You are on page 1of 7

15th.

Annual (International) Conference on Mechanical Engineering-ISME2007


May 15-17, 2007, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
ISME2007-1013

Investigation the effect of internal radial clearance on the nonlinear dynamic response of
a balanced rotor supported by deep groove ball bearings

Ahmad Rafsanjani Abbasi Hamid Moeenfard Anoushiravn Farshidianfar


M.Sc. Iran Univ. of Sc. & Tech. M.Sc. Sharif Univ. of Tech. Ph.D. Ferdowsi Univ. of Mashhad
ahmad.rafsanjani@gmail.com hamid.moeenfard@gmail.com farshid@ferdowsi.um.ac.ir

Saeed Abbasion
M.Sc. Iran Univ. of Sc. & Tech.
s.abbasion@mecheng.iust.ac.ir

Abstract and higher order sub harmonic of bearing clearances.


In this paper an analytical model is proposed to Tiwari et al. [12] studied the effect of the ball bearing
investigate the effect of internal radial clearance in clearance on the dynamic response of a rigid rotor.
nonlinear dynamic behavior of a rotating system Sopanen and Mikkola [8] Studied some specific classes
supported by deep groove ball bearings. In this case, the of internal radial clearance and Harsha [13] investigated
only excitation mechanism is the parametric excitation arbitrary values of internal radial clearance. There are
which induces the ball pass frequency which is detected several classes for radial internal clearance in deep
in the vibration spectra. The variation of vibration groove ball bearings. In this work the vibrations of the
amplitude for different internal radial clearance is bearings are studied for different values of radial
carefully analyzed. The rolling element contacts internal clearance. Five different classes of radial
modeled with nonlinear springs based on Hertzian internal clearances (C2, C3, C4, C5 and Normal Class)
contact which is stiff in the direction of contact and soft are studied. In this case, the only excitation mechanism
in the opposite direction. The differential equations are is parametric excitation which generates vibrations at
solved iteratively using a modified Newmark numerical ball pass frequency or varying compliance frequency.
integration technique. The results are presented in the Since the rotor is completely balance, no shaft
form of fast Fourier transforms. The obtained results are frequency or its harmonics must be appeared in the
compared with those ones in reliable literatures. vibration spectrum of the rotor. In the present work an
Keywords: Deep groove ball bearings, nonlinear, analytical model is proposed to investigate the effect of
internal radial clearance, Newmark method internal radial clearance on the dynamic behavior of
deep groove ball bearings.
Introduction
Rolling bearings are widely used in industrial Parametric Excitation
machinery. In spite of their simple structure they have a The vibrations generated in ball bearings can be
complicated dynamic behavior. ascribed to different mechanisms. Most of these
The first researches on the dynamic behavior of ball mechanisms are related to imperfections in the bearing,
bearings were conducted by Perret [1] and Meldau [2]. such as waviness, roughness, damage, fatigue spalls and
Perret considered a deep groove ball bearing with the dirt. However, at all times even perfect ball bearings
elastic deformation between race and balls due to generate vibrations due to the rotation of the loaded
Hertzian theory. The bending of the races was not taken rolling elements. When the rolling element set and the
into account in this model. In Meldau model 2D motion cage rotate with a constant angular velocity, a
of shaft center were studied in absence of inertia and parametrically excited vibration is generated that is
damping forces. Yamamoto [3] performed an analytical transmitted through the outer ring. The characteristic
investigation on the dynamic behavior of a vertical rotor frequency of this vibration which and is called the ball
supported with ball bearing including radial clearance. pass frequency equals
Sunnersjo [4] investigated the parametric excitation f bp = N b f c (1)
both theoretically and experimentally. Its model
contains damping and inertia considerations. Mevel and Which N b is the number of balls and f c is the cage
Guyader [5] and Fakuta et al. [6] modeled a ball bearing frequency.
supporting a horizontal rotor with constant radial
loading separately. Wensing [7] derived the equations of Nonlinear dynamic Modeling of the System
motion for a system supported with deep groove ball The structural vibration analysis of rolling element
bearings. Sopanen and Mikkola [8, 9] developed a bearings for normal condition developed using a spring
dynamic model of a deep-groove ball bearing with six mass model with nonlinear springs. The outer ring of
degrees of freedom. the bearing fixed in a rigid support and the inner ring
The early works on the effect of internal radial rigidly joined with the rotating shaft. A constant radial
clearance on the nonlinear vibration of rotor were vertical force acts on the bearing. Because of existing
performed by Yamamoto [3]. Ehrich [10, 11] studied nonlinearities, a nonlinear force will be appeared.
subharmonic
www.me-en.com
mechanical engineering
The internal radial clearance of rolling elements Fcont = f ( ) (8)
considered in the deformation.
As the circumferential velocity of a rolling element due In the case of a dry point contact for > 0 , f ( ) in
to rotation about its own axis is equal and opposite at equation 8 is obtained from the Hertzian solution.
the point of contact with inner and outer races, the axes Fcont = k 3 2 (9)
of the rolling elements and therefore the cage holding
the rolling elements must move with a velocity equal to Where k is the nonlinear contact stiffness and will be
the mean of the circumferential velocities of the inner calculated in the following section.
and outer races in order for the element to maintain (i) is the displacement at the ith ball, which is given
contact without sliding. as:
Vi + Vo (i) = x cos i + y sin i (10)
Vc = (1)
2 Where x and y are the displacement along X and Y
directions respectively and is the internal radial
Where Vc is the tangential velocity of the cage at the clearance.
pitch circle and Vi and Vo are the circumferential
velocities of the inner and outer race respectively,
The velocity relationship given in equation 1 can be
easily converted to a relationship of the rotational ball ith
frequencies based on the geometry of the bearing shown
in figure.3. Giving
Di fi + Do fo
fc = (2)
2D
The relationship between the inner and outer race y
diameters ( Di and Do respectively) and the pitch circle
(i)
diameter ( D ) is based on the diameter of the rolling i
element ( d ) and the contact angle ( ):
Di = D d cos( ) (3) x
Do = D + d cos( ) (4) Figure 3 nonlinear spring
The rotational frequency of the cage can be expressed in
The contact force Fcont can be expressed in term of the
terms of the pitch circle diameter ( D ), the diameter of
the rolling element ( d ) and the contact angle ( ) by displacement at the ith ball (i) by substituting the
substituting the relationship given in equation 3 and 4 relationship given in equation 10 into equation 11
into equation 2 giving giving
Fcont = k ( x cos i + y sin i )
32
(11)
d d
(1 cos( )) fi + (1 + cos( )) fo Where the symbol assumes just the positive value
fc = D D (5)
2 of the terms it contains and the negative terms will be
Here the outer race is assumed to be fixed and the set to zero. In fact when the rolling elements are not in
contact angle is zero, Hence [14], the load zone there is no contact, consequently the
corresponding deformation would be zero and no force
1 d
fc = (1 ) f i (6) will be transmitted.
2 D
For the estimation of bearing it is necessary to know the Calculation of the Contact Stiffness
position of each ball. The ball center rotates at the cage A ball of a rolling bearing is located within a small
frequency and the contact angle of ith ball can be clearance of motion limiting raceways as illustrated in
calculated from the following equation: figure 4. The
Vertical component of the existing unbalance forces
2
i = (i 1) + fc t (7) will cause intermittent local contact with the raceways
Nb resulting in a bouncing motion of the rotor. The
stiffness characteristic for the vertical motion is
Where i = 1,..., Nb
asymmetric [15]. In its simplest form, it may be
represented as a bilinear relationship: very soft for
Evaluating of the contact force vertical motion in the upward direction and very stiff for
The mutual approach, denoted by is defined as the vertical motion in the downward direction . In many
change in distance between the centers of curvature of cases the upward stiffness may be negligible and only
the contacting bodies. The objective is to find a relation the downward stiffness should be taken into account.
between the contact force Fcont and the mutual According to Hertzian theory when the unloaded
contact between two elastic bodies is limited to a single
approach . point, the contact is called a point contact.

www.me-en.com
mechanical engineering
The geometry of a point contact is described by four In which E1 and E 2 are the modulus of elasticity of the
radii of curvature. By definition, convex surfaces have
positive radii and concave surfaces have negative radii. inner and the outer race and 1 and 2 are the
In a ball bearing the rolling elements make contact with Poissons ratio respectively.
the inner and outer raceway. The surface of a rolling In the case of a dry point contact, the nonlinear contact
element is convex whereas the surface of the outer stiffness in equation 9 is obtained from the Hertzian solution.
raceway is concave. The surface of the inner raceway is For > 0 , the solution is given by [7]:
convex in the direction of motion and concave in the 2
transverse direction. A number of important geometrical k= 2 Rred E red (24)
properties of a ball bearing are depicted in Figure 4. 3
When r denotes the ball radius, then the radii of
curvature for the inner contacts read: Derivation of Equations of Motion
For deriving the equations of motion the rotor to which
R1x = r (12) the bearings are attached is considered as a system. The
R1 y = r (13) forces acting on the rotor are inertia, contact and
damping force and the weight of the rotor. Using the
R Newtons second law of motion in X and Y direction
R2 x = r (14)
cos( ) gives two coupled nonlinear ordinary differential
equations as below
R2 y = rir (15) Nb
mx+ cx + k ( xcosi + ysini ) cosi = Wx (25)
32
In the same way, the radii of curvature for the outer
contacts read: i =1
Nb
my + cy + k ( xcosi + ysini ) sini =Wy (26)
32

i=1
Where m is the rotor mass and c is the damping
coefficient. The horizontal and vertical load defined as
Wx and Wy respectively.

Hilber-hughes-taylor -Method
D 2 The nonlinear equations of motion are integrated with
Hilber-Hughes-Taylor -method. This method is an
improved Newmark time integration which is based
upon retaining the Newmark relations among the
displacement, velocity and acceleration [16].
The method uses a constant-average acceleration
Figure 4 bearing geometry
scheme and the following assumptions are employed:
R1x = r (16)
un+1 = un + tvn + t 2 [(1 2 )a n + 2a n +1 ]
1
(33)
R1 y = r (17) 2
R vn +1 = vn + t [(1 )a n + a n +1 ] (34)
R2 x = + r (18)
cos( ) Ma n +1 + cvn +1 + F cont
n +1 = f n +1 (35)
R2 y = ror (19) Where, u n , vn and a n are the displacement, velocity and
The reduced radius of curvature Rred is defined as the acceleration at nth time step respectively. The
external force transmitted to the system at the nth time
1 1 1
= + (20) step denoted by fn +1 . The Newmark parameters
Rred Rx R y
and are related to each other with a third
Where
parameter as below:
1 1 1
= + (21)
Rx R1x R2 x (1 2 )
= (36)
1 1 1 2
= + (22)
Ry R1 y R2 y (1 2 ) 2
= (37)
4
The reduced modulus of elasticity is defined by the 1
following relation: 0 (38)
3
1 1 1 2
2 2
2
= + (23) For solving the equations of motion with this method an
E red E1 E2 algorithm is used which its flowchart is shown in
Appendix A (Figure 9).

www.me-en.com
mechanical engineering
When = 0, the original Newmark algorithm is
recovered. Decreasing result in appropriate numerical
dissipation of spurious high-frequency response. This
algorithm is simple to implement, and it works
incredibly well on problems with "difficult" data such as
complicated system like

The System under Investigation


A rotor supported with a deep groove single row ball
bearing is considered. The main properties of the system
under investigation are listed in Table 1.

Table1. system information


Bearing Type* SKF-6205-2RS
Inside diameter (2 r ) * 25mm
Outside diameter (2 R) * 52mm
Pitch diameter D * 39.05mm
ball diameter d * 7.94mm
Number of balls Nb * 9
Internal radial clearance * 8 20 m
Modulus of elasticity (E1 & E2 ) 200 GPa
Poissons ratio ( 1 & 2 ) 0.28
Bearing stiffness k 4.546 10 9 N/m
Damping coefficient C 5000 Ns/m
Shaft speed 1797 rpm
Horizontal load 0N
Vertical load 5N
Rotor mass 4 Kg
*the bearing information obtained from SKF website [17]

Results and Discussion


In this paper a nonlinear dynamic model proposed for
deep groove ball bearings. The governing equations of
motion solved with an improved Newmark time
integration method using MATLAB. The simulation
performed for different internal radial clearances. The
time displacement and velocity displacement response
at the speed of 1797 rpm for normal class are shown in
figure 5. As it can be seen the nature of the motion is
periodic and steady. The amplitude of the vibration
response in horizontal direction is greater than vertical
direction where the radial load is applied in vertical
direction.
To study the effect of internal radial clearance on the
vibration amplitude the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of
the horizontal and vertical velocity of the shaft is
obtained for different clearances. Five different classes
of radial internal clearances (C2, C3, C4, C5 and Figure 5 Time history for normal class clearance
Normal Class) are studied. In this case, the only 3.5
x 10
-4 FFT of Vertical Velocity for Normal Clearance

excitation mechanism is parametric excitation which


generates vibrations at ball pass frequency or varying 3

compliance frequency, fb which is introduced in 2.5


amplitude (m/s)

equation (1). 2

Figure 6 shows frequency content of horizontal and 1.5


vertical velocities of the rotor with ball bearings for
normal class clearance. As it can be seen the dominant 1

frequencies in the vibration spectrum are compliance 0.5


varying frequency and its harmonics. Here the shaft
speed is 1797rpm and the compliance varying frequency 0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
frequency (Hz)
is 109.9 Hz. Figure 7 comprises the vibration spectrum
for C2 to C5 internal radial clearance classes. Figure 6 vibration spectrum for normal class

www.me-en.com
mechanical engineering
-3 -3
x 10 FFT of Horizontal Velocity for C2 Clearance x 10 FFT of Vertical Velocity for C2 Clearance
6 6

5 5

4 4
amplitude (m/s)

amplitude (m/s)
3 3

2 2

1 1

0 0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
frequency (Hz) frequency (Hz)

I II
-3 -3
x 10 FFT of Horizontal Velocity for C3 Clearance x 10 FFT of Vertical Velocity for C3 Clearance
6 6

5 5

4 4
amplitude (m/s)

amplitude (m/s)
3 3

2 2

1 1

0 0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
frequency (Hz) frequency (Hz)

III IV
-3 -3
x 10 FFT of Horizontal Velocity for C4 Clearance x 10 FFT of Vertical Velocity for C4 Clearance
6 6

5 5

4 4
amplitude (m/s)
amplitude (m/s)

3 3

2 2

1 1

0 0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
frequency (Hz) frequency (Hz)

V VI
-3 -3
x 10 FFT of Horizontal Velocity for C5 Clearance x 10 FFT of Vertical Velocity for C5 Clearance
6 6

5 5

4 4
amplitude (m/s)

amplitude (m/s)

3 3

2 2

1 1

0 0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
frequency (Hz) frequency (Hz)

VII VIII
Figure 7: Effect of radial internal clearance on the vibration spectrum

www.me-en.com
mechanical engineering
As it can be seen the radial clearance is found to have a Reference:
significant effect on the level of vibration. In normal and [1] Perret, H., 1950, Elastischen Spielschwingungen
C3 radial internal clearances some fractal harmonics of constant belaster Walzlager. Werkstatt und Betrieb,
the ball pass frequency also have been excited. Here also 83(C5):354-358.
the only excitation mechanism is parametric excitation [2] Meldau, E., 1951, Die Bewechung der Achse von
due to ball pass frequency. Walzlagern bei geringen Drehzahlen, Werkstatt und
For the convenience of readers the peaks of vibration Betrieb, 84(C5):308-313.
spectrum for different values of radial internal clearance [3] T. Yamamoto, 1955, On the vibration of a shaft
are listed in the Table 2 and compared with theoretical supported by bearing having radial clearances,
values obtained from equation (1). These results are in Transactions of JSME (21) 182192.
accordance with reported experimental spectra [18]. [4] Sunnersjo, C. S., 1978, Varying compliance
vibrations of rolling bearings, Journal of Sound and
Table2. harmonic orders of ball pass frequency (Hz) Vibration, 58(3):363-373.
order Theoretical C2 Normal C3 C4 C5 [5] Mevel, B. and Guyader, J. L., 1993, Routes to
1/2 54.87 55.7 55.69 chaos in ball bearings, Journal of Sound and
Vibration, 162(3):471-487.
1 109.75 110 110 109.9 109.9 109.9
[6] S. Fukata, E.H. Gad, T. Kondou, T. Ayabe, H.
3/2 164.62 165 164.8 Tamura, 1985, On the radial vibrations of ball bearings
2 219.5 220 220 219.7 219.7 219.7 (computer simulation), Bulletin of the JSME (28)
5/2 274.38 275 274.7 899904.
3 329.25 330 330 329.6 329.6 329.6 [7] J.A. Wensing, On the Dynamics of Ball Bearings,
Ph.D. thesis, University of Twente, Ensched, The
7/2 384.13 385
Netherlands, 1998
[8] J Sopanen, A Mikkola, 2003, Dynamic model of a
Figure 8 shows the amplitude of vertical velocity at deep-groove ball bearing including localiz ed and
varying compliance frequency and its two first distributed defects. Part 1: theory, Proc. Instn Mech.
harmonics for different radial internal clearance values. Engrs Vol. 217 Part K: J. Multi-body Dynamics,
It can be seen that the vibration level is greatly increased pp201-211.
when the bearing clearance is increased from 11 to [9] J Sopanen, A Mikkola, 2003, Dynamic model of a
53 m . deep-groove ball bearing including localized and
distributed defects. Part 2: implementation and results,
-3
x 10 Effect of Claearance on Vertical Velocity
Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs Vol. 217 Part K: J. Multi-body
5
C2
Dynamics, pp213-223.
4.5 Normal [10] Ehrich FF., 1988, Higher order subharmonic
C3
4
C4
response of high speed rotors in bearing clearance,
3.5
C5 ASME Journal of Vibration Acoustic Stress and
3
Reliability in Design (110)916.
Velocity(m/s)

[11] Ehrich FF., 1991, Observation of subcritical


2.5
superharmonic and chaotic response in rotor
2
dynamics, ASME Journal of Vibration Acoustic Stress
1.5 and Reliability in Design (114)939.
1 [12] Tiwari, M., Gupta, K. and Prakash, O. Effect of
0.5 radial internal clearance of a ball bearing on the
0
dynamics of a balanced horizontal rotor. Journal of
100 150 200 250
frequency(Hz)
300 350
Sound and Vibration, 2000, 238, 723756.
[13] Harsha S P, Sandeep K, Prakash R., 2003, The
Figure 8 Effect of clearance on the amplitude of effect of speed of balanced rotor on nonlinear vibrations
vibration resonances
associated with ball bearings, International Journal of
Mechanical Sciences, 45(4):725 740.
Conclusion [14] T.A. Harris, 2001, Rolling Bearing Analysis,
In this paper a nonlinear dynamic model proposed for a Wiley, New York
system supported with deep groove ball bearings and the [15] Harris C. M. and Piersol A. G., 2002, Harris
effect of internal radial clearance on the vibration amplitude Shock and Vibration Handbook, New York: McGraw-
are investigated. It was seen that the internal radial
Hill Book Company.
clearance is an important parameter which has considerable
[16] Bathe, K. J., 1982, Finite element procedures in
effect on the dynamic response of the system. Choosing
proper radial clearance must be taken into account in
engineering analysis. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.
mechanical design. Accordance of the obtained results with [17] SKF Website: WWW.SKF.COM
those reported in reliable literatures shows the validity of [18] Taylor, J. I., 1994, The Vibration Analysis
the present work. Handbook, 1st edition, (Vibration Consultants, Tampa).

www.me-en.com
mechanical engineering
Appendix A

0 i
choose and calculate &
t+ t
i
u j = u
i t
j for j = x , y

Predictor
i t + t
aj [ (
= i f jt + t c i vtj +(1 )i a tj i Fcont
t +t
_j m ) ]
i t +t i t
vj = vj [
+ (1 )i a tj + a tj+t t ]

i +1 i Next Iteration
i t + t i 1 t i 1 t 1
2
[
u j = u j + v j t + (1 2 )i 1 a tj + 2 i 1a tj t 2 ]

Residual
i
R j = i u tj+ t i 1 u tj+ t

NO i
Rj
Corrector

YES
Time Increment
t + t t

Figure 9 Flowchart of Newmark time integration method

www.me-en.com
mechanical engineering