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Cellular Respiration:

1 Glucose + 2 NAD+ 2 nett ATP + 2 NADH + 2 H2O + 2 pyruvate

Link Reaction:

Catalysed by pyruvate dehydrogenase!!

2 Pyruvate + 2 NAD+ 2 Acetyl CoA + 2 CO2 + 2 NADH
Krebs Cycle:

2 Acetyl CoA + 6 NAD+ + 2 FAD + 2 ADP 2 FADH2 + 4 CO2 + 6 NADH + 2 ATP

Oxidative Phosphorylation:

34 ATP molecules produced (1 FADH2 ~ 2 ATP ; 1 NADH ~ 3 ATP)

Anaerobic respiration:
1) Glycolysis (Substrate-level phosphorylation; ATP formed!!)
i) Glucose Pyruvate
2) Fermentation (Decarboxylation may occur; NAD+ regenerated!!)
i) Pyruvate + NADH Lactic acid + NAD+
ii) Pyruvate acetaldehyde + CO2 ; acetaldehyde + NADH ethanol + NAD+

Glycolysis Link Reaction Krebs Cycle Oxidative phosphorylation

Where? Cytoplasm Mitochondria matrix Inner mitochondrial membrane

What is the role of hexokinase in glycolysis?
1. Phosphorylates glucose by transferring a phosphate group from ATP to glucose,
converting it to glucose-6-phosphate
2. This activates glucose for ATP production in the subsequent steps of glycolysis

Explain the significance of glycolysis:

1. Phosphorylation of glucose (by 2 ATP) to activate glucose and results in glucose unable
to leave the cell through the same glucose carrier.

2. PFK which catalyses the phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate, c ontrols the rate of

glycolysis as high ATP concentration acts as allosteric inhibitor to PFK.

3. Produces a nett of 2 ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation

4. Reduces NAD+ for electron transport chain to produce more ATP

nter the link reaction/ Krebs

5. Breaks 1 glucose into 2 pyruvate molecules that can then e
cycle to form more NADH and FADH2 for oxidative phosphorylation

6. Pyruvate will be small enough to enter mitochondrion for aerobic respiration

Explain why CO2 is produced when mitochondria are incubated with pyruvate but not when they
are incubated with glucose.
1. Pyruvate can enter mitochondrion but not glucose
2. Glucose needs to be converted into pyruvate via glycolysis which occurs only in the
3. CO2 is
produced by decarboxylation of pyruvate in the link reaction/ of acetyl CoA in the
Krebs cycle in the mitochondrion.

Describe the role of substrate-level phosphorylation in the production of ATP.

1. Substrate-level phosphorylation is the addition of the phosphate group to ADP

2. Coupled with dephosphorylation of organic substrate in cellular respiration

3. Substrate-level phosphorylation occurs in the conversion of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate

to pyruvate of the energy pay-off phase of glycolysis, producing nett 2 ATP per glucose

4. Substrate-level phosphorylation also occurs in the Krebs cycle whereby conversion of

succinyl-CoA to succinate produces 2 ATP per glucose.

2-nitrobenzoic acid is a chemical that binds to NAD+. Explain the effect of the addition of this
chemical on glycolysis.
1. NAD+ is unable to be reduced to NADH
2. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate c annot be oxidised to pyruvate.
3. Glycolysis stops/ slows down.
Role of ATP during aerobic respiration:
1. Hydrolysis of ATP yields large amount of energy used to drive endergonic processes in
cells, e.g. active transport of pyruvate from cytoplasm to mitochondrial matrix

Describe the Krebs Cycle:

1. Krebs cycle occurs in the mitochondrial matrix.

2. Acetyl CoA and oxaloacetate u

ndergoes a condensation reaction to form c

3. Citrate is isomerised to isocitrate.

-ketoglutarate. CO2 is lost in

4. Isocitrate is dehydrogenated and decarboxylated to form a
this process, while NAD+ accepts a H atom to form NADH.

uccinyl-CoA. CO2 is
5. A-ketoglutarate undergoes oxidative decarboxylation to form s lost
in this process, while NAD+ accepts a H atom to form N

uccinate. ATP is formed via substrate-level

6. Succinyl-CoA is converted to S

7. Succinate undergoes dehydrogenation to form f umarate. FAD accepts H atoms to form


8. Fumarate is hydrated to form malate.

xaloacetate. NAD+ accepts a H atom to

9. Malate undergoes dehydrogenation to form o
form NADH.

Describe oxidative phosphorylation:

1. Occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane

2. Synthesis of ATP occurs as electrons are transferred from NADH a

nd FADH2 generated

from glycolysis, link reaction and Krebs cycle.

3. Electrons are transferred via a series of electron carriers down the electron transport
chain (ETC) found on the inner mitochondrial membrane, with e nergy released during
each electron transfer.

4. O2 is the final electron acceptor of the ETC and is reduced to H2O.

5. The energy released is used to a ctively pump H+ from the matrix into the
intermembranal space of the mitochondria, creating a proton gradient a cross the inner
membrane, and results in the formation of a proton motive force.
6. H+ then diffuses down the concentration gradient t hrough hydrophilic protein channels of
the stalked particle, and the energy released by the proton motive force is used by ATP
synthase to attach an inorganic phosphate to ADP, forming ATP.
7. Oxidation of 1 molecule of NADH yields 3 ATP while oxidation of 1
molecule of
FADH2 yields 2 ATP by oxidative phosphorylation.

8. Oxidative phosphorylation allows the regeneration of NAD+ and FAD for use in

Explain how mercury ions may affect the survival of the fish when oxygen concentrations are
1. When oxygen concentration is low, aerobic respiration cannot produce sufficient ATP.

2. In addition, the fish cannot carry out anaerobic respiration in the presence of mercury
ions as lactate dehydrogenase c annot catalyse the conversion of pyruvate to lactic acid
to regenerate NAD+ in the cytoplasm due to inhibition by mercury ions.

3. Hence, glycolysis cannot continue to produce ATP via substrate-level phosphorylation.

4. Thus, ATP-requiring cellular activities are inhibited, causing death of the fish.

Explain the importance of submerged plants to produce alcohol dehydrogenase.

1. Lack of O2 in submerged conditions
2. Leads to anaerobic conditions
3. Alcohol dehydrogenase catalyses the conversion of acetaldehyde to ethanol/
regeneration of NAD+
4. Allows glycolysis to continue, so generation of ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation

In humans, certain tissues can undergo anaerobic respiration if conditions make it necessary.
Explain why large stores of glycogen enables these tissues to tolerate anaerobic respiration for
longer periods of time.
1. Anaerobic respiration occurs when theres no O2 and produces a low amount of ATP.
2. Large stores of glycogen can be converted to l arge amount of glucose.
3. Hence, providing a large source of glucose for anaerobic respiration to occur longer.

Anaerobic respiration Aerobic respiration

processes glycolysis

Fermentation Link reaction, Krebs Cycle, Oxidative


Requires O2 ? No Yes

ATP produced 2 38

Electron carriers NADH only NADH and FADH2


Location Cytoplasm only Cytoplasm and mitochondria

Photophosphorylation Oxidative Phosphorylation

Process In photosynthesis In aerobic respiration

Location Thylakoid membrane of chloroplast Inner membrane of


Involvement of light energy Light energy is required for Light energy is not required
photolysis/ to energise electrons
Source of energy for ATP Energy for synthesis of ATP comes Energy for synthesis of ATP
synthesis from light comes from oxidation of

Electron donors is the electron donor in

H2O NADH and FADH2 are
non-cyclic reaction electron donors

PSI is the electron donor in the

cyclic reaction

Electron acceptors NADP+ is the final electron Oxygen is the final electron
acceptor in the non-cyclic reaction acceptor

PSI is the electron acceptor in the

cyclic reaction

xv c
Data Analysis:

Excess ADP increases O2 amount

in a similar concept as DNP: by making the proton
gradient less steep so that the process of proton transport (across proton pumps) more
thermodynamically favourable which hence increases.

In the absence of ADP or Pi, the proton pore of ATP synthase is blocked and a H+ builds up
to a point where it restricts further H+ translocation across the inner membrane. Since electron
transport is functionally linked to H+ translocation, this elevated H+ will also restrict O2

Oligomycin inhibits ATP synthase by blocking its proton channel (Fo subunit), which is
necessary for oxidative phosphorylation of ADP to ATP. (Its effects is opposite of excess
Why does DNP decreases O2 amount?
2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) is a relatively non-polar compound used in high doses as a dieting aid
but has been identified with severe side-effects, including a number of deaths.

DNP dissipates the proton gradient and hence, the proton motive force (PMF) needed to drive
ATP synthesis via ATP synthase

Normally, proton gradient maintained as intermembranal space has higher [H+] than matrix.
DNP- gains H+ in intermembrane space => lowers [H+] in intermembrane space
DNP is hydrophobic, pass through hydrophobic core of inner mitochondrial membrane => DNP
reaches matrix & loses H+ => increases [H+] in matrix

Depletion of the proton gradient makes the process of proton transport (across proton pumps)
more thermodynamically favourable which hence increases. T his increases the rate of electron
transport, since the energy released for proton pumping comes from electron transfers via a
series of electron carriers down the ETC. Oxygen is hence rapidly used up as the final electron
acceptor of the ETC.