Reference Guide Addendum

LEED® Canada for
New Construction and
Major Renovations
Version 1.0
September 2007
merci Mars 20
LEED Canada-NC 1.0 Reference Guide Addendum
3
The purpose of this addendum update of the LEED Canada for New Construction
and Major Renovations Version 1.0 December 2004 Reference Guide is to ease ap-
plication of LEED-NC in Canada, making it simpler to use when greening project
design and construction, and easing the task of certifying environmentally-beneficial
performance. This addendum clarifies many prerequisite and credit requirements,
introduces several new compliance paths, and streamlines many certification sub-
mittals, as well as incorporating all errata noted since December 2004.
These changes are based on the experience gained by users and the Council since
the Canadian launch of LEED Canada-NC 1.0. Also, several credits were modified
to bring them in line with improved requirements of USGBC LEED-NC Version 2.2.
Major changes to the performance outlined in previous Version 1.0 prerequisite and
credit requirements were deliberately avoided to expedite release of an improved
rating system. We hope this addendum makes LEED Canada-NC a more useful and
simpler tool for rating system users looking to enhance the environmental, resource
and health performance of their projects.
This Reference Guide Addendum shows changes in two ways:
• simple changes listed in the initial table are intended to be manually entered
by readers on existing Reference Guide pages;
• complete pages, which embody more extensive updates to text and figures,
are provided to replace existing Reference Guide pages (these pages may
sometimes begin and end mid-sentence).
Replacement pages have been formatted with wording changes underlined; only
changed pages are included in this addendum. Words that have been deleted are
not shown to keep the document easy to read. This addendum will be incorporated
into the current Reference Guide and released as version 1.1 in the fall of 2007, along
with the LEED Canada-NC Version 1.1 Rating System. The updated Letter Templates
incorporate all addenda changes and were released as version 1.1 in July 2007.
All projects registered after the planned release of LEED Canada-NC Reference Guide
Version 1.1 in the fall of 2007 must comply with all prerequisites and credits in the
updated version. Projects registered prior to this release may:
1. continue with use of all Version 1.0 criteria,
2. use all addendum to LEED Canada-NC criteria, or
3. selectively apply a mix of NC 1.0 and addendum prerequisites and credits on
an individual basis.
Projects mixing LEED Canada-NC 1.0 and addendum criteria should clearly state
which version is used for each prerequisite and credit, and should use the appropri-
ate submittals and Letter Template for each.
Note that Credit Interpretation Requests (CIRs) requesting use of USGBC LEED-NC
2.2 changes not addressed in this addendum are unlikely to receive favourable
rulings, since they have already been carefully considered by the CaGBC Technical
Advisory Group. Readers are encouraged to review CIRs on the LEED Canada web
site (www.cagbc.org) to see the latest rulings on credit requirements.
For further information or questions on the addendum, please contact the LEED
Program Coordinator at cloader@cagbc.org.

Canada Green Building Council
4
This LEED Canada-NC 1.0 Reference Guide Addendum was developed as a volun-
teer effort by the CaGBC Technical Advisory Group (TAG), with direction from the
LEED-NC Core Committee (LNCCC) and the Product Steering Committee (PSC).
Technical Advisory Group
Stephen Carpenter (chair)
Sheila Brown
Jim Clark
Curt Hepting
Ed Lowans
Patrick Lucey
Robert Marshall
Brenda Martens
Blair McCarry
Sholem Prasow
Christoph Reinhart
Keith Robertson
Martin Roy
Lyle Scott
Gordon Shymko
Doug Sinclair
Elia Sterling
Eric Van Benschoten
LEED-NC Core Committee
Mark Lucuik (chair)
Stephen Kemp
Joanne Perdue
Stephen Pope
LEED Product Steering Committee
Alex Zimmerman (chair)
Steve Carpenter
Claude Bourbeau
Jackie Evans
Mark Lucuik
Neil Munro
Joanne Perdue
Andrew Pride
Kendall Taylor
Wayne Trusty
LEED Canada-NC 1.0 Reference Guide Addendum
5
The addendum also benefited from input by specific CaGBC TAG members and
other volunteers providing research and content. Special thanks to:
- Cori Barraclough, Aqua-Tex Scientific Consulting Ltd.
- John Hackett, Tarion Insurance
- Derek Holloway, Encon Insurance
- Mark Lucuik, Morrison Hershfield Consulting Engineer
- Robert Marshall, Jacques Whitford
- Brenda Martens, Recollective
- Jamie McKay, Morrison Hershfield Consulting Engineers
- Peter Needra, DPIC Insurance
- Sholem Prasow, Teknion
- Christoph Reinhart, National Research Council Canada
- Daniel Roberts, Busby, Perkins +Will, Recollective
- Keith Robertson, Solterre Design
- Martin Roy, Martin Roy & Associés Groupe Conseil Inc.
- Lyle Scott, Minto Energy Management
- Gordon Shymko, G. F. Shymko & Associates Inc.
- Eric Van Benschoten, VAN - FORT Inc.
- The Building Durability Task Force:
Robert Marshall (Chair) Alex McGowan Lyle Scott
Ted Kesik Leslie Peer Bill Semple
Greg Leskien Sholem Prasow Randy Van Straaten
Jamie McKay Keith Robertson Elia Sterling
Enermodal Engineering provided significant volunteer support in drafting and
reviewing changes; particular thanks to Stephen Carpenter, Jennifer Carroll, and
Jordan Hoogendam.
Apologies to those we may have inadvertently missed.
Canada Green Building Council
6
Table of Contents
Acknowledgements 3
Additional Errata List 8
Sustainable Sites
Prerequisite 1 Erosion & Sedimentation Control 13
Credit 2 Development Density 14
Credit 3 Redevelopment of Contaminated Sites 21
Credit 4 Alternative Transportation:
Public Transportation Access 23
Hybrid and Alternative Fuel Vehicles 25
Parking Capacity 27
Credit 5 Reduced Site Disturbance:
Protect or Restore Open Space 32
Development Footprint 34
Credit 7 Heat Island Effect:
Non-Roof 39
Roof 41
Credit 8 Light Pollution Reduction 49
Water Efficiency
Credit 1 Water Efficient Landscaping 61
Credit 2 Innovative Wastewater Technologies 62
Credit 3 Water Use Reduction 66
Energy & Atmosphere
Prerequisite 2 Minimum Energy Performance 69
Credit 2 Renewable Energy 70
Credit 5 Measurement and Verification 76
LEED Canada-NC 1.0 Reference Guide Addendum
7
Materials & Resources
Prerequisite 1 Storage & Collection of Recyclables 81
Credit 1 Building Reuse
Maintain 75% of Existing Walls, Floors, and Roof 82
Maintain 95% of Existing Walls, Floors, and Roof 83
Maintain 50% of Interior Non-Structural Elements 84
Credit 2 Construction Waste Management 89
Credit 3 Resource Reuse 92
Credit 4 Recycled Content 95
Credit 5 Regional Materials 101
Credit 7 Certified Wood 102
Credit 8 Durable Building 105
Indoor Environmental Quality
Prerequisite 1 Minimum IAQ Performance 111
Prerequisite 2 Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control 114
Credit 1 Carbon Dioxide (CO
2
) Monitoring 117
Credit 2 Ventilation Effectiveness 120
Credit 3.1 Construction IAQ Management Plan:
During Construction 129
Credit 3.2 Construction IAQ Management Plan:
Testing Before Occupancy 130
Credit 4 Low-Emitting Materials 132
Credit 5 Indoor Chemical & Pollutant Source Control 139
Credit 7.1 Thermal Comfort: Compliance with ASHRAE 55-2004 142
Credit 8.2 Daylight and Views: Views for 90% of Space 143
Innovation & Design Process
Credit 1 Innovation in Design 147
Canada Green Building Council
8
Additional Errata List
Simple changes and errata corrections are noted in the table below.
Credit Page Change / Erratum
N/A 3 Change address to:
Canada Green Building Council
325 Dalhousie Street, Suite 800
Ottawa ON K1N 7G2
Canada
Acknowledgements 10 Change address to:
Canada Green Building Council
325 Dalhousie Street, Suite 800
Ottawa ON K1N 7G2
Canada
phone: (613) 241-1184
fax: (613) 241-4782
info@cagbc.org
www.cagbc.org
Introduction 13 Replace:
“Multi-unit residential buildings (MURB) project
are eligible… have a common entrance.”
With:
“Multi-unit residential building (MURB) projects,
except for those which are regulated by Part 9
of the National Building Code (e.g., townhouses
or single family dwellings), are eligible if they are
greater than 3 storeys in building height (i.e., 4
storeys or more), or are greater than 600m
2
in
building area as defined by the MNECB. Part 9
buildings are only eligible if they are part of a
mixed-use project in which the majority of the
floor area is eligible for LEED Canada certification.”
Introduction 13 Replace in the last paragraph, right hand column:
“Eligibility of townhouses that are a part of
mixed-use projects in which the majority of the
floor area is eligible for LEED Canada certification
will be considered on their merits, considering in-
stallation of common HVAC and electrical systems
and other environmental design features. Howev-
er, applicants should be aware that this building
type is specifically excluded from CBIP incentives;
energy analyses conducted for EAp2, EAc1 and
EAc2 should break out energy components for
any areas not eligible for CBIP incentives.”
With: “However, Part 9 buildings that are a part
of mixed-use projects in which the majority of
the floor area is eligible for LEED Canada certifi-
cation are allowed under LEED Canada-NC.”
LEED Canada-NC 1.0 Reference Guide Addendum
9
Introduction 18-20 Delete the section entitled “Certification Ap-
plication and Review Process”. Please see www.
cagbc.org for this updated certification process
information.
Introduction 20-22 Delete from page 20, bottom right, second
last paragraph, “If a question requiring CaGBC
interpretation arises…” to page 22, to the end
of the “Audits” section. Please see www.cagbc.
org for CIR application, certification application,
and audit process.
SSc6.2 89 Interpretation section:
Replace “SSc2” with “SSc6.2”.
SSc6 93 Second paragraph:
Replace: “To earn the point for SSc2, stormwater…”
With: “To earn the point for SSc6.2, stormwater…”
SSc6 95 In Table 2: Replace imperviousness of “55%” with
“47%” to match calculations and commentary.
WEc3 156 Add to Web Site Resources:
Canadian Water and Wastewater Association
(CWWA) Water Demand Management Group
– Publications
Ongoing and updated research on practical
performance with low flow water closets and,
in future, other water saving devices. This work
is funded jointly by over 2 dozen municipalities
and organizations across Canada and the USA.
Current highlights include:
• Maximum Performance Testing of Popular Toilet
Models, 7th Edition - July 2006 - The Maximum
Performance (MaP™) testing project was de-
veloped to identify how well popular toilets
models perform using a realistic test media,
and to grade each toilet model based on this
performance. It provides performance informa-
tion on 247 different toilet fixture models.
• Testing of Popular Flushometer Valve/Bowl Com-
binations - Final Report, August 2005 - identi-
fies performance variations between different
bowl/valve combinations.
• Evaluation of Water-Efficient Toilet Technologies
to Carry Waste in Drainlines (PDF) - revised April
1, 2005
Site: http://www.cwwa.ca/freepub_e.asp
Canada Green Building Council
10
EAp2 180 Page top:
Replace: “…method, and LEED Canada NC 1.0
Prerequisite 1 requires that…”
With: “…method, and LEED Canada NC 1.0
Prerequisite 2 requires that…”
EAp2 184 Second Paragraph:
Delete: “Figure 1 shows a sample from the
MNECB for Southern Ontario.”
EAp2 186 Paragraph before Resources Section:
Replace: “Cogeneration systems can be ignored
for the purpose of showing compliance to
EAp1.”
With: “Cogeneration systems can be ignored for
the purpose of showing compliance to EAp2.”
EAc1 195 Third Submittal bullet:
Replace: “Provide a review report by an inde-
pendent CBIP Design Assessor indicating that
the design meets the requirements of this Pre-
requisite.”
With: “Provide a review report by an indepen-
dent CBIP Design Assessor indicating that the
design meets the requirements of this Credit.”
EAc1 198 Page top:
Replace: “…Prerequisite is an area-weighted
average of the renovated…”
With: “energy points are an area-weighted aver-
age of the renovated…”
EAc2 227 Delete the resource for “Natural Resources Cana-
da’s Renewable Energy Deployment Initiative.”
EAc3 233 First sub-bullet:
Replace: “Independent peer review of the sche-
matic design”
With: “Independent peer review prior to the
construction documents phase.”
EAc3 235 Under #1:
Replace: “Schematic Design Review. To receive
the maximum benefits of the commissioning
process, the independent Commissioning Au-
thority must review the design at the schematic
design phase…”
With: “Design Review. To receive the maximum
benefits of the commissioning process, the
independent Commissioning Authority must
review the design prior to the construction
documents phase…”
LEED Canada-NC 1.0 Reference Guide Addendum
11
MRc4 296-
300
Where the term “post-industrial” is used, replace
with “pre-consumer”.
MRc7 316 Bottom of right hand column:
Delete “form ply”.
EQ 330 Top of the Page:
The MR tab is incorrectly highlighted. Change
the highlighted tab to EQ, the corresponding
section of the guide.
“EQp1, EQc1” “333-
338,
346-
350”
All references to ASHRAE 62-2001 should be
replaced with ASHRAE 62.1-2004.
EQc3.2 371 Top right hand column, end of paragraph:
Delete the phrase: “who is also LEED accredited.”
EQc4 382 Replace Green Seal Environmental Standard
– Paints GS-11 website with:
http://www.greenseal.org/certification/standards/
paints.cfm
EQc4 384 Replace Green Seal Environmental Standard
– Anti-Corrosive Paints GC-03 website with:
http://www.greenseal.org/certification/standards/
anti-corrosivepaints.cfm
EQc4 385 Replace all Carpet and Rug Institute page spe-
cific websites with:
http://www.carpet-rug.org/drill_down_2.cfm?page
=8&sub=4&requesttimeout=350
EQc4 378 Add to Interpretations:
Adhesives, sealants, paints and coatings must
comply with the VOC and chemical compo-
nent limits and/or restrictions of the applicable
standards current at the date of application for
building permit.
EQc4 391 Add to Definitions:
Weatherproofing System: The weatherproofing
system protects the building from the exterior
environment (wind and water). All materials that
are applied onsite and located to the interior
side of the air barrier or vapour retarder (which-
ever is further outboard) will be considered as
potential sources of indoor contaminants and
are therefore subject to the requirements of
credits EQc4.1, EQc4.2, EQc4.3 and EQc4.4.
LEED Canada-NC 1.0 Reference Guide Addendum
13
WE EA MR EQ ID SS
Erosion & Sedimentation Control
Intent
Control erosion to reduce negative impacts on water and air quality.
Requirements
Design a sediment and erosion control plan, specific to the site that conforms to
United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Document No. EPA 832/R-
92-005 (September 1992), Storm Water Management for Construction Activities,
Chapter 3, OR local erosion and sedimentation control standards and codes, which-
ever is more stringent. The plan shall meet the following objectives:
• Prevent loss of soil during construction by stormwater runoff and/or wind
erosion, including protecting topsoil by stockpiling for reuse.
• Prevent sedimentation of storm sewer or receiving streams.
• Prevent polluting the air with dust and particulate matter.
Submittals
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the civil engineer or responsible
party, declaring whether the project follows local erosion and sedimenta-
tion control standards or the referenced EPA standard. Provide a brief list
of the measures implemented. If local standards and codes are followed,
describe how they meet or exceed the referenced EPA standard.
If an audit of this credit is requested during the certification process:
Provide the erosion control plan (or drawings and specifications) with the
sediment and erosion control measures highlighted or photographs of
typical installed sediment and erosion control measures.
Summary of Referenced Standard
Storm Water Management for Construction Activities (USEPA Document No. EPA
832R92005), Chapter 3, US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Water.
Site: www.epa.gov/OW
Download site for all sections: http://yosemite.epa.gov/water/owrccatalog.nsf or
http://tinyurl.com/2udxw3, search by title index. Hardcopy or microfiche (entire
document, 292 pages): National Technical Information Service (order # PB92-
235951), www.ntis.gov, (800) 553-6847
This standard describes two types of measures that can be used to control sedimen-
tation and erosion. Stabilization measures include temporary seeding, permanent
seeding and mulching. All of these measures are intended to stabilize the soil to
prevent erosion. Structural control measures are implemented to retain sediment
after erosion has occurred. Structural control measures include earth dikes, silt fenc-
ing, sediment traps and sediment basins. The application of these measures
SSp1 – begins on original reference guide page 36
Prerequisite 1
Canada Green Building Council
14
WE EA MR EQ ID SS
Development Density
Intent
Channel development to urban areas with existing infrastructure, protect green-
fields and preserve habitat and natural resources.
Requirements
Option 1:
Increase localised density to conform to existing or desired density goals by utilizing
sites that are located within an existing minimum development density of 13,800m
2

per hectare (60,000 square feet per acre) (2 story downtown development).
OR
Option 2:
Construct or renovate a building that conforms with a minimum development
density of 13,800m
2
per hectare requirement (60,000 ft
2
per acre) AND is within
800 metres (½ mile) of a residential zone or neighbourhood with an average den-
sity of 25 units per hectare (10 units per acre net) (unless the project itself contains
residential units) AND is within 800 metres (½ mile) of at least 6 of the 12 amenities
listed below AND has pedestrian access between the building and the services.
Amenities:
a. Community Centre / Youth Activity Centre
b. General Office
c. Supermarket
d. School
e. Restaurant
f. Post Office
g. Pharmacy
h. Park / Recreational Facility
i. Senior Care / Daycare
j. Medical / Dental
k. Bank
l. Café / Bakery / Convenience Grocery
Each amenity may be counted no more than once and must exist or be under con-
struction at the time of certification. Services within your building may be counted
except for the primary use of the building.
Proximity is determined by drawing an 800 metre (½ mile) radius around the main
building entrance on a site map and counting the services within that radius. Pe-
destrian access must be safe, convenient and direct, and is defined as a dedicated
space for non-motorized mobility, specifically designed for pedestrian use. Maximum
walking distance to any of the basic services must be no more than 1100 metres
(0.7 mile) along pedestrian access routes.
SSc2 – begins on original reference guide page 48
Credit 2
LEED Canada-NC 1.0 Reference Guide Addendum
15
WE EA MR EQ ID SS
Submittals
Option 1:
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the civil engineer, architect
or other responsible party, declaring that the project has achieved the re-
quired development densities. Provide density for the project and for the
surrounding area.
AND
Provide an area plan, or a marked up satellite photo, indicating the project
location and the radius used for density calculation.
Option 2:
OR
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the civil engineer, architect or
other responsible party, declaring that:
the project has achieved the required development density on its site;
the project is within 800 metres (½ mile) of a residential zone or neighbour-
hood with an average density of 25 units per hectare (10 units per acre
net) (unless the project itself contains residential units);
the project has six unique amenities in or within 800 metres of the project;
and,
the project has pedestrian access between the building and the services.
AND
Provide a site vicinity drawing showing the project site, the 800 metres (½
mile) community radius, and the locations of the amenities surrounding
the project site. Sketches, block diagrams, maps, and aerial photos are all
acceptable for this purpose. Either note the 800 metres (½ mile) radius on
the drawing or note the drawing scale. Submit a listing (including business
name and type) of all amenities within the 800 metres (½ mile radius).
Ensure that no business is further than 1100 metres (0.7 mile) along pe-
destrian access routes.
If an audit of this Credit is requested during the certification process:
Option 1:
Provide the calculations showing the derivation of the development density
for both the project and the surrounding area.
OR
In cases where it is clear that the site meets the development density re-
quirement, provide digital photos displaying surrounding building heights
within the development density circle. Cross reference buildings to area
plan or marked up satellite photo as required above.
Option 2:
No specific audit submittals are required.
Summary of Referenced Standard
There is no standard referenced for this Credit.
SSc2 – begins on original reference guide page 48
Credit 2
Canada Green Building Council
16
WE EA MR EQ ID SS
Interpretation
• Development densities relate to current conditions and buildings under
development and not the density that would eventually emerge once other
new surrounding buildings come into place.
• CaGBC recognizes that the 13,800m
2
per hectare (60,000 square feet per
acre) goal is not necessarily appropriate for existing mid-sized communities
working to channel development into existing urban development cores.
For a project applying for Credit equivalence within a mid-sized com-
munity, provide documentation that shows the project location is within
the boundaries of an existing central business district or town center that
generally meets the LEED criteria for 13,800m
2
per hectare, even though
the density near the project site may be compromised, for example, by a
lower density of a residential historic district that is in the vicinity of the
project, or that the requirements of Option 2 are met.
• If, hypothetically, a project was built as part of a massive new development
on a greenfield site, it would not be considered for Credit equivalence. To
document, following Option 1, that a project has achieved Credit equiva-
lence, the following information must be provided with the application:
− Documentation showing that the project is being located in a central
business district with existing development and infrastructure. (New devel-
opment in a greenfield would not be considered appropriate in this case.)
Provide information about existing development density.
− Documentation verifying that the project location is within a designated
dense urban growth area.
− Documentation that the project is resulting in increased development
density that meets the goals of the urban development plan.
• Campus open space can be treated as park space and excluded from the
development density calculation that is not used for roads or vehicle parking.
In these instances, applications should include supporting documentation
detailing the function and status of the open space and public areas.
• For master planned projects, compliance can be met following Option 1
if existing or planned site density is a minimum of 13,800m
2
per hectare
(60,000 square feet per acre) within the boundary of the site master plan.
The site must be located in an urban infill area, previously developed site,
and/or a contaminated site; essentially where ecological damage has already
occurred. If following Option 2, the master plan must ensure that Option
2 requirements are met.
• Developments such as an airport terminal that serve one purpose and do
not create a critical mass of mixed-use opportunities are unlikely to be
capable of meeting the intent of the Credit unless it is a new building or
renovation to an existing building on an existing airport site.
SSc2 – begins on original reference guide page 48
Credit 2
LEED Canada-NC 1.0 Reference Guide Addendum
17
WE EA MR EQ ID SS
on infrastructure, transportation and
quality-of-life considerations. Sites with
redevelopment plans that will achieve
the required development density by the
completion of the project should not be
excluded from consideration. This Credit
can be achieved by choosing to develop
a site where a community revitalization
is occurring provided the required de-
velopment density is achieved by the
project’s completion.
Synergies and Trade-Offs
Urban redevelopment affects all areas
of site design including site selection,
especially transportation planning, the
overall building footprint and storm-
water management. Urban sites often
involve the rehabilitation of an existing
building, with a reduction of construc-
tion waste and new material use. How-
ever, these sites may also have limited
space available for construction waste
management activities and occupant
recycling programs. Urban sites may
have negative indoor environmental
quality aspects such as contaminated
soils, undesirable air quality or limited
daylighting applications.
Calculations
Option 1 — Surrounding Community
Density Compliance Path
The following calculation methodology
is used to support the Credit submit-
tals of this Credit under Option 1. To
determine the development density of
a project, both the project density and
the densities of surrounding develop-
ments must be calculated. The extent of
neighbouring areas to include in density
calculations varies depending upon the
Equation 1:

Equation 2:
] ha [ Area Property
] m
2
[ Footage Square Building
ha
m
2
Development
Density
=












× × =
ha
m
2
10,000 ] ha [ Area roperty P 3 ] m [
Density
Radius
size of the project. Larger projects are
required to consider a greater number
of neighbouring properties than smaller
projects. The density calculation process
is described in the following steps:
1. Determine the total area of the
project site and the total area of the
building. For projects that are part of
a larger property (such as a campus),
define the project area as that which
is defined in the project’s scope. The
project area must be defined consis-
tently throughout LEED documenta-
tion.
2. Calculate the development density for
the project by dividing the total area
of the building by the total site area
in hectares. This development den-
sity must be equal to or greater than
13,800m
2
per hectare (60,000 square
feet per acre). (see Equation 1)
3. Convert the total site area from hect-
ares to square metres and calculate
the square root of this number. Then
multiply the square root by three to
determine the appropriate density ra-
dius. (Note: the square root function
is used to normalize the calculation by
removing effects of site shape). (see
Equation 2)
4. Overlay the density radius on a map
that includes the project site and sur-
rounding areas, originating from the
center of the site. This is the density
boundary. Include a scale on the map.
5. For each property within the density
boundary and for those properties
that intersect the density bound-
ary, create a table with the building
area and site area of each property.
SSc2 – begins on original reference guide page 51
Credit 2
Canada Green Building Council
18
WE EA MR EQ ID SS
Include all properties in the density
calculations except for undeveloped
public areas such as parks and water
bodies. Do not include public roads
and right-of-way areas. Information
on neighbouring properties can be
obtained from your city or county
zoning department.
6. Add all the building area values and
site areas. Divide the total building
area by the total site area to obtain
the average property density within
the density boundary. The average
property density of the properties
within the density boundary must be
equal to or greater than 13,800m
2
per
hectare (60,000 sq. ft. per acre).
The following example illustrates the
property density calculations for Op-
tion 1: A 2800 m
2
building is located
on a 0.18 ha urban site and the cal-
culations are used to determine the
building density. The building density
is above the minimum density of
Table 1: Property Density Calculations
Table 2: Density Radius Calculation
Project
Buildings
Building
Space
[m
2
]
Site
Area
[ha]
Project 2800 0.18
Density [m
2
/ha] 15,556
Site Area [ha] 0.18
Density Radius [m] 127
Density Radius Calculation
13,800m
2
per hectare) required by the
Credit (see Table 1). Next, the density
radius is calculated. A density radius of
127m is calculated (see Table 2).
The density radius is applied to an area plan
of the project site and surrounding area. The
plan identifies all properties that are within
or are intersected by the density radius. The
plan includes a scale and a north indicator.
Table 3: Sample Area Properties

Buildings within
Density Radius
Building
Space
Site
Area
Buildings within
Density Radius
Building
Space
Site
Area
[m
2
] [ha] [m
2
] [ha]
A 3105 0.16 N 2670 0.12
B 8129 0.64 O 622 0.06
C 590 0.11 P 3623 0.16
D 2560 0.13 Q 32,405 1.03
E 6172 0.47 R 8477 0.75
F 1340 0.55 S 2083 0.11
G 1167 0.08 T 3126 0.21
H 580 0.06 U 3939 0.21
I 1331 0.09 V - 0.31
J 2747 0.17 W 1784 0.26
K 1662 0.13 X 569 0.11
L 901 0.13 Y 465 0.12
M 2237 0.26 Z 399 0.10
Total Building Space [m
2
] 92,683
Total Site Area [ha] 6.49
AVERAGE DENSITY [m
2
/ha] 14,281
Table 3: Sample Area Properties

Buildings within
Density Radius
Building
Space
Site
Area
Buildings within
Density Radius
Building
Space
Site
Area
[m
2
] [ha] [m
2
] [ha]
A 3105 0.16 N 2670 0.12
B 8129 0.64 O 622 0.06
C 590 0.11 P 3623 0.16
D 2560 0.13 Q 32,405 1.03
E 6172 0.47 R 8477 0.75
F 1340 0.55 S 2083 0.11
G 1167 0.08 T 3126 0.21
H 580 0.06 U 3939 0.21
I 1331 0.09 V - 0.31
J 2747 0.17 W 1784 0.26
K 1662 0.13 X 569 0.11
L 901 0.13 Y 465 0.12
M 2237 0.26 Z 399 0.10
Total Building Space [m
2
] 92,683
Total Site Area [ha] 6.49
AVERAGE DENSITY [m
2
/ha] 14,281
SSc2 – begins on original reference guide page 51
Credit 2
LEED Canada-NC 1.0 Reference Guide Addendum
19
WE EA MR EQ ID SS
Table 3 summarizes the information
about the properties identified on the
map. The building space and site area
are listed for each property. These values
are summed and the average density is
calculated by dividing the total building
space by the total site area.
For this example, the average building
density of the surrounding area is greater
than 13,800m
2
per hectare, and, thus,
the example qualifies for one point under
this Credits’ Option 1.
Option 2 — Community Connectivity
Compliance Path
Construct or renovate a building that
conforms with a minimum develop-
ment density of 13,800m
2
per hectare
requirement (60,000 ft
2
per acre). To
calculate, see above development den-
sity calculations.
To determine the connectivity of a proj-
ect, both residential and commercial
adjacencies must be considered. The
calculation process is described in the
following steps:
1. Prepare a site map and draw an 800m
(½-mile) radius around the main
building entrance. Mark at least one
residential development within the
radius that meets credit requirement.
At least one area zoned for residential
development of 10 units per acre or
greater must be present within the
radius for the project to earn this
credit (unless the project itself con-
tains residential units).
2. Mark at least one commercial build-
ing each amenity within the radius
that meets the credit requirements.
At least 6 amenities must be present
within the radius.
Eligible amenities include: Commu-
nity Centre / Youth Activity Centre,
General Office, Supermarket, School,
Restaurant, Post Office, Pharmacy,
Park / Recreational Facility, Senior Care
/ Daycare, Medical / Dental, Bank,
Café / Bakery / Convenience Grocery.
Other services will be considered on a
project-by-project basis.
No amenity may be counted more
than once in the calculation. For ex-
ample under “Senior/Day Care”, only
one amenity would be counted even if
there was both a senior care and a day
care facility nearby. Only count those
services for which there is pedestrian
access between the amenity and the
project. Pedestrian access is assessed
by confirming that pedestrians can
walk to the services without being
blocked by walls, highways, or other
barriers. Maximum walking distance
to any of the basic services must be
no more than 1100m (0.7 mile) along
pedestrian access routes. Note key
walking routes on the diagram.
3. Prepare a table listing each identified
amenity, the business name, and the
amenity type.
Resources
Web Sites
Residential Intensification. Sustain-
able Community Design: Site provides
guidelines for residential intensification
to reduce development demands on new
sites (green field sites).
Site: http://www.arch.umanitoba.ca/
vanvliet/sustainable/
International Union for the Scientific
Study of Population: IUSSP promotes
scientific studies of demography and
population-related issues.
Site: www.iussp.org
Urban Land Institute: The Urban Land
Institute is a nonprofit education and
research institute that is supported by its
members. Its mission is to provide respon-
sible leadership in the use of land in order
to enhance the total environment.
Site: www.uli.org
Print Media
• Moe, Richard and Wilkie, Carter,
Changing Places: Rebuilding Commu-
nity in the Age of Sprawl, Henry Holt
& Company, 1999.
• Fader, S., Density by Design: New
Directions in Residential Development,
Urban Land Institute, 2000.
SSc2 – begins on original reference guide page 51
Credit 2
Canada Green Building Council
20
WE EA MR EQ ID SS
• Wilson, A., et. al., Integrating Ecology
and Real Estate, John Wiley & Sons,
1998
• F. Kaid Benfield et al., Once There
Were Greenfields: How Urban Sprawl
Is Undermining America’s Environment,
Economy, and Social Fabric, Natural
Resources Defense Council, 1999.
• Duany, Andres et al., Suburban Na-
tion: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline
of the American Dream, North Point
Press, 2000.
Definitions
Development Footprint: The portion of
the property area covered by constructed
site elements such as buildings, parking
lots, sidewalks, and access roads.
Greenfield: Undeveloped land or land
that has not been impacted by human
activity.
Project Floor Area: The total area in
square metres (or square feet) of all
conditioned rooms including corridors,
elevators, stairwells and shaft spaces.
This is also referred to as Building Area
or Project Area in LEED Letter Templates
calculations and for LEED Canada-NC
registrations. It is also referred to as Build-
ing Square Footage.
Property Area: The legal property
boundaries of a project including all con-
structed and non-constructed areas.
Site Area: The same as property area.
Regional Variations
Since this Credit relates to giving pref-
erence to sites within an existing urban
fabric and increasing density, there are
clearly different implications regarding
development in urban centres and sub-
urban areas. Applicants should work with
local jurisdictions and follow the urban
development plan to meet or exceed
density goals.
SSc2 – begins on original reference guide page 51
Credit 2
LEED Canada-NC 1.0 Reference Guide Addendum
21
WE EA MR EQ ID SS
Redevelopment of Contaminated Sites
Intent
Rehabilitate damaged sites where development is complicated by real or perceived
environmental contamination, reducing pressure on undeveloped land.
Requirements
Develop on a contaminated site and provide remediation as required by Provincial
Contaminated Sites Program.
Submittals
Provide a letter from the relevant regulatory agency, or an independent
environmental assessment firm, confirming that the site was classified as a
contaminated site and has been remediated.
Provide the LEED Letter Template signed by the civil or environmental
engineer or responsible party, declaring the type of damage that existed
on the site and describing the remediation performed.
If an audit of this Credit is requested during the certification process:
Provide documentation demonstrating that remediation efforts have been
performed on the site to clean up or stabilize contaminants, such as the
Executive Summary of an Environmental Assessment report, and documents
demonstrating that remediation is complete.
Summary of Referenced Standards
There are no generally applicable standards referenced for this Credit. However, the
Treasury Board Federal Contaminated Sites Management Policy (2002) states:
• Definition: A contaminated site is “one at which substances occur at con-
centrations:
1. above (normally occurring) background levels and pose or are likely
to pose an immediate or long term hazard to human health or the
environment, or
2. exceeding levels specified in policies and regulations.”
• Risk Assessment: This risk is determined in a step-by-step process, beginning
with a rough estimate of the contamination based on guidelines agreed
to by federal, provincial and territorial environment ministers, all of whom
are members of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment
(CCME). The final stage in the procedure process is an Environmental Site
Assessment that uses such tools as field sampling and laboratory analysis
to determine the type and level of contamination present.
• Federal contaminated sites inventory: The Canadian Council of Ministers of
the Environment system, a permanent classification is assigned to each
site at the time it is assessed for contaminants, with Class 1 representing
those sites for which action is required, Class 2 those sites for which action
is likely required, etc. It is important to note that the initial classification
of a site will not change, no matter what steps are taken to remediate or
otherwise manage the site. This means that, even in situations where Class
1 sites have already been remediated, they would still retain their standing
as Class 1 sites. However, their “current status” would change to “remedia-
tion completed.”
SSc3 – begins on original reference guide page 55
Credit 3
Canada Green Building Council
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Sources:
http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/dfrp-rbif/cs-sc/home-accueil.asp?Language=EN
General Source: http://www.canadianenvironmental.com/envirotopics/
Interpretation
• Applicants able to demonstrate that the intents are met by showing that a
regulatory agency or an independent environmental assessment firm has
determined that the site is contaminated may receive credit even though
the site is not classified officially as such. It would be necessary to provide
documentation from the local regulatory agency stating that the site does
meet the criteria for a contaminated site.
• For the purposes of LEED application, an “independent environmental as-
sessment firm” would be contracted directly to the owner, and not be a
member of the design or construction team. An owner’s employee could
serve as the independent environmental assessor provided they are not
involved in project management and have the necessary expertise. A firm
that is a subsidiary of the design or construction firm is not considered inde-
pendent even if separately incorporated. If there is any familial or financial
relationship between the environmental assessment firm and the design or
construction firms, the environmental assessor must declare in writing any
potential conflict of interest to the owner and describe how any conflicts
will be managed.
• Applications must indicate that projects have adopted appropriate remedia-
tion measures to clean up the contamination.
• “Perceived contamination” refers to sites where potential contamination
exists such as underground storage tanks. This has a perceived contamina-
tion risk since one does not actually know if contamination exists until the
storage tanks have been removed.
SSc3 – begins on original reference guide page 55
Credit 3
LEED Canada-NC 1.0 Reference Guide Addendum
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Alternative Transportation:
Public Transportation Access
Intent
Reduce pollution and land development impacts from automobile use.
Requirements
Locate building within 800 metres (0.5 miles) of a commuter rail, light rail or subway
station or 400 metres (0.25 miles) of 2 or more public bus lines offering frequent
service. Planned and funded, in addition to existing, commuter rail, light rail or
subway stations are acceptable for the purpose of achieving this credit.
Submittals
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by an appropriate party, declaring
that the project building(s) are located within required proximity to mass
transit.
Provide an area drawing, or marked up transit map, highlighting the build-
ing location, the fixed rail stations (existing/planned and funded) and bus
lines, and indicate the accessible walking distances between them. Include
a scale bar for distance measurement.
Interpretation
• LEED will accept the establishment of a permanent private shuttle service
to connect the buildings(s) and the bus routes to achieve this credit. If a
shuttle is used, provide information on the distance to bus routes and to
building(s), schedule and frequency of operation, and shuttle capacity.
Schedule and frequency must be adequate to service employee ridership
during standard commuting times for all shifts, as well as periodic service
at other times. Be prepared to provide documentation on the shuttle and
rail service, including information on schedule and capacity, to demonstrate
that the system can adequately serve building occupants.
• Park & Ride locations for busses are not equivalent to commuter rail sta-
tions. LEED recognizes that the environmental impacts of these two different
transportation modes differ significantly. Transit buses consume an average
of approximately 70% more energy per passenger mile than commuter
rail.
• The requirement is met as long as there is at least one bus stop within 400
metres (0.25 miles) that is served by two or more bus lines. If there are two
bus stops within 400 metres (0.25 miles), two bus lines must be accessible
at those stops (at both stops or one bus line per stop).
• School buses do not qualify as mass transit, as they are only for students.
• Although not required by LEED, maximizing alternative transportation op-
portunities for transient occupants (such as regular commuters) should be
addressed if appropriate and possible.
• Meeting the requirements for providing showers in this Credit is based on
full time staff or staff full-time equivalents (FTE). Although transients must
be accounted for in the bike storage capacity calculation, they should not
be included in the occupant count for calculating the number of showers/
changing areas. Transients are defined as “visitors to the building for less
than 7 hours” and do not include students, retail clients, travellers or other
Credit 4.1
SSc4.1 – begins on original reference guide page 62
Canada Green Building Council
24
WE EA MR EQ ID SS
visitors visiting the building for short periods. If the number of transients
is difficult to determine, the total FTE can be taken as the building code
occupancy. Non-ambulatory patients assigned to beds or incarcerated in-
dividuals can be excluded from the FTE count for bike racks and showers.
Long distance commuters using airports, train and intercity bus terminals
can also be excluded.
SSc4.1 – begins on original reference guide page 62
Credit 4.1
LEED Canada-NC 1.0 Reference Guide Addendum
25
WE EA MR EQ ID SS
Alternative Transportation:
Hybrid and Alternative Fuel Vehicles
Intent
Reduce pollution and land development impacts from automobile use.
Requirements
EITHER
Provide low consumption, high efficiency hybrid or alternative fuel vehicles for 3%
of building occupants AND provide preferred parking for these vehicles and highly
efficient fuel-efficient vehicles,
OR,
Install alternative-fuel refuelling stations within 500metres (545 yards) of the site
for 3% of the total vehicle parking capacity of the site. Liquid or gaseous fuelling
facilities must be separately ventilated or located outdoors.
Submittals
Provide the LEED Letter Template and proof of ownership of, or 2 year lease
agreement for, low consumption, high efficiency hybrid or alternative fuel
vehicles (AFVs) and calculations indicating that the vehicles will serve 3%
of building occupants. Provide site drawings or parking plan highlighting
preferred parking for low consumption, high efficiency hybrid or alternative
fuel vehicles.
OR,
Provide the LEED Letter Template with specifications and site drawings
highlighting alternative-fuel refuelling stations. Provide calculations demon-
strating that these facilities accommodate 3% or more of the total vehicle
parking capacity.
Interpretation
• There are two compliance paths to this Sub-Credit:
1. Provide designated refuelling stations to serve fully functioning alterna-
tive fuel vehicles (as might be used by commuters to travel to and from
the project site.) Documentation of Credit achievement has generally
been determined to require the installation of electric vehicle charg-
ing station hardware manufactured for this purpose. Simple electrical
outlets do not constitute vehicle charging stations and, as such, outlets
provided for electric block heaters in cold climates do not constitute
alternative vehicle refuelling stations.
2. Purchase a fleet of alternative fuel vehicles and install refuelling stations
appropriate to these vehicles. (In some cases the charging stations for
these vehicles may be standard 208-240v outlets.) These vehicles may
not be intended for full service commuting, but still meet the intent
of the Credit if they reduce typical car use. The fleet option is allowed
as a method of compliance. Projects must demonstrate that the out-
let technology in recharging stations is specific to the electrical and
hardware requirements of the expected EVs, and that the type of EV
is appropriate within the project’s context, serving the intent of the
Credit. Electrical outlets that may or will be used for block heaters are
not acceptable for this Credit. Owners must educate tenants about
SSc4.3 – begins on original reference guide page 65
Credit 4.3
Canada Green Building Council
26
WE EA MR EQ ID SS
the recharging stations and refer them to resources for research and
purchase (e.g., EV manufacturer and dealer locator). Similar educational
materials must also be posted at the charging stations themselves.
• LEED-NC 2.1 recognizes the use of auto cooperatives (e.g. Zipcar, Flexcar)
in the US. CaGBC also recognizes equivalent Canadian services and requires
the same documentation below. If the use of an equivalent service allows
the intent of SSc4.3 to be met in a multi-unit residential setting, CaGBC will
grant equivalence for the Credit’s AFV/hybrid vehicle compliance path if:
− a contract is for at least 2 years
AND
− submitted calculations of customers served per car demonstrate that
easily accessible alternate fuel, low consumption or highly-efficient
hybrid car share vehicles service at least 3% of project occupants, as-
suming 20 customers per vehicle.
Applications must provide:
1. The signed contract highlighting relevant details; and
2. The company’s explanation of customers/car calculation methodology.
• Propane dispensing stations can comply with the intent of this Sub-Credit’s
requirements provided that its installation can be documented as part of
the project scope. This technology must actively be introduced and docu-
mented as part of the building project to qualify. Also, such stations can be
outside the defined site boundaries so long as the proposed new parking
lot for the total parking capacity served by this refuelling station is located
within the site area utilized in the calculations for all Credits.
• The alternative compliance path for this Sub-Credit relates to new AFV
purchases, so long as preferred parking is provided for these vehicles; and
proof of ownership or a 2-year lease agreement, can be demonstrated. This
option does not require installation of alternative-fuel refuelling stations
and must serve street-legal (long-range) vehicles, available for use by the
occupants of the building or other commuter and not, for example, short-
range campus service vehicles.
• It is acceptable to include all or part of an adjacent parking lot for the
quantity of stalls to attribute to a project, if the project boundaries are
adjusted to include the parking, and if these boundaries are used for all
Credit calculations.
• Using an existing, shared facility for parking does not require a project to
incorporate a prorated area of the parking garage into the project’s site
area for the purpose of other Credits, provided that only the new building is
applying for certification, rather than the campus as a whole or the building
and the parking garage, and that the site area is calculated consistently for
the other Credits.
SSc4.3 – begins on original reference guide page 65
Credit 4.3
LEED Canada-NC 1.0 Reference Guide Addendum
27
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Alternative Transportation:
Parking Capacity
Intent
Reduce pollution and land development impacts from single occupancy vehicle
use.
Requirements
Size parking capacity to meet, but not exceed, minimum local zoning requirements
AND provide preferred and designated parking for carpools, vanpools or car coops
equal to 10% of the total number of non-visitor parking spaces.
OR ,
Add no new parking for rehabilitation projects AND provide preferred parking and
designated parking for carpools, vanpools, or car co-ops equal to 10% of the total
number of non-visitor parking spaces.
Submittals
• For new projects, provide:
The LEED Letter Template signed by the civil engineer or responsible party
stating any relevant minimum zoning requirements and declaring that
parking capacity is sized to meet, but not exceed them.
A statement that preferred and designated parking for carpools, van pools
or car co-ops are equal to 10% of the total number of non-visitor parking
spaces and a management plan showing how carpooling or car co-ops will
be encouraged and organised.
• For rehabilitation projects provide:
The LEED Letter Template signed by the civil engineer or responsible party
declaring that no new parking capacity has been added AND that preferred
parking and designated parking has been added for car pools, vanpools, or
co-ops equal to 10% of the total number of non-visitor parking spaces.
A management plan showing how carpooling or car co-ops will be encour-
aged and organized.
If an audit of this Credit is requested during the certification process:
For new projects provide a copy of the local zoning requirements highlight-
ing the criteria for minimum parking capacity, a parking plan highlighting
the total parking capacity, and calculations demonstrating that carpool and
vanpool programs serve 10% of the total number of non-visitor parking
spaces.
OR,
For rehabilitation projects, provide a pre-rehabilitation parking plan and
a post-rehabilitation parking plan demonstrating that no new parking ca-
pacity was added, and highlighting designated parking for car pools, van
pools, or co-ops equal to 10% of the total number of non-visitor parking
spaces.
SSc4.4 – begins on original reference guide page 67
Credit 4.4
Canada Green Building Council
28
WE EA MR EQ ID SS
Summary of Referenced Standard
There is no standard referenced for this credit.
Interpretation
• Bus spaces at facilities such as visitor centres cannot count as an equivalent
number of automobile parking spaces nor can they be used to substitute
for carpool spaces.
• Since up to four points are available under the Alternative Transportation
Credit, a comprehensive approach is required to earn an Innovation Credit
point for exemplary performance in this area.
• Shuttle bus parking cannot be used to substitute carpool spaces. A shuttle
service can be applied toward achievement of SSc4.1.
• If carpool spaces are located on an adjacent site, the project must clearly
document that these spaces are sufficient to meet the needs of the build-
ing occupants of this project. The project should demonstrate the steps it
is taking to encourage carpooling, such as signage and education efforts.
• If no parking is added to a project, the project does not need to meet the
carpooling Credit with a provision that they cannot lease or have commit-
ments to parking on other nearby sites.
• If a project is a rehabilitation project converting a building into a new use
(i.e., library to office building, hospital to office building), the parking re-
quirements are the same as for new projects.
• LEED-NC 2.1 recognizes the use of auto cooperatives (e.g. Zipcar, Flexcar)
in the US. CaGBC also recognizes equivalent Canadian services and requires
the same documentation below. If the use of an equivalent service allows
the intent of SSc4.3 to be met in a multi-unit residential setting, CaGBC will
grant equivalence for the Credit’s AFV/hybrid vehicle compliance path if:
− a contract is for at least 2 years
AND
− submitted calculations of customers served per car demonstrate that
easily accessible alternate fuel, low consumption or highly-efficient
hybrid car share vehicles service at least 3% of project occupants, as-
suming 20 customers per vehicle.
Applications must provide:
1. The signed contract highlighting relevant details; and
2. The company’s explanation of customers/car calculation methodology.
SSc4.4 – begins on original reference guide page 67
Credit 4.4
LEED Canada-NC 1.0 Reference Guide Addendum
29
WE EA MR EQ ID SS
Technologies SS
Bicycle Storage
A variety of bicycle rack and locker
products are currently available. The
appropriate type and number of bicycle
facilities depends on the number of bicy-
clists and the climate of the region.
Alternative Fuelled Vehicles
Alternative fuels are those that are
substantially non-petroleum and yield
energy security and environmental ben-
efits. These are:
• Methanol and denatured ethanol as
alcohol fuels (alcohol mixtures that
contain no less than 70% of the al-
cohol fuel)
• Bio-diesel
• Natural gas (compressed or liquefied)
• Liquefied petroleum gas
• Hydrogen
• Fuels derived from biological materi-
als, and electricity (including solar
energy).
• Efficient gas-electric hybrid vehicles
are included in this group for LEED
purposes.
Electric vehicles (EVs) require a receptacle
specifically designed for this purpose,
usually 240 volts. EVs with conventional
lead-acid batteries require recharging
Does this vehicle... Conventional
Vehicle
Muscle
Hybrid
Mild
Hybrid
Full
Hybrid
Plug-in
Hybrid
Shut engine off at stop-lights
and in stop-and-go traffic
√ √ √ √ √
Use regenerative braking and
operate above 60 volts
√ √ √ √
Use a smaller engine than a
conventional version with the
same performance
√ √ √
Drive using only electric power
√ √
Recharge batteries from the
wall plug and have a range of
at least 32 km on electricity
alone

Table 1: Classification of Hybrid Vehicles (Friedman, 2003)
after 80 km (50 miles). Refuelling stations
for natural gas vehicles have compressors
and dispensers that deliver compressed
natural gas (CNG) at about 21 Mpa
(3,000 psi).
Hybrid Vehicles
High efficiency hybrids in LEED Canada-
NC 1.0 are defined as those that meet the
classification of “Full Hybrid” classification
in Table 1, and which have Energuide’s
fuel consumption of 5 L/100 km (average
of City and Highway rating).
Low Consumption Vehicle
Low consumption vehicles in LEED
Canada-NC 1.0 are defined as those
which have Energuide’s fuel consump-
tion of 5 L/100 km (average of City and
Highway rating) or less. In addition for
diesel, emissions of 120 g/km of CO
2

or less and meet at least Euro 4 level of
particulates at 0.025 g/km.
Synergies and Trade-Offs
Transportation planning is affected by
site selection and has a significant impact
on site design. A building site near transit
lines may have negative characteristics,
such as site contamination, poor air
quality, unsafe conditions or problematic
drainage. Real estate costs may also be
higher in areas close to transit lines.
Provisions for carpooling and the use of
bicycles as a viable transportation mode
SSc4 – begins on original reference guide page 71
Credit 4
Canada Green Building Council
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recommended showering facilities for
institutional spaces). Showering facilities
can be unit showers or group showering
facilities (see Equation 3). This calculation
is not necessary for residential buildings.
For example, a building houses a compa-
ny with two shifts. The first shift includes
240 full-time workers and 90 half-time
workers. The second shift includes 110
full-time workers and 60 part-time work-
ers. Calculations to determine the total
FTE building occupants for each shift are
included in Table 2.
The first shift is used for determining the
number of bicycling occupants because
it has the greatest FTE building occupant
total. Based on a total of 285 FTE build-
ing occupants, the estimated number
of bicycling occupants is 15. Thus, 15
secure bicycle spaces are required for
this example. The required number of
changing and showering facilities is
one facility for every eight bicycling oc-
cupants. Thus, total number of required
showering facilities in this example is
two. More showers may be necessary
for the building based on the number
of actual bicycling occupants.
Alternative Fuel Refuelling Stations
To calculate the number of vehicles
required to be serviced by alternative
fuel refuelling stations, multiply the total
number of parking spaces by 3% (see
Equation 4).
In the example above, the building
has a parking area with 250 non-visitor
parking spaces. Therefore, alternative
fuel refuelling stations are required to
service 3% of the 250 parking spaces,
or eight vehicles.
The required number of refuelling sta-
tions depends on the number of vehicles
(eight, in this case) and the service limits
of the station (the time necessary for
each complete refuelling multiplied by
the number of AFVs defined by Equa-
tion 4) in combination with the station’s
operating hours (i.e., if all vehicles are
refuelled within a short timeframe, or an
eight-hour day, or nonstop).
Carpool Spaces
To calculate the number of carpool spac-
es required, multiply the total number of
non-visitor parking spaces by 10% (see
Equation 5). In the example above, a total
of 250 non-visitor parking spaces requires
a minimum of 25 carpool spaces.
Table 2: Sample FTE Calculation
Shift
Full-Time Equivalent
(FTE) Occupants
Occupants [hr] Occupants [hr] Occupants
First Shift 240 8 90 4 285
Second Shift 110 8 60 4 140
Full-Time
Occupants
Part-Time
Occupants
Equation 4:
Equation 5:
%
Parking Total
Spaces
Minimum Vehicle
Refueling Capacity
3 × =
Non-visitor spaces x 10%
of Number quired Re
Spaces Carpool
=
Table 2: Sample FTE Calculation
Shift
Full-Time Equivalent
(FTE) Occupants
Occupants [hr] Occupants [hr] Occupants
First Shift 240 8 90 4 285
Second Shift 110 8 60 4 140
Full-Time
Occupants
Part-Time
Occupants
Equation 4:
Equation 5:
%
Parking Total
Spaces
Minimum Vehicle
Refueling Capacity
3 × =
Non-visitor spaces x 10%
of Number quired Re
Spaces Carpool
=
Credit 4
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Definitions
Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Vehicles that
use low-polluting, non-gasoline fuels
such as electricity, hydrogen, propane
or compressed natural gas, liquid natural
gas, methanol, and ethanol. Efficient
gas-electric hybrid vehicles are included
in this group for LEED purposes.
Carpool: An arrangement in which
two or more people share a vehicle for
transportation.
Frequent Service: Bus lines providing
services between 20 and 30 minutes
during peak times in urban centres and
30-45 minutes at peak times in suburban
areas.
Low Consumption Vehicles: Vehicles
which have Energuide’s fuel consump-
tion of 5 L/100 km (average of City and
Highway rating) or less. In addition for
diesel, emissions of 120 g/km of CO
2

or less and meet at least Euro 4 level of
particulates at 0.025 g/km.
Mass Transit: Transportation facilities
designed to transport large groups of
persons in a single vehicle such as buses
or trains.
Public Transportation: Bus, rail or other
transportation service for the general
public on a regular, continual basis that
is publicly or privately owned.
Euro 4: The European Commission has
produced legislation to control exhaust
emissions from vehicles. The Euro 4 stan-
dard was introduced in January 2005 and
will be superseded by an even stricter
standard in mid-2008. For diesel, the
emission limits are:
• Particulate matter (PM) 25 mg/km;
• Oxides of nitrogen (NO
x
) 250 mg/
km; and
• Carbon monoxide (CO) 300 mg/km.
Regional Variations
Bicycle requirements and regulation
typically fall under City and municipal
jurisdictions and must be reviewed in
conjunction with the requirements of
this Sub-Credit.
The practical realities of using bicycles in
many regions of Canada for significant
portions of year obviously temper the in-
terpretation of this Credit. However, the
bicycle requirements for 5% or more of
building occupants may be conservative
for those regions where climate condi-
tions are more conducive to bicycling.
SSc4 – begins on original reference guide page 76
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Reduced Site Disturbance:
Protect or Restore Open Space
Intent
Conserve existing natural areas and restore damaged areas to provide habitat and
promote biodiversity.
Requirements
EITHER
On greenfield sites, limit site disturbance including earthwork and clearing of veg-
etation to 12 metres (40 feet) beyond the building perimeter, 1.5 metres (5 feet)
beyond primary roadway curbs, walkways, and main utility branch trenches, and
7.5 metres (25 feet) beyond constructed areas with permeable surfaces (such as
pervious paving areas, stormwater detention facilities and playing fields) that require
additional staging areas in order to limit compaction in the constructed area;
OR,
On previously developed sites, restore a minimum of 50% of the site area (exclud-
ing the building footprint) by replacing impervious surfaces with native or adaptive
vegetation.
OR,
On previously developed sites also earning SS Credit 2 (Development Density),
restore a minimum of 50% of the site area (excluding the building footprint) or
restore a minimum of 20% of the site area (including the building footprint), which-
ever is greater, by replacing impervious surfaces with native or adaptive vegetation.
Projects using this pathway can now apply “green” (vegetated) roof surfaces to this
calculation if the plants meet the definition of native/adaptive.
Submittals
For greenfield sites, provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the
civil engineer or responsible party, demonstrating and declaring that site
disturbance (including earthwork and clearing of vegetation) has been
limited to 12 metres (40 feet) beyond the building perimeter, 1.5 metres
(5 feet) beyond primary roadway curbs, walk ways and main utility branch
trenches, and 7.5 metres (25 feet) beyond constructed areas with perme-
able surfaces. Provide scaled site drawings and specifications highlighting
limits of construction disturbance.
OR,
For previously developed sites, provide a LEED Letter Template, signed by
the civil engineer or responsible party, declaring and describing restoration
of degraded habitat areas. Include highlighted scaled site drawings with
area calculations demonstrating that 50% of the site area that does not fall
within the building footprint has been restored.
If an audit of this Credit is requested during the certification process:
For greenfield sites, submit 12 photographs of disturbed site areas, display-
ing that project requirements are met.
OR
For previously developed sites, submit at least 4 photographs that together
show the entire completed site and its landscaping.
SSc5.1 – begins on original reference guide page 78
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AND
Provide a list of native/adaptive vegetation.
Interpretation
• The intent of SSc5.1 is to conserve existing natural areas and restore dam-
aged areas to provide habitat and promote biodiversity. Even though some
vegetation may flourish in certain regions, they can still be environmentally
destructive, e.g., Bermuda grass is a non-native species whose vigorous
growth rate has made it a popular turf grass for golf courses, lawns and
sports fields. This type of grass often out-competes native species and, un-
like a truly native/adapted installation, requires the maintenance effort of
mowing. A monoculture of a single species turf grass does not meet the
intent of this Credit for providing habitat and of promoting biodiversity.
To identify native plant species, consult lists normally available from the
province’s department of natural resources or local native plant society.
• For the purpose of this LEED Sub-Credit, the building footprint is defined
as the perimeter of the building plan. Shade structures or canopies that
are attached to the building and are not part of the structure need not be
included in the building footprint. Building overhangs are part of the build-
ing plan and should be included in the calculation of building footprint. The
fact that areas under overhangs are not likely to be restored with vegetation
supports this interpretation and does not serve the Credit’s intent. Recessing
first floor walls does not reduce the site area impacted by the building and
does not justify a reduction in the required protection/restoration area.
• For projects that are part of a site master plan on previously developed sites,
compliance can be earned for SSc5.1 if 50% of the total site area (excluding
all building footprints) has been restored with native or adaptive species.
For master planned projects, provide a copy of the site master plan with
building footprints and areas to be restored with native or adaptive spe-
cies. Include all phases of building through to site build-out, including the
anticipated phases and timeline. Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed
by the civil engineer or responsible party, and declaring that 50% of the
total site area (excluding all building footprints) is to be restored with native
or adaptive species for the site master plan. Provide a description of the
site and the surrounding area prior to development indicating that it is an
infill, redevelopment, densification project in an urban downtown centre
setting and/or contaminated site.
SSc5.1 – begins on original reference guide page 78
Credit 5.1
Canada Green Building Council
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Reduced Site Disturbance:
Development Footprint
Intent
Conserve existing natural areas and restore damaged areas to provide habitat and
promote biodiversity.
Requirements
Reduce the development footprint (defined as entire building footprint, access
roads and parking) to exceed the local zoning’s open space requirement for the
site by 25%. For areas with no local zoning requirements (e.g., some university
campuses and military bases), designate open space area adjacent to the building
that is equal to the building footprint.
Projects earning SS Credit 2 (Development Density) and using “green” (vegetated)
roof surfaces may apply the green roof surface to the open space calculation, if the
green roof surface is accessible by building occupants/users.
Submittals
Provide a copy of the local zoning requirements highlighting the criteria for
open space. Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the civil engineer
or responsible party, demonstrating and declaring that the open space
exceeds the local zoning open space requirement for the site by 25%.
For areas with no local zoning requirements (e.g., some university campuses
and military bases), designate open space area adjacent to the building that
is equal to the building footprint. Provide a letter from the property owner
stating that the open space will be conserved for the life of the building.
If an audit of this Credit is requested during the certification process:
Provide highlighted site drawings with area calculations demonstrating that
the project open space exceeds the local zoning open space requirement
for the site by 25%.
For areas with no local zoning requirements (e.g., university campuses,
military bases), provide site plans highlighting the designated open space
area adjacent to the building that is equal to the building footprint.
Summary of Referenced Standard
There is no standard referenced for this Credit.
Interpretation
• Although SSc5.2 requires “open space adjacent to the building that is equal
to the building footprint” for sites without local zoning requirements, it
is plausible for a project in a campus setting to make the case for cluster-
ing buildings and consolidating the LEED-required amount of open space
together next to the cluster, or in a different part of the campus, because
wildlife experiences greater benefits from contiguous habitat than it does
from small, isolated natural spaces. If a campus is submitted as a whole, the
total project area should be used in calculating this Credit and all other LEED
Prerequisites and Credits. The campus approach might therefore preclude
the acquisition of other Credits.
• Existing turf grass area that provides a limited amount of habitat for wildlife
and does little to create biodiversity can be considered as previously devel-
SSc5.2 – begins on original reference guide page 80
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WE EA MR EQ ID SS
oped and replaced with landscaping that will do much more to enhance
the habitat area and the biodiversity. In project applications, provide further
narrative supporting the classification of the site as “previously developed”.
This justification could be based on the prior removal of native vegetation
and subsequent human impacts such as mass grading, structures, paving,
other surfaces, or high maintenance ornamental landscape improvements
not meeting the intent of “native or adaptive”.
• In the case of campus buildings, LEED allows some flexibility in determining
the extent of the site area for purposes of LEED. However, a specific site
area must be defined and used consistently for achievement of all Cred-
its. Typically, campus projects define an area associated with the specific
construction site as the site area, rather than addressing the campus as a
whole. If the building is located on a greenfield portion of a site, then the
construction limits for greenfield sites apply. The limits of the project for
the purpose of this Credit would be the “limits of work” for the construc-
tion of the building and associated paving and parking. If parking is added
to a site as part of the project the requirements of this Credit apply to the
construction limits of the new parking area, whether or not the parking
area is adjacent to the building or elsewhere within a campus. If the park-
ing is on a greenfield, the site disturbance limits apply. If the parking is on
previously developed land, restoring open space would be required.
• Playing fields do not restore habitat, and typically do not consist of native
or adapted species. Installing playing fields can count toward achievement
of SSc5.2 for open space, but does not achieve the intent of SSc5.1 for
restored habitat.
• A landscape architect can determine if a specific plant species qualifies as
“native or adaptive” for a project location. Species that require irrigation or
fertilizers to flourish cannot be considered adaptive. The submittals should
include a statement from the landscape architect confirming that species
selected for the project are appropriate for the region, and will contribute
to the restoration of the previously developed site to provide habitat and
promote biodiversity.
• Agricultural land may qualify as “developed” based on current agricultural
practices. The determination of whether it is “developed” or “greenfield” is
dependent on the post-agricultural disposition of the land. If lying fallow,
the land will revert to a more natural state relatively quickly compared to
more intensive development types. If the former agricultural land has not
been worked or planted recently and has proceeded toward natural suc-
cession, the flora and fauna may be well on its way towards establishing a
stable natural ecosystem. Based on this, a project should provide informa-
tion about recent use and condition of the land to support the contention
that the site should be treated as developed. The project should also clearly
indicate that 50% of the remaining open areas have been restored.
• A project that sets aside 25% of a site as open space in a zero-lot-line build-
able area is worthy of this Credit. To be eligible for Credit achievement
under this scenario, the project must show that the local zoning ordinance
specifically states that zero open space is required, and also achieve SSc2
(Development Density) in order to show that it is in a dense urban setting.
In addition, adhere to the definition of open space: “the property area minus
the development footprint. Open space must be vegetated and pervious
thus providing habitat and other ecological services”.
SSc5.2 – begins on original reference guide page 80
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Canada Green Building Council
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• Dense urban projects may not be able to address this Credit effectively. No
project can apply all LEED Credits because the Credits represent a diverse
array of building conditions that do not apply to all building types.
• Artificial turf on top of a parking structure is not considered open space
for purposes of this Credit. Although playing fields can count toward
achievement of SSc5.2 open space, artificial turf does not qualify for this
interpretation.
• If there are no criteria in the local zoning codes for open space, an appli-
cant must show that an open space area equal to the building footprint is
adjacent to the building. A letter must be provided by the property owner
stating that the open space will be conserved for the life of the building.
Furthermore, if a project includes open space adjacent to the project site,
then the project site boundary should be redrawn and this entire project
area should be included in the denominator used for calculating this Credit
and all other LEED Prerequisites and Credits.
• For projects that are part of a site master plan on a previously developed
site, designate open space area(s) equal to or greater than 50% of the site
area (excluding the building footprint) by replacing impervious surfaces
with native or adaptive vegetation.
• For projects that are part of a site master plan, compliance can be earned
for SSc5.2 if 50% of areas outside the development footprint are desig-
nated open space area(s) within the master plan at least equal to the total
area of all building footprints to comply with SSc5.2. For master planned
projects, provide a copy of the site master plan with building footprints
and open space areas indicated. Include all phases of building through to
site build-out, including the anticipated phases and timeline. Provide the
LEED Letter Template, signed by the civil engineer or responsible party,
and declaring that the open space for the site master plan is equal to the
total building footprints for the site master plan. Provide a description of
the site and the surrounding area prior to development indicating that it is
an infill, redevelopment, densification project in an urban or town centre
setting and/or a contaminated site.
SSc5.2 – begins on original reference guide page 80
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orientation, daylighting, heat island
effects, stormwater management, sig-
nificant vegetation and other sustainable
building issues.
• Once the site and building location
have been determined, design and
construct a compact parking, road
and building footprint layout in order
to preserve open land.
• Reduce footprints by tightening
program needs and stacking floor
plans.
• Encourage preservation, conservation
and restoration of existing natural site
amenities.
• Where appropriate, build on parts
of the site that are already degraded
so as not to degrade undisturbed
areas.
• Restore the native landscape of the
site by preserving and planting native
species to re-establish predevelop-
ment site conditions. Restoration
efforts will vary depending on the
particular project site.
• Volunteer efforts can reduce the cost
of saving existing trees and plants. A
variety of local plant amnesty organi-
zations exist that can help with plant
and tree preservation and reloca-
tion.
• During the construction process,
establish clearly marked construction
and disturbance boundaries and note
these site protection requirements in
construction documents:
- Delineate lay down, recycling
and disposal areas, and use paved
areas for staging activities.
- Erect constructi on fenci ng
around the drip line of exist-
ing trees to protect them from
damage and soil compaction by
construction vehicles.
- Establish contractual penalties
if destruction of protected ar-
eas outside of the construction
boundaries occurs.

- Coordinate infrastructure construc-
tion to minimize the disruption of the
site and work with existing topogra-
phy to limit cut-and-fill efforts for the
project.
For urban projects earning SS Credit 2,
consider installing a green vegetated
roof. Projects should ensure that the
roof structure is designed to support the
added weight of the planting beds.
When designing green roofs, attention
must be given to support, waterproof-
ing and drainage. Green roofs typically
include a waterproof and root repellent
membrane, a drainage system, filter
cloth, a lightweight growing medium
and plants. Modular systems area avail-
able, with all layers prepared into mov-
able interlocking grids, or individual
layers can be installed separately.
To achieve SSc5.1, the green roof must
use native or adapted, non-invasive spe-
cies. Research the species that are likely
to utilize this space (primarily birds and
insects) and select plants that will help
support these species by providing food,
forage or nesting areas.
The quality of the environment is very
important for green roofs. Some factors
include:
• sufficient planting depth;
• designing for a variety of habitat
types;
• incorporating natural soil into the
substrate;
• allowing retention of water on some
areas of the roof throughout dry sea-
son; and,
• creating habitat complexity, shelter
for invertebrates and perches for
birds, through large stones and
wood.
For achievement of SSc5.2 in areas with
no established zoning requirements for
open space, a project must show that an
open space area equal to the building
footprint has been established adjacent
to the building. For urban projects earn-
ing SS Credit 2, a green vegetated roof
can be considered open space if the oc-
SSc5 – begins on original reference guide page 84
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cupants can easily access the green roof
(e.g., through a door at roof level). A roof
access hatch would not be considered
easy access.
Synergies and Trade-Offs
Balancing the verticality of a structure
with open space requirements can be a
challenging exercise. For instance, shad-
ing from tall structures may change the
environmental character of the open
space, and these structures may be in-
timidating and unwelcoming to building
occupants. Furthermore, large expanses
of open space may be a barrier to public
transportation access. Conversely, retain-
ing a high proportion of open space
vegetation reduces stormwater runoff
volumes and natural features may be
available for wastewater or stormwater
treatment. Preservation of certain trees
may reduce passive solar gains. Check
the siting of the structure to optimize
solar opportunities and to preserve the
most significant trees. Additional vegeta-
tion can assist with cooling breezes and
noise reduction, and enhance the site
air quality.
The site location and site design have
a significant effect on open space and
reduced habitat disturbance. Heat island
effects, stormwater generation, and
light pollution should all be considered
when determining the site design. The
landscape design and irrigation scheme
is intimately tied with the site design and
open space allotted. In addition, water
reuse and on-site wastewater treatment
strategies have an effect on non-build-
ing spaces.
Renewable energy technologies such as
wind turbines and biomass generation
require site space. Rehabilitation of exist-
ing buildings may dictate the amount of
open space available. Construction waste
management schemes may encroach
on natural areas for storage of building
wastes earmarked for recycling.
Resources
Web Sites
Evergreen Foundation: A registered
national charity founded in 1991 work-
ing to create healthy cities through
innovative community naturalization
projects across Canada - on school
grounds, on public lands, and on the
home landscape.
Site: http://www.evergreen.ca/en/index.
html
Soil and Water Conservation Society:
An organization focussed on fostering
the science and art of sustainable soil,
water and related natural resource man-
agement.
Site: www.swcs.org
Print Media
• Lyle, J. T., and Woodward, J., Design
for Human Ecosystems: Landscape,
Land Use, and Natural Resources,
Milldale Press, 1999
Definitions
Greenfield: undeveloped land or land
that has not been impacted by human
activity.
Building Footprint: the area on a project
site that is used by the building struc-
ture and is enclosed by the perimeter
of the building plan, including building
overhangs. Parking lots, landscapes and
other non-building facilities are not in-
cluded in the building footprint.
Regional Variations
The requirements of this Sub-Credit are
universally applicable across Canada.
SSc5 – begins on original reference guide page 84
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Heat Island Effect:
Non-Roof
Intent
Reduce heat islands (thermal gradient differences between developed and undevel-
oped areas) to minimize impact on microclimate and human and wildlife habitat.
Requirements
Provide shade (within 5 years) and/or use light-coloured/high-albedo materials
(Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) of at least 29) and/or open grid pavement for at least
50% of the site’s non-roof impervious surfaces, including parking lots, walkways,
plazas, etc.;
OR,
Place a minimum of 50% of parking spaces underground or covered by structured
parking (i.e., minimum 2 level parking garage) or covered by a building.
Submittals
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the architect or responsible party, show-
ing SRIs of paving materials and referencing the scaled site plan that shows paved
and landscaped areas (list species) and the building footprint, and declaring that:
A minimum of 50% of non-roof impervious surfaces areas are constructed
with high albedo materials and/or open grid pavement and/or will be
shaded within five years
OR,
A minimum of 50% of parking spaces have been placed underground
(defined as underground, under parking deck, or under building).
AND (For either compliance path)
Provide an optional narrative to describe any special circumstances or non-
standard compliance paths taken by the project.
If an audit of this Credit is requested during the certification process:
Provide drawings highlighting all non-roof impervious surfaces and por-
tions of these surfaces that will be shaded at noon on June 21st within
five years. Include calculations demonstrating that a minimum of 50% of
non-roof impervious surfaces areas will be shaded within five years and/or
are constructed with high-albedo materials and/or open-grid pavement.
AND,
Provide specifications and cut sheets for high-albedo materials applied to
non-roof impervious surfaces highlighting reflectance and emittance (to
calculate SRI –OR- the actual SRI –OR- the default SRI value from Table 1)
of the installed materials.
OR,
Provide the total number of parking spaces on-site and the total number
of covered spaces on-site.
SSc7.1 – begins on original reference guide page 100
Credit 7.1
Canada Green Building Council
40
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Table 1: Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) for Standard Paving Materials
Material Emissivity Reflectance SRI
Typical New Gray Concrete 0.9 0.35 35
Typical Weathered* Gray Concrete 0.9 0.2 19
Typical New White Concrete 0.9 0.7 86
Typical Weathered* White Concrete 0.9 0.4 45
New Asphalt 0.9 0.05 0
Weathered Asphalt 0.9 0.1 6
*Reflectance of surfaces can be maintained with cleaning. Typical pressure washing of
cementious materials can restore close to original value. Weathered values are based
on no cleaning.
Interpretation
• The reflectance and emittance of all applicable materials must be adequately
documented to earn this Credit.
• Shading of non-roof impervious site surfaces is calculated on June 21 at solar
noon, so trees located outside the impervious surfaces will cast minimal
shade onto the impervious surfaces.
• It is possible to combine the effects of different measures, but it is incum-
bent on the applicant to provide the CaGBC with a detailed calculation
and supporting sketches to capture the point.
• Shading contributions by landscape are accepted in energy modeling
performed for LEED Canada-NC 1.0 EAp2 and EAc1. The modeler should
include the differences between the Budget and Proposed cases as ap-
propriate in the Submittal table of model variables. It is incumbent on the
modeler to describe assumptions such as the tree species, canopy size,
opacity, etc. used to model the shading effects.
• Shading of impervious surfaces by the building (eg., parking on the north
side of the building) can be counted using the shading calculation on June
21st solar noon.
SSc7.1 – begins on original reference guide page 100
Credit 7.1
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41
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Heat Island Effect:
Roof
Intent
Reduce heat islands (thermal gradient differences between developed and undevel-
oped areas) to minimize impact on microclimate and human and wildlife habitat.
Requirements
Use roofing materials having a Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) equal to or greater
than the values in the table below for a minimum of 75% of the roof surface;
Roof Type Slope SRI
Low-sloped Roof ≤ 2:12 78
Steep-sloped Roof > 2:12 29
OR,
Install a “green” (vegetated) roof for at least 50% of the roof area. Combinations
of high albedo and vegetated roof can be used provided that the combination of
areas is as follows: (Area of SRI Roof/0.75) + (Area of Vegetated Roof/0.5) ≥ Total
Roof Area
Submittals
Provide copies of the project’s roof drawings to highlight the location of
specific roof materials and/or green roof systems.
AND
Provide an optional narrative to describe any special circumstances or non-
standard compliance paths taken by the project.
AND
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the architect or responsible
party, referencing the building plan and declaring that the roofing materi-
als comply with the SRI requirements. Demonstrate that 75% of the total
roof area is covered with high-albedo materials.
OR,
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the architect or responsible
party, referencing the building plan and demonstrating that the combina-
tion of roof areas satisfies the equation:
(Area of SRI Roof/0.75) + (Area of Vegetated Roof/0.5) ≥ Total Roof Area
If an audit of this Credit is requested during the certification process:
Provide specifications and cut sheets highlighting reflectance and emittance,
or SRI, of roofing materials. Include area calculations demonstrating that
the compliant roofing materials cover a minimum of 75% of the total roof
area.
OR,
Provide specifications and cut sheets, or at least 4 photographs, highlight-
ing a green vegetated roof system. Include area calculations demonstrating
that the roof system covers a minimum of 50% of the total roof area.
SSc7.2 – begins on original reference guide page 102
Credit 7.2
Canada Green Building Council
42
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AND
Provide specifications and cut sheets highlighting reflectance and emittance,
or SRI, of roofing materials that collectively with the green vegetated roof
system meet the Credit requirement. Include area calculations demonstrat-
ing that the combined roof system satisfies the equation:
(Area of SRI Roof/0.75) + (Area of Vegetated Roof/0.5) ≥ Total Roof Area
Summary of Referenced Standards
• ASTM E408-71(1996)e1–Standard Test Methods for Total Normal Emit-
tance of Surfaces Using Inspection-Meter Techniques: This standard de-
scribes how to measure total normal emittance of surfaces using a
portable inspection-meter instrument. The test methods are intended
for large surfaces where non-destructive testing is required. See the
standard for testing steps and a discussion of thermal emittance theory.
Site: www.astm.org, (610) 832-9585
• ASTM E903-96–Standard Test Method for Solar Absorptance, Reflectance,
and Transmittance of Materials Using Integrating Spheres: Referenced in
the ENERGY STAR roofing standard, this test method uses spectropho-
tometers and need only be applied for initial reflectance measurement.
Methods of computing solar-weighted properties from the measured
spectral values are specified. This test method is applicable to materials
having both specular and diffuse optical properties. Except for transmit-
ting sheet materials that are inhomogeneous, patterned, or corrugated,
this test method is preferred over Test Method E1084. The ENERGY STAR
roofing standard also allows the use of reflectometers to measure solar
reflectance of roofing materials. See the roofing standard for more details.
Site: www.astm.org, (610) 832-9585
• ASTM E1980-01 — Standard Practice for Calculating Solar Reflectance Index of
Horizontal and Low-Sloped Opaque Surfaces: This standard describes how sur-
face reflectivity and emissivity are combined to calculate a Solar Reflectance
Index (SRI) for a roofing material or other surface. The standard also de-
scribes a laboratory and field test protocol that can be used to determine SRI.
Site: www.astm.org, (610) 832-9585
• ASTM E1918-97 — Standard Test Method for Measuring Solar Reflectance of Hor-
izontal and Low-Sloped Surfaces in the Field: This test method covers the mea-
surements of solar reflectance of various horizontal and low-sloped surfaces
and materials in the field, using a pyranometer. The test method is intended
for use when the sun angle to the normal from a surface is less than 45 degrees.
Site: www.astm.org, (610) 832-9585
• ASTM C1371-04 — Standard Test Method for Determination of Emit-
tance of Materials Near Room Temperature Using Portable Emissiometers:
This test method covers a technique for determination of the emit-
tance of typical materials using a portable differential thermopile emis-
siometer. The purpose of the test method is to provide a comparative
means of quantifying the emittance of opaque, highly thermally con-
ductive materials near room temperature as a parameter in evaluating
temperatures, heat flow, and derived thermal resistances of materials.
Site: www.astm.org, (610) 832-9585
• ASTM C1549-04 — Standard Test Method for Determination of Solar
Reflectance Near Ambient Temperature Using a Portable Solar Reflectom-
eter: This test method covers a technique for determining the solar
SSc7.2 – begins on original reference guide page 102
Credit 7.2
LEED Canada-NC 1.0 Reference Guide Addendum
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reflectance of flat opaque materials in a laboratory or in the field us-
ing a commercial portable solar reflectometer. The purpose of the
test method is to provide solar reflectance data required to evaluate
temperature and heat flows across surfaces exposed to solar radiation.
Site: www.astm.org, (610) 832-9585
Interpretation
• Skylights, parapets and equipment are excluded from the calculation. The
only portion of the roof under consideration is the area covered by the
membrane and the vegetated roofing.
• While design strategies that offer permanent shading of direct solar gain
meet the intent of SSc7.2, there is no way to ensure that surrounding build-
ings that offer shade of a roof will remain in place for the life of the roofing
product that is installed. Therefore Credit achievement is not possible for
these shading effects.
• The contribution of planters to reduced heat island effect is a direct result of
the vegetation they contain, so application documents must demonstrate
that the planters are indeed vegetated. In addition, any trees planted on
roofs can count towards the green roof area calculation. The area would
be the shade coverage provided by these trees after five years on the roof
surfaces on June 21 at noon solar time to determine the maximum shading
effect.
• Balconies are to be included in roof areas, however, if the balcony covers a
balcony below this area or an area of roof below the area below is excluded
as roof area as they are shaded by the balcony area above.
SSc7.2 – begins on original reference guide page 102
Credit 7.2
Canada Green Building Council
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replacing constructed surfaces with veg-
etated and/or permeable surfaces such
as garden roofs and open grid paving or
specify high-albedo materials to reduce
heat absorption.
Technologies
Non-Roof
Darker paving materials, such as asphalt,
generally exhibit low reflectance and
consequently low SRI values. Grey or
white concrete has a higher reflectance
and a higher SRI. Concrete made with
white cement may cost up to twice as
much as that made with grey cement.
Some blended cements (e.g., slag ce-
ments) are very light in color and cost
the same as grey cement (Source: “Al-
bedo: A Measure of Pavement Surface
Reflectance,” R&T Update #3.05, June
2002, American Concrete Pavement
Association, www.pavement.com/tech
serv/RT3.05.pdf). Because pavement is
ubiquitous, even a small improvement
in albedo can make an impact. Micro
surfaces and coatings over asphalt pave-
ment can be used to attain the required
SRI value for this credit.
Coatings and integral colorants can be
used in parking surfaces to improve
solar reflectance. If reflective coatings,
light concrete or gravel cannot be used,
consider an open-grid paving system
that increases perviousness by at least
50%, which remains cooler because of
evaporation.
Vegetation can shade buildings and
pavements from solar radiation and
cool the air through evapotranspira-
tion. Provide shade using native or
climate-tolerant trees, large shrubs and
non-invasive vines. Trellises and other
exterior structures can support vegeta-
tion shade on parking lots, walkways and
plazas. Deciduous trees allow buildings
to benefit from solar heat gain during
the winter months.
On site locations where tree planting is
not possible, use architectural shading de-
vices to block direct sunlight radiance.
Roof
To maximize energy savings and mini-
mize heat island effects, materials must
exhibit a high solar reflectance and a
high thermal emissivity over the life of
the product. Read the manufacturer’s
data when selecting a product based
on a material’s reflective properties. For
example, some manufacturers measure
visible reflectance, which differs from
the solar reflectance measurement ref-
erenced in this credit.
Visible reflectance correlates to solar re-
flectance, but the two quantities are not
equal because solar gain covers a wider
range of wavelengths than visible light.
A material that exhibits a high visible
reflectance usually has a slightly lower
solar reflectance. For example, a good
white coating with a visible reflectance
of 0.8 typically has a solar reflectance of
0.7. Therefore, it is necessary to measure
the solar reflectance of the material even
if the visible reflectance is known.
Table 2 provides example SRI values for
typical roof surfaces. Typically, white
roofing products exhibit better perfor-
mance characteristics than nonwhite
products. Performance varies by roofing
material as well as brand.
Check with roofing manufacturers and
the Lawrence Berkeley National Labora-
tory’s Cool Roofing Materials Database
(http://eetd.lbl.gov/CoolRoofs) for specific
information.
Garden Roofs minimize heat island effects
and have aesthetic value. Garden roofs or
green roofs are vegetated surfaces that
capture rainwater and return a portion
of it back to the atmosphere through
evapotranspiration, which cools trees
and the surrounding air. Vegetation ex-
periences lower peak temperatures–60
to 100 degrees Fahrenheit compared to
190 degrees on traditional rooftops–be-
cause it contains moisture. Garden
roofs can potentially save energy used
for heating and cooling. Some garden
roofs require plant maintenance and are
considered active gardens, while other
garden roofs have grasses and plants that
require no maintenance or watering. All
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types of garden roofs require periodic
inspection but typically have longer life-
times than conventional roofs because
the underlying waterproof membrane
is shielded from the effects of ultraviolet
radiation and weather.
Table 2: Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) for Typical Roofing Materials
Example SRI Values for Generic
Roofing Materials
Solar
Reflectance
Infrared
Emittance
Temperature
Rise
Solar
Reflectance
Index (SRI)
Gray EPDM 0.23 0.87 20°C 21
Gray Asphalt Shingle 0.22 0.91 19°C 22
Unpainted Cement Tile 0.25 0.9 18°C 25
White Granular Surface Bitumen 0.26 0.92 17°C 28
Red Clay Tile 0.33 0.9 14°C 36
Light Gravel on Built-Up Roof 0.34 0.9 14°C 37
Aluminum 0.61 0.25 9°C 56
White-Coated Gravel on Built-Up Roof 0.65 0.9 -2°C 79
White Coating on Metal Roof 0.67 0.85 -2°C 82
White EPDM 0.69 0.87 -4°C 84
White Cement Tile 0.73 0.9 -6°C 90
White Coating – 1 coat, 8 mils 0.8 0.91 -10°C 100
PVC White 0.83 0.92 -12°C 104
White Coating – 2 Coats, 20 mils 0.85 0.91 -13°C 107

Source: LBNL Cool Roofing Materials Database. These values are for reference only and are not for use as
substitutes for actual manufacturer data.
Table 2: Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) for Typical Roofing Materials
Example SRI Values for Generic
Roofing Materials
Solar
Reflectance
Infrared
Emittance
Temperature
Rise
Solar
Reflectance
Index (SRI)
Gray EPDM 0.23 0.87 20°C 21
Gray Asphalt Shingle 0.22 0.91 19°C 22
Unpainted Cement Tile 0.25 0.9 18°C 25
White Granular Surface Bitumen 0.26 0.92 17°C 28
Red Clay Tile 0.33 0.9 14°C 36
Light Gravel on Built-Up Roof 0.34 0.9 14°C 37
Aluminum 0.61 0.25 9°C 56
White-Coated Gravel on Built-Up Roof 0.65 0.9 -2°C 79
White Coating on Metal Roof 0.67 0.85 -2°C 82
White EPDM 0.69 0.87 -4°C 84
White Cement Tile 0.73 0.9 -6°C 90
White Coating – 1 coat, 8 mils 0.8 0.91 -10°C 100
PVC White 0.83 0.92 -12°C 104
White Coating – 2 Coats, 20 mils 0.85 0.91 -13°C 107

Source: LBNL Cool Roofing Materials Database. These values are for reference only and are not for use as
substitutes for actual manufacturer data.
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Synergies and Trade-Offs
Site selection and site planning have a
significant effect on urban heat islands.
Shading from evergreen trees and archi-
tectural shading devices may interfere
with possible solar benefits. Deciduous
trees will allow for solar heat gain during
the winter months. Shading strategies
should be integrated with solar strategies
such as daylighting, solar heating and
photovoltaic cells.
Garden roofs reduce stormwater vol-
umes that may be collected for non-po-
table purposes. If water reuse and garden
roof strategies are applied together, it is
necessary to perform a water balance
to determine the estimated volumes of
water available for reuse. Stormwater
runoff volumes from garden roofs de-
pend on the local climate, depth of soil,
type of plants used and other variables.
However, all garden roofs decrease
stormwater volumes substantially.
Light-coloured pavements may create
glare from reflection, posting a hazard to
vehicle traffic and annoyance for build-
ing occupants. Buildings in very cold
climates may not experience year-round
energy benefits from reflective roofing
and other surfaces, due to the inverse
impact that lower heat absorptivity and
higher emittance have on heating en-
ergy needs. Increasing the reflectance
of a roof reduces annual cooling energy
use in almost all climates.
Calculations
The following calculation methodology
is used to support the Credit submittals
listed on the first page of this Credit.
Shading of Non-Roof Impervious Surfaces
1. Identify all non-roof hardscape sur-
faces on the project site and sum the
total area.
2. Identify all of the hardscape surfaces
that have an open grid paving system
that are at least 50% pervious and
sum the total area.
3. Identify all hardscape features that
have an SRI of at least 29 and sum
their total area. Weathered values for
concrete should be used unless there
is a regular maintenance program for
pressure washing the concrete.
SRI can be calculated using the LEED
Letter Template by inserting both
emissivity and reflectance values
into the worksheet. Emittance is
calculated according to ASTM E 408
or ASTM C 1371 and Reflectance is
calculated according to ASTM E 903,
ASTM E 1918, or ASTM C 1549. Al-
ternatively, Table 1 provides a list of
SRI values for typical paving materials;
where these materials are used, the
SRI values from this table may be used
in lieu of obtaining specific emissivity
and reflectance measurements.
4. Identify all hardscape features that
will be shaded by trees or other land-
scape features. Shade coverage shall
be calculated at solar noon June 21st.
Calculate the effective shaded area
5. Sum the open space paving, high
reflectance paving, and shaded ar-
eas to get the qualifying area (See
Equation 1.)
(Note that each surface should be
counted only once. For example, a
1 square metre (10 square feet) area
that is 55% pervious, has an SRI of 30
and is shaded by a tree contributes
only 1 square meter (10 square feet)
to the total.)
6. The total qualifying area must be
greater than or equal to 50% of the
total hardscape area, as in Equation 2.
Parking Calculations
1. Calculate the total number of parking
spaces for the project.
2. Calculate the number of parking
spaces that are underground or
covered by structured parking. This
number must equal at least 50% of
the total number of parking spaces.
Combined Reflective/Low Emittance and
Vegetated Green Roof
1. Calculate the total roof surface area
of the project. Deduct areas with
equipment, solar energy panels, and
appurtenances.
2. Determine the roof surface area that
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meets the applicable SRI criteria and/
or the area that is covered by green
roof.
3. Determine whether the areas of cool
roof and green roof meet the credit
requirement using equation 3.
Note: a weighted average calculation
may be performed for buildings with
multiple roof surfaces to demonstrate
that the total roof area has an average
SRI equal to or greater than a theoreti-
cal roof with 75% at an SRI of 78 and
25% at an SRI of 30.
Resources
Web Sites
American Concrete Pavement Associa-
tion: See R&T Update #3.05, June 2002,
“Albedo: A Measure of Pavement Surface
Reflectance,”
www.pavement.com/techserv/RT3.05.
pdf, for reflectance data and related
information.
Site: www.pavement.com
Cool Roof Rating Council: Created in
1998 to develop accurate and credible
methods for evaluating and labelling the
solar reflectance and thermal emittance
(radiative properties) of roofing products
and to disseminate the information to all
interested parties.
Site: www.coolroofs.org
Equation 1:
Qualifying Area of Hardscape Area of Hardscape) Effective Shaded
Area (m
2
) = Surfaces with ≥ 50% + Features with SRI + Area (m
2
)
Impervious (m
2
) of ≥ 29 (m
2
)
Equation 2:
Qualifying Area ≥ 50% of the Total Hardscape Area /2
Equation 3:
(Area of SRI Roof/0.75) + (Area of Vegetated Roof/0.5) ≥ Total Roof Area
ENERGY STAR® Roofing Products:
Provides solar reflectance levels required
to meet U.S. EPA Energy Star labelling
requirements, a list of compliant prod-
ucts (by manufacturer) for low-slope
and steep-slope roofs, and additional
information.
Site: www.energystar.gov
Greenroofs.com: An independent
clearinghouse for information about
vegetated roofs.
Site: www.greenroofs.com
Lawrence Berkeley National Labora-
tory Heat Island Group: Research on
the effects of heat islands and provides
specific information and data on roofing
materials. For reflectance and emissivity
data, see eetd.lbl.gov/CoolRoofs.
Site: eetd.lbl.gov/HeatIsland/graphic
Heat Island Effect — US EPA: Basic
information about heat island effect,
its social and environmental costs, and
strategies to minimize its prevalence.
Site: www.epa.gov/heatisland
Extensive Green Roofs: This Whole
Building Design Guide article by Charlie
Miller, PE details the features and benefits
of constructing green roofs.
Site: www.greenroofs.php
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Penn State Center for Green Roof
Research: The Center has the mission
of demonstrating and promoting green
roof research, education and technol-
ogy transfer in the Northeastern United
States.
Site: http://hortweb.cas.psu.edu/research/
greenroofcenter
Definitions
Emissivity: The ratio of the radiation
emitted by a surface to the radiation
emitted by a black body at the same
temperature.
Heat Island Effect: Condition when
warmer temperatures are experienced in
urban landscapes compared to adjacent
rural areas as a result of solar energy
retention on constructed surfaces. Prin-
cipal surfaces that contribute to the heat
island effect include streets, sidewalks,
parking lots and buildings.
Infrared or Thermal Emittance: A pa-
rameter between 0 and 1 (or 0% and
100%) that indicates the ability of a
material to shed infrared radiation (heat).
The wavelength range for this radiant
energy is roughly 3 to 40 micrometers.
Most building materials (including glass)
are opaque in this part of the spectrum,
and have an emittance of roughly 0.9.
Materials such as clean, bare metals are
the most important exceptions to the 0.9
rule. Thus clean, untarnished galvanized
steel has low emittance, and aluminum
roof coatings have intermediate emit-
tance levels.
Non-Roof Impervious Surfaces: All
surfaces on the site with a perviousness
of less than 50%, not including the roof
of the building. Examples of typically
impervious surfaces include parking lots,
roads, sidewalks, and plazas.
Open-Grid Pavement: Defined for LEED
purposes as pavement that is less than
50% impervious.
Perviousness: The percent of the
surface area of a paving material that
is open and allows moisture to pass
through the material and soak into the
earth below the paving system.
Solar Reflectance (or albedo): The
ratio of the reflected solar energy to the
incoming solar energy over wavelengths
of approximately 0.3 to 2.5 micrometers.
A reflectance of 100% means that all of
the energy striking a reflecting surface is
reflected back into the atmosphere and
none of the energy is absorbed by the
surface. The best standard technique for
its determination uses spectro-photo-
metric measurements with an integrat-
ing sphere to determine the reflectance
at each different wavelength. An aver-
aging process using a standard solar
spectrum then determines the average
reflectance (see ASTM Standard E903).
Solar Reflectance Index (SRI): a mea-
sure of a material’s ability to reject solar
heat, as shown by a small temperature
rise. It is defined so that a standard black
(reflectance 0.05, emittance 0.90) is 0
and a standard white (reflectance 0.80,
emittance 0.90) is 100. For example, a
standard black surface has a temperature
rise of 50°C (90°F) in full sun, and a
standard white surface has a tempera-
ture rise of 8.1°C (14.6°F). Once the
maximum temperature rise of a given
material has been computed, the SRI can
be computed by interpolating between
the values for white and black.
Materials with the highest SRI values are
the coolest choices for paving. Due to
the way SRI is defined, particularly hot
materials can even take slightly negative
values, and particularly cool materials
can even exceed 100. (Lawrence Berke-
ley National Laboratory Cool Roofing
Materials Database)
Underground Parking: A “tuck-under”
or stacked parking structure that reduces
the exposed parking surface area.
Regional Variations
The requirements of this Credit are uni-
versally applicable across Canada.
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Light Pollution Reduction
Intent
Minimize light trespass from the building and site, improve night sky access, im-
prove nighttime visibility through glare reduction and reduce development impact
on nocturnal environments.
Requirements
FOR INTERIOR LIGHTING
The angle of maximum candela from each interior luminaire as located in the
building shall intersect opaque building interior surfaces and not exit out through
the windows.
OR
All non-emergency interior lighting shall be automatically controlled to turn off dur-
ing non-business hours. Provide manual override capability for after hours use.
AND
FOR EXTERIOR LIGHTING
Only light areas as required for safety and comfort. Do not exceed 80% of the
lighting power densities for exterior areas and 50% for building facades and land-
scape features as defined in ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Exterior Lighting
Section, without amendments.
All projects shall be classified under one of the following zones, as defined in IESNA
RP-33, and shall follow all of the requirements for that specific zone:
LZ1 — Dark (Park and Rural Settings)
Design exterior lighting so that all site and building mounted luminaires produce a
maximum initial illuminance value no greater than 0.11 horizontal and vertical lux
(0.01 horizontal and vertical footcandles) at the site boundary and beyond. Docu-
ment that 0% of the total initial designed fixture lumens are emitted at an angle
of 90 degrees or higher from nadir (straight down).
LZ2 — Low (Residential Areas)
Design exterior lighting so that all site and building mounted luminaires produce
a maximum initial illuminance value no greater than 1.1 horizontal and vertical lux
(0.10 horizontal and vertical footcandles) at the site boundary and no greater than
0.11 horizontal lux (0.01 horizontal footcandles) 3 metres (10 feet) beyond the
site boundary. Document that no more than 2% of the total initial designed fixture
lumens are emitted at an angle of 90 degrees or higher from nadir (straight down).
For site boundaries that abut public rights-of-way, light trespass requirements may
be met relative to the curb line instead of the site boundary.
LZ3 — Medium (Commercial/Industrial, High-Density Residential)
Design exterior lighting so that all site and building mounted luminaires produce
a maximum initial illuminance value no greater than 2.2 horizontal and vertical lux
(0.20 horizontal and vertical footcandles) at the site boundary and no greater than
0.11 horizontal lux (0.01 horizontal footcandles) 4.6 metres (15 feet) beyond the
site. Document that no more than 5% of the total initial designed fixture lumens
are emitted at an angle of 90 degrees or higher from nadir (straight down). For
site boundaries that abut public rights-of-way, light trespass requirements may be
met relative to the curb line instead of the site boundary.
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LZ4 — High (Major City Centers, Entertainment Districts)
Design exterior lighting so that all site and building mounted luminaires produce
a maximum initial illuminance value no greater than 6.5 horizontal and vertical lux
(0.60 horizontal and vertical footcandles) at the site boundary and no greater than
0.11 horizontal lux (0.01 horizontal footcandles) 4.6 metres (15 feet) beyond the
site. Document that no more than 10% of the total initial designed site lumens are
emitted at an angle of 90 degrees or higher from nadir (straight down). For site
boundaries that abut public rights-of-way, light trespass requirements may be met
relative to the curb line instead of the site boundary.
Submittals
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by a lighting designer or an ap-
propriate party, with the following information:
For Interior Lighting
Confirm that the interior lighting design has been evaluated to ensure
that the maximum candela from each interior luminaire intersects opaque
interior surfaces and does not exit through windows.
OR
Confirm that automatic controls have been installed to turn off interior
lighting.
AND
For Projects with No Exterior Lighting
Confirm that no exterior lighting has been installed.
OR
For Projects with Exterior Lighting
Complete the Lighting Power Density tables on the Letter Template for
both exterior site lighting and façade/landscape lighting.
Confirm the site zone classification for the project. Provide drawings, aerial
or satellite photographs showing the type of development and height of
buildings within 500 meters of the project.
Complete the Site Lumen Calculation on the Letter Template.
If an audit of this Credit is requested during the certification process:
Provide a brief exterior lighting design narrative that includes specific
information regarding the light trespass analysis conducted to determine
compliance. Provide additional comments or notes regarding special cir-
cumstances or considerations regarding the project’s credit approach.
Provide copies of the project lighting drawings (interior and site) to docu-
ment the location and type of fixtures installed. Interior drawings should
clearly show exterior building surfaces to confirm that the maximum candela
from interior fixtures does not intersect transparent or translucent building
surfaces.
For Projects with Exterior Lighting:
Provide night photographs of all building elevations and its site with exterior
lighting on.
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Summary of Referenced Standard
ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Ex-
cept Low-Rise Residential — Lighting, Section 9 (without amendments)
ASHRAE, www.ashrae.org, (800) 527-4723
Standard 90.1-2004 was formulated by the American Society of Heating, Refriger-
ating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE), under an American National
Standards Institute (ANSI) consensus process. The Illuminating Engineering Society
of North America (IESNA) is a joint sponsor of the standard. Standard 90.1 estab-
lishes minimum requirements for the energy-efficient design of buildings, except
low-rise residential buildings. The standard provides criteria in the following general
categories: building envelope (section 5); heating, ventilating and air-conditioning
(section 6); service water heating (section 7); power (section 8); lighting (section
9); and other equipment (section 10). Within each section, there are mandatory
provisions that must always be complied with, as well as additional prescriptive
requirements. Some sections also contain a performance alternate. The Energy
Cost Budget option (section 11) allows the user to exceed some of the prescriptive
requirements provided energy cost savings are made in other prescribed areas.
However, in all cases, the mandatory provisions must still be met. Section 9 of the
Standard provides requirements for the lighting of buildings. Only the exterior light-
ing requirements (exterior site lighting & exterior building feature/façade lighting)
apply to this credit. Table 1 lists the ASHRAE 90.1-2004 allowable building exterior
lighting power densities.
Interpretation
• The recommended method to demonstrate compliance to the requirement
for a lighting design narrative that includes lighting trespass analysis is to
provide a photometric site plan showing the illumination levels at the site
boundaries.
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Green Building Concerns
Outdoor lighting is necessary for illumi-
nating connections between buildings
and support facilities such as sidewalks,
parking lots, roadways and community
gathering places. However, light trespass
from poorly designed outdoor lighting
systems can affect the nocturnal ecosys-
tem on the site, and light pollution limits
night sky access.
Through thoughtful design and care-
ful maintenance, outdoor lighting can
address night sky visibility issues and
site illumination requirements, while
minimizing the negative impact on the
environment.
Environmental Benefits
Sensitively designed outdoor lighting
can extend access and use of many areas
into the nighttime hours. We can gain a
unique appreciation for a place at night
because of sensitively and creatively
designed lighting systems. But any time
lighting is added to an exterior environ-
ment, light pollution and the potential
for light trespass increase. Even with the
best full cutoff luminaires and the lowest
wattage lamp packages, the added light
will be reflected off surfaces and into the
atmosphere.
Using the minimum amount of lighting
equipment, limiting or eliminating all
landscape lighting, and avoiding light
pollution and trespass through the careful
selection of lighting equipment and con-
trols allow nocturnal life to thrive while
still providing for nighttime activity.
Economic Benefits
Carefully designed exterior lighting solu-
tions can reduce infrastructure costs and
energy use when compared to common
practice solutions. Energy and mainte-
nance savings over the lifetime of the
project can be substantial.
Community Benefits
Minimizing light pollution and trespass
allows for night sky access by the sur-
rounding community. Another key
benefit is better visual comfort and
improved visibility. Sensitively designed
lighting systems that minimize glare and
provide more uniform light at lower lev-
els will help create aesthetically pleasing
environments that are safer and more
secure. A carefully designed and main-
tained outdoor lighting system can help
a project be a non-intrusive member of
the community.
Design Approach
Strategies
The credit is comprised of three main
compliance requirements that deal with
light pollution through the control of;
1) interior building lighting; 2) exterior
lighting power density; and 3) exterior
light distribution.
Interior Building Lighting
Option 1
Design interior lighting to maintain the
majority of direct beam illumination
within the building. To accomplish this,
project teams should strive to locate in-
terior lighting fixtures in such a way that
the direct beam illumination produced
by the interior luminaires intersects
solid/opaque building surfaces, prevent-
ing light spill through transparent and
translucent surfaces to exterior areas.
Manufacturer’s candela plots or photo-
metric data should be used to determine
the direction of maximum luminous in-
tensity for each fixture type. Overlay the
data for each fixture type on the building
plans and sections to confirm that the
maximum candela angle does not inter-
sect transparent or translucent building
surfaces that face exterior areas.
Option 2
An alternate compliance path requires
that all non-emergency interior light-
ing fixtures be automatically controlled
and programmed to turn off following
regular business hours.
Controls may be automatic sweep tim-
ers, occupancy sensors, or programmed
master lighting control panels.
Manual override capabilities that enable
lights to be turned on for after-hours use
must be included in the design.
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Table 1: ASHRAE 90.1-2004 Lighting Power Densities for Building Exteriors (Table 9.4.5)
Applications Lighting Power Densities
Uncovered Parking Areas
Parking Lots and drives 1.6 W/m
2
(0.15 W/ft
2
)
Building Grounds
Walkways less than 3m (10ft) wide 3.3 W/m (1.0 W/linear foot)
Walkways 3m (10ft) wide or
greater
Plaza areas
Special Feature Areas
2.2 W/m
2
(0.2 W/ft
2
)
Stairways 10.8 W/m
2
(1.0 W/ft
2
)
Building Entrances and Exits
Main Entries 98 W/m (30 W/linear foot of door width)
Other Doors 66 W/m (20 W/linear foot of door width)
Canopies and Overhangs
Canopies (free standing and
attached and overhangs)
13.5 W/m
2
(1.25 W/ft
2
)
Outdoor Sales
Open areas (including vehicle
sales lots)
5.4 W/m
2
(0.5 W/ft
2
)
Tradable Surfaces
(Lighting power densities
for uncovered parking
areas, building grounds,
building entrances and
exits, canopies and
overhangs and outdoor
sales areas may be
traded.)
Street frontage for vehicle sales
lots in addition to “open area”
allowance
66 W/m (20 W/linear foot)
Building Facades 2.2 W/m
2
(0.2 W/ft
2
) for each
illuminated wall or surface or 16 W/m
(5.0 W/linear foot) for each illuminated
wall or surface length
Automated teller machines and
night depositories
270 W per location plus 90 W per
additional ATM per location
Entrance and gatehouse
inspection stations at guarded
facilities
13.5 W/m
2
(1.25 W/ft
2
) of uncovered
area (covered areas are included in the
“Canopies and Overhangs” section of
“Tradable Surfaces”)
Loading areas for law
enforcement, fire, ambulance
and other emergency service
vehicles
5.4 W/m
2
(0.5 W/ft
2
) of uncovered area
(covered areas are included in the
“Canopies and Overhangs” section of
“Tradable Surfaces”)
Drive-up windows at fast food
restaurants
400 W per drive-through
Non-Tradable Surfaces
(Lighting power density
calculations for the
following applications
can be used only for the
specific application and
cannot be traded
between surfaces or with
other exterior lighting.
The following allowances
are in addition to any
allowance otherwise
permitted in the
“Tradable Surfaces”
section of this table.)
Parking near 24-hour retail
entrances
800 W per main entry

Table 1: ASHRAE 90.1-2004 Lighting Power Densities for Building Exteriors (Table 9.4.5)
Applications Lighting Power Densities
Uncovered Parking Areas
Parking Lots and drives 1.6 W/m
2
(0.15 W/ft
2
)
Building Grounds
Walkways less than 3m (10ft) wide 3.3 W/m (1.0 W/linear foot)
Walkways 3m (10ft) wide or
greater
Plaza areas
Special Feature Areas
2.2 W/m
2
(0.2 W/ft
2
)
Stairways 10.8 W/m
2
(1.0 W/ft
2
)
Building Entrances and Exits
Main Entries 98 W/m (30 W/linear foot of door width)
Other Doors 66 W/m (20 W/linear foot of door width)
Canopies and Overhangs
Canopies (free standing and
attached and overhangs)
13.5 W/m
2
(1.25 W/ft
2
)
Outdoor Sales
Open areas (including vehicle
sales lots)
5.4 W/m
2
(0.5 W/ft
2
)
Tradable Surfaces
(Lighting power densities
for uncovered parking
areas, building grounds,
building entrances and
exits, canopies and
overhangs and outdoor
sales areas may be
traded.)
Street frontage for vehicle sales
lots in addition to “open area”
allowance
66 W/m (20 W/linear foot)
Building Facades 2.2 W/m
2
(0.2 W/ft
2
) for each
illuminated wall or surface or 16 W/m
(5.0 W/linear foot) for each illuminated
wall or surface length
Automated teller machines and
night depositories
270 W per location plus 90 W per
additional ATM per location
Entrance and gatehouse
inspection stations at guarded
facilities
13.5 W/m
2
(1.25 W/ft
2
) of uncovered
area (covered areas are included in the
“Canopies and Overhangs” section of
“Tradable Surfaces”)
Loading areas for law
enforcement, fire, ambulance
and other emergency service
vehicles
5.4 W/m
2
(0.5 W/ft
2
) of uncovered area
(covered areas are included in the
“Canopies and Overhangs” section of
“Tradable Surfaces”)
Drive-up windows at fast food
restaurants
400 W per drive-through
Non-Tradable Surfaces
(Lighting power density
calculations for the
following applications
can be used only for the
specific application and
cannot be traded
between surfaces or with
other exterior lighting.
The following allowances
are in addition to any
allowance otherwise
permitted in the
“Tradable Surfaces”
section of this table.)
Parking near 24-hour retail
entrances
800 W per main entry

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Exterior Lighting Power Density
Design the project’s exterior lighting to
achieve lighting power densities that
are less than the requirements set forth
in ASHRAE 90.1-2004, Section 9, Table
9.4.5. Lighting for exterior areas, such
as parking lots, building grounds and
plazas, should be designed to achieve
an overall lighting power density that
is 20% below the referenced standard.
Building façade and landscape feature
lighting should be designed to achieve
an overall lighting power density that
is 50% below the referenced standard.
Projects should use efficacious sources
(>60 lumen/W), as described in ASHRAE
90.1-2004, to reduce lighting power and
illumination intensity.
Exterior Light Distribution
Design the project’s exterior lighting to
comply with the light pollution require-
ments for the specific project zone. The
lighting requirements address the overall
site illumination level and the luminaire
distribution. The exterior lighting must
meet the light distribution requirements
during pre-curfew conditions (prior to 10
pm or business closing). Curfew timers
and controls can be effective compo-
nents of the overall lighting strategy,
and may be used to mitigate a specific,
extenuating circumstances; but controls
cannot be used to make otherwise non-
compliant exterior areas comply with
the credit.
Projects should consider the use of low
intensity, shielded fixtures as well as cur-
few controllers to turn off non-essential
site lighting after 10 pm or immediately
after closing (whichever is later) to further
reduce effects of light pollution. Projects
should minimize the lighting architec-
tural and landscape features. Where light-
ing is required for safety, security, egress
or identification, utilize down-lighting
techniques rather than up-lighting.
For example, in environments that are
primarily dark (Zone LZ1), no landscape
features should be lighted, and architec-
tural lighting should be designed only as
a last resort when other strategies have
failed to provide the minimum amount
of required lighting. In areas of high am-
bient brightness (Zones LZ3 & 4), some
low level (subtle) lighting of features, fa-
cades or landscape areas may be appro-
priate in pedestrian environments or for
identification and way finding in other
areas where light trespass is not likely to
be an issue. However, even in areas of
high ambient brightness, all nonessential
lighting, including landscape and archi-
tectural lighting, should be minimized
or turned off after hours. If shielded, low
brightness sources are used to selectively
light features, they should be properly
aimed so that light from the luminaires
cannot be measured across project
boundaries. In all cases, controls should
be used wherever possible to turn off
lighting after normal operating hours or
in post-curfew periods. Consider at least
the following strategies when designing
the exterior lighted environment:
• Employ a lighting professional to as-
sess the project’s lighting needs and
provide recommendations based
specifically on lighting for a sustain-
able design environment.
• Carefully review and respond to any
local or regional lighting ordinances
or bylaws that might impact the light-
ing design for the project site.
• Determine the type of environmental
zone that the project falls under from
Wilderness Area (Zone LZ1) to High-
Population City Centres (Zone LZ4).
Understand the design implications
of the environmental zone that best
fits the project and study neighbour-
ing areas to identify potential light
trespass problems.
• Use the least amount of lighting
equipment possible to achieve the
goals of the project, but balance the
quantity of equipment used with the
need to provide for glare control and
uniform lighting. In most cases, it is
better to have two luminaires with
lower light output and good glare
control than one higher output lu-
minaire.
• Select all lighting equipment carefully.
Any type of luminaire, whether it is
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full cutoff, semi-cutoff or non-cutoff,
can produce excessive brightness in
the form of glare and sky glow. For
example, horizontal lamp positions in
full cutoff luminaires tend to produce
much less glare than vertical lamps.
Selecting high-performance equip-
ment of good quality is not only es-
sential in maintaining visual quality,
but also will quickly pay for itself in
reduced maintenance costs.
• Design exterior lighting to produce
minimal upward illumination from
direct or reflected light sources. Select
luminaire locations carefully to con-
trol glare and contain light within the
design area. Pay special attention to
luminaires that are located near the
property line to ensure that no mea-
surable light from these luminaires
crosses the project boundary.
• Use the minimum amount of light
necessary and only light areas that re-
quire it. Design and develop a control
scheme to minimize or turn lighting
off after hours or during post-curfew
periods.
• Create a computer model of the
proposed electric lighting design
and simulate system performance.
Use this tool to provide point by
point horizontal illuminance infor-
mation or an isofootcandle contour
map demonstrating that illuminance
values are zero (or near zero) at the
project boundary. Where luminaires
are within 2.5 times their mounting
height from the project boundary
and the light levels are not zero at
the boundary, light trespass is more
likely to be a problem.
• After the lighting system is construct-
ed, it should be commissioned to
ensure that it is installed and operat-
ing properly. Maintenance should be
performed on the system on a regular
basis to ensure that it continues to
operate correctly, and that light pol-
lution and trespass are minimized.
Technologies
• Design site lighting and select lighting
equipment and technologies to have
minimal impact off-site and minimal
contribution to sky glow (light pollu-
tion).
• Employ luminaires with the proper
optics and shielding.
• Use low-reflectance ground covers
and minimize the use of highly reflec-
tive and specular surfaces that may be
a source of reflected glare.
• When surfaces are used to reflect
light, use lower wattage light sources
to reduce light levels and overall
brightness.
• Even low brightness luminaires should
be aimed carefully to eliminate glare
and light trespass. Aiming angles
greater than 45 degrees above verti-
cal should be avoided.
• Luminaires with lockable aiming
should be used in instances where
glare control is very important or
where special aiming must be main-
tained.
• Use motion sensors, photocells,
stepped dimming, automatic switch-
ing and time clocks to control exterior
lighting during pre- and post-curfew
periods.
• Exterior signs that must be lighted
should be made as small as possible
and internally lighted signs should
have letters and images on a dark
background. Externally lighted signs
should be downlighted from the top
whenever possible, and the lumi-
naires used should be full cutoff with
additional shielding as necessary to
control stray light that does not il-
luminate the sign.
Synergies and Trade-Offs
Exterior lighting strategies are affected
by the transportation program, as well
as the total area of developed space on
the project site. In addition to energy
efficiency, the exterior lighting system
requires commissioning and measure-
ment & verification. ASHRAE 90.1.2004
includes provisions for exterior facade
lighting and addresses automatic light-
ing controls, control devices, minimum
lamp efficacy and lighting power limits.
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The standard requires separate calcula-
tions for interior and exterior lighting
loads and, thus, trade-offs between inte-
rior and exterior loads are not permitted.
See the standard for more information.
Education is one of the most important
aspects of sustainable lighting design.
Some people believe incorrectly that
lower levels of outdoor lighting will cre-
ate safety or security problems. However,
it can be easily demonstrated that the
quality of the lighting design has a much
greater impact on safety and the percep-
tion of security than does light level.
Low light level environments with good
uniformity of light and controlled glare
are often environments that provide
good visibility. Environments with good
visibility are usually safer and more se-
cure. These environments also use less
energy, and they cause less light pollu-
tion and trespass. It is not only accept-
able, but also sometimes preferred not
to light an environment.
Calculations
Interior Building Lighting
The direction of maximum luminous
intensity can be determined from the
photometric data published by the
manufacturer. For example, in Table 2,
the maximum intensity of 869 candela
occurs at a horizontal angle of 45 de-
grees and a vertical angle of 5 degrees.
This direction is then traced from each lu-
minaire position (where this fixture type
is used) to determine it this particular
light ray will reach any exterior areas.
Exterior Lighting Power Density
Calculate the lighting power density
(LPD) for the project’s exterior lighting
fixtures using the fixture wattage (lamp
& ballast) provided by the manufacturer.
Separate the exterior fixtures into two
categories: 1) Exterior Areas — includes
parking, walkway, plaza, and other
outdoor area lighting; and 2) Facades/
Landscape Areas — includes any vertical
surface illumination (façade/signage)
and any accent or landscape lighting.
Calculation 1 provides an example of
calculation methodology.
After calculating LPDs for the project,
determine if the lighting design complies
with the requirements for LPD reduction.
Table 2: Sample Fixture Candela Table needs to be changed to LUMENS
Angle 0 22.5 45 67.5 90
0 862 862 862 862 862
5 848 847 869 860 862
10 838 837 858 848 850
15 814 815 845 840 844
20 785 790 819 818 824
25 747 754 785 786 792
30 693 704 738 751 759
35 636 652 695 712 723
40 566 589 642 669 682
45 492 524 586 622 636
50 409 454 525 566 580
55 331 385 465 509 523
60 257 315 398 439 438
65 189 247 328 327 323
70 135 188 235 224 210
75 85 127 142 119 106
80 44 64 61 40 33
85 15 15 11 13 13
90 0 0 0 0 0
Table 2: Sample Fixture Candela Table needs to be changed to LUMENS
Angle 0 22.5 45 67.5 90
0 862 862 862 862 862
5 848 847 869 860 862
10 838 837 858 848 850
15 814 815 845 840 844
20 785 790 819 818 824
25 747 754 785 786 792
30 693 704 738 751 759
35 636 652 695 712 723
40 566 589 642 669 682
45 492 524 586 622 636
50 409 454 525 566 580
55 331 385 465 509 523
60 257 315 398 439 438
65 189 247 328 327 323
70 135 188 235 224 210
75 85 127 142 119 106
80 44 64 61 40 33
85 15 15 11 13 13
90 0 0 0 0 0
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Exterior Light Trespass
In order to measure compliance with
the light trespass requirements, projects
should utilize lighting design software to
develop a site illumination model. The
model should show the full extents of
the site and all installed exterior light-
ing fixtures. A horizontal calculation
grid should be set up to measure the
site illumination at the ground plane
and vertical calculation grid should be
set at the property boundary and at the
extents of the LZ requirements (3 metre
(10 feet) beyond the site boundary for
LZ2 and 4.5 metre (15 feet) beyond the
site boundary for LZ3/LZ4) to measure
vertical illuminance. The calculation grid
spacing should be a maximum of 3m x
3m (10’ x 10’) and should exclude build-
ing interior areas. Additionally, teams
should utilize the model to determine
the maximum and minimum illumina-
tion levels and the overall site uniformity
(max/min ratio).
Utilizing manufacturers’ fixture data,
determine the initial lamp lumens for
each luminaire. Additionally, from pho-
tometric data, determine the number of
initial lamp lumens that are emitted at
or above 90 degrees from nadir. Enter
this data into Table 3 to determine the
percentage of lumens at or above 90
degrees. This number must be less than
or equal to the value referenced for the
selected site LZ.
Note: luminaires without photometric
distribution shall be assumed to have
100% of its initial lamp lumens at or
above 90 degrees. Luminaires with
limited adjustability shall be assumed to
have maximum tilt applied and lumens
at or above 90 degrees shall be calcu-
lated from maximum tilted orientation.
Luminaires with full range of adjustabil-
ity (those that can be aimed above 90
degrees from nadir) shall be assumed to
have 100% of the emitted fixture lumens
at or above 90 degrees.
Resources
Web Sites
American Society of Heating Refriger-
ation and Air-Conditioning Engineers:
ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004:
Energy Standard for Buildings Except
Low-Rise Residential
Site: www.ashrae.org
Commi ssi on I nternati onal e De
L’Eclairage (CIE): The CIE is an inter-
national organization that is accepted
as an excellent authority on lighting.
It is recognized by ISO (International
Organization of Standardization) as an
international standardization body.
Site: www.cie.co.at/cie/
Illuminating Engineering Society of
North America: The most comprehen-
sive source for North American lighting
information.
Site: www.iesna.org
International Dark Sky Association:
A nonprofit organization dedicated to
providing education and solutions for
light pollution and light trespass.
Site: www.darksky.org
Lighting Research Center: A leading
university-based research center devoted
to providing objective information about
lighting technologies, applications and
products to aid facility managers, utili-
ties, lighting designers, engineers and
electrical contractors. The Web site
includes the National Lighting Product
Information Program (NLPIP), which
provides free publications about light-
ing topics (such as light pollution) and
products.
Site: www.lrc.rpi.edu
New England Light Pollution Advisory
Group (NELPAG): A volunteer group
that educates professionals and the
public on the virtues of efficient, appro-
priately sited glare-free outdoor night
lighting by addressing safety, right to
privacy, light trespass, night sky vision
and energy issues.
Site: cfa-www.harvard.edu/cfa/ps/nelpag.
html
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Calculation 1: Sample Exterior Lighting Power Density Calculation
Site Lighting Power Density Calculation
Site Lighting
Fixture
Fixture
Power
(Watts)
Total
Fixtures
(Qty)
Total
Fixture
Power
(Watts)
Site Location
Site Area
(m
2
)
LPD
(W/m
2
)
Pole Fixture 1 250 14 3,500 Parking 1 2973 1.18
Pole Fixture 1 250 8 2,000 Parking 2 1672 1.20
Pole Fixture 2 115 1 115 Walkways 1 81 1.42
Bollard Fixture 1 40 4 160 Walkways 1 81 1.98
Bollard Fixture 1 40 6 240 Courtyard 1 139 1.73
Wall Washer 1 50 5 250 Building Façade N 232 1.08

Site Areas
Identification
Area
(m
2
)
ASHRAE
90.1.2004
Allowable
LPD (W/m
2
)
Actual
LPD
(From
Site
Lighting
Table)
Actual LPD
Reduction
(%)
Required LPD
Reduction (%)
Complies
(Yes/No)
Parking 1 2973 2.69 1.18 56% 20% YES
Parking 2 1672 1.61 1.18 27% 20% YES
Walkways 1 (10’
wide)
81 2.15 1.72 20% 20% YES
Courtyard 1 139 2.15 1.72 20% 20% YES
Building Façade N 32 2.15 1.08 50% 50% YES

Table 3: Lamp Lumen Calculation
Luminaire
Type
Quantity of
Installed
Luminaires
Initial Fixture
Lumens per
Luminaire
Total Fixture
Lumens (column
2 x column 3)
Initial Fixture
Lumens from
Luminaire
above 90
degrees (from
nadir-straight
down)
Total Fixture
Lumens
above 90
degrees
(column 2 x
column 5)
A 10 4,600 46,000 100 1,000
B 20 11,900 238,000 0 0
C 5 2,000 10,000 2,000 10,000
Total 294,000 11,000
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Print Media
• Outdoor Lighting Manual for Vermont Mu-
nicipalities, PTI Publications Center, (301)
490-2188, Order No. DG/95-308.
Definitions
Angle of Maximum Candela: Is the
direction in which the luminaire emits
the greatest luminous intensity.
Candela (cd): The SI unit of measure for
luminous intensity. One candela is one
lumen per steradian.
Curfew Hours: Locally determined times
when greater lighting restrictions are
imposed.
Cutoff Angle: The angle between the
vertical axis of a luminaire and the first
line of sight (of a luminaire) at which the
light source is no longer visible.
Illuminance: The amount of luminous flux
incident falling on a surface, measured in
units of footcandles (fc) or lux (lx).
Footcandle (fc): A measure of light fall-
ing on a given surface. One footcandle
is equal to the quantity of light falling
on a one-square-foot area from a one
candela light source at a distance of
one foot. Footcandles can be measured
both horizontally and vertically by a
footcandle or light meter.
Full Cutoff Luminaire: Luminaire that
has zero candela intensity at an angle of
90 degrees above the vertical axis (nadir)
and at all angles greater than 90 degrees
from nadir. Additionally, the candela per
1000 lamp lumens does not numerically
exceed 100 (10%) at an angle of 80
degrees above nadir. This applies to all
lateral angles around the luminaire.
Glare: The sensation produced by lu-
minance within the visual field that is
significantly greater than the luminance
to which the eyes are adapted, which
causes annoyance, discomfort or loss in
visual performance and visibility.
Light Pollution: Effect caused by stray
light from unshielded light sources and
light reflecting off surfaces that enters
the atmosphere where it illuminates and
reflects off dust, debris and water vapour
to cause an effect know as “sky glow”.
Light pollution can substantially limit vi-
sual access to the night sky, compromise
astronomical research, and adversely af-
fect nocturnal environments. Stray light
that enters the atmosphere does not
increase nighttime safety or security and
needlessly consumes energy and natural
resources.
Light Trespass: Commonly thought of
as “the light shining in my window”.
It is defined as obtrusive light that is
unwanted, because of quantitative,
directional or spectral attributes. Light
trespass causes annoyance, discomfort,
distraction or a loss of visibility.
Luminance: What we commonly call
brightness or the light coming from a
surface or light source. Luminance is com-
posed of the intensity of light striking an
object or surface and the amount of that
light reflected back toward the eye. Lumi-
nance is measured in footlamberts (fl) or
candela per square meter (cd/m
2
).
Lux: The SI unit of measure for illumi-
nance. One lux is one lumen per square
metre (lm/m
2
). 10.76 lux equals 1 foot-
candle.
Outdoor Lighting Zone Definitions:
(Developed by IDA for the Model Light
Ordinance) provide a general descrip-
tion of the site environment/context and
basic site lighting criteria.
Shielding: A non-technical term that
describes devices or techniques that
are used as part of a luminaire or lamp
to limit glare, light trespass and light
pollution.
Regional Variations
The requirements of this Credit are uni-
versally applicable across Canada.
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Outdoor Lighting Zone Definitions
Zone Ambient Illumination Criteria
LZ1 Dark For population densities of less than 77 people per
kilometre (200 people per square mile) according to
the last Canadian Census. Also, for developed
areas in provincial and national parks, areas near
astronomical observatories, zoos, and ANY area
where residents have expressed a desire to
maintain a natural nighttime environment.
LZ2 Low For population densities of 77-1158 people per
kilometre (200-3,000 people per square mile),
according to the last Canadian Census. This would
include most areas zoned as “residential” and is the
default zone for residential areas.
LZ3 Medium For population densities greater than 1158 people
per kilometre (3,000 people per square mile)
according to the last Canadian Census. This lighting
zone is intended for high density urban
neighbourhoods, shopping and commercial districts
and industrial parks. This is the default zone for
commercial and industrial areas.
LZ4 High This is for major city centers (with population
densities greater than 100,000 according to the last
Canadian Census), thematic attractions,
entertainment districts, and major auto sale districts.
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Table 3: Irrigation Types
Irrigation Type IE
Sprinkler 0.625
Drip 0.900

Example
An office building in Calgary, Alberta, has
a total site area of 600m2. The site con-
sists of three landscape types: ground-
cover, mixed vegetation and turf grass.
All of the site areas are irrigated with a
combination of potable water and grey-
water harvested from the building. The
reference evapotranspiration rate (ET0)
for Calgary in July was obtained from
Table 2 and is equal to 134.9mm.
The high-efficiency landscape irrigation
case utilizes drip irrigation with an effi-
ciency of 90% and reuses an estimated
12,500L of grey-water during the month
of July. Table 4 shows the calculations
to determine potable water use for the
design case.
The baseline case uses the same refer-
ence evapotranspiration rate and total
site area. However, the baseline case
uses sprinklers for irrigation (IE= 0.625),
does not take advantage of grey-water
harvesting, and uses only shrubs and
turf grass. Calculations to determine
potable water use for the baseline case
are presented in Table 5.
The example illustrates that the design
case has an irrigation water demand
of 37,868L. Grey-water reuse provides
12,500L towards the demand, and this
volume is treated as a Credit in the wa-
ter calculation. Thus, the total potable
water applied to the design case in July
is 25,368L. The baseline case has an ir-
rigation demand of 98,940L and reuses
no grey-water. The difference between
the two cases results in potable water
savings of 74% for the design case.
It is important to note that the LEED
calculation provides an indication of
the general efficiency gains provided
by the green design. For more accurate
understanding of water use
Area KL ETL TPWA
[m
2
] [L]
112 Low 0.2 Avg 1.0 High 1.3 0.26 35.1 4,368
370 Low 0.2 Avg 1.1 High 1.4 0.31 41.8 17,185
90 Avg 0.7 Avg 1.0 High 1.2 0.84 113.3 16,315
Subtotal [L] 37,868
July Rainwater and Graywater (12,500)
Net Potable Water [L] 25,368
Drip
Drip
Shrubs
Mixed
Turfgrass Sprinkler
(kmc)
Landscape
Type
Species
Factor
Microclimate
Factor
(kd) (ks)
Density
Factor
IE
Table 4: Design Case
Table 5: Baseline Case
Area KL ETL TPWA
[m
2
] [L]
112 Avg 0.5 Avg 1.0 High 1.3 0.65 87.6 15,698
460 Avg 0.7 Avg 1.0 High 1.2 0.84 113.3 83,242
98,940
Shrubs Sprinkler
Sprinkler Turfgrass
IE
Species
Factor
Density
Factor
Microclimate
Factor
(ks) (kd) (kmc)
Landscape
Type
Net Potable Water [L]
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types of systems produce effluents that
can be used for non-potable applications
such as irrigation and toilet flushing.
Synergies and Trade-Offs
The necessity and availability of waste-
water reuse and treatment strategies is
heavily influenced by the building loca-
tion. In remote locations, it may be cost-
effective to use an on-site wastewater
treatment system.
Conversely, a project located in a dense
area with little site area, and with limited
wastewater treatment, grey-water or
stormwater reuse facilities, may not be
able to capture this Credit. This Credit
has close ties to water efficiency efforts
because a greater amount of potable
water saved often results in less black-
water generated. For instance, water
efficient water closet and urinal fixtures
not only reduce potable water demand
but also reduce blackwater volumes cre-
ated. Thus, performance results will often
overlap with those of WEc3.
Energy use may be needed for treatment
plant operation or for reuse strategies.
These systems also require commission-
ing and measurement & verification
attention. Reuse of an existing building
could hinder adoption of an on-site
wastewater treatment facility.
Calculations
The following calculation methodology
is used to support the Credit submittals
for this Credit. Wastewater calculations
are based on the annual generation of
blackwater volumes from plumbing fix-
tures such as water closets and urinals.
The calculations compare the design
case with a baseline case. The steps to
calculate the design case are as follows:
1. Create a spreadsheet listing each type
of blackwater-generating fixture and
frequency of use data. Frequency-
of-use data includes the number of
female and male daily uses, and the
sewage generated per use. Using
these values, calculate the total sew-
age generated for each fixture type
and gender (see Equation 1).
2. Sum all of the sewage generation
volumes used for each fixture type to
obtain male and female daily sewage
generation volumes.
3. Multiply the male and female sewage
generation volumes by the number of
male and female building occupants
and sum these volumes to obtain the
daily total sewage generation volume
(see Equation 2).
4. Multiply the total daily sewage vol-
ume by the number of workdays in a
typical year to obtain the total annual
sewage generation volume for the
building (see Equation 3).
Equation 1:
Sewage [L/day] = Uses per day x Duration [mins or flushes] x Water Volume [L]
Volume Use [min or flush]
Equation 2:
Daily Sewage [L/day] = Male x Male Sewage [L/day] + Female x Female Sewage [L/day]
Generation Occupants Generation Occupants Generation
Equation 3:
Annual sewage [L] = Daily Sewage [L/day] x Workdays [days]
Generation Generation
WEc2 – begins on original reference guide page 143
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5. If rainwater harvest or grey-water
reuse strategies are employed in
the building, subtract these annual
volumes from the annual sewage
generation volume. The result shows
how much potable water is used for
sewage conveyance annually.
Repeat the above calculation methodol-
ogy for the baseline case, but:
• Use the fixture flow rates given in
WEc3 Table 1.
• Do not change the number of build-
ing occupants, the number of work-
days, or the frequency data.
• Do not include grey-water or rainwa-
ter harvest volumes.
Example
Table 1 shows example potable water
calculations for sewage conveyance for a
two-story office building with a capacity
of 300 occupants. The calculations are
based on a typical 8-hour workday. It
is assumed that building occupants are
50% male and 50% female. Male occu-
pants are assumed to use water closets
Table 1: Design Case
Daily
Uses
Flowrate Occupants
Sewage
Generation
[LPF]
[L/day]
0 4.0 150 0
3 4.0 150 1800
1 0.0 150 0
0 0.0 150 0
2 0.0 150 0
0 0.0 150 0
Total Daily Sewage Generation [L/day] 1800
Annual Work Days 260
Annual Volume [L] 468,000
Rainwater or Graywater Reuse Volume [L] (136,800)
TOTAL ANNUAL VOLUME [L]
331,200
Waterless Urinal (Female)
Fixture Type
Composting Toilet (Male)
Low-Flow Water Closet (Male)
Low-Flow Water Closet (Female)
Composting Toilet (Female)
Waterless Urinal (Male)
once and urinals twice in a typical work
day. Female occupants are assumed to
use water closets three times.
Design Case
The design case is considered to de-
termine annual potable water usage
for sewage conveyance. The designed
building has fixtures that use non-po-
table water for sewage conveyance (i.e.,
rainwater) or no water for sewage con-
veyance (i.e., waterless urinals and com-
posting toilets). Table 1 summarizes the
sewage generation rates and indicates
that 331,200L of potable water are used
annually for sewage conveyance.
When using grey-water and rainwater
volumes, calculations are required to
demonstrate that these reuse volumes
are sufficient to meet water closet de-
mands. These quantities are then sub-
tracted from the gross daily total because
they reduce potable water usage. In
the example, 136,800L of rainwater are
harvested and directed to water closets
for flushing.
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Table 2: Baseline Case
Daily
Uses
Flowrate Occupants
Sewage
Generation
[LPF] [L/day]
1 6.0 150 900
3 6.0 150 2700
2 3.8 150 1140
0 3.8 150 0
Total Daily Sewage Generation [L/day] 4,740
Annual Work Days 260
TOTAL ANNUAL VOLUME [L]
1,232,400
Fixture Type
Urinal (Male)
Water Closet (Male)
Water Closet (Female)
Urinal (Female)
Baseline Case
The baseline potable water usage for
sewage conveyance is developed using
conventional fixtures that comply with
those listed in WEc3 Table 1. Toilets are 6
Litres per flush (LPF) and urinals are 3.8
LPF. All fixtures drain to the existing mu-
nicipal sewer system. When developing
the baseline, only the fixtures, sewage
generation rates and the water reuse
Credit are different from the designed
building. Usage rates, occupancy and
number of workdays are identical for the
designed case and the baseline case. See
Table 3 for sample fixture flow rates.
Table 2 provides a summary of baseline
calculations and shows an estimated
1,232,400L of potable water per year for
sewage conveyance. Comparison of the
baseline to the designed building indicates
that a 73% reduction in potable water
volumes used for sewage conveyance is re-
alized (1 - 331,200/1,232,400). Thus, this
strategy earns one point for this Credit.
Grey-water Reuse: When reusing grey-
water volumes from the building, it is nec-
essary to model the system on an annual
basis to determine grey-water volumes,
generated storage capacity of the system
and any necessary treatment processes be-
fore reusing the water volumes. Grey-water
volumes may or may not be consistently
available throughout the year because
these volumes are dependent on building
occupant activities. For example:
• In a typical office building, grey-water
volumes will change slightly due to vaca-
tion schedules and holidays but should
be relatively consistent over the year.
• In contrast, grey-water volumes in
a school building will substantially
decrease in summer months due to
the school calendar, and, therefore,
grey-water volumes may not be avail-
able for irrigation.
Rainwater Harvesting
If the project uses rainwater volume
as a substitute for potable volumes in
water closets or urinals, it is necessary
to calculate water savings over a time
period of one year. Rain harvest volume
depends on the amount of precipitation
that the project site experiences and the
rainwater collection surface’s area and
efficiency. See Equation 4 and consult
a rainwater harvesting guide for more
detailed instruction. Rainfall data is avail-
able from the local weather service (see
the Resources section).
Table 3: Sample Fixture Types and Water-
Consumptions
Fixture Type [LPF]
Conventional Water Closet 6.0
Low-Flow Water Closet 4.0
Ultra Low-Flow Water Closet 3.0
Composting Toilet 0.0
Conventional Urinal 3.8
Waterless Urinal 0.0
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Rainwater volume depends on variations
in precipitation, and, thus, it is necessary
to model the reuse strategy on an annual
basis. A model of rainwater capture
based on daily precipitation and occu-
pant demand is helpful to determine the
rainwater volumes captured and storage
tank size. Subtract annual rainwater use
for sewage conveyance in the design
case calculations.
Resources
Web Sites
Provincial/territorial water policy, leg-
islation and regulations: Environment
Canada. Site provides links to water use
associations, legislation, regulation and
tools for all provinces and territories in
Canada. Site: http://www.ec.gc.ca/wa
ter/en/policy/prov/e_prov.htm
U.S. EPA Water Saving Tips
Site: www.epa.gov/OW/you/chap3.html
Print Media
• Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater
Treatment and Wildlife Habitat: 17
Case Studies, EPA 832/B-93-005,
1993.
• Design and installation of non-potable
water systems / Maintenance and field
testing of non-potable water systems.
CSA B128.1-06/B128.2-06.
• Stein, Benjamin and Reynolds, John,
Mechanical & Electrical Equipment for
Buildings, Eighth Edition, John Wiley
and Sons, 1992.
• Sustainable Building Technical Manual,
Public Technology, Inc., 1996
Site: www.pti.org
Definitions
Aquatic Systems: Ecologically de-signed
treatment systems that utilize a diverse
community of biological organisms (e.g.,
bacteria, plants and fish) to treat waste-
water to advanced levels.
On-Site Wastewater Treatment: Local-
ized treatment systems that transport,
store, treat and dispose of wastewater
volumes generated on the project site.
Potable Water: Water that meets
drinking water quality standards and
is approved for human consumption
by the state or local authorities having
jurisdiction.
Reclaimed Water: Effluent from a sew-
age facility that is suitable for a direct
designated water use or a controlled use.
Tertiary Treatment: The highest form of
wastewater treatment and includes re-
moval of organics, solids and nutrients as
well as biological or chemical polishing,
generally to effluent limits of 10mg/L
BOD5 and 10mg/L TSS.

Equation 4:
Rainwater Volume [L] = Collection Area [m ] x Collection Efficiency [%] x Average Rainfall [mm]
2
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Water Use Reduction: 20% Reduction
Intent
Maximize water efficiency within buildings to reduce the burden on municipal
water supply and wastewater systems.
Requirements
Employ strategies that in aggregate use 20% less potable water than the water
use baseline calculated for the building (not including irrigation) after meeting the
fixture performance requirements listed in Table 1.
Submittals
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the Mechanical Electrical &
Plumbing (MEP) engineer or responsible party, declaring that the project
uses 20% less water than the baseline fixture performance requirements
listed in Table 1.
Provide the spreadsheet calculation demonstrating that water consuming
fixtures specified for the stated occupancy and use of the building reduce
occupancy-based potable water consumption by 20% compared to baseline
conditions.
If an audit is requested during the certification process:
Provide cut sheets for all water consuming fixtures necessary for the
occupancy use of the building, with water conservation specifications
highlighted. Demonstrate that plumbing fixtures meet or exceed fixture
performance requirements listed in Table 1.
Fixture Maximum Flow Allowed
Water Closets 6.0 [LPF]
Urinals 3.8 [LPF]
Showerheads 9.5 [LPM]*
Faucets 9.5 [LPM]*
Replacement Aerators 9.5 [LPM]*
Metering Faucets
0.95[L/CY]*
*At flowing water pressure of 552 kPa
1.6 [GPF]
1.0 [GPF]
2.5 [GPM]*
2.5 [GPM]*
2.5 [GPM]*
0.25[G/CY]*
Table 1: Baseline Water Fixture Requirements
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• Consider ultra-high efficiency fixture
and control technologies, including
toilets, faucets, showers, dishwashers,
clothes washers and cooling tow-
ers. A variety of low-flow plumbing
fixtures and appliances are currently
available in the marketplace and can
be installed in the same manner as
conventional fixtures.
Technologies
Appliances
• Water-efficient shower heads are
available that require less than 9.5
LPM. Bathroom faucets are typically
used only for wetting purposes and
can be effective with as little as 3.8
LPM. Water-saving faucet aerators
can be installed that do not change
the feel of the water flow. Specify
self-closing, slow-closing or electronic
sensor faucets, particularly in high-
use public areas where it is likely that
faucets may be carelessly left run-
ning.
• Water closets are a significant user of
potable water. There are a number of
toilets that use considerably less than
6 LPF, including pressure-assisted toi-
lets and dual flush toilets that have an
option of 3 LPF or 3.8 LPF.
• Consider dry fixtures such as waterless
urinals and composting toilets. These
technologies use no water volumes to
cope with human waste.
• Waterless urinals use advanced hy-
draulic design and a buoyant fluid
instead of water to maintain sanitary
conditions. Composting toilets mix
human waste with organic material to
produce a nearly odourless end prod-
uct that can be used as a soil amend-
ment. These fixtures have been used
successfully but to a limited extent in
commercial settings. Composting toi-
lets may not be acceptable by health
code departments in some areas, and,
thus, it is important to check with
the local health code department to
uncover regulations governing the
use of both composting toilets and
waterless urinals. Also, if the building
allows for public access to restroom
facilities, it is important to educate
users about system operation and
purpose. Signage in restrooms is a
good way to educate users, and signs
should include instructions and a brief
description of how the system func-
tions. This is especially true for com-
posting toilets that do not function
in the same manner as conventional
water closets.
Cooling Towers
Although water-efficiency in cooling
towers is not eligible in WEc2 and
WEc3:
• Consider specifying water-efficient
cooling towers that use delimiters to
reduce drift and evaporation.
• Couple cooling towers with water
recovery systems to operate with
grey-water or stormwater volumes.
However, keep in mind that delimiters
may require larger fans in the cooling
tower system, resulting in increased
energy use.
Synergies and Trade-Offs
Water use strategies depend on the site
location and site design. Project sites
with no access to municipal potable
water service typically use groundwater
wells to satisfy potable water demands.
Sites with significant precipitation vol-
umes may determine that reuse of these
volumes is more cost-effective than cre-
ating stormwater treatment facilities.
Potable water use is significant for ir-
rigation applications and is directly cor-
related with the amount of waste-
WEc3 – begins on original reference guide page 152
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grey-water or rainwater harvest volumes.
Sample flush and flow fixture flow rates
are provided in Table 2 and Table 3.
An example potable water use calculation
is included for a two-story office building
with a capacity of 300 persons.
Occupant fixtures that use potable water
include water closets, urinals, lavatories,
kitchen sinks and showers. Calculations
are based on a typical 8-hour workday
and 260 workdays per year.
It is assumed that building occupants are
50% male and 50% female. Male
Table 4: Design Case
Table 2: Sample Flush Fixture Types
Table 3: Sample Flow Fixture Types
Flush Fixture Type
Water
Use
[LPF]
Conventional Water Closet 6.0
Low-Flow Water Closet 4.0
Ultra Low-Flow Water Closet 3.0
Composting Toilet 0.0
Conventional Urinal 3.8
Waterless Urinal 0.0
Flow Fixture Type
Water
Use
[LPM]
Conventional Lavatory 9.5
Low-Flow Lavatory 6.8
Kitchen Sink 9.5
Low-Flow Kitchen Sink 6.8
Shower 9.5
Low-Flow Shower 6.8
Janitor Sink 9.5
Hand Wash Fountain 1.9
Daily
Uses
Flowrate Duration Occupants
Water
Use
[LPM] [Flush] [L]
0 3.0 1 150 0
3 3.0 1 150 1350
1 0.0 1 150 0
0 0.0 1 150 0
2 0.0 1 150 0
0 0.0 1 150 0
Daily
Uses
Flowrate Duration Occupants
Water
Use
[LPM] [sec] [L]
3 9.5 12 300 1710
1 9.5 12 300 570
0.1 9.5 300 300 1425
Total Daily Volume [L] 5,055
Annual Work Days 260
Annual Volume [L] 1,314,300
(136,800)
TOTAL ANNUAL VOLUME [L]
1,177,500
Waterless Urinal (Male)
Conventional Lavatory
Ultra Low-Flow Water Closet (Male)
Ultra Low-Flow Water Closet (Female)
Composting Toilet (Male)
Composting Toilet (Female)
Waterless Urinal (Female)
Kitchen Sink
Shower
Flush Fixture
Flow Fixture
Graywater Reuse Volume [L]
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Interpretation of Prerequisite Requirements
Summary of Reference Standards
• LEED Canada-NC 1.0 provides two options or paths to meet this Prerequi-
site: one based on ASHRAE 90.1-1999; and one based on the Commercial
Building Incentive Program and its adaptation of the Canadian Model
National Energy Code for Buildings (MNECB). Either path may be used;
however, the path used for Prerequisite 2 must also be used to demonstrate
performance in Energy & Atmosphere Credit 1.
• ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-1999: Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise
Residential was formulated by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating
and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE), under an American National
Standards Institute (ANSI) consensus process. The Illuminating Engineering
Society of North America (IESNA) is a joint sponsor of the standard. The
standard, or its older, less stringent 1989 version is referenced by several
provincial and municipal building codes as the minimum standard of en-
ergy efficiency. (The U.S. Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA)
requires that each state certify that it has a commercial building code that
meets or exceeds ANSI/ ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999.)
• The Model National Energy Code for Buildings (MNECB) was developed
by the National Research Council of Canada, the organization that is re-
sponsible for the National Building Code of Canada, as a model code for
adaptation or adoption by Canadian provinces and municipalities. The
MNECB was developed with input from many committees and all provinces
and was published in 1997, but its adoption by authorities has been poor.
Both ASHRAE 90.1 and the MNECB are cited by many jurisdictions across
Canada with some (e.g., Ontario) requiring that either standard be met for
code compliance. A detailed study [Hepting, 2004] compared the energy
performance of buildings designed to ASHRAE 90.1 and MNECB/CBIP
requirements across the nation. ASHRAE 90.1-1999 was found to be more
stringent than the MNECB and the differing requirements for the two paths
have been set to compensate for these differences.
• Since the MNECB was based on the ASHRAE 90.1-1989 , the MNECB and
ASHRAE Standard 90.1 are very similar in structure, with some modifica-
tions that reflect Canadian standards and the cost and availability of energy.
Both standards establish minimum requirements for the energy-efficient
design of buildings, except low-rise residential buildings. The provisions
of these standards do not apply to single-family houses, multifamily struc-
tures of three habitable stories or fewer above grade, manufactured houses
(mobile and modular homes), and unheated buildings. Some clauses in
these standards relate to the design of parking garages associated with the
building.
• The standards have three sets of requirements: Mandatory, Prescriptive,
and Performance. Mandatory Requirements are energy efficiency measures
required to be included in the design. These are typically simple prescriptive
measures that are considered good building practice, such as controlling
lights by light switches and low wattage exit signs. Mandatory requirements
of the selected code or standard must be met regardless of how the project
demonstrates compliance.
• Both standards also have two methods of demonstrating compliance: pre-
scriptive or performance. In the Prescriptive approach, the building must
meet minimum
EAp2 – begins on original reference guide page 178
Prerequisite 2
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Renewable Energy: 20%
Intent
Encourage and recognize increasing levels of on-site renewable energy self-supply
in order to reduce environmental impacts associated with fossil fuel energy use.
Requirements
Supply at least 20% of the building’s total energy use (as expressed as a fraction of
annual energy cost) through the use of on-site renewable energy systems.
Submittals
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the architect, owner or respon-
sible party, declaring that at least 20% of the building’s energy is provided
by on-site renewable energy.
Include a narrative describing on-site renewable energy systems installed
in the building and calculations demonstrating that at least 20% of total
energy costs are supplied by the renewable energy system(s).
Summary of Reference Standards
Model National Energy Code for Buildings/CBIP and ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1 - 1999:
Energy Standard For Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential
These standards give credit for on-site renewable energy that is used to reduce
building purchased energy consumption. If renewable energy is produced at the
site, the modeling methodology considers it free energy and it is not included in
the Design Energy Cost. See the Calculation section for details.
Interpretation
Credit Requirements
The eligible and ineligible forms of renewable energy are summarized in the fol-
lowing three tables:
Table A: EA Credit 2 Eligible On-Site Renewable Energy Systems
• Photovoltaic systems
• Solar thermal systems
• Bio-fuel based energy (subject to Table C)
• Geothermal heating systems (heat generated from steam or high-temperature hot water released
from the Earth)
• Geothermal electric systems (electricity generated from steam or high-temperature hot water
released from the Earth)
• Low-impact hydro electric power systems
• Wave and tidal power systems

Table B: EA Credit 2 Ineligible On-Site Renewable Energy Systems
• Architectural features
• Passive solar strategies
• Daylighting strategies
• Geo-exchange systems (Ground Source Heat Pumps)
• Renewable or Green-power from off-site sources

EAc2.3 – begins on original reference guide page 220
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The percent renewable energy is defined as the cost savings from renewable energy
divided by the total energy cost for the design or proposed building excluding non-
regulated energy (DEC’ in EAc1). Credits are assigned according to the following
points interpolation table.
LEED Points % of Design Building Energy
Cost Supplied by Renewable
Electricity
1 2.51 to 7.5%
2 7.51 to 15%
3 > 15%
Renewable energy is given a double benefit in LEED. First the renewable energy
delivered is a credit in EAc1 because it reduces the purchased building energy use.
Second, the environmental benefit of this power source (from no release of CO2 and
other pollutants during operation) is acknowledged in this Credit. Any renewable
energy produced on site is not eligible for the Green Power Credit (EAc6). However,
it is eligible for Credit 2, as well as for the Optimize Energy
Performance Credit (EAc1), regardless if any green power tags are sold.
Submittal Requirements
There are four submittals for this Credit:
• Signed LEED Letter Template form
• A narrative describing the design of the renewable energy system and, for
biomass systems, justification that it is eligible as defined in Table C.
• Copies of the calculation output (e.g., RETScreen or similar program) show-
ing the energy expected from the on-site renewable energy systems
• Calculations showing the virtual electricity cost and percentage savings in
design building energy cost from on-site renewables.
Table C: EA Credit 2 Eligible & Ineligible Bio-Fuels
For the purposes of EA Credit 2, energy production using the following bio-fuels shall be considered
renewable energy:
• Untreated wood waste including mill residues
• Agricultural crops or waste
• Animal waste and other organic waste
• Landfill gas
Energy production based on the following bio-fuels are excluded from eligibility for this credit:
• Combustion of municipal solid waste
• Forestry biomass waste, other than mill residue
• Wood that has been coated with paints, plastics, or formica
• Wood that has been treated for preservation with materials containing halogens, chlorine
compounds, halide compounds, chromated copper arsenate (CCA), or arsenic. If more than 1% of
the wood fuel has been treated with these compounds, the energy system shall be considered
ineligible for EA Credit 2.

EAc2.3 – begins on original reference guide page 220
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year. Conversely, air pollution will occur
due to incomplete combustion if these
wastes are not processed properly.
Economic Issues
Use of on-site renewable energy technol-
ogies can result in energy cost savings,
particularly if their generation coincides
with high peak demand charges. Utility
rebates are often available to reduce first
costs of renewable energy equipment. In
some regions, first costs can be offset by
net metering, where excess electricity is
sold back to the utility.
The combined efforts of industry and the
DOE reduced PV system costs by more
than 75% from 1982 to 2000. The cost
of PV systems with capacities greater
than 1 kW is measured in “levelized”
costs per kWh. In other words, the costs
are spread out over the system lifetime
and divided by kWh output. The level-
ized cost for these systems is currently
estimated at $0.25 to $0.50 per kWh.
Systems that do not require storage bat-
teries, such as those connected to the
regional utility grid, have significantly
lower costs. PV systems are usually im-
mediately cost-effective for customers
located farther than one-quarter mile
from the nearest utility line, since they
can eliminate the need for grid distribu-
tion extensions. With Building-Integrated
Photovoltaics (BIPV), cost comparisons
should include the marginal savings on
the replaced elements of the building
such as roofing or cladding. The reli-
ability and lifetime of PV systems are also
excellent, and improving. Manufacturers
typically guarantee their PV systems for
20 years or more.
According to the American Wind Energy
Association, the levelized cost for com-
mercial wind energy generation is $0.04
to $0.06 per kWh, or $0.033 to $0.053
if the federal production tax credit is
factored in. This is cost-competitive with
conventional fossil-fuelled power genera-
tion facilities, such as gas turbines or coal
plants; and much cheaper than nuclear
generation facilities.
Community Issues
Renewable energy has a dramatic im-
pact on outdoor environmental quality.
Reductions in air and water pollution are
beneficial to all community members.
Renewable energy has a positive impact
on rural communities. Economic devel-
opment in these communities can be
enhanced by siting and operating wind
farms and biomass conversion facilities.
“Wind Powering America” is an initiative
by the DOE to dramatically increase the
use of wind energy in the United States;
rural wind generation is providing new
sources of income for farmers and other
rural landowners while meeting the
growing demand for clean sources of
electricity. However, care must be taken
to minimize undesirable noise from wind
farms and suboptimal combustion and
air pollution by biomass conversion
facilities.
Design Approach
Strategies
Design and specify the use of on-site
non-polluting renewable technologies
to contribute to the total energy require-
ments of the project. Renewable energy
technologies include photovoltaics, wind
turbines, solar thermal and bio-fuel
technologies. See Tables A-C for eligible
and ineligible renewable energy tech-
nologies. See Table 1 for system trends.
Note that Table C outlines the eligible
strategies that do not qualify for points
under this Credit. These strategies are
recognized under EAc1.
Make use of net metering by contacting
local utilities or electric service providers
(ESPs). Net metering is a metering and
billing arrangement offered by some
progressive electric utilities that allows
on-site generators to sell excess elec-
tricity flows to the regional power grid.
These electricity flows offset a portion of
the electricity flows drawn from the grid.
For more information on net metering,
visit the DOE’s Green Power Network
Web site at http://www.eere.energy.gov/
greenpower/markets/netmetering.shtml.
EAc2.3 – begins on original reference guide page 223
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If renewable energy approaches are not
immediately incorporated into the initial
building design due to economic issues,
the design can respond to energy con-
cerns by accommodating future instal-
lation of PV arrays, biomass burners, or
wind generators.
Technologies
Photovoltaics (PVs) are composite mate-
rials that convert sunlight directly into
electricity. In the past, these materials
were assembled into PV panels that
required a structure to orient them to
the sun. In recent years, the efficiency of
the cells has increased and their cost has
dropped. As a result, Building-Integrated
Photovoltaics (BIPVs) are now in produc-
tion. BIPVs are increasingly incorporated
into building elements such as the roof,
cladding or window systems.
PVs generate direct current (DC) electric-
ity, which generally must be converted
to alternating current (AC) before it can
be used in mainstream building systems.
The conversion process requires elec-
tronic devices (inverters) that convert the
PV module’s DC electricity into the alter-
nating current required by many electri-
cally powered appliances. Both dispersed
and central inverter schemes are possi-
ble. The conversion process also allows
net metering, where power is put back
into the utility grid when the buildings
demand is less than the PV array’s out-
put. As shown in Table 2, PV systems are
rapidly becoming cost-effective. Spot
electricity costs in the summer months
of 2000 exceeded the cost of PV power
by a factor of four at some locations in
the United States.
Biomass is plant material such as trees,
grasses and crops. To generate electric-
ity, biomass is converted to heat energy
in a boiler or gasifier, and the biomass is
typically referred to as bio-fuel. The heat
is converted to mechanical energy in a
steam turbine, gas turbine or an internal
combustion engine, and the mechanical
device drives a generator that produces
electricity. Current biomass technology
produces heat in a direct-fired configu-
ration. Biomass gasifiers are also under
development and are being introduced
to the marketplace.
The most economical and sustainable bio-
masses are waste residue materials from
regional industrial processes: see Table C
for eligible and ineligible bio-fuels.
Example materials include organic by-
products of food, fiber and forest produc-
tion such as sawdust, rice husks and bark.
In urban areas, pallets and clean woody
yard waste may be available. There may
also be a steady supply of wood fiber
from local waste collection of construc-
tion, demolition and land-clearing (CDL)
debris. However, the design team must
ensure these are not contaminated with
finishes or chemicals that require special
treatment to control highly toxic, bioac-
cumulative or persistent pollutants. See
Table C for details. The cost to generate
electricity from biomass varies depend-
ing on the type of technology used, the
size of the power plant, and the cost of
the biomass fuel supply.
Wind Energy systems convert wind into
electricity. Wind generators are becom-
ing increasingly popular as corporate
power users and utilities realize the
electricity supply, peak shaving, and net
metering benefits of clean, low-cost, reli-
able wind energy.
Power
Option
Current Size
Range
Current
Cost
Mass Production
Cost
[kW] [$/kW] [$/kW]
Wind Turbine up to 3,000 $900 to $1000 $500
Solar Cell up to 1,000 $5,000 to $10,000 $1,000 to $3,000
Biomass up to 5,000 $2,000 to $2,500 $1,000
Sources: State of the World 2000 (WorldWatch Institute) and the BioEnergy Information Network (bioenergy.ernl.gov).
Table 1: Renewable System Trends
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Recent innovations include a larger rotor
diameter using advanced airfoils and
trailing-edge flaps for over-speed con-
trol. In the future, more advanced wind
turbines incorporating the latest materi-
als and mechanical technologies will be
introduced to the marketplace. One
example of advances in the wind turbine
industry is the development of a vertical-
axis wind turbine which relies on simplic-
ity of design and advanced blade con-
figuration to create a potentially low-
cost, efficient power system.
Synergies and Trade-Offs
Renewable energy equipment typically
impacts the project site. Some project
sites are more compatible with renew-
able strategies than others. Except for
large systems, the magnitude of the
impact of renewable energy generation
equipment is usually small when com-
pared to building energy consumption.
Renewable energy equipment will im-
pact energy performance of the build-
ing and requires commissioning and
measurement & verification attention.
Building integrated PV systems should be
integrated with daylighting strategies.
Geothermal energy is electricity gener-
ated from steam or high-temperature
hot water that is released from the Earth,
and is captured by sizable power plants
rather than small on-site systems. This
is not to be confused with geothermal
heat exchange, which is an energy-ef-
ficient heating and cooling strategy, the
benefits of which are applicable to EAc1
(Optimize Energy Performance). Electric-
ity generated from geothermal sources is
applicable to EAc6 (Green Power).
Calculations
The following calculation methodology
supports the submittals as listed on the
first page of this Credit. The fraction of
energy cost supplied by the renewable
energy features is calculated against
the
Photovoltaic Data 1991 1995 2000 2010 - 2030
Electricity Price [¢/kWh] 40 - 75 25 - 50 12 - 20 <6
Module Efficiency [%] 5 - 14 7 - 17 10 - 20 15 - 25
System Cost [$/W] 10 - 20 7 - 15 3 - 7 1 - 1.50
System Lifetime [years] 5 - 10 10 - 20 >20 >30
U.S. Cumulative Sales [MW] 75 175 400 - 600 >10,000
Source: U.S. Department of Energy Photovoltaics Program
Table 2: Photovoltaic Economic Trends
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has a huge Publications Database of
research, an excellent search engine,
and the PIX image database, a text &
visual-thumbnail searchable collection
of presentation images.
Site: http://www.nrel.gov/
Print media
• Solar Design Associates and National
Renewable Energy Laboratory. 1997.
Photovoltaics in the Built Environ-
ment: A Design Guide for Architects
and Engineers. DOE/GO-10097-436.
Produced for U.S. Department of
Energy. An excellent guide to incor-
porating photovoltaic energy genera-
tion into commercial and institutional
buildings.
• Directory of Resource Efficient Building
Products, 3rd Edition, 2001. Greater
Vancouver Regional District/British
Columbia Buildings Corporation.
Definitions
Blue Energy: Energy from coastal wave
and tidal massing.
Biomass: Plant material such as trees,
grasses and crops.
Geothermal: Heat or electricity gener-
ated from steam or high-temperature
hot water released from the Earth.
Ground-source heat pumps, which typi-
cally operate at moderate temperatures,
are considered an energy-efficiency
technology similar to efficient air-source
heat pumps, and are recognized under
Energy & Atmosphere Credit 1, rather
than a renewable energy source recog-
nized by Credit 2.
Small Scale Hydro: On site electrical
production generated by directing water
flow in streams to a turbine to capture
and convert the potential energy of wa-
ter into electricity.
Solar strategies: On site electrical pro-
duction using photovoltaic technologies
to convert the sun’s light energy and/or
heat energy into electricity, and direct
conversion into thermal energy using
flat-plate solar technologies.
Wind-power: On site electrical produc-
tion generated from a wind turbine that
converts the kinetic energy of the wind
into electricity.
Calculations
• The fraction of building energy that is
supplied by on-site renewable energy
systems is calculated against the Ref-
erence models’ energy consumption,
as calculated by computer energy
simulation (see Energy Credit 1).
• Performance of the renewable energy
source may be predicted using a bin-
type calculation, such as those used in
the RETScreen spreadsheet models.
Regional Variations
Growing use of RETScreen models, with
their binmethod calculation procedures
tied to a large database of renewable en-
ergy resource files, make it a simple and
convenient way to document renewable
energy generation.
EAc2 – begins on original reference guide page 230
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Measurement and Verification
Intent
Provide for the ongoing accountability of building energy and water consumption
performance over time.
Requirements
• Develop and implement a Measurement & Verification (M&V) Plan con-
sistent with Option D: Calibrated Simulation (Savings Estimation Method
2), or Option B: Energy Conservation Measure Isolation, as specified in the
International Performance Measurement & Verification Protocol (IPMVP) Volume
III: Concepts and Options for Determining Energy Savings in New Construction,
April, 2003.
• The energy M&V program shall be supplemented by a water M&V program
consistent with the principles of IPMVP Volumes I (2002) and III, utilizing
Baseline and projected water use as defined by Water Efficiency Credits 1,
2, and 3.
• The M&V period shall cover a period of no less than one year of post-con-
struction occupancy.
Submittals
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the licensed engineer or other
responsible party, indicating that metering equipment has been installed
for each end-use and declaring the option to be followed under IPMVP
version 2003.
If an audit is requested during the certification process:
Provide a copy of the M&V plan following IPMVP, 2003 version, including
an executive summary.
Summary of Reference Standards
International Performance Measurement & Verification Protocol (IPMVP) Volume
III: Concepts and Options for Determining Energy Savings in New Construction,
April, 2003.
International Performance Measurement & Verification Protocol (IPMVP) Volume I:
Concepts and Options for Determining Energy and Water Savings, March 2002.
www.ipmvp.org
The IPMVP presents best practice techniques available for verifying savings produced
by energy- and water-efficiency projects. Volume I describes general M&V concepts
and is directed primarily at existing buildings and/or retrofits. Volume III describes
the required procedures for new building design.
Interpretation
• A measurement and verification plan must be developed that describes how
results from building energy monitoring will be used to verify that expected
water and energy reductions are being achieved. There must be sufficient moni-
toring equipment either using the Building Automation System, utility meters,
or short term/continuous measurements to assess the performance of each of
the building systems. The annual results from this monitoring must then be
compared to the predicted savings calculations (based on energy simulations
or engineering calculations) and any discrepancies explained or resolved.
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Submittal Requirements
• The M & V plan must be submitted in the initial application for LEED
Canada-NC 1.0 certification. It is not necessary to have completed the one
year comparison of monitored and predicted performance, but there must
be a contract in place to do this work. In the event of an audit by LEED
Canada-NC 1.0, a copy of this contract demonstrates compliance.
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Green Building Concerns
The benefits of optimal building opera-
tion, especially in terms of energy and
water performance, are substantial. The
lifetime of many buildings is greater than
50 years. Even minor energy and water
savings are significant when considered
in aggregate. These long-term benefits
often go unrealized due to maintenance
personnel changes, aging of building
equipment, and changing utility rate
structures. Therefore, it is important
to institute measurement & verifica-
tion (M&V) procedures to achieve and
maintain optimal performance over the
lifetime of the building through con-
tinuous monitoring. The goal of M&V
activities is to provide building owners
with the tools and data necessary to
identify systems that are not functioning
as expected, and to optimize building
system performance.
Environmental Issues
Measurement & Verification of a build-
ing’s ongoing energy and water con-
sumption allows for optimization of
related systems over the lifetime of the
building. As a result, the lifetime cost
and environmental impacts associated
with energy and water use can be mini-
mized.
Economic Issues
The cost to institute an M&V program in
new construction is related to the com-
plexity of the building systems. Costs
can include additional instrumentation
and metering equipment, additional
controls programming, and the labour
associated with processing the data col-
lected. The extent to which these costs
are considered extras will depend on the
level of instrumentation and controls
which would have been installed in the
project in the absence of an M&V pro-
gram. Projects with sophisticated control
systems can often support an effective
M&V program without incurring sig-
nificant additional costs. Other projects
with less extensive controls may need
to install a significant amount of equip-
ment to generate the data necessary for
effective M&V. Alternately buildings with
relatively simple systems will inherently
tend to incur lower additional costs for
M&V. In all cases the extent and cost of
an M&V program should be balanced
against the potential risk of underperfor-
mance. A simple method of estimating
performance risk is based on the project
expected energy use and savings, and
technical uncertainty surrounding per-
formance. An example is as follows:
Basel i ne Proj ected Energy Cost:
$2,000,000/y
Des i gn Pr oj ect ed Ener gy Cos t :
$1,300,000/y
Projected Energy Cost Savings: $700,000/
y
Savings Performance Uncertainty: 20%
Savi ngs Performance Ri sk: 0.20 x
$700,000/y = $140,000/y
Accordingly an upfront and ongoing
budget for M&V can be set based on a
fraction of the estimated performance
risk over a number of years. Viewed in
this light, M&V becomes a cost-effective
and prudent method of ensuring short
and long term project performance.
IPMVP Volumes I and III provide guide-
lines for assessing performance risk.
Community Issues
The collateral benefits of energy and
water efficiency to the community are
often diffuse and difficult to quantify over
time. However, a healthy workforce and
a healthy ecosystem are both indicators
of a long-term pattern of sustainable
development. Continuous measurement
of resource use at individual projects will
facilitate documentation and aggrega-
tion of emissions reductions benefits
and contribute to providing benefits to
the community over several generations,
extending the resource base they enjoy
and depend upon.
Design Approach
The LEED Commissioning Prerequisite
and Credit help ensure that a project
meets the design intent, and that it is
functioning as intended from the be-
ginning of occupancy. The LEED Mea-
surement & Verification Credit extends
this quality assurance by measuring the
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functioning building’s energy and water
performance, and ensures that future
operations and management of the
building are producing savings to the
owner. It also facilitates and promotes
efficient operation of building, and plan-
ning and implementation application of
energy conservation measures (ECMs)
in the future.
IPMVP Volume III presents four options
for energy M&V. Of these, Options B
and D are deemed to be suitable for the
purposes of LEED M&V.
Option B (ECM Isolation) addresses M&V
at the system or ECM level. This approach
is suitable for smaller and/or simpler
buildings that may be appropriately
monitored by isolating the main energy
systems and applying Option B to each
on an individual basis. This can be accom-
plished through computer modeling or
engineering analysis for simpler buildings.
Option B may also need to implement
whole-building metering and monitoring
to satisfy the intent of this credit.
Option D (Whole Building Calibrated
Simulation, Savings Estimation Method
2) addresses M&V at the whole-build-
ing level. This approach is most suitable
for buildings with a large number of
ECMs or systems that are interactive, or
where the building design is integrated
and holistic, rendering isolation and
M&V of individual ECMs impractical
or inappropriate. It essentially requires
comparing the actual energy use of
the building and its systems with the
performance predicted by a calibrated
computer model (presumably created
from the computer models used for
EAp2 and EAc1). Calibration is achieved
by adjusting the as-built simulation to
reflect actual operating conditions and
parameters. To determine energy sav-
ings, similar calibrations or adjustments
should be applied to the Baseline build-
ing simulation.
Option D serves two purposes:
• Calibration of the as-built simulation
model to actual energy use reveals
ECM/design or operational under-
performance.
• Adjusting the Baseline simulation
allows meaningful performance
comparisons and the determination
of verified savings.
The IPMVP is not prescriptive regarding
the application of M&V options, but
instead defers to the professional judg-
ment of the implementer(s) to apply
the options best suited to achieving the
M&V objectives (see Economic Issues).
IPMVP Vol. III provides specific require-
ments for the M&V Plan. In general the
plan identifies the M&V option(s) to be
applied, defines the Baseline or how it
will be determined, identifies metering
requirements, and outlines specific meth-
odologies associated with implementing
the M&V Plan. Responsibility for the de-
sign, coordination, and implementation
of the M&V Plan should reside with one
entity of the design team. The person(s)
responsible for energy engineering and
analysis is usually best-suited for this role,
although third-party verification may be
appropriate in some cases.
The energy Baseline can usually be con-
sidered to be the Reference building
defined under EAp2 and EAc1.
Major Renovations should be treated as
new construction and the energy M&V
methods of IPMVP Volume III applied.
Water use is not addressed under IPMVP
Volume III, but rather IPMVP Volume
I. Water M&V must be in an integral
component of the overall M&V program
and implemented in a manner consistent
with the principles of the IPMVP. The
water Baseline is as defined by Water Effi-
ciency credits WEc1, WEc2, and WEc3.
The start of the M&V period should
occur after the building has achieved
a reasonable degree of occupancy and
operational stability.
After the new construction M&V period
has been completed (after at least one
year of stable and optimized operation)
long term M&V can be implemented
using the methods of IPMVP Volume I.
Essentially, the one year of stable post-
construction operation becomes the
Base Year against which subsequent
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energy performance is compared by
applying operational adjustments and
regression analysis. Refer to IPMVP Vol-
ume I for further information.
Synergies and Trade-Offs
Measurement & Verification activities
affect all equipment that uses energy
and water. Site equipment affected
includes alternative refuelling stations,
exterior light fixtures and systems, irriga-
tion systems, water reuse systems and
wastewater treatment facilities. Inside
the building, all plumbing fixtures and
electrical fixtures as well as HVAC systems
are affected. Measurement & Verifica-
tion activities are intimately related to
commissioning activities and the two
processes should be coordinated.
ENERGY STAR
®
Portfolio Manager is
another tool that can be used to track
and recognize ongoing performance
of energy systems. While the ENERGY
STAR rating itself does not demonstrate
compliance with this Credit, it can be
used as the basis for a comprehensive
measurement and verification tool for
portfolio building owners. See the EN-
ERGY STAR Web site at www.energystar.
gov for information.
Resources
Web Sites
ENERGY STAR
®
was introduced by the
Environmental Protection Agency in
1992 as a voluntary labelling program
designed to identify and promote en-
ergy-efficient products and buildings,
in order to reduce carbon dioxide emis-
sions. EPA partnered with the Depart-
ment of Energy in 1996 to promote the
ENERGY STAR label, with each agency
taking responsibility for particular prod-
uct categories. ENERGY STAR has ex-
panded to cover most of the buildings
sector.
Site: www.energystar.gov
International Performance Measure-
ment and Verification Protocol (IP-
MVP) presents internationally developed
best practice techniques for verifying
results of energy efficiency, water effi-
ciency and renewable energy projects in
commercial and industrial facilities.
Site: www.ipmvp.org
Measurement & Verification Docu-
ments. A list of M&V resources provided
by Lawrence Berkeley National Labora-
tory, ranging from implementation
guidelines to hands-on checklists.
Site: ateam.lbl.gov/mv/, (510) 486-
5001
Definition
Energy Conservati on Measures
(ECMs): installations of equipment or
systems, or modifications of equipment
or systems, for the purpose of reducing
energy use and/or costs.
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Storage & Collection of Recyclables
Intent
Facilitate the reduction of waste generated by building occupants that is hauled to
and disposed of in landfills.
Requirements
Provide an easily accessible area that serves the entire building and is dedicated
to the separation, collection and storage of materials for recycling including (at a
minimum) paper, corrugated cardboard, glass, plastics and metals.
Submittals
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the architect or owner, declaring
that the area dedicated to recycling is easily accessible and accommodates
the building’s recycling needs.
Provide a floorplan showing the area(s) dedicated to recycled material
collection and storage, and indicating the path from recycling locations to
the building loading dock.
If an audit is requested during the certification process:
Provide at least 4 photographs showing the areas dedicated to the collec-
tion and storage of recycled materials.
Summary of Reference Standards
There is no standard referenced for this Prerequisite.
Interpretation
• The Recycling Area Guidelines provided in Table 1 of this LEED Canada-NC
1.0 Reference Guide provide recommendations for typical office buildings,
not requirements. Other occupancy types may have higher or lower area
needs for recycling, depending on the volume and type of recyclable ma-
terials generated.
• If a project wishes to meet this Prerequisite with less area than indicated in
the Guidelines, a narrative should be provided indicating how the recyclables
will be handled such that the proposed area is sufficient. Shared recycling
facilities for buildings on a multiple-building site represents one possible
way to reduce the area requirements within a specific building and for this
Prerequisite.
• Outdoor recycling areas that are convenient for occupants and maintenance
staff, and comply with minimum area guidelines are acceptable for this
Prerequisite.
MRp1 – begins on original reference guide page 259
Prerequisite 1
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Building Reuse:
Maintain 75% of Existing Walls, Floors, and Roof
Intent
Extend the life cycle of existing building stock, conserve resources, retain cultural
resources, reduce waste and reduce environmental impacts of new buildings as
they relate to materials manufacturing and transport.
Requirements
Maintain at least 75% (based on surface area) of existing building structure (in-
cluding structural floor and roof decking) and envelope (exterior skin and framing,
excluding window assemblies and non-structural roofing material). Hazardous ma-
terials that are remediated as a part of the project scope shall be excluded from the
calculation of the percentage maintained. If the project includes an addition to an
existing building, this credit is not applicable if the square footage of the addition
is more than 2 times the square footage of the existing building.
Submittals
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the architect, owner or other
responsible party, listing the retained elements and declaring that the credit
requirements have been met.
If an audit is requested during the certification process:
Provide pre-construction and post-construction plan and elevation draw-
ings highlighting reused structural/envelope elements. Include calculations
demonstrating that 75% of the structure and shell was reused.
MRc1.1 – begins on original reference guide page 264
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Building Reuse:
Maintain 95% of Existing Walls, Floors, and Roof
Intent
Extend the life cycle of existing building stock, conserve resources, retain cultural
resources, reduce waste and reduce environmental impacts of new buildings as
they relate to materials manufacturing and transport.
Requirements
Maintain an additional 20% (95% total, based on surface area) of existing building
structure (including structural floor and roof decking) and envelope (exterior skin
and framing, excluding window assemblies and non-structural roofing material).
Hazardous materials that are remediated as a part of the project scope shall be
excluded from the calculation of the percentage maintained. If the project includes
an addition to an existing building, this credit is not applicable if the square footage
of the addition is more than 2 times the square footage of the existing building.
Submittals
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the architect, owner or other
responsible party, listing the retained elements and declaring that the credit
requirements have been met.
If an audit is requested during the certification process:
Provide pre-construction and post-construction plan and elevation draw-
ings highlighting reused structural/envelope elements. Include calculations
demonstrating that at least 95% of the structure and shell was reused.
MRc1.2 – begins on original reference guide page 265
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Building Reuse:
Maintain 50% of Interior Non-Structural Elements
Intent
Extend the life cycle of existing building stock, conserve resources, retain cultural
resources, reduce waste and reduce environmental impacts of new buildings as
they relate to materials manufacturing and transport.
Requirements
Maintain at least 50% (by area) of existing interior non-structural elements (interior
walls, doors, floor coverings, ceiling systems and built-in casework) in the completed
building (including additions). If the project includes an addition to an existing
building, this credit is not applicable if the square footage of the addition is more
than 2 times the square footage of the existing building.
Submittals
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the architect, owner or other
responsible party, demonstrating the retained elements and declaring that
the credit requirements have been met.
If an audit is requested during the certification process:
Provide pre-construction and post-construction drawings highlighting
reused interior walls, floor coverings and ceilings.
Include calculations demonstrating that 50% of the non-structural com-
ponents were reused.
Summary of Referenced Standard
There is no standard referenced for these Credits.
Interpretation
• MRc1 is aimed at reusing old buildings to accommodate a new building
program for which a LEED rating is being pursued.
• Using materials that were existing on site may be applied towards achieving
MRc1.
• Achievement of this credit cannot be demonstrated solely through provid-
ing a narrative. The calculation method explained in the Reference Guide
must be used to determine if the project meets the requirements for each
of the three sub-Credits.
• Unlike LEED-NC 2.1, Credits MRc1.1 and MRc1.2 can be decoupled from
MRc1.3. That is, it is possible to attain the point for maintaining at least
50% of non-shell areas without having maintained the required amounts
of existing walls, floors, and roof in MRc1.1 and MRc1.2.
• MRc1.1 and MRc1.2 specifically exclude non-structural roofing material.
• Rooftop platforms that are not integral to the roof of the building itself
would not be considered “structure and shell”.
MRc1.3 – begins on original reference guide page 266
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Synergies and Trade-Offs
The location of the existing building
determines the neighbourhood density,
brownfield status and transportation op-
tions. Site amenities may or may not exist
for stormwater control and site lighting.
Preserved site surfaces such as roofs and
parking lots may contribute to urban
heat island effects. The existing plumb-
ing and irrigation systems may not have
the flexibility to allow for potable water
use reduction, wastewater generation
reduction, and stormwater reuse.
The energy performance of buildings is
highly dependent on the building en-
velope and HVAC and lighting systems.
For instance, an existing building with
minimal insulation will tend to exhibit
lower energy performance than a new
building with state-of-art wall construc-
tion. The existing building orientation
may preclude the use of passive solar
gains or may lack shading devices to
prevent unwanted solar gain and glare.
Reusing a building also reduces the
amount of solid waste leaving the proj-
ect site. Thus, reuse of existing building
components also contributes to MRc2:
Construction Waste Management. If a
portion of a building’s structure, shell
or non-shell components are reused but
this effort does not meet the minimum
levels as stated in this credit, apply these
reuse activities to MRc2.
Existing buildings may have space con-
straints and may not be able to provide
adequate space for occupant recycling
activities and separation of chemical
storage areas. Older buildings may
contain contaminants such as asbestos
and lead-based paint that can affect
indoor air quality. Their systems may
also contain hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
and halons that are detrimental to the
Earth’s atmosphere. Daylighting and oc-
cupant control strategies may be difficult
to implement in the existing building’s
layout.
Calculations
MR credit 1.1 / 1.2
This credit is based on surface areas of
major existing building structural and
envelope elements. Structural support
elements, such as columns and beams,
are considered to be a part of the larger
surfaces they are supporting and are
not required to be quantified separately.
Prepare a spreadsheet listing all envelope
and structural elements within the build-
ing. Quantify each item, listing existing
area (m
2
) and retained area (m
2
). De-
termine the percent of existing elements
that are retained by dividing the total
retained materials area (m
2
) by the total
existing materials area (m
2
). Projects
that retain a minimum of 75% of existing
envelope and structural components will
be awarded 1 point for MRc1.1. Projects
that retain a minimum of 95% of exist-
ing envelope and structural components
will be awarded 2 points (MRc1.1 and
MRc1.2).
The area measurements are made in the
same way as would be completed by a
contractor preparing a bid for construc-
tion of a building. For structural floors
and roof decking, calculate the square
footage of each component. For existing
exterior walls and existing walls adjoin-
ing other buildings or additions, calcu-
late the exterior wall surface area (m
2
)
only and subtract the area of exterior
windows and exterior doors from both
the existing and reused area tallies. For
interior structural walls (i.e. shear walls),
calculate the surface area (m
2
) of both
sides of the existing wall element.
Table 1 provides an example of the cal-
culations for MR credit 1.1 and 1.2.
Project teams should exclude the fol-
lowing items from this calculation: non-
structural roofing materials; window as-
semblies; structural and envelope materi-
als that are deemed to be unsound from
a structural perspective; structural and
envelope materials that are considered
hazardous and pose a contamination risk
to building occupants.
MR credit 1.3
This credit is focused on reuse of interior,
non-structural elements, and compares
the retained/reused elements to the total
completed area of interior elements. It
is not necessary to calculate the total
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area of existing interior non-structural
elements prior to demolition.
Applicants must first document that if an
addition is being added to an existing
building, that the addition is not more
than 2 times the square footage of the
existing building.
Prepare a spreadsheet listing all interior
non-structural elements within the build-
ing. Quantify each item to list total area
(m
2
) of existing elements and area (m
2
)
of retained elements. Determine the
percent of existing elements that are
retained by dividing the total area (m
2
)
of all retained interior non-structural ele-
ments by the total area (m
2
) of existing
interior non-structural elements. Projects
demonstrating that 50% of the existing
total area (m
2
) of non-structural interior
components of existing is maintained or
re-used in the total building (including
additions) will be awarded 1 point for
MR credit 1.3. Achievement of MR credit
1.1 or 1.2 is not required for projects to
be considered for MR credit 1.3.
Finished ceilings and finished flooring
areas (tile, carpeting, etc.) are straight-
forward and should be calculated as
simple areas (one sided). For interior
non-structural walls, determine the fin-
ished area between floor and ceiling.
Note: both sides of interior non-struc-
tural walls should be calculated. For
example: an interior, non-structural wall
that is 6m long and 3m high (from floor
to finished ceiling) should be counted as
36m
2
(6m * 3m * 2) to account for both
sides of the wall.
Table 1: Example Building Structure / Envelope Reuse Calculation
Structure / Envelope Element
Existing Area
(m
2
)
Reused Area
(m
2
)
Percentage
Reused
(%)
Foundation / Slab on Grade 150 150 100%
2
nd
Floor Deck 150 100 67%
1
st
Floor Interior Structural Walls 30 30 100%
2
nd
Floor Interior Structural Walls 20 20 100%
Roof Deck 150 150 100%
North Exterior Wall (excl windows) 770 670 87%
South Exterior Wall (excl windows) 770 770 100%
East Exterior Wall (excl windows) 610 610 100%
West Exterior Wall (excl windows) 610 550 90%
TOTALS 3,260 3,050 94%

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The surface area of interior doors should
be calculated and counted only once.
Interior casework that is retained should
be calculated using the visible surface
area of the assembly. Figure 1 below
provides an example of how to calculate
casework.
Area Calculation – Existing Casework
Surface Area (m
2
)
Top 0.6
Left Side 0.5
Front 1.2
Rear 0
Right Side 0
TOTAL REUSED
CASEWORK
2.3
Table 2 provides an example of a tabu-
lation spreadsheet that can be used
for determining credit compliance. In
the example, the total area (m
2
) of all
existing building materials (prior to
construction) is entered in the “Existing
Figure 1: Area Calculation for Existing Casework
0
.
5

m
1
.
2

m
1
.
0

m
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Area” column. The total area (m
2
) of
only the existing / reused components
is then entered in the “Existing / Reused
Area” column. The sum of the existing
materials is then divided by the sum of
the total existing building materials to
obtain the overall percentage of reused
materials. Since the overall percentage
of reused non-structural interior materi-
als is greater than 50% of the existing
area of non-structural interior building
materials, the project would be eligible
for one point under MR credit 1.3.
Remember to include items that have
been saved but may have been relocated
in this tabulation, such as full-height
demountable walls and doors that
were re-hung in a new section of wall.
Items counted in this credit are not to
be included in MR credits 3.1 and 3.2.
However, if the project includes an ad-
dition that is greater than 200% of the
existing building’s square footage, the
reused existing building’s materials may
be included in the calculations for MR
Credit 2.
Resources
Web Sites
Sustainable Communities Network
Case Studies: Several deconstruction
and reuse case studies.
Site: www.smartgrowth.org/library/typel
ist.asp
Preservation of Building and Cultural
Environment. Sustainable Community
Design. Site describes preservation of
buildings as a method of reducing build-
ing material waste, based on case studies
from North America and Europe.
Site: http://www.umanitoba.ca/academic/
faculties/architecture/la/sustainable/de
sign/landuse/land002.htm
Print Media
• Austin, Richard and Woodstock, Da-
vid, Adaptive Reuse: Issues and Case
Studies in Building Preservation, Van
Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1987.
Regional Variations
The requirements of this Credit are uni-
versally applicable across Canada.
Table 2: Example: Interior Non-Structural Reuse Calculation
Interior Non-Structural Element
Existing
Area*
(m
2
)
Existing /
Reused Area
(m
2
)
Percentage
Reused
(%)
Gypsum Board Wall Partitions – Full Height 500 340 68%
Gypsum Board Wall Partitions – Partial Height 70 70 100%
Carpeting 930 0 0%
Resilient Flooring 40 40 100%
Ceramic Tile 15 15 100%
Suspended Ceiling Systems 970 970 100%
Gypsum Board Ceilings 30 30 100%
Interior Doors (Wood) 50 40 80%
Interior Windows / Sidelights 5 5 100%
Interior Doors (Metal) 4 4 100%
Interior Casework / Cabinetry 30 20 67%
TOTALS 2,644 1,534 58%
* Note: The Total Area calculation includes only existing materials.
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Construction Waste Management:
Divert 50% From Landfill
Intent
Divert construction, demolition and land clearing debris from landfill disposal. Re-
direct recyclable recovered resources back to the manufacturing process. Redirect
reusable materials to appropriate sites.
Requirements
Develop and implement a waste management plan, quantifying material diver-
sion goals. Recycle and/or salvage at least 50% of construction, demolition and
land clearing waste. Calculations can be done by weight or volume, but must be
consistent throughout.
Submittals
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the architect, owner or other
responsible party, tabulating the total waste material, quantities diverted
and the means by which diverted, and declaring that the credit require-
ments have been met.
If an audit is requested during the certification process:
Provide a list of the projects’ waste management firms or other waste re-
ceivers, and document the amounts and types of waste received by each,
by providing waybills or letters from waste receivers that indicate amounts
recycled, salvaged or landfilled.
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Construction Waste Management:
Divert 75% From Landfill
Intent
Divert construction, demolition and land clearing debris from landfill disposal. Re-
direct recyclable recovered resources back to the manufacturing process. Redirect
reusable materials to appropriate sites.
Requirements
Develop and implement a waste management plan, quantifying material diversion
goals. Recycle and/or salvage an additional 25% (75% total) of construction, de-
molition and land clearing waste. Calculations can be done by weight or volume,
but must be consistent throughout.
Submittals
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the architect, owner or other
responsible party, tabulating the total waste material, quantities diverted
and the means by which diverted, and declaring that the credit require-
ments have been met.
If an audit is requested during the certification process:
Provide a list of the projects’ waste management firms or other waste re-
ceivers, and document the amounts and types of waste received by each,
by providing waybills or letters from waste receivers that indicate amounts
recycled, salvaged or landfilled.
Interpretation
• MRc2 is aimed at diverting construction waste from landfills.
• An inconsistency in the field is that waste handlers typically use metric
measurement for weight (tonnes) and imperial for volume (cubic yards).
Also, metal scrap dealers typically provide weights in imperial (tons). The
project team must take care to standardize and convert the information
received during the tracking process to ensure that the final diversion rates
are not skewed.
• Incineration cannot be used as an alternative method for diverting waste
from the landfill for purposes of Credit achievement. The Credit requirement
only includes recycling and salvaging as methods of landfill diversion.
• Reprocessed rock cannot be counted in the construction waste management
calculations. It is standard construction practice to reuse bedrock on the site
as fill (crushed or not). This material can be included in MRc5 calculations,
counting it as local harvesting and manufacture of aggregate.
• Hazardous materials (such as asbestos and lead) that are required to be
removed from- a building or site can be excluded from the materials waste
calculations.
• Confirmation should be included in the credit narrative that the materials
are not listed in the landfilled material data because they are regulated
hazardous waste and there is no possibility for recycling or salvage.
• Excavated materials should not be included in the construction waste
management calculation.
• Bentonite used to stabilize trench walls prior to the pouring of the concrete
MRc2 – begins on original reference guide page 273
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may be considered a construction material as it has been specified for a
specific application and will be brought on site for that purpose, unlike soil
that is taken from the project site. In order for the Bentonite to be included in
construction waste management calculations, appropriate documentation
must be provided outlining how this material will be recycled. A statement
must be provided from the recycling facility owner regarding: the scope
and purpose of the facility; the conditions under which the bentonite will
be recycled; a commitment to recycle the Bentonite; and, if available, a
timeline for when efficient technology for the recycling of Bentonite will
be available.
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Resource Reuse: 5%
Intent
Reuse building materials and products in order to reduce demand for virgin materi-
als and to reduce waste, thereby reducing impacts associated with the extraction
and processing of virgin resources.
Requirements
Use salvaged, refurbished or reused materials, products and furnishings for at least
5% of the total cost of building materials.
Submittals
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the architect, owner or other
responsible party, declaring that the credit requirements have been met
and listing each material or product used to meet the credit. Include details
demonstrating that the project incorporates the required percentage of
reused materials and products and showing their costs and the total cost
of materials for the project.
If an audit is requested during the certification process:
Provide specifications and contractor submittals highlighting salvaged and
refurbished materials used on the project.
Provide statements from suppliers stating the salvaged or refurbished status
of materials contributing to this credit and providing evidence for cost es-
timates (e.g., insurance statements, appraiser estimates, catalogue listings
of equivalent products, etc.).
Credit 3.1
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Resource Reuse: 10%
Intent
Reuse building materials and products in order to reduce demand for virgin materi-
als and to reduce waste, thereby reducing impacts associated with the extraction
and processing of virgin resources.
Requirements
Use salvaged, refurbished or reused materials, products and furnishings for at least
10% of the total cost of building materials.
Submittals
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the architect, owner or other
responsible party, declaring that the credit requirements have been met
and listing each material or product used to meet the credit. Include details
demonstrating that the project incorporates the required percentage of
reused materials and products and showing their costs and the total cost
of materials for the project.
If an audit is requested during the certification process:
Provide specifications and contractor submittals highlighting salvaged and
refurbished materials used on the project.
Provide statements from suppliers stating the salvaged or refurbished status
of materials contributing to this credit and providing evidence for cost es-
timates (e.g., insurance statements, appraiser estimates, catalogue listings
of equivalent products, etc.).
Summary of Referenced Standard
There is no standard referenced for this Credit.
Interpretation
• MRc3 rewards reuse of materials from off-site. It is important to make a
distinction between salvaged building materials and building reuse. The
goal of MRc3 is to reduce energy and resource impacts associated with
production of new building materials, and also to encourage the develop-
ment of a market in salvaged building materials. Some existing materials
on-site that are removed and/or reprocessed may apply towards MRc3.
• Materials that are simply reused on site, for the same purpose, such as
reusing an existing door as a door in the new building, would not apply to
MRc3, but may be applied toward MRc1 and MRc2.
• As formwork (rented or purchased) is not a permanently installed material, it
is considered as “equipment” for all MR Credits except and MRc4 (recycled
content) MRc7 (certified wood) and thus not included in the material costs
of the project.
• Existing building components that are left in-place do not meet the definition
of salvaged, and thus can not contribute to achieving MRc3. Components
that are salvaged on-site can be included in this Credit calculation only if
they can no longer serve their original function and have been reprocessed
and installed for a different use. On a project site where an existing building
is being demolished or deconstructed, the material that is salvaged on-site
and installed in the new building can be used to comply with this Credit.
Credit 3.2
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• Applicable salvaged materials include cabinetry and built-in furniture but
not movable partitions, furniture or other transient items. LEED for Com-
mercial Interiors will address the environmental benefits of non built-in
furniture systems.
• MRc1 - Building Reuse is intended to encourage the reuse of existing build-
ing shells and interiors. Components of an existing building that are reused
in-situ are considered to apply toward the building reuse Credit, not as
salvaged materials.
MRc3 – begins on original reference guide page 282
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Recycled Content: 7.5%
(Post-Consumer + ½ Pre-Consumer)
Intent
Increase demand for building products that incorporate recycled content materi-
als, therefore reducing impacts resulting from extraction and processing of new
virgin materials and by-passing energy and greenhouse gas intensive industrial and
manufacturing processes.
Requirements
Use materials with recycled content such that the sum of post-consumer recycled
content plus one-half of the pre-consumer content constitutes at least 7.5% of the
total value of the materials in the project.
The value of the recycled content portion of a material or furnishing shall be deter-
mined by dividing the weight of recycled content in the item by the total weight
of all material in the item, then multiplying the resulting percentage by the total
cost of the item.
Mechanical and electrical components shall not be included in this calculation.
Recycled content materials shall be defined in accordance with the Federal Trade
Commission document, Guides for the Use of Environmental Marketing Claims, 16
CFR 260.7 (e), available at www.ftc.gov/bcp/grnrule/guides980427.htm.
Submittals
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the architect, owner or other
responsible party, declaring that the Credit requirements have been met and
listing the recycled content products used. Include details demonstrating
that the project incorporates the required percentage of recycled content
materials and products and showing their cost and percentage(s) of post-
consumer and/ or pre-consumer content, and the total cost of all materials
for the project.
If Supplementary Cementing Materials (SCMs) are used as part of the percent-
age recycled content, a letter signed by the concrete supplier/ manufacturer
or professional engineer must be submitted that certifies the reduction in
Portland cement from Base Mix to Actual SCM Mix (as a percentage). This
can be provided as a total reduction in Portland cement for all the concrete
used on the project.
If an audit is requested during the certification process:
Provide specifications and contractor submittals highlighting recycled
content materials installed.
Provide cut sheets, product literature or other documentation, such as
letters from manufacturers, that clearly indicate percentage by weight of
post-consumer and/or pre-consumer recycled content for each recycled
material installed.
MRc4.1 – begins on original reference guide page 290
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Recycled Content: 15%
(Post-Consumer + ½ Pre-Consumer)
Intent
Increase demand for building products that incorporate recycled content materi-
als, therefore reducing impacts resulting from extraction and processing of new
virgin materials and by-passing energy and greenhouse gas intensive industrial and
manufacturing processes.
Requirements
Use materials with recycled content such that the sum of post-consumer recycled
content plus one-half of the pre-consumer content constitutes at least 15% of the
total value of the materials in the project.
The value of the recycled content portion of a material or furnishing shall be deter-
mined by dividing the weight of recycled content in the item by the total weight
of all material in the item, then multiplying the resulting percentage by the total
cost of the item.
Mechanical and electrical components shall not be included in this calculation.
Recycled content materials shall be defined in accordance with the Federal Trade
Commission document, Guides for the Use of Environmental Marketing Claims, 16
CFR 260.7 (e), available at www.ftc.gov/bcp/grnrule/guides980427.htm.
Submittals
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the architect, owner or other
responsible party, declaring that the Credit requirements have been met and
listing the recycled content products used. Include details demonstrating
that the project incorporates the required percentage of recycled content
materials and products and showing their cost and percentage(s) of post-
consumer and/ or pre-consumer content, and the total cost of all materials
for the project.
If Supplementary Cementing Materials (SCMs) are used as part of the percent-
age recycled content, a letter signed by the concrete supplier/ manufacturer
or professional engineer must be submitted that certifies the reduction in
Portland cement from Base Mix to Actual SCM Mix (as a percentage). This
can be provided as a total reduction in Portland cement for all the concrete
used on the project.
If an audit is requested during the certification process:
Provide specifications and contractor submittals highlighting recycled
content materials installed.
Provide cut sheets, product literature or other documentation, such as
letters from manufacturers, that clearly indicate percentage by weight of
post-consumer and/or pre-consumer recycled content for each recycled
material installed.
Summary of Referenced Standard
FTC Guides for the Use of Environmental Marketing Claims, 16 CFR 260.7 (e)
www.ftc.gov/bcp/grnrule/guides980427.htm
According to the guide: “A recycled content claim may be made only for materials
that have been recovered or otherwise diverted from the solid waste stream, either
during the manufacturing process (pre-consumer), or after consumer use (post-
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consumer). To the extent the source of recycled content includes pre-consumer
material, the manufacturer or advertiser must have substantiation for concluding
that the pre-consumer material would otherwise have entered the solid waste
stream. In asserting a recycled content claim, distinctions may be made between
pre-consumer and post-consumer materials. Where such distinctions are asserted,
any express or implied claim about the specific pre-consumer or post-consumer
content of a product or package must be substantiated.
“It is deceptive to misrepresent, directly or by implication, that a product or package
is made of recycled material, which includes recycled raw material, as well as used,
reconditioned and remanufactured components. Unqualified claims of recycled
content may be made if the entire product or package, excluding minor, incidental
components, is made from recycled material. For products or packages that are
only partially made of recycled material, a recycled claim should be adequately
qualified to avoid consumer deception about the amount, by weight, of recycled
content in the finished product or package. Additionally, for products that contain
used, reconditioned or remanufactured components, a recycled claim should be
adequately qualified to avoid consumer deception about the nature of such com-
ponents. No such qualification would be necessary in cases where it would be clear
to consumers from the context that a product’s recycled content consists of used,
reconditioned or remanufactured components.”
See the FTC document for illustrative examples.
Interpretation
• Pre-consumer recycled content was previously referred to post-industrial
recycled content. Until a new version of this reference guide is published any
mention of “post-industrial” should be taken to mean “pre-consumer”.
• The definition of recycled content materials in Canadian Standards As-
sociation CAN/CSA-ISO 14021-00 Environmental Labels and Declarations
— Self-Declared Environmental Claims (Type II Environmental Labelling)
(www.csa.ca) is deemed equivalent to that in the referenced standard:
Federal Trade Commission document, Guides for the Use of Environmental
Marketing Claims, 16 CFR 260.7 (e).
• The requirements for this credit specifically require that mechanical and
electrical system components (e.g., HVAC equipment, ductwork, wiring and
lighting fixtures and controls, etc.) be excluded from the credit calculations.
Plumbing components, however, may be included in the calculations, but
must be included consistently across all materials Credits that use total
materials value to determine performance. If so, the project may not use
the default materials cost value in the LEED Letter Template as the value for
plumbing materials must be added into the materials cost total. If a project
team chooses to include additional items as part of the base materials cost,
such as elevators, appliances, hot tubs, or other semi-mechanical/electrical
components, it should do so for all relevant materials Credits, which include
MR Credits 3, 4, 5 and 6. It is necessary to be consistent with what materials
costs are included in the LEED calculations. Furniture, permanent built-in
exhibits etc., may also be included in these Credit calculations if it is in the
project’s scope of work.
• The Assembly Recycled Content methodology is based on weight and
therefore does not fairly represent light-weight recycled products. In these
circumstances, an alternative calculation methodology is to apply the Re-
cycled Content Value methodology. This requires itemizing the materials/
components that make up a system and determining both their individual
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costs as well as the percentage of post-consumer and pre-consumer recycled
content. Calculations done this way may result in a higher recycled content
value in comparison to using the other method. Manufacturers should be
able to provide individual costs and the respective recycled content for all
the materials.
• The Reference Guide allows a default value of 25% post-consumer content
for steel. To use higher recycled content values, it will be necessary to pro-
vide documentation that the steel used by the project is produced by the
manufacturing process indicated, as well as documentation of the industry
average recycled content for the various production processes indicated.
• The use of Supplementary Cementing Materials (SCMs) is handled differently
within the calculation of the value of recycled content. The calculation is
based on Portland cement reduction rather than using the weight of the
concrete constituents. For the calculation, the percentage of Portland ce-
ment reduction (by mass) over the Portland cement content (by mass) of
the Base Mix is used, and a multiplier factor of 2 is applied to this resulting
percentage. The Base Mix is defined in LEED Reference Guide calcula-
tions. The adjusted percentage is multiplied by the total materials cost of
concrete and formwork used in the project. All concrete must comply with
CSA A23.1, and all SCMs must comply with CSA A3000.
• In order to declare achievement of this Credit within the Letter Template,
the project team should compile cut sheets, product literature (brochures)
or other documentation that clearly indicate whether the material contains
post-consumer or pre-consumer recycled materials or both, and what per-
centages by weight. If nothing else is available, obtain an official statement
from the product manufacturer stating the recycled content percentage by
weight and if the recycled content is post-consumer or pre-consumer.
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Athena Sustainable Materials Insti-
tute: The Institute’s databases are region-
ally sensitive, taking into consideration
manufacturing technology, transportation
and electricity grid differences as well as
recycled content differences for products
produced in various regions. The databases
are built from the ground up using actual
mill or engineered process models and are
not reliant on trade or government data
sources.
Site: http://www.athenasmi.ca
Building Materials Reuse Association
(BMRA): The UBMA is a non-profit,
membership based organization that
represents companies and organizations
involved in the acquisition and/or redis-
tribution of used building materials.
Site www.buildingreuse.org
The Environmental Choice Program
(ECP) - Criteria Documents: A list of
over 100 criteria documents that pro-
vide specific criteria for green products
or services. The EcoLogo is a registered
mark of Environment Canada. The Envi-
ronmental Choice Program is operated
by TerraChoice Environmental Services
Inc. under a license agreement with
Environment Canada.
Site: http://www.environmentalchoice.
com/index_main.cfm
National Master Specification Guide
to Environmentally Responsible Speci-
fications for New Construction and
Renovations: Prepared for designers and
specifiers involved in Construction, Ren-
ovation and Demolition (CRD) projects
for the Federal Government of Canada.
The purpose of this guideline is to as-
sist project practitioners in developing
environmentally enhanced or “green”
specifications for construction, renova-
tion, repair and refit projects, including
associated demolition work. Particular
emphasis is placed on the greening of
the National Master Specification (NMS)
as a primary instrument for communicat-
ing environmental responsibility in CRD
projects.
Site: http://www.pwgsc.gc.ca/nms/con
tent/const_ren_guide_toc-e.html
Print Media
• The Environmentally Responsible Con-
struction and Renovations Handbook.
Environment Canada and Public
Works and Government Services
Canada. March 2000.
http://www.pwgsc.gc.ca/realproperty/
text/pubs_ercr/toc-e.html
• The Environmentally Responsible Green
Office at a Glance. Environment Cana-
da and Public Works and Government
Services Canada. March 2000.
http://www.pwgsc.gc.ca/realproperty/
text/pubs_ercr_guidebook/toc-e.html
Definitions
Post-Consumer recycled content: Con-
sumer waste that has become a raw ma-
terial (feedstock) for another product. It
originates from products that have served
a useful purpose in the consumer market.
Much of this feedstock comes from resi-
dential and commercial (office) recycling
programs for aluminum, glass, plastic and
paper. Other post-consumer feedstock is
supplied by businesses that recycle con-
struction and demolition debris.
Pre-Consumer recycled content (pre-
viously post-industrial recycled con-
tent): material diverted from the waste
stream during a manufacturing process
(Source ISO 14021).
Examples of materials that can be con-
sidered pre-consumer content include
planer shavings, ply trim, sawdust,
bagasse, sunflower seed hulls, walnut
shells, culls, trimmed materials, print
overruns, over-issue publications, and
obsolete inventories. Note that materials
such as wood chips may be considered
as pre-consumer if they are created as a
by-product of a separate manufacturing
process. However wood chips created
from virgin wood would not be con-
sidered recycled content. Wood chips
created from used wood (e.g., wood
pallets) would be considered Post-Con-
sumer Content.
Excluded from this definition is reutiliza-
tion of materials such as rework, regrind
or scrap generated in a process and ca-
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pable of being reclaimed within the same
process that generated it. For example if
a gypsum board manufacturer were to
utilize damaged gypsum board or manu-
facturing fall-offs in their manufacturing
process this is not recycled content but
good business practice.
Supplementary cementing materi-
als (SCMs): SCMs are used to partially
replace Portland cement in concrete
mixtures. They are often used in concrete
to make the mixtures more economical,
reduce permeability, increase strength,
or influence other properties. Typical
examples include natural pozzolans, fly
ash, ground granulated blast furnace
slag, and silica fume.
Regional Variations
The requirements of this credit are uni-
versally applicable across Canada.
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the manufacturer or a manufacturer’s
representative.
Table 2 presents regional materials cal-
culations for a sample project. Within
this example:
• The total materials cost figure uses
the default 45% of total construction
cost.
• Since the location of the materials
extraction for the Miscellaneous Met-
als are unknown, they are not eligible,
nor are the costs of the structural
insulated since these fall outside the
limiting distance.
• The eligible regionally manufactured
products and material costs for both
the 800km and 2400 km transporta-
tion distances are aggregated and
divided by the total materials cost
to obtain regionally manufactured
percentages of 14.7% and 2.9% re-
spectively. At 17.6%, the total eligible
costs in this example would qualify for
1 point under MRc5.
Resources
Check with the local chamber of com-
merce and regional and provincial eco-
nomic development agencies for building
materials manufacturers in the area.
Provide total construction cost $ 6,582,471
for 45% default total materials cost; OR $ 2,962,112
Provide total materials cost (exclude labor, equipment)
Product name Company Product Distance between Project & Eligible Regional content
or Manufacturer Cost Manufacturer Extraction information source
(km) T/R/S* (km) 800km 2400km

Reclaimed Concrete Concrete Company $ 22,500 14 T 50 Y Letter from manufacturer
Planting Nursery Company $ 35,066 67 T 67 Y Cut sheet
Compost Compost Co. $ 25,000 32 T 64 Y Cut sheet
Rebar Supply Co. $ 86,000 1820 R 200 Y Letter from manufacturer
Brick (salvaged) Salvage Co. $ 33,700 63 T 93 Y Cut sheet
Brick (new) Masonry Co. $ 28,500 347 T 368 Y Letter from manufacturer
Misc. Metals Various $ 58,700 705 T ? N Letters from manufacturers
Lumber Lumber supplier $ 10,000 150 T 190 Y Letters from manufacturers
Reclaimed Wood Salvage Co. $130,000 87 T 277 Y Cut sheet and letter
Millwork Millwork Co. $ 85,590 50 T 450 Y Cut sheets
Struct. Insulated Panels SIP Co. $ 80,500 850 T 730 N Letter from manufacturer
Wallboard (gypsum) Wallboard Co. $ 60,000 473 T 720 Y Product literature
Wallboard (paper facing) Wallboard Co. $ 540 473 T 433 Y Letter from manufacturer
Toilet Partitions Partition Co. $ 4,000 500 T 687 Y Letter from manufacturer
Product Cost Subtotal $ 660,096
Eligible Product/Materials Costs within 800km $ 434,896 14.7% of Total
Eligible Product/Materials Costs within 2400km $ 86,000 2.9% of Total

Total value of eligible Regional Product/Materials 17.6%
*T/R/S indicates mode of transport (Tuck/Rail or Ship)

Table 2: Letter Template Spreadsheet Example for Regional Materials
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Certified Wood
Intent
Encourage environmentally responsible forest management.
Requirements
Use a minimum of 50% of wood-based materials and products, certified in ac-
cordance with the Forest Stewardship Council’s (FSC) Principles and Criteria, for
wood building components. These components include, but are not limited to,
structural framing and general dimensional framing, flooring, sub-flooring, wood
doors and finishes.
Only include materials permanently installed in the project. Temporary construction
applications such as bracing, concrete form work and pedestrian barriers are ex-
cluded from the calculation. Furniture and other Division 12 items may be included,
providing those items are included consistently in MR Credits 3-7.
Submittals
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the architect, owner or re-
sponsible party, declaring that the credit requirements have been met and
listing the FSC-certified materials and products used. Include calculations
demonstrating that the project incorporates the required percentage of
FSC-certified materials/products by cost. For each material/product used
to meet these requirements, provide the vendor’s or manufacturer’s Forest
Stewardship Council chain-of-custody certificate number.
If an audit is requested during the certification process:
Provide vendor invoices and/or letters from suppliers for each product
installed that clearly demonstrates supplied wood products meet FSC
certification requirements. Documentation should include the vendor’s
chain-of-custody certificate number and identify certified products on an
item-by item basis.
Summary of Referenced Standard
Forest Stewardship Council’s Principles and Criteria
www.fsccanada.org, (877) 372-5646
Certification is a “seal of approval” awarded to forest managers who adopt environ-
mentally and socially responsible forest management practices, and to companies
that manufacture and sell products made from certified wood. This seal enables con-
sumers, including architects and specifiers, to identify and procure wood products
from well-managed sources and thereby use their purchasing power to influence
and reward improved forest management activities around the world.
LEED accepts certification according to the comprehensive system established by
the internationally recognized Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). FSC was created
in 1993 to establish international forest management standards (known as the
FSC Principles and Criteria) to assure that forestry practices are environmentally
responsible, socially beneficial and economically viable. These Principles and Criteria
have been established to ensure the long-term health and productivity of forests
for timber production, wildlife habitat, clean air and water supplies, climate stabi-
lization, spiritual renewal, and social benefit, such as lasting community employ-
ment derived from stable forestry operations. These global Principles and Criteria
are translated into meaningful standards at a local level through region-specific
standards setting processes.
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FSC also accredits and monitors certification organizations. These “certifiers” are
independent, third-party auditors that are qualified to annually evaluate compli-
ance with FSC standards on the ground and to award certifications. There are two
types of certification.
• Forest Management Certification is awarded to responsible forest managers
after their operations successfully complete audits of forestry practices and
plans.
• Chain of Custody Certification is awarded after companies that process,
manufacture and/or sell products made of certified wood successfully
complete audits to ensure proper use of the FSC name and logo, segrega-
tion of certified and non-certified materials in manufacturing and distribu-
tion systems, and observation of other relevant FSC rules (e.g., meeting
minimum requirements for FSC fiber content in assembled and composite
wood products).
The majority of FSC certification audits performed in North America are conducted
by SmartWood and Scientific Certification Systems (SCS), which are based in the
United States. A more limited number are performed by SGS, which is based in
Europe.
Interpretation
• Currently, only FSC-certified wood products are acceptable to achieve this
credit.
• The Forest Stewardship Council requires that every party that takes own-
ership of the wood or wood product have chain-of-custody certification
for the wood product to be called “FSC-certified”. In an effort to develop
the market for certified wood, LEED has, in the past, allowed a party to
claim credit for the use of FSC-certified wood in a project even if the party
involved in final fabrication of the product before it reaches the building
is not chain-of-custody certified. In this particular instance our recommen-
dation is to allow the credit. However no where should it be claimed that
these are “FSC-certified trusses”, and the manufacturer must warrant that
they have indeed used certified wood to make the trusses.
• If wood is supplied to a manufacturer by a wholesaler or distributor who is
not involved with fabrication or modification of the material, that supplier
must have FSC chain-of-custody certification for the material to qualify as
FSC-certified under LEED.
• If a truss manufacturer is FSC-certified, FSC’s partial content rules would
allow that company to produce “FSC-certified trusses” with as little as 70%
FSC-certified wood by volume, the entire value of the truss can be counted
towards the FSC-certified wood credit for LEED, regardless of whether it is
made from 70% or 100% certified wood.
• Salvaged and refurbished wood is excluded from the calculation of certified
wood products. For the purposes of this credit, reclaimed wood is excluded
from the certified wood calculation (numerator and denominator).
• The calculations for certified wood excludes the value of any post-consumer
recycled wood fiber content of a product that qualifies to be counted under
MRc4 - Recycled Content Materials thereby ensuring that applicants seek-
ing the certified wood credit are not penalized by unnecessarily including
in the certified wood calculation products or portions thereof that do not
contain virgin wood fiber.
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including installation expenses (e.g., la-
bour and equipment). Exclude salvaged
and refurbished materials as well as the
value of the post-consumer recycled
wood fiber portion of any product. These
exclusions ensure that applicants seeking
the certified wood credit are not penal-
ized for using nonvirgin wood.
• For assemblies, calculate cost per-
centage of the FSC-certified wood
versus the total material cost for the
product, then multiply that percent-
age by the total product price to get
the cost value of the certified wood
portion (to evenly distribute labour
and other production costs). If the
product itself has been FSC-certified,
then the entire cost of the product is
to be used.
• Identify percentages (by weight, as
detailed in MR Credit 4) of those
woodbased products that are FSC-
certified. All FSC-certified wood
material costs are summed and then
divided by the total value of wood-
based products to obtain the certified
wood products percentage (see Equa-
tion 1).
• For MRc7, all non-rented temporary
wood formwork is to be excluded
from the credit calculations.
The example in Table 1 presents certified
wood calculations for a sample project.
The total materials cost figure may be de-
rived from a default calculation (45%
Equation 1:
[$] Cost Products Based Wood New Total
[$] Cost Products Wood Certified FSC
[%]
Wood Certified
Portion Material
=
Table 1: Letter Template Spreadsheet Example for Certified Wood
Provide total construction cost $ 19,881,455
for 45% default total materials cost; OR $ 8,946,655
Provide total materials cost (exclude labor, equipment)
Total cost of all wood-based products $ 709,026
Cost of Wood-based products as percentage of all materials 7.93%
Forest Stewardship
Council chain-of-
Vendor or Wood Certified custody certificate
Wood product Manufacturer Component Cost Wood % number
Rough carpentry Supply Company $ 85,629 46% SW-COC-013
Millwork, casework Supply Company $ 160,423 77% SCS-COC-00067
Miscellaneous various $ 31,557 0% n/a
Roof Structure Supply Company $ 175,309 89% SCS-COC-00094
Doors, frames Supply Company $ 141,100 70% SW-COC-675
Finish carpentry Ð elevator interior Supply Company $ 5,469 55% SCS-COC-00067
Furniture Office Furniture Company $ 73,775 71% SCS-COC-00122
Workstations Office Furniture Company $ 35,764 61% SCS-COC-00122
Product Cost Subtotal $ 709,026
Total value of FSC-certified wood products $ 494,914
Value of FSC-certified wood products as a percentage of the value of all wood-based
building materials 69.80%
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Durable Building
Intent
Minimize materials use and construction waste over a building’s life resulting from
premature failure of the building and its constituent components and assemblies.
Requirements
Develop and implement a Building Durability Plan, in accordance with the principles
in CSA S478-95 (R2001) - Guideline on Durability in Buildings, for the components
within the scope of the Guideline, for the construction and preoccupancy phases
of the building as follows:
• Design and construct the building with the intent that the predicted service
life equals or exceeds the design service life established in Table 2 in CSA
S478-95 (R2001) - Guideline on Durability in Buildings.
• Where component and assembly design service lives are shorter than the
design service life of the building, design and construct those components
and assemblies so that they can be readily replaced, and use a design ser-
vice life in accordance with Table 3 in CSA S478-95 (R2001) - Guideline on
Durability in Buildings, as follows:
• For components and assemblies whose Categories of Failure are 6, 7 or 8
in Table 3, use a design service life equal to the design service life of the
building.
• For components and assemblies whose Categories of Failure are 4 or 5 in
Table 3, use a design service life equal to at least half of the design service
life of the building.
• Demonstrate the predicted service life of chosen components or assemblies
by documenting demonstrated effectiveness, modeling of the deteriora-
tion process or by testing in accordance with Clauses 7.3, 7.4 or 7.5 and by
completing Tables A1, A2 & A3 from CSA S478-95 (R2001) - Guideline on
Durability in Buildings, or the LEED Canada CaGBC Durable Building Tables,
which correspond to CSA S478 Tables A1, A2 and A3.
• Develop and document the quality management program in accordance
with the elements identified in Clause 5.3, Elements of Quality Manage-
ment, CSA S478- 95 (R2001) - Guideline on Durability in Buildings.
• Document the elements of quality assurance activities (including design
and field reviews) carried out in the format contained in Table 1, Quality
Assurance and the Building Process, of CSA S478-95 (R2001) - Guideline on
Durability in Buildings.
• Utilize a qualified building science professional to develop and deliver the
Building Durability Plan who:
• Is employed by a firm with an engineering Certificate of Authorization
or an architectural Certificate of Practice;
AND
• Has experience in performing building science reviews focused on the
envelope durability for at least two prior buildings;
AND
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• One of the following:
o Has successfully completed at least 35 hours of instruction in build-
ing science courses that address envelope durability within the last
10 years, or
o Has a certificate demonstrating building envelope expertise from
a building warranty program (e.g., TARION), or
o Is independent of the architectural firm of record.
Submittals
Provide the LEED Letter Template, with the following declarations:
Confirmation that the Building Durability Plan has been developed,
signed by the responsible building science professional;
Confirmation that the building envelope construction is in general
conformance with the design details, co-signed by the building sci-
ence professional and the general contractor; and,
Confirmation that the Building Durability Plan has been endorsed
and implemented, signed by building owner.
Provide documentation of the qualifications of the building science profes-
sional as per the requirements.
If an audit is requested during the certification process:
Provide the following documentation to demonstrate Credit requirements
are met:
A copy of the Building Envelope Design Review Report;
A copy of a building envelope field review report by the building sci-
ence professional, demonstrating review of details at approximately
75% to 100% completion of the building envelope; and,
A copy of the Building Durability Plan that includes the completed
LEED Canada Durable Building Tables or CSA S478-95 (2001) Tables
A1, A2 and A3.
Summary of Referenced Standard
Canadian Standards Association: S478-95 (2001) - This Guideline provides a set of
recommendations to assist designers in creating durable buildings. The Guideline
provides a framework within which durability targets may be set and suggests cri-
teria for specifying durability performance of buildings in terms that are commonly
used, but that were previously undefined. The Guideline contains generic advice on
the environmental and other design factors that have an impact on the durability
of building components and materials, and identifies the need to consider initial
and long-term costs, maintenance, and replaceability in the selection of materials
and components.
The Guideline makes it clear that service life requirements and design choices
which may affect durability should be thoroughly discussed and agreed upon
by all relevant parties, in particular the owner, designer, and constructor. Model
documents for recording these decisions are provided in the Guidelines’ Appendix
A. Later Appendices discuss and expand upon issues related to identification and
(relative) quantification of environmental loading, deterioration mechanisms, and
damage avoidance strategies, including the need for appropriate maintenance over
the life of the building.
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Green Building Concerns
Durability is the ability of a building or
any of its components to perform its
required functions in its service environ-
ment over a period of time without un-
foreseen cost for maintenance or repair.
When the predicted service life meets
or exceeds the design service life, the
resulting minimization of replacement
and maintenance needs of the building
and its components reduces material
waste, resource extraction, and pollu-
tion. In general, as durability increases,
so do the environmental merits of the
project as a whole. However, many other
factors influence the actual service life
of building components and materials
and components are often removed
prematurely as a result of changing
preference. The art of building design in
large part lies in providing for the design
to accommodate changing needs, with
a classic aesthetic that improves with
time and use.
It is often difficult to justify the value of
including materials and components as
performance durability criteria to a build-
ing owner since the current marketplace
does not often encourage investment
in the future. However, short-term eco-
nomic savings gained from compromis-
ing on a detail with cheaper and less
durable materials and assemblies can
result in costly future complications and
associated costs. The “Leaky Condo” cri-
sis in the lower mainland and Vancouver
Island of BC is an unfortunate example
of widespread economic and social costs
associated with short-sighted design and
construction.
All materials and components are ex-
pected to withstand some stress and
weathering during their life-span. How-
ever, exposure to stresses that have
either been ignored or not anticipated
in design may lead to premature failure
of one building element, with the subse-
quent deterioration of others influenced
by it. Most damage of this type occurs
to components of the building envelope,
especially exterior wall, roof or floor fin-
ishes and claddings directly exposed to
wind, rain or extreme temperature fluc-
tuations, or the migration of moisture or
air through the building envelope. There
is increasing awareness and concern for
envelope design, for example:
• Rain-screen cladding systems in BC
designed and constructed with best
building practices are less likely to be
problematic than other systems.
• In Ontario, the Architects Insurance
Plan will only cover drained cladding
systems or solid masonry or concrete
systems that are moisture tolerant.
Environmental Issues
Durable materials and components
following carefully considered design
details can potentially remain useful in
the materials cycle for longer periods of
time, reducing the need for new mate-
rials and the environmental costs of re-
source extraction, production processes
and waste disposal.
Designing for maintenance, deconstruc-
tion and adaptability can extend the life
of building components and buildings as
a whole. The use of easily demountable
components and connections and the
use of fasteners that ease deconstruc-
tion eases maintenance, and increases
the potential future re-use of building
materials and components. In addition,
the incorporation of flexible and easily
accessible systems greatly reduces the
need for extensive renovations or even
replacement in the future.
Economic Issues
While durable materials and higher qual-
ity, regionally-appropriate construction
practices may incur higher initial costs,
they typically require less in the way of
maintenance and replacement and typi-
cally prove to be more cost effective in
the long run.
Selection of exterior materials and fin-
ishes plays an important role in affecting
occupants’ and the publics’ response to a
building. Durable materials that weather
well in their appropriate climate and
physical context present a longer lasting
positive public face to a building. This
can further the acceptance of sustainable
building practices in the market.
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Assessing life-cycle costs based on
design service life of the structure and
the building envelope can be helpful
in assessing alternative systems for the
building. Use of life-cycle cost analysis
for key assemblies and components can
help owners and design teams make
informed decisions about construction
investments with long-term benefits to
subsequent occupants.
Community Issues
Premature failure of building envelopes,
especially due to moisture, imposes re-
mediation costs on building owners that
may not be covered by warranties. In
British Columbia, remediation costs per
dwelling unit for leaky condominiums of-
ten exceeded their initial sale price; these
costs were borne by owners, developers
and the provincial government.
The costs of premature deterioration
are social as well as economic. Buildings
that age well and require less frequent
renovation or replacement create a
more cohesive urban fabric and encour-
age pride in place. Durable buildings
also spare communities the disruption
of constant construction and building
abandonment.
The use of regionally appropriate com-
ponents and construction methods can
help improve the durability of a building,
and connect occupants to the unique
climate and qualities of their environ-
ments. For example, adobe construction
is extremely successful in hot and dry cli-
mates, but fails in cold and wet regions.
Communities therefore benefit economi-
cally through the use of local materials
and knowledgeable trades people.
Design Approach
Strategies
Issues that directly and indirectly influ-
ence durability should be incorporated
into a design from the outset. The en-
vironmental loads and harmful agents
to which the building components will
be subjected during service life should
influence design decisions and materials
selection.
• Design strategies should be selected
that are appropriate to the region to
minimize premature deterioration of
the walls, roofs and floors.
• Careful detailing of assemblies (e.g.,
rain-screens, appropriately placed
air and vapour barriers, overhangs,
redundancy in moisture protection,
etc.) will minimize premature de-
terioration of the building. Special
attention should be given to vulner-
able components and penetrations
of the building envelope. Design
service life can be further extended
by incorporating input from con-
tractors, fabricators, and material
suppliers, knowledgeable in the use
and installation of specified materials
and systems as well as input from the
operations and maintenance staff.
• Durability of specific materials can
only effective if assembled properly.
Specifying a realistic and achievable
level of workmanship, which typi-
cally involve practical construction
methods and readily available tech-
nologies, will often lead to fewer
construction problems. The use of
new materials, or traditional materi-
als in unconventional applications,
should be based on sufficient model-
ing, testing and design guidance to
achieve a high level of success in the
application. Recognizing the allow-
able and expected construction toler-
ances of components in design, and
the appropriate sequencing of the
trades involved will tend to maximize
efficiency and minimize unforeseen
problems. Flexible, adaptable de-
signs will accommodate alterations
in design, construction, scheduling,
conditions, or material availability
that may arise during construction
and future adaptations.
• The appropriate design service life
of each component should be deter-
mined by considering exposure con-
ditions, difficulty, frequency and ex-
pense of maintenance, consequences
of failure, disruption in operation,,
future availability of materials; the
design service life of the building; and
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aesthetic or functional obsolescence.
In multi-component assemblies, con-
firm that each component has similar
predicted service lives, and ease of
maintenance or removal and replace-
ment of materials with the lowest
service life can be achieved without
damage to neighbouring assemblies
or components.
• Designs should provide ease of access
for repairs, replacements, and altera-
tions throughout the service life of the
building. A maintenance plan should
be developed in the design stage to
address future repairs and materials
replacements, and help in defining
the objectives and expectations of
owners, occupants, operators and
designers.
• Defining and following a detailed
quality assurance is essential at every
stage in the life of the building. Enve-
lope designs should be based on the
4-D’s principle developed by Canada
Mortgage and Housing Corporation
(CMHC): Deflection, Drainage, Dry-
ing, and Durable materials. A fifth
“D” can be added: Details; assemblies
often fail prematurely due to poorly-
considered or non-existent design
detailing
Due to the concerns with ensuring a
Durable building for their clients, respon-
sible design professionals and building
science professionals are encouraged
to check with their specific insurance
provider regarding their LEED Letter
Template declarations.
Calculations
The LEED Canada Durable Building
Tables provide a simplified Excel form
for applicants applying the CSA S478-
95 (2001) standard to their project.
Applicants are still required to obtain a
copy of the standard for their reference,
but these tables allow for a simplified
submission process on this credit. These
tables are available on CaGBC’s website,
www.cagbc.org, alongside the LEED Let-
ter Templates.
Synergies and Trade-Offs
In addition to the benefits afforded by
the prevention of premature deteriora-
tion of the building envelope, durable
assemblies can also dramatically reduce
energy consumption. Appropriately
designed and constructed building as-
semblies can improve effective insulation
values, allow thermal storage, reduce
heat gain and minimize heat loss. Overall
building health (IEQ) can also be im-
proved by the use of durable materials
with zero or low emissions, that prevent
moisture accumulation and mould or
mildew growth.
The use of local materials and trades can
reduce transportation impacts, while
increasing regional employment and
expertise. Local materials and assemblies
also increase potential durability with
historically-proven, materials, assemblies
and installations well-adapted to local
climatic conditions.
A durable building, however, does not
ensure a long life. If the building is not
designed to accommodate program
and occupant changes, it may become
prematurely obsolete even though all
of its components are still functioning
and in good condition. Considering
future adaptations and expansions with
deconstructable assemblies can prolong
a building’s life long after the original
designers and builders have moved on.
Innovative green wall and roof assem-
blies, such as vegetated walls/roofs,
building integrated photovoltaic panels,
solar walls, etc., are a few examples of
the future of green envelopes. Special
attention should be paid to durabil-
ity and maintenance issues whenever
an innovative approach is used, since
contractors, operators and occupants
are likely to be unfamiliar with their ap-
plication and use.
Although this durable building credit
is limited to the building envelope, the
design team may want to consider the
benefits of extending the durability
principles to building energy systems,
and interior components and finishes.
Durability applied to these areas can
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result in a building with reduced damage
or faster rehabilitation after problematic
events (e.g., flooding).
Resources
Web Sites
Building for Environmental and Eco-
nomic Sustainability (BEES): BEES 4.0
software provides a powerful technique
for selecting cost-effective, environ-
mentally-preferable building products.
Version 4.0 will include expanded envi-
ronmental and economic data.
Site: http://www.bfrl.nist.gov/oae/soft
ware/bees.html
Building Life-Cycle Cost (BLCC):
BLCC5 .3-06 from the National Institute
of Building Sciences contains energy and
water conservation analysis including
life-cycle cost of alternative designs to
determine the more economical in the
long run.
Site: http://www.wbdg.org/tools/blcc.
php?c=3
Cost-Effective Software Tool (CET):
The CET software tool helps users make
straightforward comparisons of risk miti-
gation strategies based on established
economic evaluation practices.
Site: http://www.bfrl.nist.gov/oae/oae.
html
Deconstruction Institute: Provides edu-
cational materials, tools and techniques,
networking, case studies, articles, facts
about the environmental impacts of
deconstructing, and many other down-
loadable and interactive modules.
Site: http://www.deconstructioninstitute.
com/
Institute for Research in Construction:
IRC’s Canadian Codes Centre plays a
vital role in this process by providing
technical and administrative support to
the Canadian Commission on Building
and Fire Codes (CCBFC) and its related
committees, which are responsible for
the development of the national model
construction codes of Canada.
Site: http://irc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/codes/
ISO 15686-5 - Buildings and construct-
ed assets -- Service life planning -- Part
5: Whole life costing: Life cycle costing
enables comparative cost assessments to
be made over a specific time, taking into
account initial capital costs and future
operational costs.
Site: http://www.iso.org
Life Cycle Costing (CaGBC Training
Workshops) Introduction to ASTM and
ISO Building Economics Standards using
comprehensive financial tables.
Sites: http://www.lifecyclecosting.org
National Building Envelope Council:
The objective of the National Building
Envelope Council is to do anything that
is necessary to encourage the pursuit
of excellence in the design, construc-
tion, and performance of the building
envelope.
Site: http://www.nbec.net/
Print Media
Best Practice Guide: Building Technology
Wood-Frame Envelopes in the Coastal
Climate of British Columbia. Canada
Mortgage and Housing Corporation
(CMHC). 1998
The Envelope Drying Rates Analysis Study.
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corpora-
tion (CMHC). Technical Series 01-139.
Guide refers to the 4 D’s which include
Deflection, Drainage, Drying and Du-
rable materials.
High-Rise Residential Construction Guide.
Ontario New Home Warranty Program.
See National Building Code of Canada
2005, volume 2, section A-5.8.1.1.(1).
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Minimum IAQ Performance
Intent
Establish minimum indoor air quality (IAQ) performance to enhance indoor air quality
in buildings, thus contributing to the comfort and well-being of the occupants.
Requirements
Meet the minimum requirements of voluntary consensus standard ASHRAE 62.1-
2004, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality, and Addenda approved at the
time the building was permitted. Mechanical ventilation systems shall be designed
using the Ventilation Rate Procedure.
Naturally ventilated buildings shall comply with ASHRAE 62.1-2004 paragraph
5.1.
Submittals
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the responsible design pro-
fessional, declaring that the project meets the minimum requirements of
Sections 4 through 7 of ASHRAE 62.1-2004 and all applicable Addenda,
and describing the procedure employed in the IAQ analysis (as a minimum,
the standard’s Ventilation Rate Procedure for mechanical ventilation sys-
tems). Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality must be met in order
to achieve this prerequisite.
If an audit is requested during the certification process:
Submissions for designs using the Ventilation Rate Procedure should include
a table of outdoor air flows, including assumptions such as occupancy
type, floor area or estimated maximum occupancy, supply air flow rate and
ventilation effectiveness, and HVAC system type to each regularly occupied
space within the building.
Submissions for designs using a natural ventilation strategy should include
a table including the free, unobstructed openable area of wall and roof
openings, the floor area, the percentage ratio of wall and roof openings to
floor area, the distance of the space to the nearest openable wall or roof
opening, and, for interior spaces not adjacent to the outdoors, the free open
area between the adjacent perimeter space and the interior space, for each
regularly occupied space within the building. An alternative to such a table
would be engineering calculations or a summary of output from a suitable
computer model that shows outdoor air flows for each regularly occupied
space within the building under peak heating and cooling conditions.
Summary of Referenced Standard
ASHRAE Standard 62-2004: Ventilation For Acceptable Indoor Air Quality, and as-
sociated Addenda
ASHRAE, www.ashrae.org, (800) 527-4723
This standard specifies minimum ventilation rates and indoor air quality (IAQ) levels
to reduce the potential for adverse health effects. The standard specifies that me-
chanical or natural ventilation systems be designed to prevent uptake of contami-
nants, minimize the opportunity for growth and dissemination of microorganisms,
and filter particulates, if necessary. Makeup air inlets should be located away from
contaminant sources such as cooling towers; sanitary vents; and vehicular exhaust
from parking garages, loading docks, and street traffic.
EQp1 – begins on original reference guide page 333
Prerequisite 1
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A Ventilation Rate Procedure and an Indoor Air Quality Procedure are outlined to
achieve compliance with the standard. The Ventilation Rate Procedure prescribes
outdoor air quality acceptable for ventilation; outdoor air treatment measures;
and ventilation rates for residential, commercial, institutional, vehicular, and in-
dustrial spaces. The procedure also includes criteria for the reduction of outdoor
air quantities when recirculated air is treated by contaminant-removal equipment
and criteria for variable ventilation when the air volume in the space is used as a
reservoir to dilute contaminants. The Indoor Air Quality Procedure incorporates
both quantitative and subjective evaluation and restricts contaminant concentra-
tions to acceptable levels.
Under section 5.1 of the ASHRAE standard, designs relying on natural ventilation
are required to have wall or roof openings with unobstructed opening areas, con-
trollable by the occupants, that total at least 4% of the net occupiable floor area
for spaces within 7.5m (25 ft.) of the exterior wall. Interior spaces without direct
exposure to the outdoors are required to have openings to naturally-ventilated pe-
rimeter spaces that are at least 8% of the net occupiable area, or 2.3m
2
(25 sq.ft.)
at a minimum. Engineered natural ventilation systems approved by local authorities
are allowed to vary from these requirements; typically these require engineering
calculations or computer modeling that establishes minimum outdoor airflows at
peak temperature conditions that meet the standard’s airflow requirements. Chapter
27 “Infiltration and Ventilation” of the 2005 ASHRAE Handbook — Fundamentals
details engineering calculations for natural ventilation designs; several computer
building modeling programs are capable of these calculations, including COMIS,
CONTAM, TAS, ESP-r and EnergyPlus, among others.
Interpretations
• Use of natural ventilation with operable wall or roof openings to meet
these minimum requirements is allowable instead of mechanical systems,
so long as the wall and/or roof openings in each occupied space meet the
requirements of Section 5.1 of ASHRAE 62-2004, Ventilation for Accept-
able Indoor Air Quality and its Addenda, and are designed to ensure that
comfort is maintained under peak conditions when only minimum outdoor
air supplies are desirable, particularly with regard to cold drafts.
• If a mechanical ventilation system is installed, it must be designed using
the standard’s Ventilation Rate Procedure.
EQp1 – begins on original reference guide page 337
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Reports include:
• Environmental Satisfaction in Open-
Plan Environments: 2. Effects of
Workstation Size, Partition Height and
Windows
• Office Air Distribution Systems and
Environmental Satisfaction
• A Literature Review on the Relation-
ship between Outdoor Ventilation
Rates in Offices and Occupant Satis-
faction
• Investigation of Air and Thermal
Environments in a Mock-up Open
Plan Office: Measurements and CFD
Simulations
• The Effect of Office Design on Work-
station Lighting: Simulation Results
• Effects of Office Design on the Annual
Daylight Availability
Site: http://irc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/ie/cope/in
dex_e.html
The Costs and Financial benefits of
Green Buildings, Greg Katz. This 2003
report to the California Integrated Waste
Management Board’s Sustainable Build-
ing Task Force is a thorough cost-benefit
analysis of green building, concluding
that “...minimal increases in upfront
costs of 0-2% to support green design
will result in life cycle savings of 20% of
total construction costs - more than ten
times the initial investment”.
Site: http://www.ciwmb.ca.gov/green
building/Design/CostIssues.htm
Ventilation and Indoor Air Qual-
ity Research. Institute for Research
in Construction, National Research
Council Canada. Canada’s Institute for
Research in Construction, a division of
the National Research Council, has long
been a major contributor to indoor air
quality research, and publishes a number
of guidebooks for design and construc-
tion, with many research papers available
for free download. The best way to ac-
cess their full range of publications is via
the topic “air quality” in their A-Z Index;
latest research and publications can be
accessed through their Ventilation and
IAQ Research home page’s Projects and
Publications menu items.
Site: http://irc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/ie/iaq/
Indoor Air Quality. Architectural and
Engineering Services, Public Works and
Government Services Canada (PWGSC).
Public Works and Government Services
Canada maintains an extensive listing
of IAQ links.
Site: http://www.pwgsc.gc.ca/realprop
erty/text/publications-e.html
Or
http://www.pwgsc.gc.ca/realproperty/
text/pubs_archguide/pubs_archguide_2-
e.html
Indoor Air Quality in Office Buildings:
A Technical Guide, Health Canada,
1995. An invaluable resource for exist-
ing buildings, but with application to
new building design, now available in
Adobe PDF form.
Site: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/
pubs/air/office_building-immeubles_bu
reaux/index_e.html
US Environmental Protection Agency’s
IAQ Homepage: Includes a wide variety
of tools, publications, and links to ad-
dress IEQ concerns in both residential
and non-residential buildings. Of par-
ticular interest are their IAQ materials for
schools; and their Energy Cost and IAQ
Performance of Ventilation Systems and
Controls Modeling Study, which sum-
marizes cost, revenue, and productivity
impacts of IAQ efforts.
Site: www.epa.gov/iaq
US National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health Indoor Environmen-
tal Quality Homepage: Provides access
to a wide variety of publications on
indoor environmental quality, including
information on contaminants such as
Prerequisite 1
EQp1 – begins on original reference guide page 337
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Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control
Intent
Prevent or minimize exposure of building occupants, indoor surfaces, and systems
to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS).
Requirements
Choose one of the following compliance options:
Option 1 - Prohibit smoking in the building.
• Prohibit smoking in the building
• Locate any exterior designated smoking areas at least 7.5 meters (25 feet)
away from entries, outdoor air intakes and operable windows.
Option 2 - Establish negative pressure in the rooms with smoking.
• Prohibit smoking in the building except in designated smoking areas
• Locate any exterior designated smoking areas at least 7.5 meters (25 feet)
away from entries, outdoor air intakes and operable windows.
• Provide one or more designated smoking rooms designed to effectively con-
tain, capture and remove ETS from the building. At a minimum, the smoking
room must be directly exhausted to the outdoors with no re-circulation of
ETS-containing air to the non-smoking area of the building; enclosed with
impermeable deck-to-deck partitions; and operated at a negative pressure
compared with the surrounding spaces of at least an average of 5Pa (0.02
inches of water gauge) and with a minimum of 1Pa (0.004 inches of water)
when the door(s) to the smoking room are closed.
• Performance of the smoking room differential air pressures shall be veri-
fied by conducting 15 minutes of measurement, with a minimum of one
measurement every 10 seconds, of the differential pressure in the smoking
room with respect to each adjacent area and in each adjacent vertical chase
with the doors to the smoking room closed. The testing will be conducted
with each space configured for worst case conditions of transport of air
from the smoking rooms to adjacent spaces.
Option 3 - Reduce air leakage between rooms with smoking and non-smoking areas in
residential buildings. This option is for residential buildings only.
• Prohibit smoking in all common areas of the building
• Locate any exterior designated smoking areas at least 7.5 meters (25 feet)
away from entries, outdoor air intakes and operable windows opening to
common areas.
• Minimize uncontrolled pathways for ETS transfer between individual resi-
dential units by sealing penetrations in walls, ceilings, and floors in the
residential units, and by sealing vertical chases adjacent to the units. In
addition, all doors in the residential units leading to common hallways
shall be weather-stripped to minimize air leakage into the hallway. Accept-
able sealing of residential units shall be demonstrated by blower door test
conducted in accordance with ANSI/ASTM-779-99 using the progressive
sampling methodology defined in Chapter 4 (Home Energy Rating Systems
(HERS) Required Verification And Diagnostic Testing) of the California Low
Rise Residential Alternative Calculation Method Approval Manual Residential
units must demonstrate less than 0.875 cm
2
of leakage area per square
meter of enclosure area (1.25 in
2
/100ft
2
) at 10 Pa pressure difference.
EQp2 – begins on original reference guide page 339
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Submittals
For Option 1, provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the building
owner or responsible party, declaring that the building will be operated
under a policy prohibiting smoking except in designated areas.
For Options 2 and 3, provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the
responsible design professional, declaring and demonstrating that the
design criteria described in the credit requirements have been met and
performance has been verified using the method described in the Credit
requirements.
If an audit is requested during the certification process:
For Option 1 include a letter signed by the building owner or operator
detailing a non-smoking policy compliant with Option 1, or a copy of ap-
plicable municipal, regional or provincial regulations or legislation.
For Option 2, provide test records of differential pressure performance
for designated smoking rooms, including records of differential pressures
between each adjacent space or vertical chase; drawings; and a narrative
describing how partition openings are sealed, and the independent ventila-
tion systems designed for designated smoking rooms.
For Option 3, records of blower door tests conducted in accordance with
the referenced standards, for at least 10% of the first 100 dwelling units
in the building, and 5% of any additional units. (For example, a 150 unit
building would be required to test a total of 10 + 2.5 = 13 dwelling units.)
Distribution of the tested units should reflect wind and buoyancy condi-
tions experienced by the building, i.e., on different faces and elevations
in the building; test records should include the normalized leakage area
calculated and test reference pressure for each dwelling unit tested, as well
as indoor and outdoor temperatures and windspeeds during the tests. For
high-rise buildings constructed during cold outdoor temperatures, sum-
marize measures used to ensure accurate blower door test results.
Summary of Referenced Standard
ANSI/ASTM E779-03: Standard Test Method for Determining Air Leakage Rate by
Fan Pressurization
American National Standards Institute (ANSI), (202)293-8020
http://webstore.ansi.org/ansidocstore/product.asp?sku=ASTM+E779%2D03
The standard defines a procedure and calculation methods for performing pres-
surization tests to measure air leakage of the walls, roofs and floors of a building or
dwelling unit, using blower door apparatus that includes one or more fans equipped
with speed controls and sensitive differential pressure and airflow measurement
sensors. Typically, the blower door is used to measure the fan’s airflow into or out
of the space at a range of differential pressures, relative to an average outdoor pres-
sure; the resulting curve can then be used to estimate air leakage, and net leakage
area of the enclosing envelope, at a standard reference pressure (typically 4 Pa).
The most common use of a pressurization test is to confirm performance of the air
barrier of the building’s or dwelling units exterior envelope to minimize infiltration
energy losses. For the purposes of this Prerequisite, it determines total air leakage
of both the exterior envelope and interior partitions, floors and ceilings.
The equivalent Canadian standard is CAN/CGSB-149.10-M86 (Determination
of the Airtightness of Building Envelopes by the Fan Depressurization Method).
This standard is referenced by the 2001 edition of the R2000 Standard for Part 9
EQp2 – begins on original reference guide page 339
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buildings, which requires that R2000 homes have a Normalized Leakage Area at
10 Pascals that does not exceed 0.7 cm²/m² (1.0 in²/100ft.²) — a more stringent
requirement than the HERS System.
Both Standards specifically limit their application in high-rise buildings during cold
temperatures, due to the potential inaccuracies of blower door testing under high
buoyancy pressures (stack effect). If a high-rise residential building following Option
3 is under construction when outdoor temperatures may make accurate blower-
door test results difficult to achieve, applicants should consider testing of dwelling
units with open doors and windows in floors above and below the test unit and in
adjacent dwellings; or other methods of achieving equivalent performance, such
as tracer gas testing.
California Low Rise Residential Alternative Calculation Method Approval Manual,
Chapter 4 (Home Energy Rating Systems (HERS) Required Verification And Diagnostic
Testing) of the California Energy Commission
http://www.energy.ca.gov/title24/residential_acm/
The manual defines field verification and testing procedures for California’s Home
Energy Rating System (HERS), to demonstrate compliance with the state’s Title 24
housing energy efficiency legislation. HERS covers a wide variety of housing energy
topics; of direct interest for this Prerequisite is Chapter 4’s procedures for testing
(and retesting if necessary) of envelope sealing of dwelling units, detailed on section
4.4.4. Other portions of this standard are not used for this Credit.
Interpretations
• For residential buildings, unless there is a building-wide ban on smoking,
it must be assumed that any dwelling unit may be occupied by smokers;
so all dwelling units should be treated as if they were individual smoking
rooms.
• Option 3 requires dwelling unit doors to be weather-stripped even when
corridors are mechanically pressurized. Weather-stripping is required to
minimize tobacco smoke leakage from dwelling units to common corridors,
when low outdoor temperatures or high windspeeds create pressures within
dwelling units higher than those in the corridors, which research indicates
is a common circumstance.
EQp2 – begins on original reference guide page 339
Prerequisite 2
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Carbon Dioxide (CO
2
) Monitoring
Intent
Provide capacity for indoor air quality (IAQ) monitoring to help sustain long-term
occupant comfort and well-being.
Requirements
Install a permanent carbon dioxide (CO
2
) monitoring system that provides feed-
back on space ventilation performance to ensure that ventilation systems maintain
design minimum ventilation requirements and in a form that affords operational
adjustments. Configure all monitoring equipment to generate an alarm if under-
ventilation is detected, via either a building automation system alarm to the building
operator or via an alarm that alerts building occupants.
Refer to the CO
2
differential for all types of occupancy in accordance with ASHRAE
62.1-2004, Appendix C.
Submittals
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the mechanical engineer or
responsible party, declaring and summarizing the installation, operational
design and controls/zones for the carbon dioxide monitoring system. For
mixed-use buildings, calculate CO
2
levels for each separate activity level
and use.
If an audit is requested during the certification process:
Submissions should include drawings, specifications and cut sheets describ-
ing the installed carbon dioxide monitoring system. Include a narrative that
describes the sequence of operation and control of building ventilation
systems with initial control setpoints and operational ranges for control
parameters.
Summary of Referenced Standard
While there is no standard directly referenced for this Credit, ASHRAE Standard 62-
2004 provides guidance on design of ventilation systems using CO
2
sensors to control
outdoor air supply flows and their timing, as well as recommending differential CO
2

concentrations (relative to outdoor air) for various levels of occupant activity
Interpretations
• CO
2
sensors and controls should respond not only to indoor CO
2
concen-
trations, but to the differential between indoor and outdoor levels.
• HVAC systems serving spaces likely to have high CO
2
levels should be de-
signed to ensure that other spaces are not over ventilated.
• For Mechanically Ventilated Spaces: Monitor carbon dioxide concentrations
within all densely occupied spaces (those with a design occupant density
greater than or equal to 25 people per 93m
2
(1000 sq.ft.)). CO
2

monitor-
ing locations shall be between 0.9 metre (3 feet) and 1.8 metres (6 feet)
above the floor. For each mechanical ventilation system serving non-densely
occupied spaces, provide a direct outdoor airflow measurement device
capable of measuring the minimum outdoor airflow rate with an accuracy
of plus or minus 15% of the design minimum outdoor air rate, as defined
by ASHRAE 62.1-2004.
EQc1 – begins on original reference guide page 346
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• For Naturally Ventilated Spaces: Monitor CO
2
concentrations within all
naturally ventilated spaces. CO
2
monitoring shall be located within the room
between 3 feet and 6 feet above the floor. One CO
2
sensor may be used
to represent multiple spaces if the natural ventilation design uses passive
stack(s) or other means to induce airflow through those spaces equally and
simultaneously without intervention by building occupants.
EQc1 – begins on original reference guide page 346
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concentrations of approximately 700
parts per million (ppm), relative to
outdoor air. The differential setpoint
should be adjusted to reflect the oc-
cupant’s activity level and metabolic
rate for non-sedentary activities.
CO
2
ventilation control systems must be
calibrated and tested by the contractor
and proper operation must be verified
as part of the building commissioning
process. Periodic checks, recalibration
and maintenance are required for reliable
performance once the building is occu-
pied; and sensor locations must respond
to future tenant improvements.
Technologies
Current systems include shared-sensor
vacuum-draw systems and distributed
sensors. Distributed sensors are either
hard-wired or plugged into power
circuitry and use carrier wave commu-
nication. Once the system is properly
calibrated, it is used to assess the ad-
equacy of airflows throughout the build-
ing interior. Specify annual calibration
activities for sensors per manufacturer
instructions in the HVAC system opera-
tion manual. Include sensor and system
operational testing and initial set point
adjustment in the commissioning plan
and report.
Synergies and Trade-Offs
CO
2
monitoring requires additional
equipment to be installed and additional
commissioning and measurement &
verification (M&V) attention. Existing
HVAC systems in renovated buildings
may preclude optimization of ventilation
rates with CO
2
control, due to inflexible
HVAC equipment or inadequate outside
air intakes.
Monitoring CO
2
levels has significant
impacts on overall IAQ performance,
chemical and pollutant control, with
consequent effects on ventilation rates
and thermal comfort. Proper ventilation
rates are integral to successful energy
efficiency and air quality programs. CO
2

monitoring can be used either actively
or passively to alter ventilation rates as
appropriate.
Resources
Web Sites
American Society of Heating, Refriger-
ating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
(ASHRAE): Advances the science of
heating, ventilation, air conditioning,
and refrigeration for the public’s benefit
through research, standards writing,
continuing education, and publica-
tions.
Site: www.ashrae.org
Indoor Air Quality in Office Buildings:
A Technical Guide: An Health Canada
publication on IAQ sources in buildings
and methods to prevent and resolve IAQ
problems.
Site:
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/pubs/
air/office_building-immeubles_bureaux/
index_e.html
Building Air Quality: A Guide for Build-
ing Owners and Facility Managers: An
EPA publication on IEQ sources in build-
ings and methods to prevent and resolve
IEQ problems.
Site: http://www.epa.gov/iaq/largebldgs/
baq_page.htm
Demand Control Ventilation Using
CO
2
: ASHRAE Journal, Feb. 2001 Schell,
M. & Inhout, D. Summarizes design
issues of demand controlled ventila-
tion systems using CO
2
as an indicator,
with discussions of technologies, their
reliability, application, installation and
maintenance.
Site: http://www.ashrae.org/template/
JournalLanding
EQc1 – begins on original reference guide page 349
Credit 1
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Ventilation Effectiveness
Intent
Provide for the effective delivery and mixing of supply air to support the safety,
comfort and well-being of building occupants.
Requirements
For mechanically ventilated buildings, design ventilation systems that result in an
air change effectiveness (E
ac
) greater than or equal to 0.9 as determined by ASHRAE
Standard 129-1997. For naturally ventilated spaces demonstrate a distribution and
laminar flow pattern that involves not less than 90% of the room or zone area in
the direction of air flow for at least 95% of hours of occupancy.
Submittals
For mechanically ventilated spaces:
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the mechanical engineer or
responsible party, declaring that the design achieves air change effectiveness
(Eac) of 0.9 or greater in each regularly-occupied room type. Complete
a table summarizing the air change effectiveness achieved for each room
type.
For naturally ventilated spaces:
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the mechanical engineer or
responsible party, declaring that the design provides effective ventilation
in at least 90% of each room or zone area in the direction of airflow for at
least 95% of hours of occupancy. Include a table summarizing the airflow
simulation results for each zone. Include sketches indicating the airflow
pattern for each zone.
If audit is requested during the certification process:
For mechanically ventilated spaces:
EITHER
Provide a report summarizing the results of tracer gas tests of air change
effectiveness following ASHRAE Standard 129-1997 for sample spaces rep-
resentative of the major building occupancies. The report should include
the type of tracer gas test(s) used, start and stop times and corresponding
trace gas concentrations, supply and exhaust airflow rates, air ages, nominal
time constants and air-change effectiveness for each tested space.
OR,
Provide a table summarizing the location of the air inlets and outlets, supply
air temperatures in heating and cooling modes, room ventilation effective-
ness, and a short narrative justifying the effectiveness value for each room
type.
For naturally ventilated spaces:
Provide a report summarizing airflow (CFD or nodal airflow) simulation
results for each regularly-occupied zone type in both heating and cool-
ing modes. The report should include a brief narrative describing system
operational modes, graphics showing zone and building airflow patterns
with local winds in each cardinal and prevailing direction, and identify
the computational fluid dynamics or network airflow modeling program
used.
EQc2 – begins on original reference guide page 352
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Summary of Referenced Standard
ASHRAE 129-1997: Measuring Air-Change Effectiveness
ASHRAE, www.ashrae.org, (800) 527-4723
This standard describes a method for measuring air-change effectiveness in mechani-
cally ventilated buildings and spaces, using a tracer gas procedure to determine the
age of air in ventilated spaces. Air-change effectiveness (E
ac
) is influenced by the
pattern of outdoor airflow within the building’s ventilated spaces and by recircula-
tion by mechanical systems. If the ventilation air within a space is perfectly mixed
(E
ac
= 1), the outdoor airflow rate to the ventilated space should be identical to the
required rate of outdoor airflow. The Credit requirement specifies a minimum E
ac

value of 0.9.
ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook 2001, Chapter 32: Space Air Diffusion
ASHRAE, www.ashrae.org, (800) 527-4723
This guideline describes air diffusion strategies and technologies, methods of evalu-
ation, and system design considerations. It includes diffuser selection and ADPI
calculation procedures.
Interpretations
• While the presence of operable windows may be sufficient to demonstrate
compliance with EQp1, their presence alone is not sufficient to demonstrate
compliance with EQc2. For naturally ventilated rooms, simulations using
network airflow or computational fluid dynamics models shall be used
to demonstrate the required ventilation effectiveness, accompanied by a
detailed narrative and graphics showing airflow patterns within regularly
occupied rooms.
• Projects following the recommended design approaches in ASHRAE 2001
Fundamentals Chapter 32, Space Air Diffusion need not perform tracer gas
testing.
EQc2 – begins on original reference guide page 352
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Green Building Concerns
Inadequate ventilation in buildings
reduces occupant comfort and impairs
well-being, while overventilation con-
sumes significant amounts of energy
without benefit. However, good system
design balances ventilation rates and
energy efficiency.
Environmental Issues
Optimal indoor air quality (IAQ) is ben-
eficial to building occupants, resulting
in greater comfort, lower absenteeism,
and greater productivity. However, care
must be taken to avoid overventilation
with mechanical systems, due to the
potential for energy waste.
Economic Issues
Adequate ventilation in buildings typi-
cally results in greater occupant satisfac-
tion, higher productivity and reduced
health problems; for a company, the
result is increased profitability. However,
excess ventilation requires more opera-
tional energy. Therefore, designs should
maximize ventilation effectiveness to
take best advantage of air supplies and
avoiding overventilation.
Well-executed mechanical ventilation
system designs typically cost no more
for construction than poor ones; and
there is an emerging body of case stud-
ies showing little or no construction cost
premium for displacement ventilation
versus overhead or sidewall air distribu-
tion systems.
Strategies relying solely on natural ven-
tilation can be much less expensive to
construct and operate than mechanical
ventilation strategies, but require an
appropriate climate, building form and
envelopes adapted to local winds and
solar angles and, for larger buildings,
more comprehensive design analysis
with network airflow or CFD computer
modeling.
Community Issues
Optimal ventilation distribution and
air supply improves IAQ, resulting in
reduced health care and insurance costs
as well as enhancing the well-being of
building occupants.
Design Approach
Strategies
The minimum values for ventilation
air rates in a space are determined by
ASHRAE 62-2004 as part of EQ Prereq-
uisite 1. EQ Credit 2 enhances the mini-
mum indoor air quality requirements
by ensuring that superior ventilation is
delivered as directly as possible to build-
ing occupants. In general, this Credit
rewards the architectural and mechanical
system design that enhances ventilation
effectiveness, the movement of outdoor
and supply air through the occupied
zone, rather than space regions where
people are not found.
There are three approaches to ventilat-
ing buildings: mechanical, natural or
mixed-mode.
1. Mechanical ventilation strategies use
mechanical fan energy, ductwork
and diffusers to ventilate occupied
spaces. Mechanical systems provide
the most reliability and control, but
require fan energy and higher system
capital costs to ensure comfort and
good ventilation.
2. Natural ventilation strategies shape
building form to take best advantage
of site wind patterns and stack effects
using operable windows, vents and
roof openings to ventilate occupied
spaces. Natural ventilation strategies
typically provide most occupants
individual control, a connection to
the outdoors, and can have low op-
eration and maintenance costs. The
advent of inexpensive, sophisticated
network airflow and CFD computer
modeling can greatly inform design
of naturally-ventilated buildings, criti-
cal and regularly-occupied spaces.
3. Mixed-mode designs combine me-
chanical and natural ventilation de-
signs to ensure effective ventilation
and comfort regardless of outdoor
conditions. Often tightly-sized me-
chanical systems are used to guarantee
ventilation air and comfort when natu-
rally-driven outdoor airflows would
become less effective and/or result in
increased cooling or heating loads.
EQc2 – begins on original reference guide page 354
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Project teams should evaluate the
strengths and weaknesses of each ap-
proach, including building location,
regional climate patterns and local
microclimatic conditions, as well as cli-
ent preferences in the final decision for
ventilation strategies.
ASHRAE 129-1997 describes a test
method for quantifying the air-change
effectiveness for a given room design.
The measured value is influenced by the
shape of room, the extent of mechanical
recirculation, the location of heat-gener-
ating objects, and air motion. Because
these variables are highly specific to
each design, a full-scale mock-up is the
most effective way to verify E with a
high level of confidence. Testing under
ASHRAE 129-1997 is suitable mainly for
laboratory-based conditions and is not
appropriate in most field applications.
Therefore, the standard is referenced
as a high benchmark for demonstrating
ventilation effectiveness.
For mechanical designs, Credit compli-
ance may also be achieved by following
the use of recommended design ap-
proaches in the ASHRAE Fundamentals
Handbook 2001, Chapter 32: Space Air
Diffusion. Natural ventilation and mixed-
mode designs should follow design
procedures similar to those outlined by
the CIBSE Application Manuals <www.
cibse.org>: AM10, “Natural Ventila-
tion in Non-domestic Buildings”; AM
11, “Building Energy & Environmental
Modeling”; and AM13, “Mixed Mode
Ventilation”. One may use the Zone Air
Distribution Effectiveness, E
x
, in ASHRAE
Standard 62-2004, Table 6.2, to identify
the designed ACE for each zone.
Technologies
Displacement ventilation (low velocity,
low ΔT ventilation with air supply vents
located near the bottom of the occupied
zone and return vents at the top) typi-
cally provides more effective air distribu-
tion than the more typical mixing-type
designs.
For mechanical HVAC systems, the
ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook 2001,
Chapter 32, Space Air Diffusion lists the
five major types of outlet types:
• Group A, mounted near the ceiling
discharging horizontally;
• Group B, mounted in or near the
floor discharging a vertical non-
spreading jet;
• Group C, mounted in or near the floor
discharging a vertical spreading jet;
• Group D, mounted in or near the floor
that discharge horizontally; and
• Group E, mounted in or near the ceil-
ing projecting vertically.
Each of these types is best suited to
different load conditions; Group A
overhead mixed-air systems are often
distribute air poorly under the heating or
low cooling load conditions found across
Canada for much of the year. VAV reheat
systems, in particular, must be carefully
designed to ensure good mixing in the
occupied zone under minimum airflow.
See ASHRAE Handbooks for details.
There are several new approaches to me-
chanical ventilation systems that are very
effective at preventing short-circuiting
of airflow delivery. These applications
include the use of displacement ventila-
tion, low velocity ventilation, and plug
flow ventilation such as underfloor or
near-floor delivery.
Figure 1 illustrates an underfloor ventila-
tion system. Supply air is introduced
through diffusers and grills in the floor.
The air travels upward through the oc-
cupied space and is exhausted in return
grills in the ceiling. The underfloor
plenum can also be used as a cabling
conduit.
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Natural ventilation strategies rely on
openings in the building envelope to
develop airflows. Operable windows,
often combined with atria and/or nar-
row floor plates, are the most common
architectural strategy employed to create
natural ventilation, cross ventilation, and
stack effects. Use of operable windows
and other openings as elements of the
ventilation system requires analysis of
inlet and outlet location, size, and re-
gional climate patterns. Typically, for
reliable natural ventilation of large build-
ings, their designs take into account all
microclimatic conditions experienced by
the building, with responses by building
form, interior space planning and vent
or window location and selection. Com-
puter models are helpful to predict venti-
lation processes and determine the best
location for ventilation elements. North
American designers now have available
network airflow and computational fluid
dynamics (CFD) modeling tools that can
greatly inform natural ventilation design,
but are not yet widely used due to their
recent introduction to this continent.
Figure 1: Example of Underfloor Ventilation System
Natural ventilation opportunities are
very site-specific and may not be feasible
for many locations or building use pro-
grams; and naturally-ventilated buildings
must be carefully designed to provide ef-
fective and comfortable outdoor airflow
under all likely operating conditions.
Synergies and Trade-Offs
Regional climate characteristics of the
selected project site should be carefully
assessed, and dictate whether mechani-
cal, natural or mixed-mode ventilation
strategies should be used. Ventilation
strategies influence the overall energy
performance of the building and require
commissioning as well as measurement
& verification (M&V). Overventilation by
mechanical systems, with or without heat
recovery, has an operating energy price.
Many existing buildings are poorly
suited to natural ventilation strategies
if they were not originally designed to
respond to local wind and temperature
conditions; however, many older build-
ings were designed with close attention
to microclimate, often with narrow floor
plates and operable windows. Some sites
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and building programs are inappropriate
for natural ventilation schemes due to
poor outdoor air quality, noise sources,
prevailing airflows, undesirable outdoor
temperatures or security concerns.
Many building codes are oriented to-
ward mechanical HVAC systems, and
vague on natural ventilation design and
compliance criteria. Important code is-
sues, such as prohibition of corridors for
air transfer, fi re and smoke control, and
others makes early and close involve-
ment of code officials advisable.
Natural ventilation and daylighting is-
sues should be considered simultaneous-
ly during concept and early schematic
design; both commonly feature high,
open spaces; skylights and clerestories,
and careful window selection, which can
have significant implications for building
form and space planning.
Calculations
The following calculation methodology
is used to support the Credit submittals
listed on the first page of this Credit.
There are two compliance paths for
mechanically ventilated buildings, and
a third for naturally-ventilated or mixed-
mode buildings.
The first compliance path is to field-test
the completed HVAC system. Testing
must be performed as described in
ASHRAE 129-1997 after the building
is constructed to demonstrate that air-
change effectiveness of 0.9 or greater
is achieved in all regularly-occupied
areas. The second compliance path is
through design verification. If this Credit
is audited during the LEED certification
review, the designer must demonstrate
that the required ventilation effective-
ness is achieved in heating and cooling
modes.
One may use the Zone Air Distribution
Effectiveness, E
z
, in ASHRAE Standard
62.1-2004, Table 6.2, to identify the
ACE for each zone. This table prescribes
the Zone Air Distribution Effectiveness
values for various HVAC air distribution
designs.
To apply the values in the table correctly,
requires consideration of both heating
and cooling occupied modes for each
zone. Separately analyze each unique
space design. Projects must document
designed performance in a table show-
ing, for each zone, an average ACE of
0.9 or greater for the occupied hours
under worst case ACE conditions (e.g.
the design day where the greatest num-
ber of occupied hours are projected for
the ventilation mode with the lowest
ACE, e.g. typically the design day with
the greatest number of occupied hours
with heating).
For example, the documentation table
will show:
• Location of the air inlets and outlets,
supply air temperatures in heating
and cooling modes,
• Zone Heating** ACE
• Zone Cooling** ACE
** Based on ASHRAE 62.1-2004, Table
6.2. “Zone Air Distribution Effective-
ness”.
Any space with heating capability, such
as a heating coil, serving a space with ex-
terior walls or roof will typically operate
in a heating mode at some point when
the space is occupied. These spaces must
document ACE under heating mode.
Spaces without this type of heating con-
dition can document ACE under cooling
mode only.
For designs with heating capability,
where heating is designed to only occur
during unoccupied hours (e.g. morning
warm up), ACE may be documented
under cooling mode only, provided
submittal documentation demonstrates
that heating does not occur during oc-
cupied hours.
For designs with heating capability,
where both heating and cooling are ex-
pected to occur during occupied hours,
one may use ASHRAE 62.1-2004, Sec-
tion 6.2.5.2, “Short Term Conditions”,
Equation 6-9, to determine the average
conditions over a defined time period,
T, where T equals 3 times the room vol-
ume (ft3) divided by the breathing zone
outdoor airflow rate (cfm) calculated in
Equation 6-1.
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Underfloor air distribution (UFAD) sys-
tems are somewhat simpler to docu-
ment for EQc2 than other systems. Since
ASHRAE Fundamentals Chapter 32 Table
4 does not include recommendations
for under-floor systems, use the manu-
facturers’ recommendations for proper
selection and spacing of the diffusers and
then use ASHRAE 62-2004, Table 6.2, to
select a zone air distribution effective-
ness. (Note that zone air distribution
effectiveness is equivalent to ASHRAE
129 air change effectiveness (ACE)). Per
Table 6.2, underfloor systems in the cool-
ing mode have an ACE greater than 0.9.
However, not all underfloor system de-
signs will achieve a sufficiently high ACE
in the heating mode. For instance, un-
derfloor air distribution systems (UFADs)
that heat from the floor (e.g. through
grilles along the building perimeter)
have an ACE of 0.8 per Table 6.2. These
systems may not qualify for this Credit.
The ACE in each space in both heating
and cooling mode must be documented
and the average ACE must be shown to
exceed 0.9.
The third method of demonstrating
Credit performance involves network
airflow or CFD simulation programs to
model and document natural ventilation
and mixed-mode airflow designs. For
naturally ventilated and mixed-mode
buildings, computer simulation is used to
inform building shape and inlets, outlets
and internal air paths, considering typical
and extreme wind, heating and cooling
load conditions. Particular attention is
paid to airflows in regularly occupied
zones, and operational modes with
winds from prevailing and the cardinal
directions, to ensure effective outdoor air
distribution under all expected operating
conditions.
The report should combine narrative and
graphics to clearly and concisely describe
design intent for building commis-
sioning, future occupant and operator
training, as well as for LEED certifica-
tion. It should describe critical building
/ mechanical equipment, systems and
control modes; and refer to equipment,
sequences of operation, setpoints and
control ranges in the control specifica-
tions. System control under fi re and
smoke emergencies should be carefully
and clearly outlined.
Suitable natural ventilation airflow simu-
lation programs are able to model hourly
variations in wind velocity and other
outdoor conditions, internal airflows,
heat gains, thermostat set points and
HVAC system operation; and thermal
mass effects for ten or more thermal
zones, and for 8760 hours of a typical
meteorological year. Programs should
be able to produce hourly reports of
energy use; air, surface and mean radi-
ant conditions; and airflows and design
loads for individual zones. Demonstrat-
ing the proportion of occupied hours
with effective natural ventilation requires
statistical calculation of the number of
hours in a typical year that internal air-
flows and comfort criteria are met with
naturally-driven airflow. Calculations
should be based on outdoor conditions
of an appropriate Typical Meteorologi-
cal Year file.
Resources
Web Sites
ASHRAE Handbook: Heating, Ventilat-
ing, and Air Conditioning Systems and
Equipment, American Society of Heating,
Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning En-
gineers, Inc., Tullie Circle, N.E., Atlanta,
GA 30329 USA
Site: www.ashrae.org
Air Change Effectiveness Measure-
ments in Two Modern Office Build-
ings: A case study on ventilation ef-
fectiveness.
Site: www.fire.nist.gov/bfrlpubs/build94/
PDF/b94024.pdf
American Society of Heating, Refriger-
ating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
(ASHRAE): Advances the science of
heating, ventilation, air conditioning,
and refrigeration for the public’s benefit
through research, standards writing, con-
tinuing education, and publications.
Site: www.ashrae.org
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Mixed Mode Ventilation: HVAC Meets
Mother Nature: A May 2000 article in
Engineered Systems about various op-
tions for building ventilation.
Site: www.esmagazine.com (see May
2000 archive)
Cost-Effective Open-Plan Environment
(COPE) Research Reports: Institute for
Research in Construction, National Re-
search Council and COPE Consortium.
In-depth studies of open-plan office
design variables and their effect on occu-
pant satisfaction, including workstation
design, indoor air quality and thermal
comfort, lighting and acoustics. Stud-
ies include field and literature reviews,
mock-up office experiments, and simula-
tions to investigate the many elements
of the open-plan office. (Some reports
are not yet available.)
Reports include:
• Environmental Satisfaction in Open-
Plan Environments: 2. Effects of
Workstation Size, Partition Height and
Windows
• Office Air Distribution Systems and
Environmental Satisfaction
• A Literature Review on the Relation-
ship between Outdoor Ventilation
Rates in Offices and Occupant Satis-
faction
• Investigation of Air and Thermal
Environments in a Mock-up Open
Plan Office: Measurements and CFD
Simulations
• The Effect of Office Design on Work-
station Lighting: Simulation Results
• Effects of Office Design on the Annual
Daylight Availability
Site: http://irc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/ie/cope/in
dex_e.html
Underfloor Air Technology: This ex-
tensive website by the University of
Berkeley’s Center for the Built Environ-
ment offers an overview of underfloor
air distribution systems provides design
and construction design guidelines,
research, sample plans and sections, as
well as several detailed case studies and
information resources.
Site: http://www.cbe.berkeley.edu/un
derfloorair/Default.htm
Hype vs. Reality: New Research Findings
on Underfloor Air Distribution Systems:
Describes potential benefits, pitfalls and
design and construction issues of under-
floor air distribution systems.
Site: http://www.cbe.berkeley.edu/RE
SEARCH/pdf_files/Lehrer2003_UFAD.pdf
NATVENT: projects.bre.co.uk/natvent/
CIB:
• Annex 20, Air Flow Patterns within
Buildings: http://www.ecbcs.org/An
nexes/annex20.htm
• Annex 23, Multizone Airflow Model-
ing: http://www.ecbcs.org/Annexes/
annex23.htm
• Annex 26, Air Flow in Large Enclo-
sures: http://www.ecbcs.org/Annexes/
annex26.htm
• Annex 35, Control Strategies for Hy-
brid Ventilation in New & Retrofitted
Office Buildings: http://www.ecbcs.
org/Annexes/annex35.htm
Print Media
• ASHRAE Handbook: Fundamentals,
ASHRAE, 2001.
• ASHRAE Handbook: HVAC Systems and
Equipment, ASHRAE, 2004.
• Grumman, D. ASHRAE GreenGuide,
ASHRAE, 2003.
• Designer’s Guide to Ceiling-Based Air
Diffusion, ASHRAE, 2002.
• Displacement Ventilation in Non-Indus-
trial Premises, REHVA, 2001.
• Heating, Ventilating, and Air Condition-
ing: Analysis and Design, 4th Edition,
by Faye McQuiston and Jerald Parker,
John Wiley & Sons, 1993.
• Bearg, D. Indoor Air Quality and HVAC
Systems, CRC, 1993.
• Chen, Q. & Glicksman, L. System
Performance Evaluation and Design
Guidelines for Displacement Ventila-
tion, ASHRAE, 2003.
• Bauman, F. & Daly, A. Underfloor Air
Distribution Design Guide, ASHRAE,
2000.
EQc2 – begins on original reference guide page 354
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• UK CIBSE Application Manuals <www.
cibse.org>
- AM10, “Natural Ventilation in
Non-domestic Buildings”
- AM 11, “Building Energy & En-
vironmental Modeling”
- AM13, “Mixed Mode Ventila-
tion”
• “Wind Towers: Detail in Building”,
Battle McCarthy Consulting Engi-
neers, 1999, Wiley & Sons. ISBN
0-471-98087-0
• “Climate Considerations in Building &
Urban Design”, Baruch Givoni, 1998,
Wiley & Sons,. ISBN 0-471-29177-3
• “Passive & Low Energy Cooling in Build-
ings”, Baruch Givoni, 1994, Wiley &
Sons. ISBN 0-471-28473-4
• “The Technology of Ecological Build-
ing”, K. Daniels, 1996, Birkhauser
Verlag. ISBN 3-7643-5461-5
Definitions
Age of Air: The average amount of
time that has elapsed since a sample of
air molecules at a specific location has
entered the building.
Air-Change Effectiveness: A measure-
ment based on a comparison of the age
of air in the occupied portions of the
building to the age of air that would
exist under conditions of perfect mixing
of the ventilation air.
Conditioned Space: The portion of
the building that is heated or cooled,
or both, for the comfort of building oc-
cupants.
Natural Ventilation: The process of
supplying and removing air without
mechanical ductwork in building spaces
by using openings such as windows and
doors, non-powered ventilators, and
infiltration processes.
Occupied Zone: the region normally
occupied by people within a space,
generally considered to be between the
floor and 1.8m (6 ft) above the floor and
more than 1.0m (3.3 ft) from outside
walls/windows or fixed heating, ventilat-
ing or air conditioning equipment and
0.3m (1 ft) from internal walls.
Regularly-Occupied Zone or Space:
Zones or spaces normally occupied dur-
ing typical building operating hours.
Tracer Gas: Gas that can be mixed with
building air in small amounts to study
airflow patterns and measure the age of
air and air-change rates.
Ventilation: Process of supplying and
removing air by natural or mechanical
means in building spaces.
Ventilation Effectiveness: The move-
ment of the supply air and its fresh
outdoor air through the occupied space.
High ventilation effectiveness is essential
for making full use of the outside air that
is supplied and minimize the energy used
to condition and deliver it.
Regional Variations
The requirements of this Credit are uni-
versally applicable across Canada.
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Construction IAQ Management Plan:
During Construction
Intent
Prevent indoor air quality problems resulting from the construction/renovation
process in order to help sustain the comfort and well-being of construction workers
and building occupants.
Requirements
Develop and implement an Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Management Plan for the
construction and pre-occupancy phases of the building as follows:
• During construction meet or exceed the recommended Design Approaches
of the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractor’s National Association
(SMACNA) IAQ Guideline for Occupied Buildings under Construction, 1995,
Chapter 3.
• Protect stored on-site or installed absorptive materials from moisture dam-
age.
• If air handlers must be used during construction, filtration media with a
Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value (MERV) of 8 must be used at each
return air grill, as determined by ASHRAE 52.2-1999.
• Make provisions for inspections of building and HVAC systems for deficien-
cies that could adversely affect the IAQ (e.g. moisture in HVAC system, water
damaged walls, construction debris in ceiling spaces, materials stored near
air intakes, etc.), and the correction of any deficiencies found from building
inspections.
Submittals
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the general contractor or
responsible party, declaring that a Construction IAQ Management Plan
has been developed and implemented, and listing each air filter used dur-
ing construction and at the end of construction. Include the MERV value,
manufacturer name and model number.
AND
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the responsible party, verifying
that any necessary corrections and/or mitigations resulting from inspections
that could adversely affect IAQ have been completed.
AND
Provide 18 photographs - six photographs taken on three different occasions
during construction - along with identification of the SMACNA approach
featured by each photograph, in order to show consistent adherence to
the Credit requirements.
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Construction IAQ Management Plan:
Testing Before Occupancy
Intent
Minimize indoor air quality problems resulting from the construction/renovation
process in order to help sustain the comfort and well-being of construction workers
and building occupants.
Requirements
Develop and implement an Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Management Plan for the pre-
occupancy phase that follows one of the three options below:
Option 1. Building Flush Prior to Occupancy
Prior to occupancy, and after construction ends and all interior finishes are installed,
install new filtration media, and flush-out the building by supplying a total air volume
of 4,300m
3
of outdoor air per m
2
of floor area (14,100 ft
3
of outdoor air per ft
2
of
floor area) while maintaining an internal temperature of at least 16C (60F) and,
where mechanical cooling is operated, relative humidity no higher than 60%.
Option 2. Building Flush Overlapping with Occupancy
After construction ends and all interior finishes installed, install new filtration media
and flush-out the building by supplying a minimum of 0.76 L/s/m
2
(0.15 cfm/ft
2
) of
outside air to all occupied spaces for at least three hours prior to each occupancy;
and during occupancy, the greater of 0.76 L/s/m
2
(0.15 cfm/ft
2
) or the design
minimum outside air supply, for the duration of the flush-out period. Spaces may
only be occupied following delivery of a minimum of 1,075m
3
of outdoor air per
m
2
of floor area (3,530 ft
3
of outdoor air per ft
2
of floor area). Continue the flush-
out until a total air volume of 4,300m
3
of outdoor air per m
2
of floor area (14,100
ft
3
of outdoor air per ft
2
of floor area) has been provided.
Option 3. IAQ Testing Prior to Occupancy
Conduct baseline IAQ testing, after construction ends and prior to occupancy, using
testing protocols consistent with the United States Environmental Protection Agency
“Compendium of Methods for the Determination of Air Pollutants in Indoor Air”
and demonstrate that the contaminants listed in Table 1 are not exceeded, taking
remedial actions and repeating procedure until all requirements have been met.
Submittals
If either of the first two compliance option are used, provide the LEED Letter
Template, signed by the architect, general contractor or responsible party,
describing the building flush-out procedures, including start and stop dates,
outdoor airflow volumes and durations, and total volume of flush air. In the
event of an audit of this Credit, document the background calculations that
demonstrate that the required total air volumes and minimum ventilation
rates have been delivered.
OR,
If the IAQ testing option is used, provide the LEED Letter Template, signed
by the environmental consultant, declaring that the referenced standard’s
IAQ testing protocols have been followed, and provide a copy of IAQ
testing results indicating that the air quality testing has been completed
and maximum chemical contaminant concentration requirements are not
exceeded in the areas tested.
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Table 1: Maximum Concentration Criteria of IAQ Pollutants
Contaminant Maximum Concentration
Particulate Matter (PM10) 50 ug/m
3
Formaldehyde 50 parts per billion
Total Volatile Organic Compounds 500 ug/m
3
Carbon Monoxide 9 PPM and no greater than 2 PPM above outdoors
4-Phenycyclohexene (4-PC) * 6.5 ug/m
3
* Required only if carpets with Styrene Butadiene (SB) latex backing material are installed.
Summary of Referenced Standards
SMACNA IAQ Guideline for Occupied Buildings Under Construction, 1995
Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractor’s National Association (SMACNA),
www.smacna.org, (703) 803-2980
This standard provides an overview of air pollutants associated with construction,
control measures, construction process management, quality control, commu-
nications with occupants, and case studies. Consult the referenced standard for
measures to protect the building HVAC system during construction and demolition
activities.
ANSI/ASHRAE 52.2-1999: Method of Testing General Ventilation Air-Cleaning De-
vices for Removal Efficiency by Particle Size
ASHRAE, www.ashrae.org, (800) 527-4723
This standard presents methods for testing air cleaners for two performance char-
acteristics: the ability of the device to remove particles from the air stream and
the device’s resistance to airflow. The minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV)
is based on three composite average particle size removal efficiency (PSE) points.
Consult the standard for a complete explanation of MERV value calculations. Filtra-
tion media used during the construction process must have a MERV of 8.
US EPA “Compendium of Methods for the Determination of Air Pollutants in Indoor
Air” www.arb.ca.gov/research/indoor/methods.htm
This document describes technical details of indoor air quality test procedures and
equipment, used by the US EPA. It covers both passive and active techniques, and
analytical procedures.
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Low-Emitting Materials:
Adhesives & Sealants
Intent
Reduce the quantity of indoor air contaminants that are odorous, potentially irritat-
ing and/or harmful to the comfort and well-being of installers and occupants.
Requirements
The VOC content of adhesives, sealants and sealant primers used must be less than
the VOC content limits of the State of California’s South Coast Air Quality Manage-
ment District (SCAQMD) Rule #1168, June 2006.
Submittals
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the architect or responsible
party, listing the adhesives and sealants used within the weatherproofing
system of the building and declaring that they meet the noted requirements.
List the adhesives and sealants by application type (as noted in SCAQMD)
and the required VOC limit.
If an audit is requested during the certification process:
Provide cut sheets, Material Safety Data sheets (MSDSs), signed attestations
or other official literature from manufacturers clearly identifying product
emissions rates.
If an audit is requested during the certification process:
Provide cut sheets, Material Safety Data sheets (MSDSs), signed attestations
or other official literature from manufacturers clearly identifying product
emissions rates.
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Low-Emitting Materials:
Paints and Coatings
Intent
Reduce the quantity of indoor air contaminants that are odorous, potentially irritat-
ing and/or harmful to the comfort and well-being of installers and occupants.
Requirements
Paints and coatings used on the interior of the building (defined as inside of the
weatherproofing system and applied on-site) shall comply with the following cri-
teria:
Architectural paints, coatings and primers applied to interior walls and
ceilings: Do not exceed the VOC content limits established in Green Seal
Standard GS-11, Paints, First Edition, May 20, 1993.
• Flats
• Non-Flats
Anti-corrosive and anti-rust paints applied to interior ferrous metal sub-
strates: Do not exceed the VOC content limit established in Green Seal
Standard GC-03, Anti-Corrosive Paints, Second Edition, January 7, 1997.
Clear wood finishes, floor coatings, stains, and shellacs applied to interior
elements: Do not exceed the VOC content limits established in South Coast
Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule 1113, Architectural Coat-
ings, rules in effect on January 1, 2004.
• Clear wood finishes: varnish, lacquer
• Floor coatings
• Sealers: waterproofing sealers, sanding sealers, all other sealers
• Shellacs: clear, pigmented
• Stains
Submittals
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the architect or responsible
party, listing all the interior paints and coatings used in the building that
are addressed by Green Seal Standard GS-11, Green Seal Standard GC-03
and the SCAQMD Rule #1113. State that they comply with the VOC and
chemical component limits and/or chemical component restrictions of the
each standard and state which standard the product applies to.
If an audit is requested during the certification process:
Provide cut sheets, Material Safety Data sheets (MSDSs), signed attesta-
tions or other official literature from manufacturers clearly identifying VOC
contents.
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Table 2: California South Coast Air Quality Management District Rule #1168
PVC Welding
CPVC Welding
ABS Welding
Plastic Cement Welding
Adhesive Primer for Plastic
Computer Diskette Manufacturing
Contact Adhesive
Special Purpose Contact Adhesive
Tire Retread
Adhesive Primer for Traffic Marking Tape
Structural Wood Member Adhesive
Sheet Applied Rubber Lining Operations
Top and Trim Adhesive
VOC Limits and Effective Dates**
Current
VOC Limit
1-1-05 7-1-05 1-1-07
510
490
400
350
650
350
80
250
100
150
140
850
540
Specialty Applications
VOC Limit*, Less Water and Less Exempt Compounds in Grams per Liter
** The specified limits remain in effect unless revised limits are listed in subsequent columns.
Metal to Metal
Plastic Foams
Porous Material (except wood)
Wood
Fiberglass
Current VOCLimit
30
50
50
30
80
Substrate Specific Applications
If an adhesive is used to bond dissimilar substrates together the adhesive
with the highest VOC content shall be allowed.
Architectural
Marine Deck
Nonmembrane Roof
Roadway
Single-Ply Roof Membrane
Other
Current VOCLimit
250
760
300
250
450
420
Sealants
325
250
250

550
EQc4 – begins on original reference guide page 380
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Replace table 3 with the following:
Table 3: Extract from State of California South Coast Air Quality Management District’s Rule 1113 – Architectural
Coatings (Amended June 9, 2006)
Table of Standards: VOC Limits
Grams of VOC Per Litre of Coating, Less Water and Less Exempt Compounds
http://www.aqmd.gov/rules/reg/reg11/r1113.pdf
Coating Ceiling
Limit*
Current
Limit
Effective
1/1/03
Effective
1/1/04
Effective
1/1/05
Effective
7/1/06
Effective
7/1/07
Effective
7/1/08
Bond Breakers 350
Clear Wood Finishes
- varnish
- sanding sealers
- lacquer
350
350
350
680 550 275
275
275
275
Clear Brushing Lacquer 680 275
Concrete-Curing
Compounds
350 100
Concrete-Curing
Compounds
For Roadways & Bridges**
350
Dry-Fog Coatings 400 150
Fire-proofing Exterior
Coatings
450 350
Fire-retardant Coatings***
- clear
- pigmented
650
350
Flats 250 100 50
Floor Coatings 420 100 50
Graphic Arts (Sign) Coatings 500
Industrial Maintenance (IM)
Coatings
- High
Temperature IM
Coatings
- Zinc-Rich IM
Primers
420
420
420
340
250 100
100
Japans/Faux Finishing
Coatings
700 350
Magnesite Cement Coatings 600 450
Mastic Coatings 300
Metallic Pigmented Coatings 500
Multi-Color Coatings 420 250
EQc4 – begins on original reference guide page 381
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Table 3: Extract from State of California South Coast Air Quality Management District’s Rule 1113 – Architectural
Coatings (Amended June 9, 2006) continued
Coating Ceiling
Limit*
Current
Limit
Effective
1/1/03
Effective
1/1/04
Effective
1/1/05
Effective
7/1/06
Effective
7/1/07
Effective
7/1/08
Nonflat Coatings
- Nonflat High
Gloss
250
250
150
150
50
50
Pigmented Lacquer 680 550 275
Pre-Treatment Wash
Primers
780 420
Primers, Sealers, and
Undercoaters
350 200 100
Quick-Dry Enamels 400 250 150 50
Quick-Dry Primers, Sealers,
and Undercoaters
350 200 100
Recycled Coatings 250
Roof Coatings
- Roof Coatings,
Aluminum
300
500
250 50
100
Roof Primers, Bituminous 350 350
Rust Preventative Coatings 420 400 100
Shellac
- Clear
- Pigmented
730
550
Specialty Primers 350 250 100
Stains
- Stains, Interior
350
250
250 100
Swimming Pool Coatings
- Repair
- Other
650
340
340
Traffic Coatings 250 150 100
Waterproofing Sealers 400 250 100
Waterproofing
Concrete/Masonry Sealers
400 100
Wood Preservatives
- Below-Ground
- Other
350
350
* The specified limits remain in effect unless revised limits are listed in subsequent columns in the Table of Standards.
** Does not include compounds used for curbs and gutters, sidewalks, islands, driveways and other miscellaneous concrete
areas.
*** The Fire-Retardant Coating category will be eliminated on January 1, 2007 and subsumed by the coating category for
which they are formulated.
EQc4 – begins on original reference guide page 381
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100 gVOCs/L
50 gVOCs/L
250 gVOCs/L
175 gVOCs/L
TVOC: 0.25 mg/m2-hr after 24 hr
Formaldehyde: 0.02 mg/m2-hr
after 48 hrs
VOCs <= 4% by weight
VOCs <= 8% by weight
VOCs <= 7% by weight
VOCs <= 5% by weight
Non-flat Low-VOC Paints
Flat Low-VOC Paints
Varnishes
Stains
Carpeting, Commercial
Modular (tiles)
Sealants & Caulking
Compounds
Contact Adhesives
Multi-purpose Construction
Adhesives
Special Purpose Construction
Adhesives
Emissions Criterion Remarks Product
Table 5: Environmental Choice (EcoLogo) Criteria
http://www.environmentalchoice.ca
** The specified limits remain in effect unless revised limits are listed in subsequent columns.
More stringent than Green Seal GS-11
Interior Coating criteria/
Same as Green Seal GS-11 Interior
Coating criteria.
More stringent than SCAQMD Rule 1113.
More stringent than SCAQMD Rule 1113.
- Formaldehyde criterion is less stringent
than CRI Green Labels' - No requirement
for 4-PC(4-Phenylcyclohexene) or Styrene,
unlike CRI Green Label
Environmental Choice criterion in weight
terms, instead of g/L as SCAQMD criterion,
so will require conversion calculations to
demonstrate compliance.
Environmental Choice criterion in weight
terms, instead of g/L as SCAQMD criterion,
so will require conversion calculations to
demonstrate compliance.
Environmental Choice criterion in weight
terms, instead of g/L as SCAQMD criterion,
so will require conversion calculations to
demonstrate compliance.
Environmental Choice criterion in weight
terms, instead of g/L as SCAQMD criterion,
so will require conversion calculations to
demonstrate compliance.
EQc4 – begins on original reference guide page 387
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Design Strategies
Strategies
This Credit applies to materials that have
the ability to adversely affect indoor air
quality (IAQ) in interior spaces. While
projects should strive to use low emitting
materials on the building exterior of the
project site, their use is not addressed
under this Credit.
All materials that are applied onsite and
fall within the weatherproofing barrier
will be considered as potential sources of
indoor contaminants and are therefore
subject to the requirements of credits
EQc4.1, EQc4.2, EQc4.3 and EQc4.4.
Develop a project outline specification in
early design stages, and include criteria
for materials with low-VOC characteris-
tics using current requirements from the
standards referenced by this Credit.
Materials to address include construction
and finishing materials; special atten-
tion should be paid to large quantities
of materials that will be exposed to the
indoor air.
Research and specify low-VOC products
based on durability, performance, and
environmental characteristics. Mate-
rial Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) from
product manufacturers may not always
include information on VOC content, so
it may be necessary to request emissions
test data from product manufacturers.
Specifiers should note that many claims
of “zero VOC” or “low VOC” paint claims
are based on a limited range of tints;
exceeding their tint range may void the
VOC claim. Ensure that contaminant
limits are clearly stated in Division 1 and
in specification sections where adhesives,
sealants, coatings, carpets, and compos-
ite woods are addressed.
Consider field monitoring for emission
levels in the building during installa-
tion and prior to building occupancy.
Consider implementing an ongoing,
periodic review of IAQ over the lifetime
of the building. Canada’s Environmental
Choice EcoLogo program certifies many,
but not all finishes covered by this Credit
and Sub-Credits. A summary of EcoLogo-
certified VOC requirements can be found
in Table 5. Compliance with the cited
standards should be checked by users.
Synergies and Trade-Offs
Material selection is important to creat-
ing interior spaces with low-VOC levels.
Locally sourced materials and those
materials created with recycled content,
rapidly renewable materials, and certi-
fied wood may have high VOC content
and, thus, may be inappropriate for the
project.
Use of low-VOC products improves in-
door air quality during the construction
process as well as over the lifetime of the
building. Selection of low-VOC carpets,
adhesives, paints, finishes and sealants
can greatly help IAQ test results required
by EQc3.
Calculations
This Credit applies to products and
installation processes that have the abil-
ity to adversely affect indoor air quality
(IAQ) on site: those that are exposed to
interior spaces accessible by occupants.
While projects should strive to limit the
use of VOC-emitting materials on the
building exterior or the project site, their
use is not addressed under this Credit.
Documentation for the four Sub-Cred-
its normally consists of recordkeeping.
Compile a list of products and materials
that are applied onsite and used within
the weatherproofing barrier. Include cor-
responding manufacturer names, emis-
sion information (e.g. VOC contents),
referenced standard categories and any
referenced standard category require-
ments. If this Credit is audited during
the LEED certification review, provide
cut sheets, Material Safety Data sheets
(MSDSs), signed attestations or other
official literature from manufacturers
clearly identifying VOC contents.
EQc4 – begins on original reference guide page 388
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Indoor Chemical & Pollutant Source Control
Intent
Provide capacity for indoor air quality (IAQ) monitoring to help sustain long-term
occupant comfort and well-being.
Minimize exposure of building occupants to potentially hazardous particulates,
biological contaminants and chemical pollutants that adversely impact air and
water quality.
Requirements
Design to minimize pollutant cross-contamination of regularly occupied areas:
• Employ permanent entryway systems (grills, grates, etc.) to capture dirt, par-
ticulates, etc. from entering the building at all high volume entryways.
• Where hazardous gases or chemicals may be present or used (including
garages, housekeeping/laundry areas, and copying/printing rooms), provide
segregated areas with deck to deck partitions with separate outside exhaust
at a rate of at least 9.2 cubic meters per hour per square meter (0.50 cubic
feet per minute per square foot), no air re-circulation, and operated at a
negative pressure compared with the surrounding spaces of at least an
average of 5 Pa (0.02 inches of water gauge) and with a minimum of 1 Pa
(0.004 inches of water) when the door(s) to the room(s) are closed.
• Provide containment drains plumbed for appropriate disposal of hazard-
ous liquid wastes in places where water and chemical concentrate mixing
occurs for maintenance or laboratory purposes.
• Replace all filtration media immediately prior to occupancy. Filtration
media shall have a Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value (MERV) of 13, as
determined by ASHRAE 52.2-1999 for media installed at the end of con-
struction.
Submittals
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the architect or responsible
party, declaring that:
• Permanent entryway systems (grilles, grates, etc.) to capture dirt, particu-
lates, etc. are provided at all high volume entryways.
• Chemical use areas and copy rooms have been physically separated with
deck-to-deck partitions and self-closing doors; and independent exhaust
ventilation has been installed that meets Credit requirements.
• In spaces where water and chemical concentrate mixing occurs, drains
are plumbed for environmentally appropriate disposal of liquid waste, as
determined by applicable regulations and standards.
If an audit is requested during the certification process:
Provide annotated photographs of entryway systems, chemical use areas,
copy rooms and containment drains/sinks for disposal of hazardous liquid
wastes.
Provide mechanical plans that show independent exhaust ventilation for
all chemical use and copy rooms.
Provide a schedule listing filtration media installed prior to occupancy, in-
cluding its MERV value. Provide an approved shop drawing of each type
of filtration media listed in the schedule.
EQc5 – begins on original reference guide page 392
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Summary of Reference Standard
ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999 Table 1 summarizes the requirements.
0.30-0.10 μm 1.0-3.0 μm 3.0-10.0 μm [Pa] [cm. of water]
< 75% ≥ 90% ≥ 90% 350 3.6
Composite Average Particle
Size Efficiency [%]
Minimum Final
Resistance
Table 1: Requirements for MERV Value of 13
Interpretations
• Acoustical lay-in ceilings are not able to contain or adequately isolate any
pollutants from leaking into other areas of the building, and may be prob-
lematic in maintaining a negative pressure differential as outlined in the
Credit requirements. If a ceiling is designed above space with uses that
contribute air pollutants, a continuous hard (gypsum board) ceiling to the
top of the walls is an adequate alternative to the deck to deck separation
requirement, as long as the construction methods and details demonstrate
that the assembly is adequate at containing and isolating pollutants/chemi-
cals.
• Non-occupied, conditioned spaces dedicated to specific industrial or ag-
ricultural processes may be exempted from installation of MERV-13 filters,
so long as they are appropriately sealed and maintained at a lower pres-
sure relative to adjacent occupied spaces, to prevent their contamination.
Submitted documentation should clearly demonstrate that the rooms are
unoccupied process areas and that they are designed to prevent air leak-
age to adjacent occupied areas. However, all areas within the building,
regardless of occupancy, must follow the remaining requirements of this
Credit.
• Exhaust systems are not required to use MERV-13 filters, since they do not
recirculate air within the building.
• The definition of a convenience copier or printer, as opposed to high-volume
copy/print equipment requiring dedicated exhausts, is left to the discretion
of the design team, but they are generally the smaller printers and copiers
shared by an individual or a small work group for short print and copy jobs
and located near their workstations, rather than in a central location.
• Dedicated copy and print rooms that are exhausted in compliance with this
Credit should be segregated from other occupied spaces with automati-
cally-closing doors, to ensure they are held at a lower pressure and minimize
movement of air pollutants. Theoretically, this can be accomplished solely
by maintaining negative pressure. To satisfy the overall intent of this Credit
using only this strategy, documentation must be provided that indicates
a pressure difference of at least 7 PA (0.03 inches of water gauge) across
any openings of these rooms at all times (including peak usage times). In a
room containing a large opening with no door, exhausting more air from
the room than is being supplied does not necessarily produce sufficient
negative pressure.
• Projects with attached garages must have independent exhaust systems
dedicated to the garages that maintain a negative pressure relative to oc-
cupied areas, to ensure that contaminants are not transferred by infiltration
or through open doors, etc.
EQc5 – begins on original reference guide page 392
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• Projects where entrances are placed within outdoor courtyards should in-
clude permanent entryway systems at each suite entrance, to capture dirt
and contaminants picked up on passage through the courtyard.
• Typical resident laundry rooms in multi-unit residential buildings do not
need dedicated exhausts unless they are also intended to be used to store
or mix potentially hazardous chemicals, such as janitorial cleaners, or store
mops, brushes, etc.
EQc5 – begins on original reference guide page 392
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Thermal Comfort:
Compliance with ASHRAE 55-2004
Intent
Provide a thermally comfortable environment that supports the productivity and
well-being of building occupants.
Requirements
Comply with ASHRAE Standard 55-2004, Thermal Comfort Conditions for Human
Occupancy.
Submittals
Provide the LEED Letter Template, signed by the engineer or responsible
party, declaring that the project complies with ASHRAE Standard 55-
2004.
If an audit is requested during the certification process:
Provide documentation of compliance per the standard as described in Sec-
tion 6.1.1-Documentation, including calculations of operative temperature
for radiantly conditioned spaces.
EQc7.1 – begins on original reference guide page 408
Credit 7.1
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WE EA MR EQ ID SS
Daylight and Views:
Views for 90% of Space
Intent
Provide for the building occupants a connection between indoor spaces and the
outdoors through the introduction of daylight and views into the regularly occupied
areas of the building.
Requirements
Achieve direct line of sight to the outdoor environment via vision glazing between
0.76 m (2’6”) and 2.3 m (7’6”) above finish floor for building occupants in 90%
of all regularly occupied areas. Areas directly connected to perimeter windows
must have a glazing-to-floor area ratio of at least 0.07. Determine the area with
direct line of sight by totalling the regularly occupied square footage that meets
the following criteria:
• In plan view, the area is within sight lines drawn from perimeter vision
glazing.
• In section view, a direct sight line can be drawn from the area to perimeter
vision glazing at a recommended height of 1.1 m. (42”), representing the
average seated height, or at an otherwise appropriate height as determined
by the design team.
Line of sight may be drawn through interior glazing. For private offices, the en-
tire square footage of the office can be counted if 75% or more of the area has
direct line of sight to perimeter vision glazing. In all other cases, if the view area
of any applicable room exceeds 90%, the entire square footage of the room can
be counted.
Submittals
Provide the LEED Letter Template declaring that the building occupants in
90% of regularly occupied areas will have direct lines of site to perimeter
glazing, with calculations that note actual glazing-to-floor area ratios for
perimeter windows. Provide floor plan drawings highlighting areas in non
perimeter zones with a direct line of sight to vision glazing in a perimeter
window that complies with the requirements.
If an audit of this Credit is requested during the certification process:
Provide section drawings for each typical window and wall height condi-
tion showing the direct line of sight for a seated occupant in non-perimeter
areas.
Interpretations
• Projects applying for EQc8.1 and EQc8.2 whose scope excludes areas
intended for future interior tenant improvements should address these
Credits’ requirements for finished interior spaces within their scope, and
ensure that future tenant improvements will also meet them. This can be
documented by including a commitment from the owner to use a set of
LEED based tenant improvement guidelines; these guidelines should be
provided with the projects application for certification. For example in the
daylighting calculations, model the spaces that are actually going to be
built-out in the current project; and for the future build-out areas, provide
a narrative of what steps must be taken in the rest of the shell that would
lead to similar performance (i.e., glazing and window area is consistent
EQc8.2 – begins on original reference guide page 420
Credit 8.2
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WE EA MR EQ ID SS
with built-out areas, and likely future use is as a similar layout.) Note that
the project scope used must be consistent for all LEED Credits pursued.
• EQc8.1 and EQc8.2 apply only to the hard construction of a project, and
determining if it affords views to the end user. Furniture systems brought
in by occupants, including mobile modular partitions are not considered
when completing the graphic inspection that must be submitted for cer-
tification. However, full height demountable walls installed as part of the
original shell scope of work should be considered in calculations for these
Credits.
• Skylights, roof monitors and vision glazing that are part of an atrium de-
sign do not qualify for views to the outdoors under EQ Credit 8, unless
they can be seen from a plane 1.01 m (42”) above the finished floor level,
representing the average seated height, or at an otherwise appropriate
height as determined by the design team. Views to atrium glazing should
be assessed in the same way as other vision glazing.
EQc8.2 – begins on original reference guide page 420
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room. Windows below 0.75m (2’6”)
and windows above 2.3m (7’6”) (includ-
ing daylight glazing, skylights and roof
monitors) do not qualify for the Credit.
For best results use a copy of the floor
plans and highlight areas of regularly
occupied rooms that have a direct line
of sight. Construct line of sight geom-
etries at each window to identify non-
view areas in each room (see Figure
2 for guidance). Remember to take
into account the wall thickness when
determining oblique angles of sight
through windows. Visually inspect each
room and compare areas with access to
views against areas without access. If
the view area is greater than or equal to
90% of the room area, then the square
footage of the entire room is applicable
to the Credit. For private offices, the
entire square footage of the office can
be counted if 75% or more of the area
has direct line of sight to perimeter vi-
sion glazing. In cases where it is difficult
to determine the percentage visually,
measure the actual square footage on
the plans more precisely. In rooms that
do not met the 75% or 90% threshold,
the actual area that has access to views
applies to the Credit.
2. Sum the square footage of all ap-
plicable rooms and divide by the total
square footage of all regularly occupied
spaces. If this percentage is greater than
90%, then the building qualifies for the
second point of this Credit.
Resources
Web Sites
A Literature Review of the Effects of
Natural Light on Building Occupants:
NREL/TP-550-30769, July 2002, L. Ed-
wards and P. Torcellini. A wide-ranging
compilation of international research
on benefits of daylighting and outdoor
views, covering offices, schools, retail
and health-care facilities.
Site: http://www.ornl.gov/sci/hybridlight
ing/pdfs/NREL_TP_550_30769.pdf
CIBSE Application Manual - Daylight-
ing and Window Design: Brief yet thor-
ough guide for daylighting and window
design, produced by the UK Chartered
Institute of Building Services Engineers.
Site: http://www.cibse.org/index.cfm
?go=publ i cat i ons. vi ew&PubI D=67
&L1=164
City of Santa Monica: Green Building
Design & Construction Guidelines: City
of Santa Monica, CA, April 1999: Com-
prehensive guidelines for green building
design and construction.
Site: http://greenbuildings.santa-monica.
org
The Sustainable Building Technical
Manual: Green Building Design, Con-
struction, and Operations: This manual
produced jointly by the U.S. Department
of Energy (DOE) and Public Technology,
Inc. (PTI) is one of the most comprehen-
sive publications now available to help
architects, developers, building owners,
government officials, and others imple-
ment sustainable development practices.
It contains more than 300 pages of
practical, step-by-step advice on sustain-
able buildings written by some of the
foremost experts in the field.
Site: http://freshstart.ncat.org/articles/
ptipub.htm
New Buildings Institute’s Productivity
and Building Science Program: Pro-
vides links to case studies and reports
on the benefits of daylighting.
Site: http://www.newbuildings.org/light
ing.htm
Psychosocial Value of Space: Judith
Heerwagen provides an excellent sum-
mary of the scientific research on the
impact of building environments on the
way people work and live, particularly
benefits of daylight, access to natural
views and personal environmental
control.
Site: http://www.wbdg.org/design/psych
space_value.php
Radiance Software: Free daylighting
simulation software from the Lawrence
Berkeley National Laboratory
Site: radsite.lbl.gov
EQc8.2 – begins on original reference guide page 429
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Tips for Daylighting with Windows: A
comprehensive guide to daylighting from
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Site: http://windows.lbl.gov/daylighting/
designguide/designguide.html
The Whole Building Design Guide: The
Daylighting and Lighting Control section
provides a wealth of resources including
definitions, fundamentals, materials and
tools.
Site: www.wbdg.org
Print Media
• Ander, G., (1995). Daylighting Perfor-
mance and Design. Wiley, New York,
NY.
• American Institute of Architects.
(1992). Architect’s Handbook of Energy
Practice: Daylighting, Washington,
DC.
• Evans, B., “Daylighting Design”, in
Time-Saver Standards for Architec-
tural Design Data, McGraw-Hill, Inc.,
1997.
• Guzowski, Mary, Daylighting for
Figure 2: An Illustration Showing Access to Views
O O O
O
O O
O
O O
G
O
11
EQc8.2 – begins on original reference guide page 429
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Innovation in Design
Intent
To provide design teams and projects the opportunity to be awarded points for
exceptional performance above the requirements set by the LEED Green Building
Rating System and/or innovative performance in Green Building categories not
specifically addressed by the LEED Green Building Rating System.
Requirements
Credit 1.1 (1 point) Identify the intent of the proposed innovation Credit,
the proposed requirement for compliance, the proposed
submittals to demonstrate compliance, and the design
approach (strategies) that might be used to meet the
requirements.
Credit 1.2 (1 point) Same as Credit 1.1
Credit 1.3 (1 point) Same as Credit 1.1
Credit 1.4 (1 point) Same as Credit 1.1
Submittals
Provide the LEED letter Template signed by the appropriate individual and
a narrative of the proposed ID credit including intent, requirements and
submittals.
AND
If Innovation in Design (ID) credit is based on Exemplary Performance of a LEED
Canada-NC credit provide all audit material required of that credit (Note: in
most cases this will be counted as one of the six credits selected for audit).
OR
If ID credit is based on achievement of a LEED credit from another LEED
rating system, provide the submittal information required for that credit.
OR
For all other cases, provide a detailed narrative (approximately 1 page)
describing the project’s approach to achievement of this credit. This narra-
tive should include a description of the environmental benefits of the credit
proposal and include calculations quantifying the benefit. Provide copies
of technical information (e.g., shop drawings, manufacturer’s literature),
photographs of the installation and supporting research, articles or letters
as to the environmental benefit of the proposed credit.
Interpretation
• The intent of Innovation in Design (ID) Credit 1 is to provide design teams
and projects the opportunity to be awarded points for exemplary perfor-
mance above the requirements set by the LEED Canada Green Building
Rating System and/or innovative strategies in green building categories
not specifically addressed by LEED.
• As a general rule of thumb, ID Credits for exceptional performance are
awarded for doubling the Credit requirements and/or achieving the next
incremental percentage threshold. For instance, an ID credit for exemplary
performance in water use reduction (WEc3) would require a minimum of
40% savings (20%=WEc3.1; 30%=WEc3.2, etc.).
IDc1 – begins on original reference guide page 434
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Educational Outreach Programs: To take advantage of the educational value of
the green building features of a project and to earn a LEED point, any approach
should be actively instructional; i.e., informing and engaging users to take action
on the basis of information presented. Two of the following four elements must be
included in the educational program; at least one should be actively instructional
while others may be passive:
1. A comprehensive signage program built into the building’s spaces to
educate the occupants and visitors of the benefits of green buildings. This
program may include windows to view energy-saving mechanical equip-
ment or signs to call attention to water-conserving landscape features. To
be acceptable as a comprehensive signage program, multiple signs must
be highly visible throughout the building. Signage must also be varied (i.e.,
one sign repeated is not acceptable) and informative (describing process
and measures that achieve one or more LEED credit intents). Examples
include:
a. Active — A signage program that prompts action from the user at each
sign (e.g., explaining the usage of a new technology).
b. Passive — A signage program that highlights green features in the
building.
2. The development of a manual, guideline or case study to inform the design
of other buildings based on the successes of this project. This manual will
be made available to the CaGBC for sharing with other projects. Examples
include:
a. Active — A detailed document (e.g., ~5000 words with images / graphs)
that educates or transfers knowledge to designers of future buildings.
The case study must be combined with an effective outreach program
that promotes and disseminates the case study to a wide audience
(e.g., through website, conference presentations).
b. Passive — Brochure made available at the building site to all occupants
and guests.
3. An educational outreach program or guided tour could be developed to
focus on sustainable living, using the project as an example. Examples
include:
Active —Tours, delivered by live tour guide or audio/video recorded mes-
saging, that are actively promoted and delivered on a regular basis (e.g.,
weekly over several months).
a. Passive — Brochure or LCD display with station points for self-guided
tours.
4. Use of electronic media is acceptable as another education approach. Ex-
amples include:
a. Active — Interactive computer kiosk or website with real-time monitor-
ing data and/or animation.
b. Passive — Scrolling through screens on computer kiosk or website.
Other educational elements may be accepted on their merits. It is important to
note that the educational strategies should include diverse media that respond to
different learning styles and audiences.
IDc1 – begins on original reference guide page 434
Credit 1

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