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• The term "quality of work life" (QWL) was first introduced in 1972 during an international labor relations conference

(Hian and Einstein, 1990). QWL received more attention after United Auto Workers and General Motors initiated a QWL program for work reforms.

• QWL owes its origins to the merger of the structural, systems perspective of organizational behavior with the interpersonal, human relations, supervisory-style perspective (Cherns ,1978).

• Robbins (1989) defined QWL as
"a process by which an organization responds to employee needs by developing mechanisms to allow them to share fully in making the decisions that design their lives at work"

“QWL is process of work organization which enables its members at all levels to participate actively and efficiently in shaping the organization's environment, methods and outcomes. It is a value based process, which is aimed towards meeting the twin goal of enhanced effectiveness of the organization and improved quality of life of work for employees.”

• • • • •
• • • •

Adequate and fair compensation. Safe and healthy working conditions. Opportunities to develop and use human capacities. Opportunities for continued growth and security. A feeling of belonging. Employee rights. Work and total life space. Social relevance of work life.

 Longitudinal studies of QWL companies confirms a positive association between quality of work life and business performance.  In the context of human resource development, employees play an important role in transforming an organization. Motivating employees to contribute their best ability and knowledge in work has long been an active research agenda. QWL research has suggested that if management wants to develop a cohesive, loyal, and dedicated workforce, a clear and nurturing policy must be in place.

 Management often falls to provide sufficient QWL, especially in the areas of job security, perks, and pay, for a fear of a negative effect on company's financial performance.

 Effective human resource development programs are key to organizational survival and change, providing important competitive advantages in the global environment.

• Job enrichment
Adding depth (increasing difficulty) to a job to increase motivation and interest in performing the job.

• Job enlargement
Adding tasks at the same level of difficulty to a job.

• Cont...

• Task variety
The different tasks in a job; the degree to which job tasks are different from each other.

• Task identity
Completing an entire unit or subunit (as opposed to performing one of many tasks required to complete a unit or subunit).

• Cont..

• Task significance
The belief that the work is important.

• Autonomy
Freedom to make decisions; the ability to work without supervision.

• Feedback
Information received by workers regarding the level and quality of performance.

• Cont ..

• Job rotation
moving people to different jobs on the same organizational level for short times.

• Cross-training
teaching workers more than one job; multiskilling.

• Positive reinforcement
should be accurate, frequent, timely, integral with the tasks, and self-evident. • Cont…

• Well pay
A reward in the form of a scheduled day off with pay in return for not taking an unscheduled day off, within a certain time.

• Floating holiday
One day off with pay, scheduled on short notice, within a certain time.

• Cont..

• Empowerment
Providing employees with higher degrees of involvement and greater authority to make decisions.

• Child care
Care for children not in school, while parents work.

• Elder care
Care for the elderly who need assistance.

 Achieve integration among the technological, human, organisational and society demands which are often contradictory and conflicting .  Providing greater autonomy and opportunity for selfdirection and self-control to workers.  Teach new values and attitudes at the workplace.  Design systems which will sustain and strengthen the predominant patterns of behaviour. Improving productivity, adaptability, and overall effectiveness of organisation.

• Production-based compensation plans
 periodic cash bonuses given to employees having cost-saving ideas; gain sharing.

• Flextime
 allowing workers to begin their normal workday at whatever time they wish, often within a predetermined window (like between 8 and 10 a.m.).

• Flex place
 allowing regular employees (full- or part-time) to work at home or at another location away from the company.

• Flexible benefits
 allowing employees to select benefits to best meet their needs.

• Job sharing
two workers dividing one job.

• Right-side-up organizations
customers or clients are placed at the top of the hierarchy, followed by frontline or customer-contact workers.

 General Motors  Ford Motors  XEROX  IBM  BHEL  TISCO

The work culture in BHEL is a composite mix of various cultural, social & ethical ideologies which acts as a basis and directs the employees to incorporate the feeling of oneness in personnel objectives with the company objective.
BHEL takes into consideration a number of factors that are responsible for providing better quality of work life to the employees.

1. MEDICAL SERVICES
Medical facilities for BHEL employees started on 12-08-1963.Today, salient features of medical services can be summed up as followsMAIN HOSPITAL PERIPHERAL SECTOR DISPENSARIES PLANT MEDICAL CENTERS OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH CENTER PUBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENT PHYSIOTHERAPY CENTRE

2. CANTEEN FACILITIES:
BHEL has four well-equipped canteens inside the plant and one staff canteen, which provide catering facilities to all employees of BHEL. Canteens provide highly subsidized meals, tea and snacks. There are canteen committees to manage the administration and functioning of the canteens. These committees have equal number of representatives from workers and management. Tea and snacks are provided at the workplace during the shift timings.

3. TRANSPORT FACILITIES:
 BHEL management has provided subsidized transport facilities to the school going children of employees for attending duties.  In addition, vehicle allowance and vehicle purchase loan schemes are also there in order to facilitate the BHEL employees.  The operation of vehicles transporting our employees is being monitored by a transport committee.

4. HOUSING FACILITIES:
 BHEL has provided around 8000 houses for different classes of employees,  There are hostels with all modern amenities for the workers and working women.  Water and Electricity is provided to all the houses and hostels in the township round the clock.  To meet the requirement of housing need of older employees GRIH NIRMAN SAMITI was  formed in seventies.  As on date around 4000 houses have been constructed and civic amenities like roads, parks, sewerage system is being maintained by GRIH NIRMAN SAMITI.
 Loan facilities are also provided by BHEL for purchase as well as for renovation of houses.  Under the scheme to ‘build own house’, a big township named Shivalik Nagar has come up within BHEL campus with all facilities.

5. EDUCATION FACILITIES:
 BHEL is contributing in a big way in the field of education as a responsible Corporate Citizen. It provides infra structural support and effective Management to the various educational institutions.  In BHEL Township, BHEL education management board, Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan, Uttar Pradesh Madhymic Shiksha Parishad, Chinmaya education trust and other bodies are running 18 educational institutions from nursery to degree level which cater to the educational needs of the children of BHEL employees including one degree college, One central school, branch of Delhi Public School, seven schools run by BHEL Education Management Board including 4 inter college, 1 high school and two Primary schools and a few by private agencies. BHEL has established a BHEL Bal Bhawan, the only institute of its kind in the whole of Uttaranchal and affiliated to National Bal Bhawan. Bal Bhawan has the facility to train children in the field of Art, Craft, Creative Writing, English Speaking, Computer Processing, Learn Science while play, Aero modeling, Dance, Music etc.

6. SECURITY SERVICES:
 In BHEL, Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) is working prominently in order to provide total security to all the employees as well as workers in the office, in the township area and in case of emergency situations like strikes. A separate CISF building is made where training facilities are also there for the security.

7. SHOPPING CENTRES & PEETH BAZARS:
There are various shopping centers in the township in different sectors, which provide almost everything of daily requirement. P.C.O.’s and gift centers are also present in these shopping centers .The shops in these centers are owned or hired by private people and are not bound legally in any way with BHEL. BHEL has also provided facility of peeth bazaars to the employees and their families’ four days a week, in which the items can be bought at highly reduced price.

8. COMMUNITY CENTRES:
 In the township, there are two community centers. They are managed by duly elected executive body and financed by grant in aid by BHEL and monthly contribution of employees. They provide all round development for the employees and their wards and various facilities for community development and social functions for the BHEL employees & their families which includes:
Library/Reading room. Games. Marriage Halls. One Ledo club for organizing parties. Stadium for cultural programs. Facility for training in computer, typing, stitching, embroidery, toy making, drawing etc.

9. KHEL BHAWAN / YOGA MANDAL
 BHEL has only one Khel Bhawan which is well equipped with all the modern games and sport facilities. The games provided are:  Indoor: Table Tennis, Carom, Squash, Billiards & Snooker, Chess & Badminton etc.  Outdoor: Cricket, Hockey, Football, Basketball, Volley ball, Kabbadi, Athletics etc. BHEL also has one Yoga Mandal where the employees and their families can avail the facilities of yoga training classes in which expert teachers impart training.

10. BANKS AND POST OFFICES:
 For the convenience of the employees, two counters of banks one each of State Bank of India and Punjab National Bank are provided inside the plant. A postoffice is also provided inside the plant. A post-office is also provided near the main gate of the factory.

11. TELECOMMUNICATION CENTER:
 A telecommunication center is also made inside the township in order to facilitate the employees with telecom services.

12. FIRE SERVICES:
 BHEL has a well-equipped fire-fighting wing to control fire in emergency. Hydrants in sufficient number have been installed. Automatic arrangements for fire indications are also made in critical areas. The periodical drill for firefighting is also arranged inside the plant.

13. SAFETY IMPLEMENTATION ACTIVITIES:
 For the implementation of safety rules in the factory as per Factory act 1948, statutory requirements are fulfilled regularly and inspected by the government authorities. There are special provisions for fire extinguishing systems, modern safety guards, and control of crane safety appliances for protection from dust and fumes and automatic fire alarm systems in accident-prone areas.  Safety committee has been set-up consisting of representatives of workers and management, which meets once in three months to review the safety aspects of the plant.  Departmental safety committee consisting representative of workers and management of that department meets once in a month to review the safety aspects of the department.

14. GIFTS AND WELFARE SCHEMES FOR EMPLOYEES
 New Year Gifts :  BHEL, provides all its employees with New Year gifts on every 1’st January. The item to be presented as a gift is changed from time to time and the decision regarding selection of item are taken by a separate committee comprises of equal number of representatives from both the management and trade unions specially made for this purpose.  Purchase committee comprises of representatives from finance, purchase, indenture (welfare) & recognized unions purchase gift items for New Year. Gift After 10 Years Of Services : Every employee who completes ten years of service in BHEL is presented a wristwatch as a momento.

Deaf Relief Fund Scheme:
Under the death relief fund scheme, every employee contributes as amount of RS. 1 from his salary and the total contribution of all the employees goes to the family of the deceased employee. In case of employee’s death, financial assistance is given for funeral also.

Group Insurance Scheme & Employee Deposit Linked Insurance Scheme:
 In order to overcome the financial difficulties by the families of deceased employees, the management has introduced BHEL group Insurance Scheme w.e.f. 19-031975. In addition to already existing insurance schemes, BHEL started a group saving linked insurance scheme for its employee’s w.e.f. 25’th April, 1987. In this scheme, workers are insured for an amount of Rs.10, 000 and 20,000 depending upon their status.

Provident Fund Trust Scheme:
 This scheme has three parts:
1. Employee provident fund trust 2. Family pension 3. EDLI scheme

1. Employee Provident Fund Trusts:
 Regional Provident Fund Commissioner has exempted BHEL from being a member of provident fund trust scheme because BHEL is having its own EPF trust which is fulfilling all the provisions of above scheme.

2. Family Pension Scheme:
 This scheme is effective for those employees who had joined this organization after 1972. However, it is voluntary for employees who have joined before 1972. This scheme run through Regional Provident Fund Commissioner & has following benefits: After superannuation, all the accumulated money is paid along with interest in one time. In case of deceased employee, the widow gets the pension.

3. EDLI Scheme
 ELDI is covered under the Group Insurance Scheme and Employee Savings Linked Insurance Scheme.

Employee Benefits
Leave and Holidays. Encashment of Earned Leaves. Railway Confessional Ticket facility. Medical Attendance Rule. Retired Employee Contributing Health Scheme. Conveyance reimbursement for executive. Conveyance reimbursement for supervisors, non-executive employees.  DRF (Death Relief Fund).  ELDI Scheme.  Group Insurance Scheme. Accident /medical Insurance Schemes. Compensation. Conveyance maintenance Scheme, etc.       

Loans & Advances
Festival Advance. Cycle Advance. Vehicle Advance. House Building Advance.

Awards & Incentives
Cash Award for acquiring higher additional qualification. Study Leave. Sponsorship for higher studies. Family planning incentives. Plant performance payments. Special incentives and bonus. Participation in Inter Unit Sports.

Technological advances further help organizations to implement these programs successfully.
Organizations are enjoying the fruits of implementing QWL programs in the form of increased productivity.

An efficient, satisfied, and committed workforce.
The future work world will also have more women entrepreneurs and they will encourage and adopt QWL programs.

REFERENCES
• http://www.bhel.com/home. • http://www.chrmglobal.com/Articles/183/1/Q uality-of-Work-Life.html • http://www.citehr.com • http://www.mbajunction.com/career/quality_ work_proj.htm