly for athletes.

Coconut water contains around Photo:

five times more electrolytes and

15 times more potassium than
sugared drinks like Gatorade.

Nutrient Unit Gatorade Powerade Coconut Water

Sugar g 5.33 6.02 3.71

Fiber g 0 0 1.01
Calcium mg 1 2 24
Iron mg 0.20 0.25 0.29
Magnesium mg 1 5 25
Phosphorus mg 9 2 20
Potassium mg 14 14 250
Sodium mg 39 22 105
Zinc mg 0.26 0.06 0.10
Copper mg 0.25 0.25 0.04
Manganese mg 0,05 0,05 0,142
Selenium mcg 0 0 1
Fluorine mcg 34 62 -
Vitamin C mg 0.04 0.04 2.04
Vitamin B1 mg 0.11 0.11 0.30
Vitamin B3 mg 0.22 1.54 0.08
Vitamin B5 mg 0.55 0.55 0.43
Vitamin B6 mg 0.22 0.153 0.32
Folate mcg 0 0 3
Amino acids mg 0 0 785

Of coconut oils medium-chain fatty acids, lauric When the body processes carbohydrates from
acid has been shown to be the most powerful food, insulin produced by the pancreas is required
for destroying viruses. Medium-chain fatty acids for glucose molecules to get into the cells. Many
disrupt the cell membranes of viruses, bacteria, people develop insulin resistance as they age, and
molds and fungi, making them easy prey for it becomes harder for the body to get glucose
the bodys white blood cells. Scientific research to the cells (because insulin is not working as it
has found numerous disease-causing organisms should). Excess glucose, which the body is not
rendered inactive in the presence of coconut oils using for energy, transforms to triglycerides (fats)
medium-chain fatty acids, including: and is transported throughout the body. Humans
- viruses - HIV, SARS, HSB-1 and -2, hepatitis C can have high triglyceride values without eating
- bacteria - Helicobacter pylori, Chlamysia even a gram of fat. Even strict vegetarians can
tracchomatis and streptococcus groups A, B, F, G have high triglyceride values if their diet is heavy
- parasites - Giardia and Giliate protozoa. with low-quality carbohydrates.

People suffering from yeast syndrome can Triglycerides and lipoproteins transport through
benefit from the use of coconut oil, in light of the cell walls for energy use, just as glucose does.
the above-mentioned characteristics. Remember, They also need transporters (enzymes) to pass
however, to begin use gradually, to avoid the so- through the cells mitochondrial membranes,
called Herxheimer reaction. That is, when disease so that their energy content can be released.
organisms are killed rapidly, in large numbers, Because long-chain fatty acids require special
the dying organisms may release toxins in such enzymes to get through the cell membranes,
quantities that the body is unable to remove them energy production is much slower and consumes
rapidly enough, causing unwanted side-effects. If enzyme reserves. Medium-chain fatty acids are
the disease organisms are killed off more gradually, unique, in that they can easily pass through the
the body can smoothly handle the toxins released, membranes without the help of enzymes and,
and side-effects are minimized. therefore, they are fast and efficient source of
energy for the cells.
When long-chain fatty acids (such as those found
in many vegetable oils) are used, the body tends
to store them in adipose (fatty) tissues for future
use. In contrast, coconut oil is absorbed into the
bloodstream, and the body uses its energy. Many
have compared the bodys burning of coconut oil
to the burning of carbohydrates as a fuel.

Further, when long-chain fatty acids are digested,

they must be combined with transporters
(lipoproteins) that carry the acids to different
parts of the body. They can be used for energy
by cells and organs, stored in adipose tissues, or
accumulated in the arteries. Fat types that function
this way include cholesterols and long-chain
saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated

Medium-chain fatty acids (as found in coconut

oil) do not require lipoproteins for transport, but
can travel directly to the liver for conversion to
energy. Generally speaking, they are not stored in
significant quantity as body fat.

60 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods
How to recognize quality
coconut products?
* Ideally choose the wild-grown, non-hybrid variety (found in many
Asian stores).
* Organic.
* If you buy brown coconuts, make sure that the dark spots at one
end of the nut are clean.

How to recognize quality coconut oil?

* Made from fresh coconuts, not copra (copra dried coconut meat
is used in making most coconut oils).
* Non-hydrogenated, non-raffinated and unbleached.
* Organic.
* Made from the original palm varieties, not hybrids.
* Produced using low temperatures (below 60 degrees centigrade,
or 140 F).
* Packaged in a glass jar, preferably dark glass.

Low-quality oils are most often made from copra. High-quality,

extra-virgin oils are made from fresh coconuts, and dont need
chemical cleaning or preservatives they contain natural antioxidants
that effectively preserve freshness.

General instructions for

the use of coconut oil
* Take the oil from the jar with a spoon; dont touch the oil with
your bare fingers.
* Keep other substances from getting into the jar.
* Store oil to be used for skin care in a separate container from oil
meant for food use.
* It isnt necessary to refrigerate coconut oil storage at room
temperature is fine.
* Well-stored coconut oil can remain good up to five years.
* Store in a glass jar, preferably dark glass.

Other uses
* Coconut oil is ideal for skin care. Because of its small molecular
size, it absorbs readily.
* Use cold-pressed coconut oil for frying! It remains stable up to
76 degrees centigrade (169 F). Coconut doesnt form polymerized
oils or harmful trans-fats because it is saturated fat.
* Use coconut oil as an erotic lubricant, or rub it into your gums.
Recommended usage
Coconut oil/cream, two to four tablespoons/day. Therapeutic
dosage is at least three tablespoons/day.

Chapter 9

{Chlorella pyrenoidosa}
Area of origin

Most common species

Chlorella minutissima
Chlorella vulgaris
Chlorella pyrenoidosa

62 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods
Nutrients and bioactive ingredients (/100g)

Calories: 421 kcal

Proteins: 60.5 %
Carbohydrates: 20.1 %
Fat: 11 %
Fiber: 0.2 %
Ash: 4.6 %
Moisture: 3.6%

Vitamin A 55,500 IU
B-carotene: 180.8mg
Vitamin B1 1.5 mg
Vitamin B2 4.8 mg
Vitamin B6 1.7 mg
Vitamin B12 0.1 mcg
Vitamin C 15.6 mg
Vitamin E 1 mg
Niacin 23.8 mg
Pantothenic acid 1.3 mg
Folic acid 26.9 mcg
Biotin 191.6 mcg
PABA 0.6 mg
Inositol 165 mg
Calcium 203 mg
Phosphorus 989 mg
Magnesium 315 mg
Iron 167 mg
Zinc 71 mg
Copper 0.08 mg
Chlorophyll a 1,469 mg
Chlorophyll b 613 mg

Omega 6 fatty acids (GLA 1.705 mg)


Chlorella is a unicellular freshwater alga which contains enormous every 24 hours faster than any other plant known. The building
amounts of important vitamins, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids and regeneration of our own bodily tissues increases quickly when
and chlorophyll. Chlorella is an excellent source of protein in fact, we use chlorella. The quantity of the healthful Lactobacillus bacteria
a staggering 60 percent of its makeup is easily absorbed, high-quality in the stomach increases (even quadruples), immune function
protein. Chlorellas name comes from its extremely high chlorophyll improves, and the bodys ability to combat free radicals rises.
content, three to five percent more chlorophyll per gram than any Chlorella also helps to rebuild destroyed or damaged nerve tissue,
other organism on this planet. making it an especially hopeful tool in the treatment of Alzheimers
and Parkinsons diseases.
Chlorella cells are built of complex polysaccharides which have been
found to stimulate interferon production, and have strong cancer- Sardines were once believed to be the best food source of RNA
preventive effects (1-4). Chlorella supports the function of the brain, (ribonucleic acid), which prolongs our lives. By eating foods that
liver and immune system, improves digestion, helps to renew tissues, contain plenty of DNA and RNA we offer our body building
promotes healthy weight loss, reduces inflammation, protects against blocks to repair and produce its own stores of these substances. A
the effects of radiation, and helps the body to remove harmful toxins. Japanese study now indicates that Chlorella pyrenoidosa contains
the worlds highest concentrations of RNA nearly 20 times more
Chlorella does not usually contain the rare, blue-green pigment, than sardines. It should be noted that bee pollen and perga are also
phycocyanin, found in AFA and spirulina algae, but it does contain exceptionally good sources of DNA and RNA.
more chlorophyll than either of these. Chlorella also has a higher
content of omega 3 fatty acids than AFA or spirulina. It is a good Chlorella contains digestive enzymes such as chlorophyllase and
source of vitamins B, C and E. There is some evidence it may pepsin, which play an important role in regulating our digestive
contain vitamin B12 in a form usable to humans, but this has not system. Frozen or pasteurized chlorella products might not include
been confirmed by research. Also found in chlorella are folate, these enzymes.
beta-carotene, lysine, iodine, iron and calcium. One tablespoon of
chlorella offers 320 percent of the recommended daily intake of Scientific and empirical findings show chlorella to be efficient in
iron, and 120 percent of the calcium. treating a number of different diseases and conditions. Chlorella
has been used, for example, in:
Melvin Calvin ( received
the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1961 for his studies regarding plant - Supporting treatment of several cancer types
use of carbon dioxide; chlorella played a major role in his work. - Treatment of diabetes
- Weight loss
Chlorella has many fascinating features. The most important of - Treatment of osteoarthritis
these may be its unique compound called Chlorella Growth Factor, - Treatment of yeast syndrome
or CFG. To the amazement of scientists around the world, chlorella - Treatment of AIDS
is able to grow and reproduce so rapidly that it can quadruple itself - Treatment of cirrhosis of the liver

64 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods
- Treatment of ulcers four to six grams of chlorella before drinking alcohol can be as
- Treatment of hepatitis much as 96 percent effective in preventing hangover, even with
- Treatment of viral and bacterial infections heavy drinking.
- Treatment of anemia
- Treatment of MS syndrome Studies have shown that chlorella is particularly useful for people
whose immune system is in poor condition, for example, due to
Chlorella is extremely useful in ridding the body of heavy metals chronic illness or chemotherapy. Chlorella accelerates recovery and
such as radioactive uranium, barium, plutonium, dioxins, mercury supports production of the white blood cells that are a vital part
and cadmium. Chlorella is definitely among the all-stars when we of the system. Chlorella can increase resistance against viruses and
talk about body-cleansing food substances. Chlorella can also aid improve the bodys ability to kill bacteria. For example, superoxide
the liver in processing alcohol, and remove PCBs (polychlorinated is a potent weapon with which white blood cells wipe off bacteria.
biphenyls) and pesticides from our tissues. In one study, superoxide levels in mice that received chlorella extract
increased 150 percent, compared to a control group.
A tremendous interest in chlorella arose in Japan, when research
began into chlorellas effectiveness in cleansing the body of heavy Cytomegalovirus is a herpes-type virus that can cause serious illness
metals a significant problem in the wake of the 1945 atomic in people who have been treated with drugs that weaken the immune
bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. For example, Ichimura (1973) system. Mice that were given chlorella extract survived deadly
reported that daily intake of eight grams of chlorella increased infection doses. The chlorella decreased the viruss spread by 58-
the removal of cadmium through the urine by seven times. Other 65 percent, and boosted levels of gamma-interferon by stimulating
Japanese studies found chlorella to remove uranium and lead from NK cells (natural killer cells) to attack the virus.
the body (Horikoshi et al. 1979). In addition, several scientific studies
in Europe showed that chlorella is effective at removing mercury Disadvantages of use
(common in people who have amalgam fillings in their teeth), Some people may not be able to use chlorella due to allergic reactions
cadmium, arsenic, lead, DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) to its presence in the digestive system. In such cases it might be
and PCBs. The process of removing heavy metals from the blood helpful to consider the use of other algae, such as spirulina or AFA.
takes three to six months, depending on the amount of chlorella a
person eats. Chlorella can also remove intestinal toxins, and aids the
intestines by helping balance levels of healthy bacteria reducing
chronic constipation and intestinal gas. Chlorella is definitely among the
Chlorellas huge chlorophyll content supports the optimal liver all-stars when we talk about body-
function and cleansing. Though we have not yet located the study
itself, we have heard about a Japanese study showing that taking
cleansing food substances.



Recommended usage
Although it is virtually impossible to eat too much chlorella, it is Remember that chlorella is food, not medicine. The general dosage
recommended one begin use gently, then gradually increase intake. for chlorella is ten grams/day if it is used in fighting infections or
Taking too much too soon may cause diarrhea for some people. diseases. In certain supportive treatments for cancer, as much as four
to six teaspoons of chlorella are used daily. It is good to realize that
A good maintenance dose for chlorella is three grams/day. At this many people say they eat chlorella, but that in practice this means
dose you perhaps wont notice a clear difference in how you feel, eating a few chlorella tablets daily. That would mean they were getting
but your body will be receiving plenty of valuable vitamins, minerals, maybe 300 milligrams of chlorella. This would be similar to eating
amino acids and enzymes. If you use chlorella specifically to remove a small piece of broccoli and expecting to receive all the benefits
mercury from your body, the recommended daily dose is five to of a whole broccoli.
seven grams. This dose is quite common, and here youre likely to
experience differences in digestion, energy level and overall healthful If you want clear benefits from chlorella, the dose needs to be a
feeling. One tablespoon of chlorella weighs five grams. lot more than one to two tablets a day. Recommended dosage should not
be exceeded, the label says. Even small quantities of chlorella are
helpful to the body, but effective dosages are closer to a handful of
chlorella tablets, rather than just a few.

66 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods
If you like what we have done, please share our book to your
friends too. Were sure they will appreciate it a lot.

Chapter 10

Chapter 2: RAW CACAO
BBC News. 19.1.2012

Brenner, J. The Emperors of Chocolate, Random House Inc. (1999)

Coe, S & M. The True History of Chocolate, Thames & Hudson (2000)

Dahl, R. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, Puffin (1998)

Dr. Dukes Phytochemical and Ethnobonical Databases. 19.1.2012

Gagne, S. Cacao: The Essence Of Chocolate.

of-chocolate 19.1.2012

Piippo S. & Salo S. Mielen ja Rakkauden Kasvit (2006)

Pinnock, D. The Superfood Bible (2008)

US Department of Agriculture / Journal of the American Chemical Society Cousens, Gabriel, M.D.
with Mark Mayell - Depression Free for Life, New York: Harper Collins, 2001.

Wolfe, D. Superfoods: The Food And Medicine Of The Future, North Atlantic Books (2009)

Wolfe D. & Shazzie Publishers. Naked Chocolate, Rawcreation Ltd. (2005)

Young, A.M. The Chocolate Tree, Smithsonian Institution Press (1994)

Chapter 3: GOJI BERRY

Gross, P.M., Zhang, X. & Zhang, R. Wolfberry: Natures Bounty on Nutrition and Heath. Booksurge
Publishing (2006)

Hoffmann, C. Fruits of Paradise: Goji Berry, Woodland Publishing (2007)

Mindell, E. & Handel, R. Goji: the Himaylayan Health secret. Texas: Momentum Media (2003)

Pinnock, D. The Superfood Bible (2008)

Teeguarden, R. The Ancient Wisdom of the Chinese Tonic Herbs. New York: Warner books, Inc. (1998)

68 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods
Winston, D & Maimes, S. Adaptogens - Herbs for Strength, Stamina, and Stress Relief, Healing Arts Press (2007)

Wolfe, D. Superfoods: The Food And Medicine Of The Future, North Atlantic Books (2009)

(1) Lam A.Y., Elmer G.W. & Mohutsky M.A. Possible interaction between warfarin and Lycium barbarum L. Ann Pharmacother. 2001,
Oct; 35(10): 1199-201.

(2) Leung H, Hung A, Hui A.C. & Chan T.Y. Warfarin overdose due to the possible effects of Lycium barbarum L. Food Chem Toxicol.
2008, May; 46(5): 1860-1862.

(3) Jia Y.X., Dong J.W., Wu X.X., Ma T.M. & Shi A.Y. (1998). The effect of lycium barbarum polysaccharide on vascular tension in two-
kidney, one clip model of hypertension. Sheng Li Xue Bao 50 (3): 309314.

(4) Luo Q, Li Z, Huang X, Yan J, Zhang S & Cai Y.Z. (July 2006). Lycium barbarum polysaccharides: Protective effects against heat-induced
damage of rat testes and H2O2-induced DNA damage in mouse testicular cells and beneficial effect on sexual behavior and reproductive
function of hemicastrated rats. Life Sci. 79 (7): 61321

(5) Yu M.S., Leung S.K., Lai S.W., et al (2005). Neuroprotective effects of anti-aging oriental medicine Lycium barbarum against beta-
amyloid peptide neurotoxicity. Exp. Gerontol. 40 (8-9): 716727.

(6) Gan L., Hua Zhang S., Liang Yang X. & Bi Xu H (April 2004). Immunomodulation and antitumor activity by a polysaccharide-protein
complex from Lycium barbarum. Int. Immunopharmacol. 4 (4): 563569.

(7) He Y.L., Ying Y., Xu Y.L., Su J.F., Luo H. & Wang H.F (September 2005). Effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide on tumor
microenvironment T-lymphocyte subsets and dendritic cells in H22-bearing mice. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao 3 (5): 374377.

(8) Gan L, Hua Zhang S, Liang Yang X, Bi Xu H (April 2004). Immunomodulation and antitumor activity by a polysaccharide-protein
complex from Lycium barbarum. Int. Immunopharmacol. 4 (4): 563569.

(9) He Y.L., Ying Y., Xu Y.L., Su J.F., Luo H. & Wang H.F (September 2005). Effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide on tumor
microenvironment T- lymphocyte subsets and dendritic cells in H22-bearing mice. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine: 2005; 3(5):

(10) Cheng C.Y., Chung W.Y., Szeto Y.T. & Benzie I.F (January 2005). Fasting plasma zeaxanthin response to Fructus barbarum L. (wolfberry;
Kei Tze) in a food-based human supplementation trial. British Journal of Nutrition (2005), 93: 123-130

(11) Chan H.C., Chang R.C., Koon-Ching Ip A., et al. (January 2007). Neuroprotective effects of Lycium barbarum Lynn on protecting
retinal gan- glion cells in an ocular hypertension model of glaucoma. Exp. Neurol. 203 (1): 269273

Chapter 4: MACA
Ley, B.M. Maca: Adaptogen and Hormonal Regulator. Minnesota: BL Publications, (2003)

Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon) Millenarian Peruvian Food with Highly Nutritional Proterties. Lima, Peru (2001)

Piippo S. & Salo S. Mielen ja Rakkauden Kasvit (2006)

Pinnock, D. The Superfood Bible (2008)

Store, D. Raw Food Works, Raw Superfood Publishing (2009)

Wolfe, D. Superfoods: The Food And Medicine Of The Future, North Atlantic Books (2009)

(1) Lpez-Fando, A., Gmez-Serranillos, M.P., Iglesias, I., Lock, O., Upamayta, U.P. & Car-retero M.E. Lepidium peruvianum chacon
restores homeostasis impaired by restraint stress. Phytotherapy Research. Jul 2004 (18,6). 471-474

(2) Zhang, Y., et al. Effect of ethanol extract of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rat. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006
Apr; 105(1-2): 274-9.

(3) Lopez-Fando, A., et al. Lepidium peruvianum Chacon restores homeostasis impaired by restraint stress. Phytother. Res. 2004; 18(6):
471- 474.

(4) Rubio, J., et al. Effect of three different cultivars of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on learning and depression in ovariectomized mice.
BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2006 Jun 23; 6:23.

(5) Stone M., Ibarra A., Roller M., Zangara A. & Stevenson E. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Sep 23

(6) Valentova, K., et al. The in vitro biological activity of Lepidium meyenii extracts. Cell. Biol. Toxicol. 2006 Mar; 22(2): 91-9

(7) Gonzales, G.F., et al. Effect of Black maca (Lepidium meyenii) on one spermatogenic cycle in rats. Andrologia. 2006 Oct; 38(5): 166-72.

(8) Bustos-Obregon, E., et al. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) reduces spermatogenic damage induced by a single dose of malathion in mice.
Asian J. Androl. 2005 Mar: 7(1): 71-6.

(9) Ruiz-Luna, A.C., et al. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) increases litter size in normal adult female mice. Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol. 2005 May;
3(1): 16.

(10) Gonzales, C., et al. Effect of short-term and long-term treatments with three ecotypes of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on spermatogenesis
in rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Feb 20; 103(3): 448-54.

(11) Gonzales, G.F., et al. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on spermatogenesis in male rats acutely exposed to high altitude (4340 m).
J. Endocrinol. 2004; 180(1): 87-95.

(12) Gonzales, G.F., et al. Lepidium meyenii (maca) improved semen parameters in adult men. Asian J. Androl. 2001; 3(4): 3013.

(13) Gonzales, G.F., et al. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (maca) roots on spermatogenesis of male rats. Asian J. Androl. 2001; 3(3): 23133.

(14) Cicero, A.F., et al. Hexanic maca extract improves rat sexual performance more effectively than methanolic and chloroformic maca
extracts. Andrologia. 2002; 34(3): 17779.

(15) Cicero, A.F., et al. Lepidium meyenii Walp. improves sexual behaviour in male rats independently from its action on spontaneous
locomotor activity. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2001; 75(23): 22529.

(16) Zheng, B.L., et al. Effect of a lipidic extract from Lepidium meyenii on sexual behavior in mice and rats. Urology 2000; 55(4): 598602.

(17) Chacon G. La Maca (Lepidium peruvianum) Chacon sp. Nov. Y su habitat. Revista Peruana de biologiga 3 (1990): 171-272

(18) Gustavo F. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) improved semen parameters in adult men. Asian J Androl 2001 Dec; 3: 301-303

(19) Zenico T., Cicero A.F., Valmorri L., Mercuriali M. & Bercovich E. Subjective effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) extract on well-
being and sexual performances in patients with mild erectile dysfunction: a randomised, double-blind clinical trial. Andrologia. 2009 Apr;
41(2): 95-9

(20) Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2008 Oct 9. Research Center for Pharmacology & Toxicology, Institute of Medicinal Plant
Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, P.R. China.

(21) Rubio J., Caldas M., Dvila S., Gasco M. & Gonzales G.F. Effect of three different cultivars of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on learning
and depression in ovariectomized mice. BMC Complement Alternat Med (2006;) 6: 23

(22) Rubio J., Dang H., Gong M., Liu X., Chen S-L. & Gonzales G.F. Aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Black Maca (Lepidium
meyenii) improve scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. Food Chem Toxicol (2007;) 45: 88290

(23) Chacon G. La Maca (Lepidium peruvianum) Chacon sp. Nov. Y su habitat. Revista Peruana de biologiga 3 (1990): 171-272

(24) Gonzales G.F., Valerio L.G. Jr. Medicinal Plants from Peru: a review of plants as potential agents against cancer. Anti-Cancer Agents
Med Chem (2006;) 6: 42944

(25) Valerio L., Gonzales G.F. Toxicological aspects of South American herbs: Uncaria tomentosa (Cats Claw) and Lepidium meyenii
(Maca). A critical synopsis. Toxicol Rev (2005;) 24: 1135.

70 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods
Chapter 5: SPIRULINA
Adams M. Superfoods For Optimum Heath: Chlorella and Spirulina, Truth Publishing International Ltd. (2005)

Challem, J. Spirulina. New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing (1981)

Challem, J. Spirulina: The microscopic nutrient powerhouse and how it protects and restores health. McGraw-Hill; 1 edition (January 11,

Gershwin, M.E. & Belay, A. Spirulina in Human Nutrition and Health, CRC Press (2007)

Henrikson, R. Earth Food Spirulina: Will We Be Eating Algae in The 21st Century? (2009)
EarthFoodSpirulina.pdf 19.1.2012

McCauley, B. Confession on a Body Builder. Lansing, MI: Spartan Enterprises (2000)

Pinnock, D. The Superfood Bible (2008)

Wolfe, D. Superfoods: The Food And Medicine Of The Future, North Atlantic Books (2009)

(1) Ayehunie, S. et al. Inhibition of HIV-1 Replication by an Aqueous Extract of Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis). JAIDS: Journal
of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes & Human Retrovirology. 18, 1, May 1998: 7-12.

(2) Simpore, J., et al. Nutrition Rehabilitation of HIV-Infected and HIV-Negative Undernourished Children Utilizing Spirulina. Annals
of Nutrition & Metabolism. 49, 2005: 373-380.

(3) Wang, Y., et al. Dietary supplementation with blueberries, spinach, or spirulina reduces ischemic brain damage. Experimental Neurology.
May, 2005; 193(1): 75-84.

(4) Gemma, C., et al. Diets enriched in foods with high antioxidant activity reverse age-induced decreases in cerebellar beta-adrenergic
function and increases in proinflammatory cytokines. Experimental Neurology. July 15, 2002; 22(14): 6114-20.

(5) Misbahuddin, M., Maidul Islam, A.Z.M., Khandker, S., Al-Mahmud, I., Nazrul Islam & Anjumanara. Efficacy of spirulina extract
plus zinc in patients of chronic arsenic poisoning: a randomized placebo-controlled study. (Risk factors). Journal of Toxicology: Clinical
Toxicology. 44.2 (March 2006): 135(7).

(6) Torres-Duran, Ferreira-Hermosillo & Juarez-Oropeza (2007). Antihyperlipemic and antihypertensive effects of Spirulina maxima in
an open sample of mexican population: A preliminary report. Lipids in Health and Disease. 6, 33

(7) Cingi C., Conk-Dalay M., Cakli H. & Bal C. The effects of spirulina on allergic rhinitis. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2008 Oct;265(10):1219-
23. Epub 2008 Mar 15.

(8) Becker E.W., Jakober B., Luft D., et al. Clinical and biochemical evaluations of the alga Spirulina with regard to its application in the
treat- ment of obesity. A double-blind crossover study. Nutr Rep Intl 1986; 33: 56573.

(9) Salazar M., Chamorro G.A., Salazar S., et al. Effect of Spirulina maxima consumption on reproduction and peri- and postnatal
development in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 1996;34: 35359.

(10) Kapoor R. & Mehta U. Effect of supplementation of blue green alga (Spirulina) on outcome of pregnancy in rats. Plant Foods Hum
Nutr 1993;43: 2935.

(11) Chamorro G. & Salazar M. Teratogenic study of Spirulina in mice. Arch Latinoam Nutr 1990;40: 8694 [in Spanish].

(12) Hayashi, O. et al. Enhancement of antibody production in mice by dietary spirulina. J. of Nutritional Sciences and Vitaminology,
40, p. 431-441, 1994.

(13) Baojiang, G. et. al. Study on effect and mechanism of Polysaccharides of spirulina on body immune function improvement. Second
Asia-Pacific Conference on Algal Biotechnology. Singapore, April, 1994, p. 24.

(14) Zhang Cheng-Wu, et. al. Effects of polysaccharide and phycocyanin from spirulina on peripheral blood and hematopoietic system
of bone marrow in mice. Second Asia Pacific Conf. Ibid, April, 1994.

(15) Qishen, P. et. al. Endonuclease activity and repair DNA synthesis by polysaccharide of spirulina. Acta Genetica Sinica (Chinese J.
of Genetics). V.15(5) p. 374-381. 1988.

(16) Lisheng, L. et. al. Inhibitive effect and mechanism of polysaccharide of spirulina on transplanted tumor cells in mice. Marine Sciences,
Qindao, China. N.5, 1991, p.33-38.

(17) Ota, Y. Earthrise Farms. Personal communication, 1988.

(18) Blinkova, L.P., Gorobets O.B. & Baturo A.P. [Biological activity of Spirulina.] Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2001;(2): 114-118.

(19) Chamorro G., Salazar M., Favila L. & Bourges H. Pharmacology and toxicology of Spirulina alga. Rev Invest Clin. 1996;48: 389-399.

(20) Gonzalez R., Rodriguez S., Romay C., et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of phycocyanin extract in acetic acid-induced colitis in rats.
Phar- macol Res. 1999;39: 1055-1059.

(21) Hayashi, T. et al. Calcium Spirulan, an inhibitor of enveloped virus replication, from a blue-green alga spirulina. Am. Chemical Soc.
and Am. Soc. of Pharmacognosy. Journal of Natural Products, 1996. Vol 59, No. 1, p. 83-87.

(22) Khan Z., Bhadouria P. & Bisen P.S. Nutritional and therapeutic potential of Spirulina. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2005 Oct;6(5): 373-9.

(23) Kim H.M., Lee E.H., Cho H.H. & Moon Y.H. Inhibitory effect of mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reactions in rats by
spirulina. Bio- chem Pharmacol. 1998; 55(7); 1071-1076.

(24) Lu H.K., Hsieh C.C., Hsu J.J., Yang Y.K. & Chou H.N. Preventive effects of Spirulina platensis on skeletal muscle damage under
exercise-induced oxidative stress. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006 Sep; 98(2): 220-6.

(25) Parada J.L., Zulpa de Caire G., Zaccaro de Mule M.C. & Storni de Cano M.M. Lactic acid bacteria growth promoters from Spirulina
platensis. Int J Food Microbiol. 1998; 45(3): 225-228.

(26) Puyfoulhoux G., Rouanet J.M., Besancon P., Baroux B., Baccou J.C. & Caporiccio B. Iron availability from iron-fortified spirulina by
an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model. J Agric Food Chem. 2001; 49(3):1625-1629.

(27) Qureshi M.A., Garlich J.D. & Kidd M.T. Dietary Spirulina platensis enhances humoral and cell-mediated immune functions in chickens.
Im- munopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1996;18: 465-476.

(28) Romay C., Armesto J., Remirez D., Gonzalez R., Ledon N. & Garcia I. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of C-phycocyanin
from blue-green algae. Inflamm Res. 1998; 47: 36-41.

(29) Salazar M., Martinez E., Madrigal E., Ruiz L.E. & Chamorro G.A. Subchronic toxicity study in mice fed Spirulina maxima. J
Ethnopharmacol. 1998;62: 235-241.
from blue-green algae. Inflamm Res. 1998;47:36-41.
(29) Salazar M, Martinez E, Madrigal E, Ruiz LE, Chamorro GA. Subchronic toxicity study in mice fed Spirulina maxima. J Ethnopharmacol.

Chapter 6: HEMP
Erasmus, U. Fats That Heal, Fats That Kill: The Complete Guide to Fats, Oils, Cholesterol and Human Health. Alive Books; Revised &
enlarged edition (January 1, 1993)

Ihalainen, J.K. Hamppu Suomessa. Palladium (1993)

Jones, K. Nutritional and Medicinal Guide to Hem Seed. Canada: Rainforest Botanical Labratory (1995)

Piippo S. & Salo S. Mielen ja Rakkauden Kasvit (2006)

Pinnock, D. The Superfood Bible (2008)

Wolfe, D. Superfoods: The Food And Medicine Of The Future, North Atlantic Books (2009)

72 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods
(1) Kris-Etherton P.M., Taylor D.S., Yu-Poth S., et. al. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food chain in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr,
71: 179S-88S 2000.

(2) Brousseau M.E. & Schaefer E.J. Diet and Coronary Heart Disease: Clinical Trials. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2: 487-493, 2000.
(3) Siscovic D.S., Raghunathan T.E., King I. et. al. Dietary intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risk of primary
cardiac arrest. Amer J Clin Nutr, 71:208S-212S, 2000.

(4) Kang J.X. & Leaf A. Prevention of fatal cardiac arrhymias by polyunsaturated fatty acids. Amer J Clin Nutr, 71:202S-207S, 2000

(5) Fan Y.Y., Ramos K.S. & Chapkin R.S. Modulation of atherosclerosis by dietary gamma-linolenic acid. Adv Exp Med Biol 469:485-91,

(6) Hornstra G. & Kester A.D. Effect of the dietary fat type on arterial thrombosis tendency: systemic studies with a rat model. Atherosclerosis
131:25-33, 1997

(7) Moghadasian M.H. & Frohlich J.J. Effects of dietary phytosterols on cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis: Clinical and experimental
evidence. Amer J Med 107: 588-94, 1999.

(8) Vartek S., Robbins M.E. & Spector A.A. Polyunsaturated fatty acids increase the sensitivity of 36B10 rat astrocytoma cells to radiation-
induced cell kill. Br J Cancer 77:1612-20, 1998.

(9) Kenny F.S., Pinder S.E., Ellis I.O., et. al. Gamma-linolenic acid with tamoxifen as primary therapy in breast cancer. Int J Cancer 85:
643-8, 2000

(10) Robbins M., Ali K., McCaw R., et. al. Gamma-linolenic acid-mediated cytotoxicity in human prostate cancer cells. Adv Exp Med
Biol 469: 499-504, 1999.

(11) Rizzo M.T., Regazzi E., Garau D., et. al. Induction of apoptosis by arachodonic acid in chronic myeloid leukemia cells. Cancer Res
59: 5047-53, 1999.

(12) Southgate J., Pitt E. & Trejdosiewicz L.K. The effects of dietary fatty acids on the proliferation of normal human urothelial cells in
vitro. Br J Cancer 74:728-34, 1996.

(13) Awad A.B. & Fink C.S. Phytosterols as anticancer dietary components: Evidence and mechanism of action. J Nutr 130:2127-30, 2000.

(14) Fenstrom J.D. Effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on neuronal function. Lipids 34:161-9, 1999.

(15) Youdim K.A., Martin A. & Joseph J.A. Essential fatty acids and the brain: possible health implications. Int J Dev Neurosci 18:383-
99, 2000.

(16) Yehuda S., Rabinovitz S., Carrasso R.L. & Mostofsky D.I. Essential fatty acids preparation (SR-3) improves Alzheimers patients
quality of life. Int J Neurosci 87:141-9, 1996.

(17) Leventhal L.J., Boyce E.G. & Zurier, R.B. Treatment of arthritis with gamma-linolenic acid. Ann Intern Med 119:876-873, 1993.

(18) DeLuca P., Rothman D. & Zurier R.B. Marine and botanical lipids as immunomodulatory and therapeutic agents in the treatment of
rheumatoid arthritis. Rheum Dis Clin N Am 21:759-77

(19) Zurier R.B., Rossetti R.G., Jacobson E.W., et. al. Gamma-linolenic acid treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A randomized, placebo-
controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 39:1808-17, 1996.

(20) Kruger M.C., Coetzer H., Winter R., et. al. Calcium, gamma-linolenic acid and eicosapentaneoic acid supplementation in senile
osteoporo- sis. Aging 10: 385-94, 1998.

(21) Horrobin D.F. Essential fatty acid metabolism and its modification in atopic eczema. J Am Clin Nutr 71:367S-72S, 2000.


Quantum Research Institute. 19.1.2012

Wolfe, D. Superfoods: The Food And Medicine Of The Future, North Atlantic Books (2009)


Coconut Research Center. 19.1.2012

Fife, B. Coconut Cures. Colorado Springs, CO: Piccadily Books (2005)

Piippo S. & Salo S. Mielen ja Rakkauden Kasvit (2006)

Virgin coconut oil and your skin. 19.1.2012

Wolfe, D. Superfoods: The Food And Medicine Of The Future, North Atlantic Books (2009)

(1) Assuno, M.L., Ferreira, H.S., dos Santos, A.F., Cabral, C.R. & Florncio, T.M.M.T. Effects of Dietary Coconut Oil on the Biochemical
and Anthropometric Profiles of Women Presenting Abdominal Obesity. Lipids, (Jul 2009)

Chapter 9: CHLORELLA

Pitchford, P. Healing with whole foods: Oriental traditions and modern nutrition. North Atlantic Books (1993)

Pure Chlorella: 19.1.2012

(1) Komiyama, K. et al An acidic polysaccharide Chlon A from Chlorella pyrenoidosa. (Antitumor activity and immunological response.)
Research at: The Kitasato Institute, Japan

(2) Kojima, M. et al A Chlorella polysaccharide as a factor stimulating RES activity. Dept. of Pathology, Fukushima Medical College,
Fukushima City, Japan. Journal of the Reticuloendothelial Society 14: pp 192-208,1973

(3) Kojima, M. et al A new Chlorella polysaccharide and its accelerating effect on the phagocytic activity of the reticuloendothelial system.
Paper delivered at: Symposium II: Phagocytic Activity of RES, Dept. of Pathology, Fukushima Medical College, Fukushima City, Japan

(4) White, R. & Barber, G. An acidic polysaccharide from the cell wall of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Research at: Dept. of Biochemistry, Ohio
State Univ. 484 W. 12 Ave., Columbia, OH 43210

Scientific references of Chlorella:

Augmentation of host defense by a uncellural green alga, Chlorella Vulgaris, to Escherichia coli infection. Infection and Immunity
53(1986): 267-71.

Effect of Chlorella Vulgaris Extract on Murine Cytomegalovirus Infections Nat Immun Cell Growth Regul. 9 (1990): 121-28.

Accelerated restoration of the leukocyte number and augmented resistence against Escherichia coli in cyclophosphamide-treated rats
orally administered with a hot water extract of chlorella vulgaris. International Journal of Immunopharmacology. 12 (1990) 883-91.

The effects of Chlorella Vulgaris in the protection of mice infected with Listeria monocytogens, role of natural killer cells. Immunophar-
macology and Immunotoxicology 21 (1999): 609-19

74 Sovereign Superfoods
Guide to the most common superfoods