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# CHAPTER 1: BJT DC

AND AC ANALYSIS

Lecture 3 - 4: BJT AC
Biasing
Step of AC Analysis for BJT Transistor

STEP 1: DC Biasing

## Analyze the circuit. by eliminating AC element: VAC and Capacitor

open circuit ; Separate base and collector current
Calculate IB and find re

STEP 2: AC Biasing

## Analyze the circuit by eliminating DC element: VDC grounded and

Capacitor short circuit.
Replace the NPN with the re transistor model.
Rearrange the circuit by setting all grounded connection to the
bottom of the circuit.
Analyze the circuit to find Output Voltage (Vo), Input Voltage (Vi),
Input Impedance (Zi) and Output Impedance (Zo).
Calculate Zi, Zo and Voltage gain (Av).
Parameters that interest in AC analysis

= Input Impedance
= Output Impedance
= Input current
= Output current
= Input voltage
= Output voltage
NPN Transistors Configurations
VCC VCC

Rc
RB
C1 C2

CE
RB2 Re

## Common Emitter : Input C1, Output C2

Fixed bias without RE or CE connected to the ground.
Unbypassed emitter bias : with RE.
Voltage divider bias: with RB2 and RE or without RE
Collector feedback : RF connected to the ground from the collector to base.
Common collector(emitter follower): Input C1, Output CE
Common base : Input CE, Output C2
BJT AC analysis npn junction
BJT AC biasing Condition: 1) VDC grounded and Capacitor short circuit
Small-signal AC analysis

Transistor small-signal ac
equivalent circuit

Ii C Io Vo
B Rc
Vi Zi Zo
RS R1//R2 E

Vs
NPN transistor - re transistor model / AC Equivalent Circuit
In NPN configuration one diode at collector and one diode at emitter. When VBE
is conduct, high current flow from potential voltage at the collector. At this point
diode at the collector not behave like a normal diode but as current source.
During AC analysis, emitter diode has already conducted so the voltage source
VBE can be neglected.
NPN transistor - re transistor model / AC Equivalent Circuit
During AC analysis, the condition is VB > VBE and the diode VBE of the
transistor in conduct state or active state. So the diode in forward-bias , thus
VBE can be eliminated.
c
Ib
Ib
b

re Ie

e e
This model is still difficult for the analysis. By separating re into emitter/collector
region and base region, the improved model is shown below ;
Ic
c

Ib Ib
b

re re

e e
NPN transistor - re transistor model / AC equivalent circuit
Transfer any resistance from emitter region to the base region, must multiply by
. Transfer any resistance from the base region to emitter region, must multiply
by 1/ . Between base region and emitter region can be separated by virtual
ground (VG). Physically there are connection between them but electrically they
act like a ground or not connected.

Ic
c

Ib Ib
b

re re

e e
re transistor model
x
1
x

NPN transistor - re transistor model / AC Equivalent Circuit
The re transistor model will replace NPN transistor to be an AC Equivalent circuit
Ic
c

Ib Ib
b

re re

e e
Common-emitter fixed-bias configuration.
BJT AC biasing Condition : 1) VDC grounded and Capacitor short circuit

VCC

C V0
RC Io Ii
RB B ID
C2
Ii Vi RC
C
C1 B
V0 Zo
Vi
Zi E
Zo RB
Zi
E
Common-emitter fixed-bias AC equivalent circuit.
BJT AC biasing : 1) VDC grounded and Capacitor short circuit

= || = =
=
= 26
= =
=
Demonstrating the 180 phase shift between input and
output waveforms
VCC V0

Vi RC
RB
V0
0
t
Vi

=
Voltage-divider bias configuration
Voltage-divider bias AC equivalent circuit

= || ||

= = =

=
26
= = =
CE emitter-bias configuration
VCC

RB RC Io
C2
Ii
C1 Vo
Vi Zo
Zi

RE
Unbypassed CE emitter-bias AC equivalent circuit
VCC

RB RC Io
C2
Ii
C1 Vo
Vi Zo
Zi

RE

= || ( + )

= = =
( + )
=
26
= =
= ( + ) +
Common-Collector (Emitter-follower) configuration
Common Collector / Emitter-follower AC equivalent circuit

= || ( + )
= || = =
( + )
=
= 26
= ( + ) + =
Common-base configuration
Common-base AC equivalent circuit

= ||

= = =

=
=
=
Collector feedback configuration
Collector feedback AC equivalent circuit

=
=
1 =
+

= || =
Collector feedback configuration with an emitter resistor RE
Collector feedback with RE AC equivalent circuit

RF
VO
I` Ib
Ii
Vi Ib Zo
re
Zi re
Vi VO RC

R E RE

=
1 + = || =
+ +
Collector dc feedback configuration
re equivalent circuit

= || = ||
=
= || = ( || )
Effect of RS and RL

|| ||
= = =
= || + ||

= =
+
||
= =
= =
+ ( + )