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Phosphoric acid:

Phosphoric acid (also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic)
acid having the chemical formula H3PO4. Orthophosphoric acid molecules can combine with themselves to form
a variety of compounds which are also referred to as phosphoric acids, but in a more general way. The
term phosphoric acid can also refer to a chemical or reagent consisting of phosphoric acids, such
as pyrophosphoric acid or triphosphoric acid, but usually orthophosphoric acid.

Preparation :
Phosphoric acid can be prepared by three routes the thermal process and the wet process, which includes two
sub-methods. The wet process dominates in the commercial sector. The more expensive thermal process
produces a purer product that is used for applications in the food industry.

Wet:
Wet process phosphoric acid is prepared by adding sulfuric acid to tricalcium phosphate rock, typically found in
nature as apatite. The reaction is:
Ca5(PO4)3X + 5 H2SO4 + 10 H2O 3 H3PO4 + 5 CaSO42 H2O + HX
where X may include OH, F, Cl, and Br

The initial phosphoric acid solution may contain 2333% P2O5, but can be concentrated by the
evaporation of water to produce commercial- or merchant-grade phosphoric acid, which contains about
54% P2O5. Further evaporation of water yields superphosphoric acid with a P2O5 concentration above
70%.[6][7]

Digestion of the phosphate ore using sulfuric acid yields the insoluble calcium sulfate (gypsum), which
is filtered and removed as phosphogypsum. Wet-process acid can be further purified by removing
fluorine to produce animal-grade phosphoric acid, or by solvent extraction and arsenic removal to
produce food-grade phosphoric acid.

The nitrophosphate process is similar to the wet process except that it uses nitric acid in place of
sulfuric acid. The advantage to this route is that the coproduct, calcium nitrate is also a plant fertilizer.
This method is rarely employed.

Thermal:
Very pure phosphoric acid is obtained by burning elemental phosphorus to produce phosphorus
pentoxide, which is subsequently dissolved in dilute phosphoric acid. This route produces a very pure
phosphoric acid, since most impurities present in the rock have been removed when extracting
phosphorus from the rock in a furnace. The end result is food-grade, thermal phosphoric acid; however,
for critical applications, additional processing to remove arsenic compounds may be needed.

Elemental phosphorus is produced by an electric furnace. At a high temperature, a mixture of


phosphate ore, silica and carbonaceous material (coke, coal etc...) produces calcium silicate,
phosphorus gas and carbon monoxide. The P and CO off-gases from this reaction are cooled under
water to isolate solid phosphorus. Alternatively, the P and CO off-gases can be burned with air to
produce phosphorus pentoxide and carbon dioxide.

Physical properties:
H 3 P O4
is deliquescent crystaline solid.

Its melting point is 41 C .
It is soluble in water.

Uses:
Phosphoric acid is used as the electrolyte in phosphoric acid fuel cells.
Phosphoric acid is also used as a cleaner by construction trades so as to remove
mineral deposits, cementinous smears and hard water stains. Hot phosphoric
acid is used in micro-fabrication to etch silicon nitride. Phosphoric acid is used as
a flux by hobbyists so as to aid in soldering. Phosphoric acid in also used in
hydroponics pH solutions to lower the pH of nutrient solutions. One of the
phosphoric acid uses also includes it being used as an electrolyte in copper
electro-polishing for burr removal. In compound semiconductor processing,
phosphoric acid is a commonly used wet etching agent. Phosphoric acid is used
as a pH adjuster in cosmetics and other skin care products. It's also used as a
chemical oxidizing agent for activated carbon productions. It is used with distilled
water as an electrolyte in oxyhydrogen generators.

This is an mportant acid that is prepared by different routes. Its application in


various industries ranging from metallurgy to the food industry make this a
popular acid.

MSDS:
A Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is a document that contains information on the
potential hazards (health, fire, reactivity and environmental) and how to work safely
with the chemical product.

A material safety data sheet (MSDS), safety data sheet (SDS),[1] or product safety data
sheet (PSDS) is an important component of product stewardship and occupational safety and health.
It is intended to provide workers and emergency personnel with procedures for handling or working
with that substance in a safe manner, and includes information such as physical data ( melting
point, boiling point, flash point, etc.), toxicity, health effects, first aid, reactivity, storage, disposal,
protective equipment, and spill-handling procedures. MSDS formats can vary from source to source
within a country depending on national requirements.

SDSs are a widely used system for cataloging information on chemicals, chemical compounds, and
chemical mixtures. SDS information may include instructions for the safe use and
potential hazards associated with a particular material or product. These data sheetscan be found
anywhere where chemicals are being used.

There is also a duty to properly label substances on the basis of physico-chemical, health and/or
environmental risk. Labels can include hazard symbols such as the European Union standard black
diagonal cross on an orange background, used to denote a harmful substance.

An SDS for a substance is not primarily intended for use by the general consumer, focusing instead
on the hazards of working with the material in an occupational setting.
In some jurisdictions, the MSDS is required to state the chemical's risks, safety, and effect on the
environment.

It is important to use an MSDS specific to both country and supplier, as the same product (e.g. paints
sold under identical brand names by the same company) can have different formulations in different
countries. The formulation and hazard of a product using a generic name (e.g. sugar soap) may vary
between manufacturers in the same country.