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Experiment #3
Instructor: Professor Rassa Rassai

## March 17, 2015

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Objective:

In this experiment we will verify the concepts and principles behind a series RLC

network. We will also become familiar with using an oscilloscope and wave signal generator. We

will create a simple series circuit that consists of a resistor, an inductor and a capacitor. In this

experiment we will observe the steady state responses of this RLC circuit when driven by a sine

wave voltage, and verify the theory of these responses. We will verify Ohms law and

Kirchhoffs laws in a steady state AC circuit, which will consist of series RLC elements. First the

voltages within the circuit will be measured experimentally, and then we will analyze the circuit

Theory:

## An RLC is an electrical circuit consisting of a resistor, an inductor, and a capacitor,

connected in series or in parallel. The circuit forms a harmonic oscillator for current and will

resonate in a similar way as an LC circuit will. The main difference that the presence of the

resistor makes is that any oscillation induced in the circuit will die away over time if it is not

kept going by a source. In a circuit excited by an AC source, under steady state conditions, the

currents and voltages of interest are determined by fundamental circuit analysis techniques with

impedance replacing resistance in the original laws. Complex algebra replaces classical algebra

based on the phasor construct for the source voltage or current. In a circuit of series RLC

elements excited by an AC source (VG), the following relations are applied, ZT = R + JwL +

1/JwC; i(t) = VG/ZT; VG = VR + VL + VC. In a circuit with parallel L & C elements, in series with

a load resistor, the corresponding relations are, ZT= R + ZC // ZL; i(t) = VG / Zt; VR = Ri(t); VP =

i(t) [ ZC //ZL].VP is the voltage across the parallel combination of Zc and ZL, resonance in an RLC

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Materials:

## Dual Trace Oscilloscope

Square Wave Signal Generator
DMM (Digital Multimeter)
1 Resistor (470)
1 33 Milli Henry Inductor
Wires
Cables

Circuit:

Procedure:

## 3. Set VG to 5VP sine wave at a frequency of 2 KHz.

4. Measure the output VR and phase angle with respect to VG; noting that the phase of VR is

5. Repeat step 4 with the frequency set at 4 KHz.
6. Repeat step 4 and 5 but now measure VC with respect to VG.
7. Repeat step 4 and 5 but now measure VL with respect to VG.

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Data:

NOM. R 470

MEAS. R 468.7

Experimental:

Frequency VR R VC C VL L
2 KHz 3.21 V +38.8 6.47 V -49.9 3.39 V +129.8
4 KHz 3.55 V -35.8 2.99 V +53.2 6.41 V -122.8

Calculated:

Frequency VR R VC C VL L
2 KHz 3.88 V +39.1 6.59 V -50.9 3.43 V +129.1
4 KHz 3.68 V -42.6 3.12 V +47.4 6.51 V -132.6

VR R VC C VL L
% Error 15.26% 0.77% 1.85% 2.00% 1.18% 0.54%
% Error 3.53% 18.9% 4.35% 10.9% 1.56% 7.98%

Calculations:
2 f
Z t RZ L Z C

Z LL

1
ZC
C

itV g Z T

4

5

V R Rit

V L Z Li t

V CZ Ci t

R
Rcos1
ZT

## Measured ValueExact Value 100

Exact Value
Percent Error

Sources of Error:

In this experiment there were a few sources that may have caused a slight error in our

measurements when compared to the theoretical values that we calculated. Some error could

have come from the improper calibration of the instruments that were used in this lab. The

uncertainty in our measurements are mainly due to human error. Some error could have come

from improperly reading the oscilloscope, when the scale was changed so did the amplitude of

the sine wave. Even though it was only a slight change this could have contributed to our percent

error to be as high as 18.9 %. There was also confusion as for if the scale was represented by a

single tic or the whole box. Most of these errors are random, but can be fixed by making real

accurate readings of the oscilloscope and voltage generator. Other factors that could have

affected our experimental values could have come from our equipment and surroundings. Some

error could have come from the improper calibration of the instruments that were used in this

lab. There is possibly a slight amount of internal resistance and internal voltage drop in the

oscilloscope and generator that has some contribution to the readings. Finally due to the

surroundings, we can have temperature variation that will lead to resistance variation, stray

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magnetic and electric fields. Despite all these sources of error I believe that our measurements

were sound within the confines of this experiment. However, the experiment itself has a slight

amount of systematic error associated with the apparatus and the formulas given to calculate our

values.

Conclusion:
In this experiment were we able to properly use the signal generator and oscilloscope.

The use of these devices allowed us to observe the behavior of a resistor, capacitor and inductor

in different combinations within a series RLC circuit. A typical AC source produces a voltage, or

current, that varies sinusoidally with time. We are able to measure the voltage across the different

elements by viewing the amplitude of the sine wave that is generated on to the oscilloscope. We

examined a second order circuit, the RLC circuit, which contains two energy storage elements.

An important property of this circuit is its ability to resonate at a specific frequency, the

resonance frequency. Resonance occurs because energy is stored in two different ways: in an

electric field as the capacitor is charged and in a magnetic field as current flows through the

inductor. We were able to take these experimental values and compare them to theoretical values

from derived equations. In conclusion this experiment is consistent with the theory behind a

MatLab:

## Copyright (c) 2002-2008 by Samit Basu

Type <help license> to find out more
<pathtool> to set or change your path
Use <dbauto on/off> to control stop-on-error behavior
Use ctrl-b to stop execution of a function/script
JIT is enabled by default - use jitcontrol to change it
Use <rootpath gui> to set/change where the FreeMat toolbox is installed
--> f1=2000
f1 =
2000
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--> f2=4000
f2 =
4000
--> w1=2*pi*f1
w1 =
1.2566e+004
--> w2=2*pi*f2
w2 =
2.5133e+004
--> L=.033
L=
0.0330
--> C=.0000001
C=
1.0000e-007
--> ZL1=w1*L
ZL1 =
414.6902
--> ZC1=1/(w1*C)
ZC1 =
795.7747
--> R=468.7
R=
468.7000
--> ZT1=sqrt(R^2+(ZL1-ZC1)^2)
ZT1 =
604.0737
--> VG=5
VG =
5
--> VR=R*(VG/ZT1)
VR =
3.8795
--> VL=ZL1*(VG/ZT1)
VL =
3.4324
--> VC=ZC1*(VG/ZT1)
VC =
6.5867
--> ZL2=w2*L
ZL2 =
829.3805
--> ZC2=1/(w2*C)
ZC2 =
397.8874
--> ZT2=sqrt(R^2+(ZL2-ZC2)^2)
ZT2 =
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637.0761
--> VR1=R*(VG/ZT2)
VR1 =
3.6785
--> VL1=ZL2*(VG/ZT2)
VL1 =
6.5093
--> VC1=ZC2*(VG/ZT2)
VC1 =
3.1228
thetaR=(acos(R/ZT1)*180)/pi
thetaR =
39.1134
--> thetaL=thetaR+90
thetaL =
129.1134
--> thetaC=thetaR-90
thetaC =
-50.8866
--> thetaR2=(acos(R/ZT2)*180)/pi
thetaR2 =
42.6332
--> thetaL2=thetaR2+90
thetaL2 =
132.6332
--> thetaC2=thetaR2-90
thetaC2 =
-47.3668
--> PercentError=(abs(VR-VRM)/VR)*100
PercentError =
15.2572