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May 15-17, 2007, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

ISME2007-1013

Investigation the effect of internal radial clearance on the nonlinear dynamic response of

a balanced rotor supported by deep groove ball bearings

M.Sc. Iran Univ. of Sc. & Tech. M.Sc. Sharif Univ. of Tech. Ph.D. Ferdowsi Univ. of Mashhad

ahmad.rafsanjani@gmail.com hamid.moeenfard@gmail.com farshid@ferdowsi.um.ac.ir

Saeed Abbasion

M.Sc. Iran Univ. of Sc. & Tech.

s.abbasion@mecheng.iust.ac.ir

In this paper an analytical model is proposed to Tiwari et al. [12] studied the effect of the ball bearing

investigate the effect of internal radial clearance in clearance on the dynamic response of a rigid rotor.

nonlinear dynamic behavior of a rotating system Sopanen and Mikkola [8] Studied some specific classes

supported by deep groove ball bearings. In this case, the of internal radial clearance and Harsha [13] investigated

only excitation mechanism is the parametric excitation arbitrary values of internal radial clearance. There are

which induces the ball pass frequency which is detected several classes for radial internal clearance in deep

in the vibration spectra. The variation of vibration groove ball bearings. In this work the vibrations of the

amplitude for different internal radial clearance is bearings are studied for different values of radial

carefully analyzed. The rolling element contacts internal clearance. Five different classes of radial

modeled with nonlinear springs based on Hertzian internal clearances (C2, C3, C4, C5 and Normal Class)

contact which is stiff in the direction of contact and soft are studied. In this case, the only excitation mechanism

in the opposite direction. The differential equations are is parametric excitation which generates vibrations at

solved iteratively using a modified Newmark numerical ball pass frequency or varying compliance frequency.

integration technique. The results are presented in the Since the rotor is completely balance, no shaft

form of fast Fourier transforms. The obtained results are frequency or its harmonics must be appeared in the

compared with those ones in reliable literatures. vibration spectrum of the rotor. In the present work an

Keywords: Deep groove ball bearings, nonlinear, analytical model is proposed to investigate the effect of

internal radial clearance, Newmark method internal radial clearance on the dynamic behavior of

deep groove ball bearings.

Introduction

Rolling bearings are widely used in industrial Parametric Excitation

machinery. In spite of their simple structure they have a The vibrations generated in ball bearings can be

complicated dynamic behavior. ascribed to different mechanisms. Most of these

The first researches on the dynamic behavior of ball mechanisms are related to imperfections in the bearing,

bearings were conducted by Perret [1] and Meldau [2]. such as waviness, roughness, damage, fatigue spalls and

Perret considered a deep groove ball bearing with the dirt. However, at all times even perfect ball bearings

elastic deformation between race and balls due to generate vibrations due to the rotation of the loaded

Hertzian theory. The bending of the races was not taken rolling elements. When the rolling element set and the

into account in this model. In Meldau model 2D motion cage rotate with a constant angular velocity, a

of shaft center were studied in absence of inertia and parametrically excited vibration is generated that is

damping forces. Yamamoto [3] performed an analytical transmitted through the outer ring. The characteristic

investigation on the dynamic behavior of a vertical rotor frequency of this vibration which and is called the ball

supported with ball bearing including radial clearance. pass frequency equals

Sunnersjo [4] investigated the parametric excitation f bp = N b f c (1)

both theoretically and experimentally. Its model

contains damping and inertia considerations. Mevel and Which N b is the number of balls and f c is the cage

Guyader [5] and Fakuta et al. [6] modeled a ball bearing frequency.

supporting a horizontal rotor with constant radial

loading separately. Wensing [7] derived the equations of Nonlinear dynamic Modeling of the System

motion for a system supported with deep groove ball The structural vibration analysis of rolling element

bearings. Sopanen and Mikkola [8, 9] developed a bearings for normal condition developed using a spring

dynamic model of a deep-groove ball bearing with six mass model with nonlinear springs. The outer ring of

degrees of freedom. the bearing fixed in a rigid support and the inner ring

The early works on the effect of internal radial rigidly joined with the rotating shaft. A constant radial

clearance on the nonlinear vibration of rotor were vertical force acts on the bearing. Because of existing

performed by Yamamoto [3]. Ehrich [10, 11] studied nonlinearities, a nonlinear force will be appeared.

subharmonic

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The internal radial clearance of rolling elements Fcont = f ( ) (8)

considered in the deformation.

As the circumferential velocity of a rolling element due In the case of a dry point contact for > 0 , f ( ) in

to rotation about its own axis is equal and opposite at equation 8 is obtained from the Hertzian solution.

the point of contact with inner and outer races, the axes Fcont = k 3 2 (9)

of the rolling elements and therefore the cage holding

the rolling elements must move with a velocity equal to Where k is the nonlinear contact stiffness and will be

the mean of the circumferential velocities of the inner calculated in the following section.

and outer races in order for the element to maintain (i) is the displacement at the ith ball, which is given

contact without sliding. as:

Vi + Vo (i) = x cos i + y sin i (10)

Vc = (1)

2 Where x and y are the displacement along X and Y

directions respectively and is the internal radial

Where Vc is the tangential velocity of the cage at the clearance.

pitch circle and Vi and Vo are the circumferential

velocities of the inner and outer race respectively,

The velocity relationship given in equation 1 can be

easily converted to a relationship of the rotational ball ith

frequencies based on the geometry of the bearing shown

in figure.3. Giving

Di fi + Do fo

fc = (2)

2D

The relationship between the inner and outer race y

diameters ( Di and Do respectively) and the pitch circle

(i)

diameter ( D ) is based on the diameter of the rolling i

element ( d ) and the contact angle ( ):

Di = D d cos( ) (3) x

Do = D + d cos( ) (4) Figure 3 nonlinear spring

The rotational frequency of the cage can be expressed in

The contact force Fcont can be expressed in term of the

terms of the pitch circle diameter ( D ), the diameter of

the rolling element ( d ) and the contact angle ( ) by displacement at the ith ball (i) by substituting the

substituting the relationship given in equation 3 and 4 relationship given in equation 10 into equation 11

into equation 2 giving giving

Fcont = k ( x cos i + y sin i )

32

(11)

d d

(1 cos( )) fi + (1 + cos( )) fo Where the symbol assumes just the positive value

fc = D D (5)

2 of the terms it contains and the negative terms will be

Here the outer race is assumed to be fixed and the set to zero. In fact when the rolling elements are not in

contact angle is zero, Hence [14], the load zone there is no contact, consequently the

corresponding deformation would be zero and no force

1 d

fc = (1 ) f i (6) will be transmitted.

2 D

For the estimation of bearing it is necessary to know the Calculation of the Contact Stiffness

position of each ball. The ball center rotates at the cage A ball of a rolling bearing is located within a small

frequency and the contact angle of ith ball can be clearance of motion limiting raceways as illustrated in

calculated from the following equation: figure 4. The

Vertical component of the existing unbalance forces

2

i = (i 1) + fc t (7) will cause intermittent local contact with the raceways

Nb resulting in a bouncing motion of the rotor. The

stiffness characteristic for the vertical motion is

Where i = 1,..., Nb

asymmetric [15]. In its simplest form, it may be

represented as a bilinear relationship: very soft for

Evaluating of the contact force vertical motion in the upward direction and very stiff for

The mutual approach, denoted by is defined as the vertical motion in the downward direction . In many

change in distance between the centers of curvature of cases the upward stiffness may be negligible and only

the contacting bodies. The objective is to find a relation the downward stiffness should be taken into account.

between the contact force Fcont and the mutual According to Hertzian theory when the unloaded

contact between two elastic bodies is limited to a single

approach . point, the contact is called a point contact.

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The geometry of a point contact is described by four In which E1 and E 2 are the modulus of elasticity of the

radii of curvature. By definition, convex surfaces have

positive radii and concave surfaces have negative radii. inner and the outer race and 1 and 2 are the

In a ball bearing the rolling elements make contact with Poissons ratio respectively.

the inner and outer raceway. The surface of a rolling In the case of a dry point contact, the nonlinear contact

element is convex whereas the surface of the outer stiffness in equation 9 is obtained from the Hertzian solution.

raceway is concave. The surface of the inner raceway is For > 0 , the solution is given by [7]:

convex in the direction of motion and concave in the 2

transverse direction. A number of important geometrical k= 2 Rred E red (24)

properties of a ball bearing are depicted in Figure 4. 3

When r denotes the ball radius, then the radii of

curvature for the inner contacts read: Derivation of Equations of Motion

For deriving the equations of motion the rotor to which

R1x = r (12) the bearings are attached is considered as a system. The

R1 y = r (13) forces acting on the rotor are inertia, contact and

damping force and the weight of the rotor. Using the

R Newtons second law of motion in X and Y direction

R2 x = r (14)

cos( ) gives two coupled nonlinear ordinary differential

equations as below

R2 y = rir (15) Nb

mx+ cx + k ( xcosi + ysini ) cosi = Wx (25)

32

In the same way, the radii of curvature for the outer

contacts read: i =1

Nb

my + cy + k ( xcosi + ysini ) sini =Wy (26)

32

i=1

Where m is the rotor mass and c is the damping

coefficient. The horizontal and vertical load defined as

Wx and Wy respectively.

Hilber-hughes-taylor -Method

D 2 The nonlinear equations of motion are integrated with

Hilber-Hughes-Taylor -method. This method is an

improved Newmark time integration which is based

upon retaining the Newmark relations among the

displacement, velocity and acceleration [16].

The method uses a constant-average acceleration

Figure 4 bearing geometry

scheme and the following assumptions are employed:

R1x = r (16)

un+1 = un + tvn + t 2 [(1 2 )a n + 2a n +1 ]

1

(33)

R1 y = r (17) 2

R vn +1 = vn + t [(1 )a n + a n +1 ] (34)

R2 x = + r (18)

cos( ) Ma n +1 + cvn +1 + F cont

n +1 = f n +1 (35)

R2 y = ror (19) Where, u n , vn and a n are the displacement, velocity and

The reduced radius of curvature Rred is defined as the acceleration at nth time step respectively. The

external force transmitted to the system at the nth time

1 1 1

= + (20) step denoted by fn +1 . The Newmark parameters

Rred Rx R y

and are related to each other with a third

Where

parameter as below:

1 1 1

= + (21)

Rx R1x R2 x (1 2 )

= (36)

1 1 1 2

= + (22)

Ry R1 y R2 y (1 2 ) 2

= (37)

4

The reduced modulus of elasticity is defined by the 1

following relation: 0 (38)

3

1 1 1 2

2 2

2

= + (23) For solving the equations of motion with this method an

E red E1 E2 algorithm is used which its flowchart is shown in

Appendix A (Figure 9).

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When = 0, the original Newmark algorithm is

recovered. Decreasing result in appropriate numerical

dissipation of spurious high-frequency response. This

algorithm is simple to implement, and it works

incredibly well on problems with "difficult" data such as

complicated system like

A rotor supported with a deep groove single row ball

bearing is considered. The main properties of the system

under investigation are listed in Table 1.

Bearing Type* SKF-6205-2RS

Inside diameter (2 r ) * 25mm

Outside diameter (2 R) * 52mm

Pitch diameter D * 39.05mm

ball diameter d * 7.94mm

Number of balls Nb * 9

Internal radial clearance * 8 20 m

Modulus of elasticity (E1 & E2 ) 200 GPa

Poissons ratio ( 1 & 2 ) 0.28

Bearing stiffness k 4.546 10 9 N/m

Damping coefficient C 5000 Ns/m

Shaft speed 1797 rpm

Horizontal load 0N

Vertical load 5N

Rotor mass 4 Kg

*the bearing information obtained from SKF website [17]

In this paper a nonlinear dynamic model proposed for

deep groove ball bearings. The governing equations of

motion solved with an improved Newmark time

integration method using MATLAB. The simulation

performed for different internal radial clearances. The

time displacement and velocity displacement response

at the speed of 1797 rpm for normal class are shown in

figure 5. As it can be seen the nature of the motion is

periodic and steady. The amplitude of the vibration

response in horizontal direction is greater than vertical

direction where the radial load is applied in vertical

direction.

To study the effect of internal radial clearance on the

vibration amplitude the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of

the horizontal and vertical velocity of the shaft is

obtained for different clearances. Five different classes

of radial internal clearances (C2, C3, C4, C5 and Figure 5 Time history for normal class clearance

Normal Class) are studied. In this case, the only 3.5

x 10

-4 FFT of Vertical Velocity for Normal Clearance

generates vibrations at ball pass frequency or varying 3

amplitude (m/s)

equation (1). 2

vertical velocities of the rotor with ball bearings for

normal class clearance. As it can be seen the dominant 1

varying frequency and its harmonics. Here the shaft

speed is 1797rpm and the compliance varying frequency 0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

frequency (Hz)

is 109.9 Hz. Figure 7 comprises the vibration spectrum

for C2 to C5 internal radial clearance classes. Figure 6 vibration spectrum for normal class

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-3 -3

x 10 FFT of Horizontal Velocity for C2 Clearance x 10 FFT of Vertical Velocity for C2 Clearance

6 6

5 5

4 4

amplitude (m/s)

amplitude (m/s)

3 3

2 2

1 1

0 0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

frequency (Hz) frequency (Hz)

I II

-3 -3

x 10 FFT of Horizontal Velocity for C3 Clearance x 10 FFT of Vertical Velocity for C3 Clearance

6 6

5 5

4 4

amplitude (m/s)

amplitude (m/s)

3 3

2 2

1 1

0 0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

frequency (Hz) frequency (Hz)

III IV

-3 -3

x 10 FFT of Horizontal Velocity for C4 Clearance x 10 FFT of Vertical Velocity for C4 Clearance

6 6

5 5

4 4

amplitude (m/s)

amplitude (m/s)

3 3

2 2

1 1

0 0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

frequency (Hz) frequency (Hz)

V VI

-3 -3

x 10 FFT of Horizontal Velocity for C5 Clearance x 10 FFT of Vertical Velocity for C5 Clearance

6 6

5 5

4 4

amplitude (m/s)

amplitude (m/s)

3 3

2 2

1 1

0 0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

frequency (Hz) frequency (Hz)

VII VIII

Figure 7: Effect of radial internal clearance on the vibration spectrum

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As it can be seen the radial clearance is found to have a Reference:

significant effect on the level of vibration. In normal and [1] Perret, H., 1950, Elastischen Spielschwingungen

C3 radial internal clearances some fractal harmonics of constant belaster Walzlager. Werkstatt und Betrieb,

the ball pass frequency also have been excited. Here also 83(C5):354-358.

the only excitation mechanism is parametric excitation [2] Meldau, E., 1951, Die Bewechung der Achse von

due to ball pass frequency. Walzlagern bei geringen Drehzahlen, Werkstatt und

For the convenience of readers the peaks of vibration Betrieb, 84(C5):308-313.

spectrum for different values of radial internal clearance [3] T. Yamamoto, 1955, On the vibration of a shaft

are listed in the Table 2 and compared with theoretical supported by bearing having radial clearances,

values obtained from equation (1). These results are in Transactions of JSME (21) 182192.

accordance with reported experimental spectra [18]. [4] Sunnersjo, C. S., 1978, Varying compliance

vibrations of rolling bearings, Journal of Sound and

Table2. harmonic orders of ball pass frequency (Hz) Vibration, 58(3):363-373.

order Theoretical C2 Normal C3 C4 C5 [5] Mevel, B. and Guyader, J. L., 1993, Routes to

1/2 54.87 55.7 55.69 chaos in ball bearings, Journal of Sound and

Vibration, 162(3):471-487.

1 109.75 110 110 109.9 109.9 109.9

[6] S. Fukata, E.H. Gad, T. Kondou, T. Ayabe, H.

3/2 164.62 165 164.8 Tamura, 1985, On the radial vibrations of ball bearings

2 219.5 220 220 219.7 219.7 219.7 (computer simulation), Bulletin of the JSME (28)

5/2 274.38 275 274.7 899904.

3 329.25 330 330 329.6 329.6 329.6 [7] J.A. Wensing, On the Dynamics of Ball Bearings,

Ph.D. thesis, University of Twente, Ensched, The

7/2 384.13 385

Netherlands, 1998

[8] J Sopanen, A Mikkola, 2003, Dynamic model of a

Figure 8 shows the amplitude of vertical velocity at deep-groove ball bearing including localiz ed and

varying compliance frequency and its two first distributed defects. Part 1: theory, Proc. Instn Mech.

harmonics for different radial internal clearance values. Engrs Vol. 217 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics,

It can be seen that the vibration level is greatly increased pp201-211.

when the bearing clearance is increased from 11 to [9] J Sopanen, A Mikkola, 2003, Dynamic model of a

53 m . deep-groove ball bearing including localized and

distributed defects. Part 2: implementation and results,

-3

x 10 Effect of Claearance on Vertical Velocity

Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 217 Part K: J. Multi-body

5

C2

Dynamics, pp213-223.

4.5 Normal [10] Ehrich FF., 1988, Higher order subharmonic

C3

4

C4

response of high speed rotors in bearing clearance,

3.5

C5 ASME Journal of Vibration Acoustic Stress and

3

Reliability in Design (110)916.

Velocity(m/s)

2.5

superharmonic and chaotic response in rotor

2

dynamics, ASME Journal of Vibration Acoustic Stress

1.5 and Reliability in Design (114)939.

1 [12] Tiwari, M., Gupta, K. and Prakash, O. Effect of

0.5 radial internal clearance of a ball bearing on the

0

dynamics of a balanced horizontal rotor. Journal of

100 150 200 250

frequency(Hz)

300 350

Sound and Vibration, 2000, 238, 723756.

[13] Harsha S P, Sandeep K, Prakash R., 2003, The

Figure 8 Effect of clearance on the amplitude of effect of speed of balanced rotor on nonlinear vibrations

vibration resonances

associated with ball bearings, International Journal of

Mechanical Sciences, 45(4):725 740.

Conclusion [14] T.A. Harris, 2001, Rolling Bearing Analysis,

In this paper a nonlinear dynamic model proposed for a Wiley, New York

system supported with deep groove ball bearings and the [15] Harris C. M. and Piersol A. G., 2002, Harris

effect of internal radial clearance on the vibration amplitude Shock and Vibration Handbook, New York: McGraw-

are investigated. It was seen that the internal radial

Hill Book Company.

clearance is an important parameter which has considerable

[16] Bathe, K. J., 1982, Finite element procedures in

effect on the dynamic response of the system. Choosing

proper radial clearance must be taken into account in

engineering analysis. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.

mechanical design. Accordance of the obtained results with [17] SKF Website: WWW.SKF.COM

those reported in reliable literatures shows the validity of [18] Taylor, J. I., 1994, The Vibration Analysis

the present work. Handbook, 1st edition, (Vibration Consultants, Tampa).

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Appendix A

0 i

choose and calculate &

t+ t

i

u j = u

i t

j for j = x , y

Predictor

i t + t

aj [ (

= i f jt + t c i vtj +(1 )i a tj i Fcont

t +t

_j m ) ]

i t +t i t

vj = vj [

+ (1 )i a tj + a tj+t t ]

i +1 i Next Iteration

i t + t i 1 t i 1 t 1

2

[

u j = u j + v j t + (1 2 )i 1 a tj + 2 i 1a tj t 2 ]

Residual

i

R j = i u tj+ t i 1 u tj+ t

NO i

Rj

Corrector

YES

Time Increment

t + t t

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