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Wan Baharudin bin Wan Mhmood Programme For Leadership Excellence Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara (INTAN)

Presentation Agenda
Introduction Definitions of Leadership Definitions of Effective Leadership Leadership Theories Differences Between A Leader and A Manager Styles of Leadership Qualities of Effective Leaders Conclusion

Vision and Mission Strategies for Action

Leadership • Vision • Shared Aspiration • Values • Guiding Principle

Organizational Organizational Capacity Capacity

Service delivery system People People Satisfaction Satisfaction

Resources Resources

System System and and Processes Processes

Customer Customer Satisfaction Satisfaction Impact on Impact on Society Society Quality output

Value Creation

Human Human Capital Capital

Environmental Analysis
(Tan Sri Ismail Adam, Director General of Public Service, Malaysia)

Definitions of Leadership
“Leadership is influence – nothing more, nothing less”
John C. Maxwell

“Leadership can be defined as the will to control events, the understanding to chart a course, and the power to get a job done, cooperatively using the skills and abilities of other people”
Donald G. Krause

“The process (act) of influencing the activities of an organised group in its efforts toward goal setting and goal achievement”

Common Elements in the Definition of Leadership
According to Philips Sadler (2002), as an element of social interaction, leadership is a complex activity involving: 1. A process of influence 2. Actors who are both leaders and followers 3. A range of possible outcome – the achievement of goals, but also the commitment of individuals to such goals, the enhancement of group cohesion and the reinforcement of change of organisational behaviour

Definition of Effective Leaders
Effective leaders ………... ……… someone who knows how to inspire and relate to subordinates; able to convince subordinates that the organisational vision is not only important but attainable; able to challenge them with goals, projects, tasks and responsibility that allow them to feel a sense of personal success, achievement, and accomplishment; rewards subordinates who perform well with recognition, money and promotions
Locke (1999)

Definition of Effective Leaders
An effective Islamic leaders ………... ……. has positive personality traits and the traits are God-fearing, high morality, compassion for the people, patience, humble, fair, just, diligent, courageous, pious, honest, positive outlook, considerate and noble. Effective leadership is associated with good character Al-Ghazali refers to good character as the person’s good inward form, that is, in his soul, which has four faculties; knowledge, anger, desire and justice. In a man of good character, all these faculties remain sound, moderate and mutually harmonious
Muhammad Abdul Quasem (1975) The Ethics of Al-Ghazali: A Composite Ethics in Islam

Leadership Theory
Great Man Theories Trait Theories Behaviourist Theories Situational or Contingency Theories Leaders and Followers

Are Leaders Born or Made?
Leadership can be learned. We all have potential, just as we have some ability to sing and run. Some people maybe better than others, but each of us has a starting point to build on with training and practice On my own path towards becoming Prime Minister, I have learned many things along the way. One thing that I have learned over the years is that leaders are not necessarily born, but are made.
Y.A.B. Dato’ Seri Abdullah Haji Ahmad Badawi Prime Minister of Malaysia

Great Man Theories

Based on the belief that leaders are exceptional people, born with innate qualities, destined to lead.

Trait Approach to Leadership
It was believe that through this approach critical leadership traits could be isolated and that people with such traits could then be recruited, selected, and installed into leadership positions.

Leadership Traits and Skills
Adaptable to situation Alert to social environment Assertive Cooperative Dependable Dominant (desire to influence others) Energetic Self confidence

Intelligent Conceptually skilled Creative Diplomatic and tactful Knowledgeable about group task Organised Persuasive Socially skilled

Stogdill 1974

Behaviorist Theories
Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid
9 8 1,9 Country-Club Management 9,9 Team Management

Focuses on task (production) and employee (people) orientation of mangers, as well as combinations of concerns between the two extremes

Concern for People

7 6 5 4 3 2 1

5,5 Middle of the Road “Politician Style”

1,1 Impoverished Management 1 2 3 4 5

9,1 Task Management 6 7 8 9

Concern of Production

The Contingency or Situational School
Fiedler’s Contingency Model
Fiedler’s contingency theory postulates that there is no single best way for managers to lead. Situations will create different style requirements for a manager. Fielder looked at three situations
Leader member relations Task Structure Position Power

The Contingency or Situational School
The Hersey-Blanchard Model of Leadership
This model posits that the developmental levels of a leader’s subordinates play the greatest role in determining which leadership styles (leader behaviors) are most appropriate Hersey Blanchard looked at three situations
Task Behavior Relationship Behavior Maturity

Four types of leadership style
Directing Coaching Supporting Delegating

Transactional and Transformational Leadership
James MacGregor Burns writing in his book “leadership” was the first to put forward the concept of transforming leadership To Burns transforming leadership “is a relationship of mutual simulation and elevation that converts followers into leaders and may convert leaders into moral agents”

Leaders and Followers
Burns (1978) distinguishes between transactional leaders who exchange money, jobs and security for compliance, and transformational leaders who motivate others to strive for higher order goals rather than merely short term-interest.

Leaders and Followers
Builds on man’s need to get a job done and make a living Is preoccupied with power and position, politics and perks Is short-term and hard data oriented Focuses on tactical issues Follows and fulfils role expectations by striving to work effectively within current systems

Builds on a man’s need for meaning Is preoccupied with purposes and values, morals and ethics Is oriented toward long-term goals without compromising human values and principles Focuses more on missions and strategies Designs and redesigns jobs to make them meaningful and challenging

Differences Between A Leader and A Manager – (Susan Dunn)
A manager administers A manager is a copy A manager maintains A manager focuses on systems and structure A manager relies on control

A leader innovates A leader is an original A leader develops A leader focuses on people A leader inspires trust.

Differences Between A Leader and A Manager
A manager has a short-range view. A manager asks how and when. A manager has his eye on the bottom line. A manager imitates. A manager accepts the status quo. A manager is the classic good soldier. A manager does things right.

A leader has a long-range perspective A leader asks what and why. A leader has his eye on the horizon. A leader originates. A leader challenges the status quo. A leader is his or her own person. A leader does the right things.

Leadership Style
Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans and motivating people

Styles of Leadership
Authoritative Leadership Democratic Leadership Principle-Centered Leadership Result-Oriented Leadership Situational Leadership Altruistic Leadership Servant Leadership Visionary Leadership Leading Quietly Wartime Leadership Executive Leadership

Leadership Style
Autocratic (Authoritarian) Democratic (Participative) Delegative (free reign/ Laissez-faire)

Leader Leader Leader

Employees Employees



Whole Group EMPHASIS


Authoritarian (autocratic)
This type is used when the leader tells his/her employees what he/she wants done and how he/she wants it done, without getting the advice of his/her people.
• Rely on threats and punishment to influence employee? • Do not trust employee? • Do not allow employee input?

Autocratic Style ………. continued
Effective when ….
• • • Employee do not respond to any other leadership style Work needs to be coordinated with other department The area was poorly managed

Should not be used when ……
• • • Employees become tense, fearful or resentful Employees expect to have their opinions heard There is low employee morale, high turnover and absenteeism

Participative (democratic)
This type of style involves the leader including one or more employees in on the decision making process (determining what to do and how to do it). However, the leader maintains the final decision making authority. Typically democratic leader:
• • • • Develops plans to help employee evaluate their own performance Allow employees to establish goals Encourage employees to grow on the job and be promoted Recognizes and encourages achievement

Democratic Style ………. continued
Effective when ….
• • • The leader wants to keep employees informed about matters that effect them The leader want employees to share in decision-making and problem-solving duties You want to encourage team building and participation

Should not be used when ……
• • • There is not enough time to get everyone’s input It’s easier and more cost-effective for the manager to make the decision The business can’t afford mistake

Delegative (free reign/laissez-faire)
In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decision. However, the leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made. This is used to analyzed the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it.

Delegative Style …………. continued
Effective when ….
• • • Employees are highly skilled, experienced and educated Employees have pride in their work and the drive to do it successfully on their own Employees are trustworthy

Should not be used when ……
• • • It makes employees feel insecure at the unavailability of a manager The manager cannot provide regular feedback to let employees know how well they are doing Mangers are unable to thank employees of their good work

Varying Leadership Style
While the proper leadership style depends on the situation, there are other factors that influence which style to use
• • • The manager’s personal background. What personality, knowledge, values, ethics does the manager have. The employees being supervised. Employees are individuals with different personalities and backgrounds. The company. The traditions, values, philosophy and concerns of the company will influence how the manager acts.


Qualities of Effective Leaders
Have a clear vision
Having a long term view of your business and future oriented plans will enable clear, focused and rapid decision making

Qualities of Effective Leaders
Be clear about your values
• Will give you the confidence to stand up for what you believe • Strong and determined

Qualities of Effective Leaders

Must be well versed with the organisational knowledge

Qualities of Effective Leaders

Be an inspiration
• Use your vision to inspire others • Show what your subordinate can achieve

Qualities of Effective Leaders
Act as you wish others to behave
Great leaders set the example, take the action and show people how things should be done

Qualities of Effective Leaders

Be courageous
Leaders take risks. The quickest way to succeed is through failing

Qualities of Effective Leaders

Show integrity
Set the high standards for yourself and never deviate from them

Qualities of Effective Leaders

Take responsibility
Accept total personal responsibility for your every thought, action and result. Never complain

Qualities of Effective Leaders
Plan and organise
• Maximise your output from a limited resources • Prioritise and organise

Qualities of Effective Leaders
Delegate and coach (empowerment)
• • Give others responsibility Guide, teach, encourage, motivate, etc

Qualities of Effective Leaders
Create a spirit of collaboration and community
• Show appreciation for a job well done • Show people you care

Qualities of Effective Leaders

Continuously improve
Look for opportunities to continuously improve your organisation

Qualities of Effective Leaders
Cognitive Skills
Ability to think clearly and analyse problems

Expert Skills Effective Leadership
Master competencies, technical knowledge

Action Skills
Ability to get things done e.g. delegate, motivate, communicate

Relationship Skills
Exemplary leadership behaviour and social skills, building trust and effective working relationships

Caliph Ali stated that a good leader must use his head (wisdom) heart (feelings and emotions), hands (strength and power) and tongue (good communication) to help others because the Almighty Allah holds himself responsible to help those who sincerely try their best to help Him. A person can only reach the stage of piety or total God-fearing with full wisdom of knowledge and practising them with deep sincerity under the guidance of Allah and the traditions of the Prophet
The Letter by Amir Al-Mu’mineen Ali Ibn Abu Talib The Fourth Caliph, to Malek al-Ashtar,The Governor of Egypt

Wan Baharudin bin Wan Mhmood Programme For Leadership Excellence National Institute of Public Administration (INTAN)