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TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

Chapter-1

1.0INTRODUCTION

1.1 General

The port of Tuticorin (Port code : INTUT) is located in Gulf of Mannar adjoining the
Tamilnadu state on the east coast of India at Latitude 845N and Longitude 7813E. It is
located approximately 160 kms on the north east of Kanyakumari and about 129 nautical
miles from the International main shipping sea route connecting far East with the western
region as shown in Fig 1. The present port basic details are presented in Table 1.

Fig 1: location of study area and connectivity to international sea roots

1.1 Historical Perspective:

The Earliest mention of Tuticorin in literature dates back to 88 AD. Tamil literature and
Historical records highlight the Pearl Fisheries of Tuticorin. It was also known for its well
guarded natural harbor. The Portuguese sailed into Tuticorin in 1532 and the Dutch in 1649.
Thereafter many European visitors, particularly English travelers meticulously recorded their
impression of Tuticorin. The English East India Company took over the administration of
Tuticorin in June 1825.

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TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

Table 1: Basic details of Tuticorin Port

Sl. No Item Description

1 Area The water area is 3903.5 ha (3888.8 ha +14.70 ha) and land
area is 1018.88 ha (870.75 ha + 148.13 ha). Sum indicates the
area pertaining to artificial harbour and old anchorage port.

2 Breakwaters The length of Southern breakwater is 3876 m and Northern


breakwater is 4086 m. These two breakwaters are 1275 m
apart and provide an entrance of width about 150 m.

3 Approach Channel Length =2500 m, Width = 183 m, depth = -14.6 m CD.


Channel is oriented along Southeast direction.

4 Turning Circle Diameter = 488 m & depth = -14.6m CD

5 Dredged Depths Approach channel : -14.6 m CD


Dock basin : -11.9 m CD

6 Cargo handling Alongside berths : 6 Nos


berths Multipurpose berth : 1 No.
(Specific details of Container berths : 2 No.
all these berths are
given in table 9) Coal jetties : 2 No.
North cargo berths : 2 No.
Oil jetty : 1 No.
Shallow berth : 1 No.

Tuticorin also became the citadel of freedom struggle in the early 20th century. V.O.
Chidambaranar sowed the seeds of nationalism and independence with the Doctrine of
Swadeshi and boycott. After undergoing ordeals and struggle, he launched the First Swadeshi
Navigation Company in 1907. The Swadeshi vessels S.S. Gaelia and S.S. Lavo were operated
between Tuticorin and Colombo. Launching of Swadeshi ship despite adverse environment
was an important milestone in Indias freedom struggle. V.O. Chidambaranar Port was
declared as the 10th Indian Major Port on 11th July, 1974 by the Government of India. On 1st
April, 1979 the erstwhile Anchorage Port and the newly constructed Harbour were merged
and integrated forming Port Trust Act, 1963. V.O. Chidambaranar Port trust has two
operational wings, Zone A comprises of the new major port with land area of 2253 acres
and Water spread of 857 acres. Zone B representing the Minor Port which handles small
sailing vessels and barges, possesses Land Area of 365.88 acres and Water Spread of 36.31
acres.

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TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

1.2 Accreditations:

V.O. Chidambaranar Port is the first Indian Major Port to be certified under ISO 9002: 1994
for Quality Management System and was upgraded to ISO 9001:2008. V.O. Chidambaranar
Port has acquired the ISO 14001:2004 for Environmental Management system. The port is
also certified for compliance of ISPS code.

1.3 Commodities handled:

V.O. Chidambaranar Port has been predominantly a bulk import port catering to the industrial
needs of Tuticorin Thermal Power Station, Sterlite Industries Ltd., Southern Petrochemical
Industries Corporation Ltd., Dharangadhara Chemical Works Ltd., and a number of Thermal
Power plants, cement factories and textile mills located in the Hinterland.

The major items of import cargoes are Coal, Copper Concentrate, Fertilizers and Fertilizer
raw materials such as Rock Phosphate and Sulphur, POL, Phosphoric acid, EDC, VCM,
Liquid Ammonia, Timber Logs, Raw Cashew, Pulses, Pulpwood, Iron Scrap, Raw Sugar etc.

The items of export cargoes are Silt, Cement, Construction materials, Tea, Coffee, Granite
Stone, Ilmenite Sand, Garnet sand, Cashew Kernels, Wheat, Sugar, and other general
cargoes.

The main commodities exported through containers are Coir products, Chilly, Cashew
kernels, Dry flower and garments. In the import front, the commodities include Raw Cashew,
Machinery, Plywood, Raw Cotton, Waste paper, Iron Scrap, Wood logs etc.

The port commands a hinterland covering major parts of Tamilnadu, parts of Karnataka and
Kerala. This region bounds with agricultural and plantation produce and variety of mineral
sources. A number of industries have developed in and around the port. The major cargo
handled at this port includes thermal coal, containers, fertilizers, food grains. Due to
continuous growth of cargo traffic, port intended to plane both horizontal and vertical
expansion in the inner and outer harbour areas. This is a feasibility report for the development
of inner harbour facilities, includes existing situation, port facilities, traffic projection up to
2022-23 and Assessment of design vessels, etc.

1.4 Connectivity

Table 2: Connectivity of Hinterland to Port

Road Connected with NH 45B, NH 138 and East Coast Road

Rail Connected with Southern Railway Network

Air Tuticorin Airport facilities Service to Chennai and Bangalore. Madurai


Airport is 100 miles from Tuticorin. One helipad is available in Port Estate.

1.5 Storage Facilities Available


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TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

Table 3: Covered Storages

Sl. No Covered Storage Nos Total Area

1 Transit sheds 2 10,800 Sq.m

2 Warehouses 3 14,940 Sq.m

Table 4: Open Storage Areas

Sl. No Open Storage Type Area

1 Near VIII Berth Paved 50,000 Sq.m

Unpaved 1,00,000 Sq.m

2 Near Warehouses Unpaved 3,15,000 Sq.m

3 Container yard Paved 50,085 Sq.m

Table 5: Covered Storage Outside Security Wall

Sl. No Covered Godowns Nos Area ( Sq. m)

1 Tamilnadu warehouse Corporation 13 47,647

2 Indian Potash Limited 3 20,897

3 Tamilnadu Civil Supply Corporation 1 3,132

4 Rashtriya Chemicals And Fertilizers 1 12,000

5 Krishak Bharathi Co-operative Ltd. 1 15,000

6 Private Parties 3 6,000

1.7 Managing the Environment

Environmental care is part and parcel of all the V.O. Chidambaranar Port development
projects right from the concept stage. The Port has obtained ISO 14001: 2004 for the
Environmental Management System in the tear 2005 as the second major port in India. V.O.
Chidambaranar Port has been awarded the Gold Award in service sector for outstanding
achievement in Environmental Management System by the Greentech Foundation
recognized by the Government of India in the year 2011 and 2012. The Port had got the silver
award from the same organization in service sector continuously for the years 2008, 2009,
2010. The critical parameters of air, water, noise pollution are very closely monitored. Bio-
medical waste and e-waste are also properly taken care of as per guidelines through the
Environmental Management System.

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TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

Table 6: Open Storage Outside Security Wall

Sl. No Open Area Area

1 Granite yard 28,700 Sq.m

2 Container yard 1,48,500 Sq.m

3 Others (Construction Materials, Machinery, Steel Sheets etc.) 1,81,620 Sq.m

1.8 Automation

The Port has a full-fledged Integrated Computer System. All land allotment requests are
accepted through the web based Land management System. The Port Community System
links all the members of the Port Community including Exporters, Importers, Custom House
Agents, Shipping lines, Shipping Agents, Stevedores, Transport operators, Banks, Ports,
Terminal operators, Customs, and other organizations/ companies in the maritime logistics
chain. The port is also in the process of implementing Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP).

1.9 Inner Harbour Projects

Table 7: Inner Harbour Projects going to plan

Project Cargo Capacity Addition


(MT per annum)

Construction of North Cargo Berth II Thermal Coal 7.20

Construction of North Cargo Berth III Coal and Rock Phosphate 9.15

Construction of North Cargo Berth IV Coal and Copper 9.15


Concentrate

Construction of Shallow Draught Berth Cement and Related Raw 2.67


Materials

Construction of Barge Unloading Jetties Coal 2.00

Up-gradation of Mechanical Handling --- 8.72


Equipment

1.10 Outer Harbour Project

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TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

Table 8: year wise execution plan of Outer Harbour Plan

Phase Total Berth Types Period of Traffic Cost Rs in


Berths Execution Forecast Cr.
(MTPA)

Phase I 5 Nos Coal - 2 Nos 2015-21 43.30 6740


Container - 2 Nos
LNG - 1 No

Phase II 2 Nos Container -1 No 2022-28 27.7 1364


LNG -1 No

Phase III 3 Nos Coal -1 No 2029-35 57.8 2057


Container -2 Nos

Phase IV 4 Nos POL -1 No 2036-42 22.6 1732


Container -2 Nos
LNG -1 No

Fig. 2 Details of existing berths at Tuticorin Port

1.11 Existing physical details

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TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

Tuticorin Port is an artificial harbour impounding sheltered waters between northern and
southern breakwaters which are facing Sri Lanka on the opposite side. These two breakwaters
run almost parallel and provide an entrance at ocean end. The general details of this port are
indicated in the table 9. General layout indicating the details of breakwaters, reclaimed area
and existing berths is shown in figure 2.

1.12 Climate and Meteorological Conditions

The general details of climate and meteorological conditions (including rainfall, visibility,
maximum humidity, winds and Cyclone) are given in the Table 10 and 11.

The tide levels from Chart Datum at Tuticorin are given below.

Mean Lower Low Water Springs : + 0.25 m.

Mean Low Water Springs : + 0.29 m.

Mean Low Water Neaps : + 0.55 m.

Mean Sea Level : + 0.64 m.

Mean High Water Neaps : + 0.71 m.

Mean High Water Springs : + 0.99 m.

Table 10: Tidal Currents around Tuticorin Port

Description Fair Season SW Monsoon NE Monsoon

J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M Remarks

Speed of 0.5 kNots ~ 0.5 1 Maximum recorded


current kNots currents 1.05 & 0.8
kNots during spring
Direction Towards E NE Southwards and neap respectively.
occasionally S SSE to SSW

Table 9: Particulars of Existing Berths at Tuticorin Port

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TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

Table 11: Climate and Meteorological Conditions of Tuticorin

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TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

Season SW Monsoon NE Monsoon

Item Month M J J A S O N D J F M Remarks

Rain Fall O,N,D are wettest months


Max.909mm,Min.294mm,
Av.601mm No of Rainy days=49,
Single day maximum=191mm

Visibility Good, Visibility up to 10 to 20 Km for 330 days

Max Humidity 52 82 Av.(Summer)= 61%


(%) Av.(Winter) = 81%

W O Speed 27.5 KMPH


i c
n e Direct From From N &
d a ion S,SW,W NE
n

L Speed 29 KMPH
a
n Direct From
d ion WNW to
WSW

Cyclones Not frequent in the area around Tuticorin. But in Nov. 1992, a gust speed of
113 KMPH has been observed damaging south breakwater

1.13 Wave climate

The break waters at Tuticorin Port were designed for a wave height (H1/10) of 4.6 m (or
equivalent (Hs) of 3.62 with design significant period (Ts) of 10 s. The wave data for a period
from 1950 to 1959, ship based data was presented in Table 12 and Table 13.

1.14 Littoral Drift

The area in and around Tuticorin port is almost free from Littoral Drift.

Table 12: Distribution of Wave Heights

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TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

Wave Height (m) No of Days of occurrence % of time of occurrence


in year in year

0.00-0.61 94 25.40

0.62-1.22 112 30.70

1.23-1.83 89 24.40

1.84-2.44 54 14.80

2.45-3.05 9 2.47

3.06-3.66 3 0.83

3.67-4.27 3 0.83

4.27 and above 1 0.27

Table 13: Distribution of Wave Periods

Wave Period (s) No of Days of occurrence in % of time of occurrence


a year in year

0.0-5.0 183 50.12

5.1-7.0 110 30.20

7.1-9.0 41 11.20

9.1-11.0 12 3.28

11.1-13.0 4 1.10

13.1-15.0 3 0.82

15.1 and above 12 3.30

1.15Geological Conditions

The general features of geological conditions of port are indicated below.

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TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

1. Shore area is very fine sand except for a thin layer of about 2 m of limestone
occurring between -6 to -7 m below CD.
2. Flat and Low with levels varying +1.2m to +1.7 m below ground level.
3. GWL varies between 0.6 m to 1.2 m below ground level.
4. Water is saline in most areas.
5. Seabed is shallow with depth of 1m below CD at 480 m and -10 m below CD at
3000 m from shore line.

1.16 Geotechnical Details

A strata of porous lime stone of 2.4 m thick is present. This layer is of medium strength
having some shells. The crushing strength varies in the range of 449 to 1206 t/m and split
tensile strength range of 168 to 502 t/m. The specific gravity varies from 2.66 to 2.7. In the
water depth of 10 to 13 m around the port, the top one meter below this layer, calcareous sand
stone and hard lime stone strata impregnated with shells and gravel is present for remaining
depths. The details of bore holes are given in Annexure-I.

1.17 Existing Equipments

Table 14: Details of Cargo Handling Equipment in Tuticorin

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Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics - NITK (July 2014)
TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

Sl. Name of the Capacity Id. No Year of Cost of purchase


No Equipment purchase (Rs. Lakhs )

Mobile Cranes

1 RT 880 TIL 75 tonne RT 880 2001 Recd. from VPT


Cranes (2 Nos) at 3.0 m

Wharf Cranes

1 6T ELL Crane 6 Tonne 6-1 1980 26.51


at 23 M

2 6T ELL Crane 6 Tonne 6-2 1980 26.51


at 23 M

3 10T ELL Crane 10 Tonne 10-1 1977 13.76


at 23 M

4 Wharf Cranes 3 Nos 20T G1,G2,G3 2003 2000.00

Top Lift Trucks

1 Kalmar TLT 35 Tonnes KTLT - 1 1994 150.00

2 Kalmar TLT 35 Tonnes KTLT 2 1994 150.00

3 Kalmar TLT 35 Tonnes KTLT - 4 1998 189.00

Front End Loader

1 L & T Case Loader 4.6 cum. FEL-6 1991 35.60

Locomotives

1 BHEL Loco 1500 tonne BHEL 1994 295.00


Hauling Loco

Fork Lift Trucks

1 Voltas FLT 3 tonne FLT -16 1979 2.30

Chapter-2

2.0 PERFORMANCE OF TUTICORIN PORT


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Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics - NITK (July 2014)
TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

The physical performance of Tuticorin Port can be analysed by cargo traffic handled at the
port. Various details of cargo that has been handled by the port is discussed in the following
sections

2.1 Overall Traffic

The overall cargo traffic has grown from1.03 million tonnes in 1974-75 to 28.64 million
tonnes in 2013-14 is shown in fig.

Fig 3: Year wise total traffic in Tuticorin port

2.2 Composition of Traffic

The percentage wise commodity composition of the traffic handled at Tuticorin port during
the year 2013-14 is shown in fig 4 and Table 15. This traffic is broadly divided as dry bulk,
container traffic and other cargo. From this, it may be concluded that Tuticorin Port is
basically bulk port and has significant higher rates of growth in case of bulk and container
traffic. The other salient observations on the composition of cargo are given below. The past
14yers traffic data collected and analysed for future traffic forecasting by various methods is
given in table and table.

Fig 4: composition of cargo handled during the year 2013-14

1. Tuticorin is predominantly bulk cargo port. Dry bulk traffic constituted more than
50% of the total traffic handled at the port during last fourteen years.

2. There is a negative growth of liquid cargo from 1998-99 (11.06 lakh tonnes) to 2013-
14 (4.16 lakh tonnes).

3. The rate of growth in container traffic was higher than that of break bulk traffic
during period from 2001-02 to 2013-14.

Table 15: composition of cargo handled during the Period 2001-02 to 2013-14

Method Traffic handled and Trend Analysis for forecasting (traffic in lakh tonnes)

Year Coal Traffic Container Traffic Total Traffic

2001 to 02 59.97 21.98 130.17

02 to 03 57.29 23.01 132.94

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TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

03 to 04 59.82 26.87 136.78

04 to 05 66.01 32.05 158.11

05 to 06 74.97 34.28 171.39

06 to 07 69.14 40.12 180.01

07 to 08 81.78 56.3 214.8

08 to 09 81.97 54.82 220.11

09 to 10 88.24 65.99 237.87

10 to 11 82.64 81.69 257.27

11 to 12 93.88 92.27 281.05

12 to 13 106.86 93.72 282.6

13 to 14 123.49 101.29 286.42

14 to 15 113.3303846 106.4165385 312.0176923

15 to 16 118.0252747 113.6585714 327.0364835

16 to 17 122.7201648 120.9006044 342.0552747

17 to 18 127.4150549 128.1426374 357.0740659

18 to 19 132.1099451 135.3846703 372.0928571

19 to 20 136.8048352 142.6267033 387.1116484

20 to 21 141.4997253 149.8687363 402.1304396

21 to 22 146.1946154 157.1107692 417.1492308

22 to 23 150.8895055 164.3528022 432.168022

2.3 Export and Import Traffic

The export, import and total export and traffic volumes are shown in table 16 for the period
from 2008-09 to 2013-14. The compound annual rates of growth of exports, imports and total
(exports + imports) are 6.32 %, 5.08 % and 5.41 % respectively.

The general observation of Export and Import traffic are given below.

1. Tuticorin Port is found to be major inlet for imports. During 2013-14, the share of
imports in the total traffic was 73.24%.

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TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

2. It is further observed that in spite of significant increase in the export traffic (from
25.63% to about 26.76% between 2008-09 and 2013-14), in absolute terms the import
traffic handled at the port continued to dominate.

Table 16: Export and import traffic handled at Tuticorin Port (lakh tonnes)

Year Exports Imports Total

2008-09 56.41 163.70 220.11

2009-10 51.35 186.52 237.87

2010-11 73.33 183.94 257.27

2011-12 85.44 195.61 281.05

2012-13 84.06 198.54 282.60

2013-14 76.65 209.77 286.42

CARG (%) 6.32 5.08 5.41

2.4 Vessels calling at Tuticorin port

Percentage wise distribution of different types of vessels for the period from 2008-09 to
2012-13 are presented in Table 17. The total number of vessels has increased from 1524 in
2008-09 to 1292 in 2012-13. The number of vessels of different cargo that called at the port
during 1998-99 to 2003-04 is shown in fig . It can be observed that there is a steep decrease
of container and dry bulk vessels. There is a gradual decrease of break bulk vessels also in
2012-13. Similarly, there is a small increase in liquid vessels also in 2010-11.

The maximum length and DWT of vessel handled at Tuticorin Port is presented in Table 18.
It is showing that the max size of coal vessel is about 75000 DWT and the same is suggested
for Design of new berths since the vessels more than the size 75000DWT are planned to
handle at Outer harbour in the future.

Table 17: No of Vessels calling at Port

Year Container Break Bulk Dry Bulk Liquid Bulk Total

2008-09 451 460 441 172 1524

2009-10 455 333 451 175 1414

2010-11 379 411 398 214 1402

2011-12 365 476 425 226 1492

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TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

2012-13 351 312 408 221 1292

1800
1600
1400
1200
Container
1000
Break Bulk
800 Dry Bulk
Liquid Bulk
600 Total
400
200
0
2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13

Fig 5: No of vessels calling at port

2.5 Berth Occupancy

Berth wise occupancy at Tuticorin Port for the years 2008-09 to 2012-13 is shown in Table
19. It can be observed that berth occupancy is high in case of alongside berths. In case of
berth 7 (container berth), the occupancy rate has increased gradually until the berth 8
converted as container terminal. This may be attributed to the increase in the average DWT
size of container vessels. Further, lower berth occupancy has been observed in case of Finger
Jetty and Oil Jetty as there was less demand by calling vessels because of less draft at Finger
Jetty and lesser imports of oil jetty. However, the overall berth occupancy of the port showed
a significant increase from 60.8% in 2008-09 to 83% in 2012-13, which may be due to
increasing demand of dry bulk and containerization. Because of this tendency, the existing
facilities may meet the traffic demand for a short period. However, the projected increase in
the traffic emphasises the need for developing additional berths, which may take 3 to 4 years
to complete for full functioning. So, planning for developing additional berths may begin
now.

Table 18: Maximum length and DWT of vessels handled at TPT during 2012-13

Sl. No Description Max length of Max DWT (tonnes)


vessels (m)

1 V.O.C Wharf 1 175 29303

2 V.O.C Wharf 2 190 58862

3 V.O.C Wharf 3 225 71330

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TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

4 V.O.C Wharf 4 192 58862

5 Additional Berth V 181 39110

6 Additional Berth VI 200 58479

7 Berth VII 245 47120

8 Berth VIII 200 61414

9 Finger Jetty 41 50

10 Shallow Berth I 106 5400

11 Coal Jetty I 210 57300

12 Coal jetty II 224 73879

13 Oil Jetty 227 64220

14 NCB-I 188 33056

15 Berth-X 225 75328

Table 19: Percentage Berth wise Occupancy (%)

Year 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13

Alongside berths 79.0 79.86 85.53 91.80 86.16

Shallow draught berth 55.0 35.23 22.17 40.19 6.79

Container terminals 73.0 76.89 85.55 94.09 92.02

Oil jetty 20.0 23.41 33.63 56.55 38.95

Coal jetties 77.0 70.13 77.09 86.95 85.47

2.6 Performance Indicators

The performance indicators which include the number of vessels calling at the port, average
pre-berthing time, average turnaround time, average stay at berth average parcel size and
average output /ship Berth day have been shown in Table 20 and the average parcel size
being increasing, other performance indicators show the all round improvement in the
performance of the port may be due to mechanization of berths and multipurpose berth
(berth-9).

Table 20: Physical efficiency parameters of ships

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TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

Sl. No Parameters 2008-09 2009-10 20010-11 2011-12 2012-13

1 No of ships sailed 1524 1414 1402 1492 1292

2 Avg. Turnaround Time 3.66 3.97 4.11 4.89 4.31


(days)

3 Avg. Stay at Berth (days) 2.44 2.47 2.68 2.89 2.92

4 Avg. Working Time (days) 1.71 1.78 1.98 2.13 2.18

5 Avg. Pre berthing Time 1.10 1.39 1.33 1.88 1.31


(days)

6 Avg. Parcel size (tones) 13967 16510 17419 19480 22267

7 Avg. Output per Berth day 5574 6505 6511 6562 7621
(tones)

Chapter-3

3.0 TRAFFIC FORECASTING AND PAST VESSEL SIZE ANALYSIS

3.1 Future Container Ships

The Shipping industry is set to witness the ship sizes of the second generation of post panama
vessels attain capacity of 10,000+ TEU vessels from the present size of 8,000 TEU given in
Table 21. Maersk Sealand is already operating Rumour, a 10,500 TEU vessel. There is
more optimization about Malacca-max vessels (18,000 TEUs) than the next generation

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TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

Suezmax vessels (12,000 TEU) in the industry. These vessels will have a draft between 17
and 22m. They are being envisaged to call at about seven pure transshipment mega hubs and
by that time the Suez Canal is expected to be dredged to 21m. The industry also envisages
that one mega hub will be sufficient to serve the entire region of the Middle East and Indian
Subcontinent.

Table 21: Typical Dimension of existing and new container vessels

Type of vessel TEU Dimensions

LOA Beam Fully Laden Draft

Feeder < 1000 85 13 5

1st Generation 1000-2000 180 25 9

2nd Generation 2000-3000 215 28 11.5

3rd Generation 3000-4000 275 32 12.5

4th Generation 4000-5000 285 33 13.5

Post Panamax 1st Generation 5000-6700 300 41 14

Post Panamax 2nd Generation 7500 347 42.8 14.5

Maersk Sealand Rumour 10,500 404 51 14.5

Malacca Max 18,000 396 60 21

NPX 12,000-15,000 385 55.2 14.5

4th Generation or Post Panamax vessels are operational on international routes because of
economic overall transportation cost. The Higher growth rate and technological development
in shipping may force a port to provide facilities in accordance with the planned or realized
logistic trends. Tuticorin Port needs to consider in its development plan the need to meet the
growing traffic and expected changes in overall container shipping practices.

Various studies carried out for the transportation of containers of different sizes conclude that
the ship and port operation costs are optimal when the ship size is 8000 TEU vessel is 14.5m
which requires a channel depth of around 15.2m. Many ports will have to invest a huge
amount for dredging alongside berth and in the channel to receive NPX vessels. These NPX
may be Transshipped at the Super Transshipment Hubs (say five to six over whole world).
Containers may be feedered to land based ports by ships upto 4000 to 6000 TEUs and then
smaller vessels to ports near the destinations. In such a scenario where the ships and the ports
are becoming larger and with the possibility of change in shipping practices any port desiring
to be developed as land based hub port will be expected to handle vessels upto 4000 or
6000TEUs.

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TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

To nationalize the shipping routes or services saving in the shipping time costs various
shipping lines have pooled their resources and formed a few major alliances which forced the
terminal operators to invest and expand their facilities. The carriers are also increased the
vessel speed from 18 to 24 kNots to shorten transit times. It was observed that these shipping
alliances account for 69% of world trade container carrying capacity with 62% of fleet of
ships more than 3000 TEUs.

3.2 Handling of Future Container Traffic at Tuticorin Port

As per the medium projection of container traffic as given in the following table, the
container traffic at Tuticorin Port is bound to increase. To keep abreast of these increasing
demands and modernization of container traffic, the following points may be considered for
handling of container traffic at Tuticorin Port in future.

Tuticorin takes deviation time about 20 hrs from main East West container line sea
route compared to 8 hrs for Colombo and 40 hrs to Mumbai. This indicates that there
is a potential future for development of hub facility for Indian subcontinent to handle
container vessels going to Colombo or Singapore in this mainline at Tuticorin Port.

Modern Container ships require 12-14m depth. Most transshipment centers provide
15m and many are dredging to 16m. These modern vessels require about minimum of
400 500 m quay length for simultaneous berthing of mother and feeder ships.
Further the Indian container market is undergoing a sea change and there is significant
under capacity in the container port sector spread along the coastlines. To provide a
larger continuous quay length, the present entire reclaimed land portion in the port
basin may be converted to handle entire container traffic as a small CFS in future.

Major lines and alliances require high productivity and fast turnaround times. In some
cases of few facilities with no track record, facilities need to be managed by a
recognized company.

Advanced handling systems consisting latest technology and computer systems to


achieve required port productivity is essential in a competitive environment.
Minimum of 3 cranes are required for modern panama ships, 4 crane ships to achieve
2000 moves in 24 hours. The world class handling rates are typically about 25 to 30
moves per hour per crane.

Adequate feeder services are also essential to attract line haul carriers.

3.3 Future Traffic

Future growth in traffic largely depends on the extent of economic development of hinterland
served by the port and its accessibility with its hinterland. The hinterland of a port depends on
the total transportation pattern. The hinterland of Tuticorin port covers a major port of Tamil
Nadu, southern parts of Karnataka and Kerala, which abounds in agricultural produce,
mineral resources, and industries covering chemicals, cements and textiles. Tuticorin port is
located close to the East-West international sea route.

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TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

Future traffic at a port is forecast by various methods like annualized growth rate method,
trend analysis and simple regression technique using growth in GDP. Comparison of traffic
projections of Tuticorin Port computed using various methods is given in the following table
24. In comparison with the traffic of 28.64mT in 2013-14, the projected increase in traffic in
2022-23 varies in the range of 150% at low range to 264% at high range. This is showing the
variations in the predicted traffic, which may be continuously monitored for assessing actual
trends of traffic in future.

Table 22: Traffic forecasting using annual growth rate of Tuticorin port (GSDP of TN and
Tuticorin Port growth rate for year 2013-14).

Method Annual Growth Rate (traffic in lakh tonnes)

Year Coal @ 11.39% Container @ 11.39% Total Traffic @ 11.39%

13 To 14 123.49 101.29 286.42

14 To 15 137.555511 112.826931 319.043238

15 To 16 153.2230837 125.6779184 355.3822628

16 To 17 170.6751929 139.9926334 395.8603025

17 To 18 190.1150974 155.9377943 440.948791

18 To 19 211.769207 173.6991091 491.1728583

19 To 20 235.8897197 193.4834376 547.1174469

20 To 21 262.7575588 215.5212011 609.4341241

21 To 22 292.6856447 240.0690659 678.8486708

22 To 23 326.0225396 267.4129325 756.1695344

Table 23: Traffic Forecasting by assuming National GDP as 7%

Method ALL INDIA GROWTH RATE @ 7% (traffic in lakh tonnes)

Year Coal Container Total Traffic

13 To 14 123.49 101.29 286.42

14 To 15 132.1343 108.3803 306.4694


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15 To 16 141.383701 115.966921 327.922258

16 To 17 151.2805601 124.0846055 350.8768161

17 To 18 161.8701993 132.7705279 375.4381932

18 To 19 173.2011132 142.0644648 401.7188667

19 To 20 185.3251911 152.0089773 429.8391874

20 To 21 198.2979545 162.6496058 459.9279305

21 To 22 212.1788113 174.0350782 492.1228856

22 To 23 227.0313281 186.2175336 526.5714876

Table 24: Comparison of total traffic projections

Sl. NO Agency Range/Assumption 2017-18 2022-23

1 Regression Analysis @6%pa 361.59 483.90


All India GDP growth @7%pa 375.44 526.57
@8%pa 389.67 572.55

2 Trend Analysis 357.07 432.17


(2001-02 to 2013-14)

3 Based on Annualized Growth 440.95 756.17


(11.39 % for the past two years)

3.4 Vessel Size Analysis

The vessels called to Tuticorin Port of the year 2003-04 are studied for vessel size in design
of berths.

1. Liquid tanker carrying POL Products, LPG, Liquid Ammonia, Phosphoric Acid,
Edible oil, etc.

2. Dry Bulk cargo vessels carrying thermal and industrial coal, finished fertilizers and
fertilizer raw materials, copper concentrate, iron ore, etc.

3. Break bulk cargo vessels, carrying miscellaneous cargo such as granite, timber.

4. Container vessels.

3.4.1 Liquid Tankers

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1. The maximum concentration in the range of 20- 35,000 DWT in case of overseas
tankers and up to 10,000 DWT in case of coastal tankers.

2. 85% of the product tankers were in the range of 45,000 DWT and 70% of the product
tankers were in the range of 30,000 DWT which called at some of the Indian major
ports during 2000-01.

3.4.2 LPG Carriers

The maximum concentration of LPG tankers was in the range of 12,000-15,000 DWT range
(about 55%) followed by 15,000 and above size (about 33%).

3.4.3 Chemicals and other Tankers

73% of the total Tankers were in the range up to 20,000 DWT size with maximum
concentration in the range of 5,000 - 10,000 DWT.

3.4.4 Dry bulk Cargo Vessels

Table 25: Distribution of dry bulk vessels around the world (2003)

Sl. No DWT (in thousand T) No. of Vessels

1 10-50 2907

2 50-100 1247

3 100-150 164

4 150-200 314

5 200-240 26

6 240-260 2

1. Distribution of dry bulk vessels around the world (2003) is presented in the table 25.

2. 82% of the No. of vessels is carrying iron ore of size within 240,000 DWT.

3. 10% of the iron ore are between 210,000 - 240,000 DWT sizes.

4. About 55% of the vessels are having size up to 150,000 DWT and 14% of the vessels
are in between 120,000 150,000 DWT.

5. Among four iron ore vessels on order, three have a size of more than 200,000 DWT.

3.4.5 General Cargo Vessels

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Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics - NITK (July 2014)
TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

68% of the vessels are in the range of 25,000 to 35,000 DWT (10.5 to 11m draft) and 83%
are in the range of 30,000 to 35,000 DWT (11 to 11.5m)

3.4.6 Container Vessels

Fully cellular container ships are generally classified into first, second,.. ,generation cargo
vessels. The carrying capacity is increased exponentially in the recent times. The physical
characteristics of the container ships that are available in the world are given already.

3.5 Design Vessel Sizes

The selection of the design size vessel for the development of any port has a significant
influence on virtually all aspects of port design and costs of development. The design vessels
which may be suggested for Tuticorin port are given in the following table 26.

Table 26: Design vessels of different cargo handled at Tuticorin port

Sl. Type of vessel DWT LOA (m) Beam (m) Draft (m)
No (tonnage)

1 Product Tanker 50,000 225 32 12

2 LPG Tanker 30,000 186 28 10.8

3 Chemical Tanker 20,000 174 24.5 9.8

4 Dry Bulk Carrier 65,000 240 33 12.8

5 General Cargo Carrier 35-40,000 230 30 12.5

6 Container Vessel 56,000 29032 32.2 12.5


(3000-4000 TEUs)

3.6 Channel Dimensions

The Channel dimensions depend on the various factors like cross winds, waves and currents,
channel characteristics (alignment, type), vessel characteristics ( physical and navigational),
visibility, no. of lanes in the channel, channel bank effects, etc.

3.6.1 Channel Width

The width of the channel is normally a multiple of the beam (B) of the design vessel.
Research and experience have confirmed that the average value for the conditions prevailing
at site should be of the order 3 to 6B. For two way traffic, the channel width has to be
increased relative to the one way channel by about 2B. Channel subject to large tidal ranges

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TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

are often given a width which is equivalent to the length of the biggest ship expected to call at
the port. This is to provide a contingency for any ship running around the channel bank when
it may turn on the tide. With this channel width is considered as 200m.

3.6.2 Channel Depth

As the Gulf of Mannar is part of sheltered waters, 10% of maximum draft is suggested as
under keel clearance based on PIANIC International Committee for the reception of large
vessels : Group IV ( 1980) and the report by the Joint Working Group of PIANIC and IAPH
titled Approach channels A Guide for design PTC II-30 (1997). With this and for a
maximum draft of 14.3m, the depth of port basin will be 1.1 times the draft which equals
15.7m. For the channel, the channel depth is suggested to be equal to 16.2m below CD with
the allowance of 0.5m for unprotected conditions of channel.

3.7 Maneuvering Area

Maneuvering Area is a circular turning basin having the diameter equal to 2 times the
maximum length of design vessel size in sheltered areas. This works out to be 240x2= 480m.
The present layout of the harbour basin allows for accommodating the turning circle.

3.8 Berthing area

The length of the dredged area in front of the berthing structure for ships with tug assistance
should not be less than 1.2 times or 1.5 times without tug assistance. In present case of
maximum length of 240 m, a length of berth 288 m (240x1.2) is recommended for tug
assistance. Similarly the width of the dredged area before berth is suggested as 42 m
(1.25x33) and dredged up to a depth of 15.7 m CD as the protected basin encloses the berth
area.

Chapter 4

4.0 CALCULATION OF NO OF BERTH REQUIRED

4.1 Additional Berthing Requirements

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Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics - NITK (July 2014)
TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

Tuticorin at present has 10 alongside berths, 1oil jetty, 2 coal jetties, and 2 shallow draft
berths. During 2013-14, the port handled 28.64 million tonnes of cargo traffic.

The berth wise traffic handled at Tuticorin Port is given in the case of dry berth and container
terminals for five years to analyze the additional berths required based on the present
handling capacity and future traffic needs in Table 27. The berths required are calculated
using the future traffic expected to handle, per day output per berth of both mechanical and
conventional techniques and no of berth already available, this calculation is given as sample
calculation below and same can be done for all cases from the data presented in Annexure-II.

Table 27: Berth wise traffic handled at Tuticorin port

Sl. Commodities handled Berth/ Traffic handled ( million tonnes)


No Jetty No.
2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13

1 Dry Bulk - thermal CJ-I 5.88 5.50 5.24 5.79 6.59


Coal ( Mechanical) &II

2 Dry Bulk - thermal VOC-III 6.77 8.40 6.93 7.94 8.29


Coal ( Conventional) & IV

3 Containers Berth-VII 5.48 6.60 8.17 9.23 9.37


& VIII

Table 28: Projection of future traffic

Sl. Commodity Traffic in lakh tonnes


No Group
2017-18 2022-23

Low Medium High Low Medium High

1 Thermal Coal 127.415 161.87 190.11 150.81 227.03 326.02

2 Containers 128.14 132.77 155.94 164.35 186.21 267.41

4.2 Comparison of Berth Requirements with Port Master Plan

The analysis of traffic and berth requirements using medium growth scenario (National GDP
@ 7%) is almost giving the same results for future master plan of Tuticorin port for inner
Harbour development. That is inner Harbour need 1 special coal terminal for the year 2017-
18 (NCB-II under construction) and 2 more mechanized coal terminals to handle the future
industrial need for the period of next five years (2018-23) as given in Table 29 and no need of
any special container terminal since the birth-9 or 6 can handle the fraction of container
vessels if needed until outer harbour is executed.

Table 29: Future Berth Needs at Tuticorin port in 2017-18 and 2022-23

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Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics - NITK (July 2014)
TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

Sl. No Commodity No. of Berths needed


Group
2017-18 2022-23

Low Medium High Low Medium High

1 Thermal 0 0.6 1.46 0.26 2.58 5.6


Coal

2 Containers 0 0 0 0.05 0.3 1.33

Total Projected 0 0.6 1.46 0.31 2.88 6.93

Rounded 0 1 1 0 3 7

4.3 Sample calculation for no of berths required

4.3.1 Trend Analysis (Lower growth rate scenario) for the year (2017-18)

Coal Terminals:

Traffic expected in trend analysis is =127.415x105T=12741505.5 Tonnes

The Handling of cargo @Non-mechanical coal terminals (III&IV) is

= Per day output x Days available

= (7035 x (322.75+298.42))

= 4369930.95 T

Coal need to be handled by mechanical techniques is

= Total handled at non mechanized terminals

= (12741505 - 4369930.95)

= 8371574.54 T

The per day output of mechanized terminals occupied for 310 days (Berth Occupancy)

= 10597 T

No. of Berths = = 2.55~ 3

Available Mechanized coal terminals =3

Therefore the additional coal berths required are = 3-3 =0

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Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics - NITK (July 2014)
TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

Container Cargo:

Forecasted cargo in containers = 12814000 T

No. of Terminals =

= 1.57~ 2

Hence no need of extra containers terminal since two containers are available already.

Chapter-5

5.0 DESIGN OF COAL HANDLING TERMINAL (Mechanized)

As the port need 3 mechanized coal terminals in Inner Harbour, so we designed a berth which
can handle a design vessel of 75000 DWT. Based on the suggestions given by the port design
engineers for deciding the optimistic dimensions of various components of berth to fulfill the
design (load) requirements as discussed below.

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Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics - NITK (July 2014)
TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

5.1 Ship Characteristics Need for Design

Dry Bulk-Thermal Coal vessel of Design DWT= 75000 Tonnes

Draft required (D) =5+=13.66 (Thumb Rule)

Beam B = 2.5*D = 38.36 m

Length L =7*B = 266

The length of the berth required = 1.2L= 1.2*266320 m

Dredge depth = Draft + Allowances

= 13.7+0.6

Draft required in Harbour area = 1.1*D = 15.73

5.2 Pile Characteristics

Diameter of Pile (D) = 1200 mm

Top level of Deck Slab = +3.65 mm

Wearing Coat Thickness = 100 mm

Main Beam Depth = 2.0 m

Dredge Level (D.L) = -14.3 m CD (for sea side piles)

= -10.3 m CD (for land side piles with 1:1.5 Slope)

Top Level of Piles for analysis = +3.65-(0.100+2.00/2)

= +2.55 m

Consider the fixity depth as 3D below D.L = 3*1.20 = 3.60 m below D.L (minimum)

Fixity level of each row Piles

Row A = 14.30+3.60 = -17.90 m CD (providing the pile end at -22.3 m CD for friction)

Row B to D = 10.30+3.60 = -13.90 m CD (providing end @ -18.3m CD)

Height of Piles

Row A = +2.55-(-17.9) = 20.45 m

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Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics - NITK (July 2014)
TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

Row B to D = +2.55-(-13.90) = 16.45 m

No of Piles in a Row = (Total length over hanging)/span

= (320-5)/7 = 45

The total No of piles for the birth = 45*4 = 180 Nos

Since providing four beams or longitudinal beams see plan of STAAD-Pro model Fig 6).

Fig 6: STAAD Pro model showing different elements of birth for Design.

5.3 Design Loads

The detailed calculation of loads according to various codes is presented in Annexure-V at


the end of this report. The berthing structure of 325 m X 23.5 m is analysed in STAAD Pro
by third party as a panel length of 63 m X 23.5 m as shown in Fig 8.

Table 30: Design loads in brief

Load type Magnitude Direction Remarks


& sign

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Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics - NITK (July 2014)
TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

Dead Load 15 kN/m2 Vertically The self weights of all members, showed in Fig 6
downwards are automatically calculated in STAAD PRO. The
dead load of slab of 0.5 m and wearing cote of M30
concrete is 15 KN/m2.

Live load 55 kN/m2 Vertically As per IS 4651 the berth shall be designed for a
downwards uniform live load of 5.5 t/m2 or 55 kN/m2. When
combined with rail mounted ship to shore crane, the
uniform live load should be 3t/m2 with no uniform
load of within 1.5 m on either side of crane rails.

Seismic 81.52 kN Horizontal As per IS 1893-2002 (Zone-II) and type of structure


Load per Pile in both X and soil characteristics of Tuticorin Port.
node & Z-axes.

Berthing 2000kN at Horizontal According to IS 4651 1974 (Part-III). 75000DWT


Force each in X- axis vessel. Fully loaded draft 13.7 m. Fender absorbing
Fender pushing energy = 108.63 T-m. Fender at 21 m c/c. See Fig
location (+ve) 7.

Mooring 1500kN at Horizontal According to IS 4651 1974 (Part-III). Vessel


force each in X- axis moulded depth Dm=19 m, Avg. Light draft DL=0.7
Bollard pulling Dm. Basic and design wind speeds are 44 m/s &
(-ve) 48.50 m/s respectively. Vessel moored at 8 points
and 4 lines are resisting total mooring load of 5847
kN and Bollard spacing @ 21 m c/c.

5.4 STAAD Pro Analyses

The various loads are given as a input to STAAD Pro software to analyse the maximum
Bending Moment, shear force and Torsion to know the adequacy of the cross sections of the
elements of berth to design according to IS 456 2000. The output forces and moments given
by analysis for the different members are given in Annexure-VI. See the Shear Force and
Bending Moment diagrams given in Fig 9 and Fig 10 for sample.

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Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics - NITK (July 2014)
TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

Fig 7: Plan of berth with Mooring and Berthing loads

Fig 8: Berthing and Mooring loads on Berth in STAAD Pro model.

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Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics - NITK (July 2014)
TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

Fig 9: Shear Force diagram from STAAD Pro Outputs.

Fig 10: Bending Moment diagram from STAAD Pro Output.

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Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics - NITK (July 2014)
TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

5.5 Structural Design of elements of Berthing Structure (As per IS 456-2000)

5.5.1 Design of Piles

Calculation of Pile Capacity

The bore hole no 24s geological conditions for pile design is considered as it has lime stone
(shear strength of Cs = 1000 kN) layer which is the most weak given in Annexure-I.

Pile Capacity Q allowable = Capacity in End bearing + Skin friction

= (3Cs*) + (s) ()

Pile Capacity Q allowable= 3391+3014 = 6405 kN

Actual maximum axial load coming on to the Pile from STAAD Pro is= 3138.501 < 6405 kN

And Skin friction is = 3014 > Tension on Pile 2321.09 kN

Hence the pile of diameter 1.2 m is OK.

Design of Pile Reinforcement

Minimum of 0.8% should be provided for pile.

Pile has to analyse for % of steel required as a long column for both axial force and moment
scenarios.

However, providing 1.25% of steel

Ast = = = 14130.0 mm2

Providing Main reinforcement = 18 Nos of 32 mm .

Providing shear reinforcement = 12 mm circular rings @ 250 mm c/c as lateral stirrups as


given in Annexure-VII.

5.5.2 Design of Main Cross Beam (1.6m X 2.0 m)

(Note: The full section is checked construction stages are not considered)

Maximum factored Bending Moment, My = 3413.883 kN-m

Maximum Shear force, V = 1716.053 kN

Maximum factored Torsion, = 192.527 kN-m

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Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics - NITK (July 2014)
TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

Additional Moment due to torsion, MT = (T (1+D/B))/1.7

= 254.82 kN-m

Additional Shear due to torsion =

= = 192.57 kN

Total Moment acting on Main beam, My = (3413.8834+ 254.82) = 3668.7 kN

Total Shear force acting on Main beam, V = (1716.053+192.53) = 1908.58 kN

Moment of Resistance of section

Mulimit = 0.138 bd2fck

=0.138 x30 x [1600 (2000-75-16)2] x 10-6

= 24139.717 KN-m > 3668.70 kN-m

Design of Reinforced provision

Effective Depth (d) = (2000-75-16) = 1909

= = 0.6292

Pt = 0 .180 from SP16 (table 4)

Ast = = = 5497.92mm2

Providing Main reinforcement = 12 Nos of 32 mm @ Top and Bottom

Providing Side reinforcement 0f 0.1% => Ast = (0.1 x 1600 x 2000)/ 100 = 3200 mm2

Provide 7 Nos of 16mm for each face (1407mm2)

Spacing should not be more than 300 mm C/C

Check for Shear Reinforcement

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Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics - NITK (July 2014)
TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

Total factored Shear, Vu = 1908.58 kN

Nominal Shear Stress, Tv = V/bd

= = 0.625 < (Tmax = 3.5 N/mm2 )

Shear capacity of beam Tc from (table 23) of IS 456:2000

= = 0.18 Vs M30 => Tc = 0.205

Tc < Tv , hence provide shear reinforcement of 6 legged stirrups 12 mm @ 250mm C/C

Check

>=

>=

1.69 x 10-3 >= 1.2 x 10-3

Hence the Spacing is Ok.

5.5.3 Design of Longitudinal Beam (0.8 m X 1.0 m)

Maximum factored Bending Moment, My = 690 kN-m

Maximum Shear force, V = 420 kN

Maximum factored Torsion, = 2.175 kN-m (very less neglecting)

Moment of Resistance of section

Mulimit = 0.138 bd2fck

=0.138 x30 x [800 *(1000-75-25/2)2] x 10-6

= 2757 KN-m > 690 kN-m

Design of Reinforced provision

Effective Depth (d) = (1000-75-16) = 909

= = 1.04

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Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics - NITK (July 2014)
TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

Pt = 0 .304 from SP16 (table 4)

Ast = = = 2210.7mm2

Providing Main reinforcement = 6 Nos of 25 mm @ Top and Bottom

Providing Side reinforcement 0f 0.1% => Ast = (0.1 x 800 x 1000)/ 100 = 800 mm2

Provide 4 Nos of 12mm for each face

Since the Spacing should not be more than 300 mm C/C

Check for Shear Reinforcement

Total factored Shear, Vu = 420 kN

Nominal Shear Stress, Tv = V/bd

= = 0.58 < (Tmax = 3.5 N/mm2 )

Shear capacity of beam Tc from (table 23) of IS 456:2000

= = 0.304 Vs M30 => Tc = 0.24

Tc < Tv , hence provide shear reinforcement of 4 legged stirrups 12 mm @ 250mm C/C

Check

>=

>=

2.2 x 10-3 >= 1.2 x 10-3

Hence the Spacing is Ok.

5.5.4 Design of Crane Beam (1.2m X 1.4 m)

Maximum factored Bending Moment, My = 2021.08 kN-m

Maximum Shear force, V = 1071.39 kN

Maximum factored Torsion, = 41.712 kN-m

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Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics - NITK (July 2014)
TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

Additional Moment due to torsion, MT = (T (1+D/B))/1.7

= 53.16 kN-m

Additional Shear due to torsion =

= = 55.616 kN

Total Moment acting on Main beam, My = (2021.08+ 53.16) = 2074.24 kN

Total Shear force acting on Main beam, V = (1071.39+55.616) = 1127.00 kN

Moment of Resistance of section

Mulimit = 0.138 bd2fck

=0.138 x30 x [1200 *(1400-75-16)2] x 10-6

= 8512.57 KN-m > 2074.24 kN-m

Design of Reinforced provision

Effective Depth (d) = (1400-75-16) = 1309

= = 1.0

Pt = 0 .289 from SP16 (table 4)

Ast = = = 4539.612 mm2

Providing Main reinforcement = 6 Nos of 32 mm @ Top and Bottom

Providing Side reinforcement 0f 0.1% => Ast = (0.1 x 1200 x 1400)/ 100 = 1570.8 mm2

Provide 5 Nos of 12mm for each face

Spacing should not be more than 300 mm C/C

Check for Shear Reinforcement

Total factored Shear, Vu = 1127.0 kN

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Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics - NITK (July 2014)
TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

Nominal Shear Stress, Tv = V/bd

= = 0.717 < (Tmax = 3.5 N/mm2 )

Shear capacity of beam Tc from (table 23) of IS 456:2000

= = 0.289 Vs M30 => Tc = 0.205

Tc < Tv , hence provide shear reinforcement of 8 legged stirrups 12 mm @ 250mm C/C

Check

>=

>=

3.0x 10-3 >= 1.2 x 10-3

Hence the Spacing is Ok.

5.5.5 Design of Fender Beam (1.45m X 2.0 m)

Maximum factored Bending Moment, My = 3431.873 kN-m

Maximum Shear force, V = 1994.513 kN

Maximum factored Torsion, = 148.485 kN-m

Additional Moment due to torsion, MT = (T (1+D/B))/1.7

= 207.8 kN-m

Additional Shear due to torsion =

= = 163.84 kN

Total Moment acting on Main beam, My = (3431.873+ 207.81) = 3639.70 kN

Total Shear force acting on Main beam, V = (1994.513+163.84) = 2158.35 kN

Moment of Resistance of section

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Department of Applied Mechanics and Hydraulics - NITK (July 2014)
TRAFFIC ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF BERTH AT TUTICORIN PORT

Mulimit = 0.138 bd2fck

=0.138 x30 x [1450 *(2000-75-16)2] x 10-6

= 21876.62 KN-m > 3639.70 kN-m

Design of Reinforced provision

Effective Depth (d) = (2000-75-16) = 1909

= = 0.69

Pt = 0 .200 from SP16 (table 4)

Ast = = = 566.5 mm2

Providing Main reinforcement = 10 Nos of 32 mm @ Top and Bottom

Providing Side reinforcement 0f 0.2% => Ast = (0.2 x 1450 x 2000)/ 100 = 5800 mm2

Provide 10 Nos of 32mm for each face

Spacing should not be more than 300 mm C/C

Check for Shear Reinforcement

Total factored Shear, Vu = 2158.35 kN

Nominal Shear Stress, Tv = V/bd

= = 0.78 < (Tmax = 3.5 N/mm2 )

Shear capacity of beam Tc from (table 23) of IS 456:2000

= = 0.2045 Vs M30 => Tc = 0.205

Tc < Tv , hence provide shear reinforcement of 6 legged stirrups 12 mm @ 250mm C/C

Check

>=

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>=

1.8x 10-3 >= 1.2 x 10-3

Hence the Spacing is Ok.

Chapter-6

6.0 SUMMARY

The available port facilities and operations are studied at Tuticorin Port which includes port
hinterland, connectivity, equipments, metrological data and storage facilities. The port traffic
is collected from 2001 to 2014 and analysed, by this study the port of Tuticorin is containing
coal and containers are the major commodities. Further these two major commodities traffic
is forecasted along with total traffic for the coming five and ten years (2017-18 and 2022-23).

Then the port performance is studied based on the indicators provided by the port of past five
years. From this we come to know that all most all berths are working more than their
optimum capacity (i.e. berth occupancy > 75%). The per day output of the all berths are taken
into account along with berth days available per year to calculate the yearly output of each
berth. Then the coal and container terminals total traffic handling capacity is compared with
future traffic forecasted in three modes (low, medium and high traffic growth rates) for the
future berths required to cater the estimated traffic.

The estimated values showing that the container terminals are well enough and for coal
handling V.O.C. Port need more births which are mechanised by conveyor belts and

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automated system of handling using ship based cranes and hopper mounted quay cranes. So
for construction of new mechanized berth we designed the coal terminal using the optimum
structural dimensions and suggestions given by port which are followed by the construction
companies from long time which do not need new methodology, form work, and equipments,
etc. The loads are calculated and given as input for STAAD Pro analysis software for
structural analysis of various structural elements to find the maximum and minimum bending
moment and shear forces which are used to know the structural stability and design of all
those members in detail.

Finally we come to know that the forecasted traffic is following the similar trend as we
compared with the ports inner harbour master plan and the optimum dimensions suggested by
port engineers are satisfying all structural design conditions. Finally we calculated the
detailed reinforcement for all structural members are presented in Annexure-VII.

Annexure-I: Geotechnical details

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Annexure-II: Port Performance Indicators for the year 2012-13

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Annexure-III: Traffic data collected

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Annexure-IV: Crane load on Crane beam loading diagram.

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Annexure-V: Design load calculations

I) Calculation of Berthing Force

Design requirements

Dead weight Tonnage DWT = 75000

Length of Berth = 325 m

Width of Berth = 23.5 m

Design Vessel dimensions

Length of the vessel L=265 m

Beam width B= 38 m

Height of the vessel = 19 m

Fully loaded Draft = 13.7 m

Kinetic Energy, E imparted to Fendering System Ref : IS : 4651 (Part III) - 1974

E = (WD*V2 *(Cm*Ce*Cs))/2g

Where,

WD = Displacement Tonnage (DT) of the vessel, (t) = 1.33* DWT

V = Velocity of vessel in m/s, normal to the berth = 0.15 m/s

g = Acceleration due to gravity (9.81m/s2)

Cm = Mass coefficient

Ce = Eccentricity coefficient

Cs = Softness coefficient

Mass coefficient Cm

= 1+ [(/ 4 * D2 *L * g w)/WD] = 1+ [ (/4*13.72*265*1.03)/1.33*7500]

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Cm= 1.40

Ce = 0.51 (from table 3 of IS 4651 Part III)

Cs = 0.95

Therefore Berthing Energy E = 77.6 T-m

Applying F.O.S of 1.4

Berthing Energy E = 1.4*77.6 = 108.63 T-m

Providing the fender to tack this load and will transfer maximum reaction force on Berth is of
200 T. The spacing between fenders is at 21 m c/c i.e. one for each three main cross beam
node.

II) Calculation of Mooring Force

The mooring force on Bollards will cause due to the wind force acting on the exposed area of
ship above water level (Neglecting the mooring force due to wave Currents).

Mooring Force Fw = Cw*Aw*P

Where,

Cw = Shape Factor = (1.3-1.6) =1.5

Aw = Windage area in sq. m

= 1.175 Lp (Dm DL)

= 1.175 * 265 * (19-9.6)

= 2761.25 m2

Lp = Length between the perpendiculars in m

P = wind pressure in kg/m2

= 0.06 Vz2

= 0.06 * (48.50 ^ 2)

= 141.13 kg/m2

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Vz = design wind speed m/s

= V*k1*k2*k3

= 44*1.07*1.03*1.0

=48.50 m/s

(Where, k1, k2, k3 are probability, terrain and topography factors)

Therefore the Mooring Force is Fw = 1.5*2762*141.13

= 584701.59 kg

This force is shared by 4 bollards since ship is moored to 8 bollards and four are active in any
critical case of wind direction. The spacing between two bollards is also 21 m c/c.

Load acting on each Bollard is = 58470.159/4= 1461.7 kN 1500kN.

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Annexure-VI: STAAD Pro Output

I) Fender beams

Shear force maximum


16 8 232.91 118.45
1 1 DL 9 0.377 6 0.267 4 -1.119 22.724
9 245.38 -118.45
9 -0.377 5 -0.267 4 -0.752 -66.363
8 1402.09
2 LL 9 681.54 -2.654 4 -6.955 2288.59 10.128
9 1896.75
9 -681.54 2.654 597.907 6.955 1 -28.708
8
3 SEISMIC 9 0 0 0 0 0 0
9
9 0 0 0 0 0 0
8
4 SLAB LOAD 9 0.153 9.917 -0.212 -12.508 0.445 -69.564
9 138.98
9 -0.153 -9.917 0.212 12.508 1.036 6
5 COMBINATION LOAD 8 1023.10 360.26 2103.22 148.48 3431.87
CASE 5 9 5 9 4 5 3 -55.069
9 357.18 -148.48 2845.55
9 -1023.11 2 896.776 5 3 65.873
Shear force minimum
1 221.08 111.37
35 1 DL 9 -0.041 5 -0.355 -45.811 0.805 2
2 257.21
9 0.041 6 0.355 45.811 1.681 -237.83
1 1329.14
2 LL 9 9 -6.781 409.691 15.325 -989.764 -18.308
2
9 -1329.15 6.781 -409.691 -15.325 -1878.07 -29.162
1
3 SEISMIC 9 0 0 0 0 0 0
2
9 0 0 0 0 0 0
1
4 SLAB LOAD 9 0.567 -8.608 0.08 1.213 -0.542 -54.032
2
9 -0.567 8.608 -0.08 -1.213 -0.021 -6.223
5 COMBINATION LOAD 1 1994.51 308.54 614.124 -43.91 -1484.25 58.547

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CASE 5 9 3 3
2 408.90 -409.82
9 -1994.51 8 -614.124 43.91 -2814.62 3

Bending moment Maximum


2 234.49 250.01
53 1 DL 9 -0.502 6 -0.173 -5.385 0.048 4
3 243.80 -282.59
9 0.502 5 0.173 5.385 1.162 7
2 1085.93 1472.56 2025.87
2 LL 9 6 -2.149 1 11.138 4 -2.701
3 1666.19
9 -1085.94 2.149 527.439 -11.138 3 -12.344
2
3 SEISMIC 9 0 0 0 0 0 0
3
9 0 0 0 0 0 0
2
4 SLAB LOAD 9 0.829 -0.727 0.088 3.953 -0.576 1.809
3
9 -0.829 0.727 -0.088 -3.953 -0.042 -6.897
5 COMBINATION LOAD 2 1629.39 347.42 2208.71 3038.01 373.68
CASE 5 9 5 9 5 14.559 9 4
3 370.02 2500.96 -452.75
9 -1629.4 2 791.285 -14.559 9 7

Bending moment minimum


12 6 243.80 282.59
5 1 DL 9 -0.502 5 0.173 5.385 -1.162 7
7 234.49 -250.01
9 0.502 6 -0.173 -5.385 -0.048 4
6
2 LL 9 405.95 -4.739 -1311.52 2.677 -872.914 -18.351
7
9 -405.95 4.739 -188.484 -2.677 -446.47 -14.826
6
3 SEISMIC 9 0 0 0 0 0 0
7
9 0 0 0 0 0 0
6
4 SLAB LOAD 9 0.829 0.727 -0.088 -3.953 0.042 6.897
7
9 -0.829 -0.727 0.088 3.953 0.576 -1.809
5 COMBINATION LOAD 6 359.68 406.71
CASE 5 9 609.416 9 -1967.15 6.163 -1311.05 5
7 357.76 -399.97
9 -609.416 2 -282.853 -6.163 -668.912 3

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II) Longitudinal Beams

shear force maximum


15 8
6 1 DL 4 3.608 77.132 0.252 2.175 -0.888 99.263
9
4 -3.608 54.813 -0.252 -2.175 -0.877 -21.149
8 - -
2 LL 4 144.124 -3.71 130.265 -0.584 452.983 -11.865
9
4 144.124 3.71 130.265 0.584 458.871 -14.105
8
3 SEISMIC 4 0 0 0 0 0 0
9
4 0 0 0 0 0 0
8
4 SLAB LOAD 4 5.451 190.83 0.007 -0.62 -0.05 271.596
9 -
4 -5.451 169.17 -0.007 0.62 0.001 195.788
5 COMBINATION LOAD 8 - -
CASE 5 4 202.597 396.377 195.008 1.456 678.066 538.49
9 -
4 202.597 341.541 195.008 -1.456 686.992 346.562

Shear force minimum


12 1 DL 4 3.608 54.813 -0.252 -2.175 0.877 21.149
1
4 -3.608 77.132 0.252 2.175 0.888 -99.263
- -
2 LL 4 112.156 -0.876 133.908 0.95 471.299 -2.899
1 - -
4 112.156 0.876 133.908 -0.95 466.056 -3.231
3 SEISMIC 4 0 0 0 0 0 0
1
4 0 0 0 0 0 0
4 SLAB LOAD 4 5.451 169.17 -0.007 0.62 -0.001 195.788
1 -
4 -5.451 190.83 0.007 -0.62 0.05 271.596
5 COMBINATION LOAD - -
CASE 5 4 154.646 334.662 200.473 -0.908 705.634 321.057
1 - - -
4 154.646 403.255 200.473 0.908 697.677 561.133

bending moment maximum and minimum


4
84 1 DL 4 3.223 65.972 0 0 -0.003 77.005
5
4 -3.223 65.972 0 0 0.003 -77.005
4 - -
2 LL 4 285.902 -2.122 29.885 0.443 105.989 -7.122

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5 -
4 285.902 2.122 -29.885 -0.443 103.205 -7.729
4
3 SEISMIC 4 0 0 0 0 0 0
5
4 0 0 0 0 0 0
4
4 SLAB LOAD 4 3.724 180 0 0 -0.014 261.656
5 -
4 -3.724 180 0 0 0.014 261.656
5 COMBINATION LOAD 4 - -
CASE 5 4 418.434 365.776 44.827 0.664 159.009 497.308
5 - -
4 418.434 372.141 -44.827 -0.664 154.782 519.584

III) Crane beams

Shear force maximum and minimum


1 132.12 122.03
28 1 DL 2 3.362 1 -0.361 -11.462 1.116 5
2 144.96
2 -3.362 3 0.361 11.462 1.41 -166.98
1 265.37
2 LL 2 -720.467 -5.248 6 5.972 -848.903 -16.898
2 -265.37
2 720.467 5.248 6 -5.972 -1008.73 -19.839
1
3 SEISMIC 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
2
2 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 122.93
4 SLAB LOAD 2 2.847 88.752 0.094 0.095 -0.454 5
2 -131.67
2 -2.847 91.248 -0.094 -0.095 -0.206 4
5 COMBINATION LOAD 1 323.43 397.66 342.10
CASE 5 2 -1071.39 7 4 -8.091 -1272.36 8
2 1071.38 362.18 -397.66 -477.74
2 7 9 4 8.091 -1511.29 1

bending moment maximum


15 8 158.59 161.60
4 1 DL 2 2.706 2 0.33 37.209 -1.248 4
9 118.49
2 -2.706 2 -0.33 -37.209 -1.064 -21.256
8 -377.37 1348.09
2 LL 2 -395.251 -9.577 5 -3.223 4 -26.657
9 377.37
2 395.251 9.577 5 3.223 1293.53 -40.385

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8
3 SEISMIC 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
9
2 0 0 0 0 0 0
8 104.13 125.42
4 SLAB LOAD 2 2.69 7 -0.198 -6.455 0.538 1
9
2 -2.69 75.863 0.198 6.455 0.852 -26.462
5 COMBINATION LOAD 8 379.72 -565.86 2021.07 390.55
CASE 5 2 -584.781 7 5 41.297 7 2
9 305.89 565.86 1939.97 -132.15
2 584.781 9 5 -41.297 6 5

Bending moment minimum


118.49
10 1 DL 2 2.706 2 -0.33 -37.209 1.064 21.256
1 158.59 -161.60
2 -2.706 2 0.33 37.209 1.248 4
318.83
2 LL 2 -98.677 -5.692 4 5.89 -1122.22 -22.693
1 -318.83
2 98.677 5.692 4 -5.89 -1109.62 -17.152
3 SEISMIC 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
1
2 0 0 0 0 0 0
4 SLAB LOAD 2 2.69 75.863 0.198 6.455 -0.852 26.462
1 104.13 -125.42
2 -2.69 7 -0.198 -6.455 -0.538 1
5 COMBINATION LOAD 282.99 478.05
CASE 5 2 -139.92 5 3 -37.296 -1683.01 37.537
1 402.63 -478.05 -456.26
2 139.92 2 3 37.296 -1663.36 5

IV) Main Cross Beams

shear force maximum


15 8 642.49 1297.97
2 1 DL 2 -0.088 4 -0.418 -88.648 -0.879 6
8 -454.00
9 0.088 1 0.418 88.648 1.925 72.642
8 1144.25
2 LL 2 4 3.309 369.545 -20.443 104.522 14.982
8
9 -1144.25 -3.309 -369.545 20.443 -1028.39 -6.709
8
3 SEISMIC 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
8
9 0 0 0 0 0 0

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8
4 SLAB LOAD 2 -0.131 1.31 0.414 -15.532 -0.048 14.57
8
9 0.131 -1.31 -0.414 15.532 -0.987 -11.296
5 COMBINATION LOAD 8 1716.05 970.66 -186.93 1991.29
CASE 5 2 3 9 554.312 6 155.392 1
8 -687.92 186.93
9 -1716.05 9 -554.312 6 -1541.17 81.957

Shear force minimum


15 8 642.49 1297.97
2 1 DL 2 -0.088 4 -0.418 -88.648 -0.879 6
8 -454.00
9 0.088 1 0.418 88.648 1.925 72.642
8 1144.25
2 LL 2 4 3.309 369.545 -20.443 104.522 14.982
8
9 -1144.25 -3.309 -369.545 20.443 -1028.39 -6.709
8
3 SEISMIC 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
8
9 0 0 0 0 0 0
8
4 SLAB LOAD 2 -0.131 1.31 0.414 -15.532 -0.048 14.57
8
9 0.131 -1.31 -0.414 15.532 -0.987 -11.296
5 COMBINATION LOAD 8 1716.05 970.66 -186.93 1991.29
CASE 5 2 3 9 554.312 6 155.392 1
8 -687.92 186.93
9 -1716.05 9 -554.312 6 -1541.17 81.957
Bending moment maximum
1 642.49 1297.97
26 1 DL 2 -0.088 4 0.418 88.648 0.879 6
1 -454.00
9 0.088 1 -0.418 -88.648 -1.925 72.642
1
2 LL 2 27.269 -0.091 -965.962 -32.288 138.047 -1.852
1
9 -27.269 0.091 965.962 32.288 2276.86 1.624
1
3 SEISMIC 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
1
9 0 0 0 0 0 0
1
4 SLAB LOAD 2 -0.131 1.31 -0.414 15.532 0.048 14.57
1
9 0.131 -1.31 0.414 -15.532 0.987 -11.296
5 COMBINATION LOAD 1 965.56 107.83
CASE 5 2 40.576 8 -1448.94 8 208.462 1966.04
1 -40.576 -682.82 1448.93 -107.83 3413.88 94.456

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9 9 8 8 3

Bending moment minimum


17 9 433.87
0 1 DL 2 -0.267 7 0.377 -66.363 -1.695 967.531
9 -245.38
9 0.267 5 -0.377 66.363 0.752 -118.454
9
2 LL 2 -902.094 2.654 681.54 -28.708 192.902 -0.319
9
9 -597.907 -2.654 -681.54 28.708 -1896.75 6.955
9
3 SEISMIC 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
9
9 0 0 0 0 0 0
9 138.98
4 SLAB LOAD 2 0.212 -9.917 0.153 6 0.653 -37.302
9 -138.98
9 -0.212 9.917 -0.153 6 -1.036 12.508
5 COMBINATION LOAD 9 639.92 1023.10 1394.86
CASE 5 2 -1353.22 1 5 65.873 287.79 5
9 -357.18
9 -896.776 2 -1023.11 -65.873 -2845.55 -148.485

V) Piles

Shear force maximum and minimum


2
37 1 DL 1 1838.06 6.819 0.009 0.061 -0.046 42.729
2
2 -1293.12 -6.819 -0.009 -0.061 -0.146 96.711
2
2 LL 1 21.792 -5.235 -6.248 -31.165 64.011 -54.434
2
2 -21.792 5.235 6.248 31.165 63.76 -52.631
2
3 SEISMIC 1 -131.316 47.97 0 0 0 495.888
2
2 131.316 -47.97 0 0 0 485.1
2
4 SLAB LOAD 1 320.026 -1.542 -0.061 0.04 0.43 -11.099
2
2 -320.026 1.542 0.061 -0.04 0.822 -20.437
5 COMBINATION LOAD 2 3138.50
CASE 5 1 1 48.032 -9.45 -46.596 96.592 461.682
2
2 -2321.09 -48.032 9.45 46.596 96.655 520.565

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Bending Moment maximum


14 8 1010.34
6 1 DL 3 9 0.296 -0.068 -0.013 0.295 -3.801
8
4 -571.996 -0.296 0.068 0.013 0.829 8.665
8
2 LL 3 -8.716 30.803 -6.429 -27.019 54.121 254.533
8
4 8.716 -30.803 6.429 27.019 51.632 252.178
8
3 SEISMIC 3 -20.915 93.541 0 0 0 772.907
8
4 20.915 -93.541 0 0 0 765.842
8
4 SLAB LOAD 3 648.669 -0.936 0.192 -0.049 -1.143 -6.021
8
4 -648.669 0.936 -0.192 0.049 -2.019 -9.381
5 COMBINATION LOAD 8 2454.53 1139.97
CASE 5 3 7 138.785 -9.457 -40.621 79.91 4
8 - 1143.03
4 -1797.01 138.785 9.457 40.621 75.662 5
Bending Moment minimum
2 1 DL 3 913.524 -0.56 3.991 0.018 -21.666 -8.32
4 -475.171 0.56 -3.991 -0.018 -43.98 -0.887
2 LL 3 16.153 -69.089 -2.624 -17.334 21.785 -570.786
4 -16.153 69.089 2.624 17.334 21.386 -565.728
3 SEISMIC 3 -20.915 93.541 0 0 0 772.907
4 20.915 -93.541 0 0 0 765.842
4 SLAB LOAD 3 313.444 -0.655 6.352 0.071 -34.517 -4.421
4 -313.444 0.655 -6.352 -0.071 -69.973 -6.346
5 COMBINATION LOAD 1843.76
CASE 5 3 5 -11.914 11.577 -25.869 -51.597 -102.382
-
4 -1186.24 11.914 -11.577 25.869 138.851 -93.6

Annexure-VII: Reinforcement Details

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REFERENCES

1. Techno-Economic Feasibility of Additional Inner Harbour Development at


Tuticorin Port (Volume-III), National Institute of Ocean Technology-Chennai, 2004.

2. Tuticorin Port Trust (1994), Feasibility Report for the Capital Dredging at Tuticorin
Port.

3. Design report of Berth-VIII, Tuticorin Port.

4. Detail Engineering for the Construction of Berth No 18 for Handling Bulk Cargo and
Containers at New Mangalore Port, Chapter 3, NMPT.

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