Not So

Fast,
Natural
Gas
Why Accelerating Risky Drilling
Threatens America’s Water
About Food & Water Watch
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Lxecutíve Summurv und loíícv Recommendutíons................................................................................................ív
lntroductíon...........................................................................................................................................................l
1he Ríse oí Nuturuí Cus.........................................................................................................................................2
1he ºShuíe Cus Revoíutíon¨...................................................................................................................................3
1he lndustrv Lobbv.................................................................................................................................................3
!o|·So·C|ean Inetgv...................................................................................................................................4
1he Mud Rush to Drííí............................................................................................................................................4
1he 1op 2( Itoducets o| !a|uta| Cas.........................................................................................................5
1he Dungers oí Hvdruuííc lructuríng.......................................................................................................................5
l| Can Oep|e|e Ioca| \a|et..........................................................................................................................5
l| Can Con|am|na|e Ioca| \a|et..................................................................................................................6
l| Can Cause House and \e|| Ixp|os|ons.....................................................................................................7
l| Itoduces 1ox|c \as|eva|et......................................................................................................................7
l| Can Have \|de·Rang|ng Hea||h and Inv|tonmen|a| I||ec|s.....................................................................8
!o| Ius| \a|et: ¬|t Io||u||on. 1oo...............................................................................................................8
Covernment luííures..............................................................................................................................................9
Locuí und Stute Actívísm........................................................................................................................................9
1he ¨Ha|||but|on Ioopho|e´......................................................................................................................9
Ixemp||ons |tom C|het Iedeta| Regu|a||ons..............................................................................................l0
Cut !ex| O|sas|et:...................................................................................................................................l0
Concíusíon...........................................................................................................................................................l0
loíícv Recommendutíons.....................................................................................................................................ll
Lndnotes..............................................................................................................................................................ll
Not So Fast, Natural Gas
Why Accelerating Risky Drilling Threatens
America’s Water
Not So Fast, Natural Gas: Why Accelerating Risky Drilling Threatens America’s Water
iv iv
Executive Summary
Aíter vítnessíng ßl's devustutíng Deepvuter Horízon oíí spííí ín the Cuíí oí Mexíco, some índustrv unuívsts ure suggestíng
thut domestíc nuturuí gus ís u good onshore uíternutíve. ßut the dumuge thut u rupíd expunsíon oí the índustrv couíd do to
Amerícu's vuter couíd be our next energv dísuster.
Lven beíore the oíí spííí, dríííers hud begun usíng u potentíuíív hurmíuí method íor extructíng nuturuí gus knovn us ºhv-
druuííc íructuríng¨ºíruckíng¨ íor short. Advunces ín thís technoíogv nov uííov dríííers to extruct gus on u íurge scuíe írom
prevíousív hurd-to-reuch rock íormutíons specíícuíív írom shuíes und other ºtíght¨ (denser, íess porous) rocks. 1he energv
índustrv, convínced oí un ímpendíng shuíe gus revoíutíon, hus íncreused íts ínvestments ín nuturuí gus und begun udvertís-
íng und íobbvíng to seíí íts product. Meunvhííe, smuíí tovns neur gus deposíts ure vítnessíng u mud rush to drííí neur und ín
theír communítíes.
Lníortunuteív, víthout oversíght to protect the pubííc, thís rupíd expunsíon oí the shuíe gus índustrv poses u greut threut to
Amerícu's vuter und the peopíe vho drínk ít. 1he sume hvdruuííc íructuríng technoíogv thut ís drívíng the índustrv's expun-
síon threutens the countrv's vuter resources.
ln order to extruct gus írom shuíe und other unconventíonuí sources, dríííers shoot u míxture oí vuter, chemícuís und sund
ínto the ground: some oí these íuíds remuín underground uíter extructíon und cun seep ínto groundvuter. 1he rest ís recov-
ered us vustevuter und must be dísposed oí ín some vuv.
Munv oí the hvdruuííc íructuríng chemícuís ure toxíc. lí hvdruuííc íructuríng íuíds íeuk ínto groundvuter, thev cun contumí-
nute neurbv drínkíng vuter sources. 1he vustevuter produced víth the gus contuíns toxíc íructuríng chemícuís us veíí us hígh
íeveís oí 1otuí Díssoíved Soííds díssoíved mutter thut muv índícute íurther contumínutíon. 1he vuter muv uíso contuín pos-
síbív rudíouctíve eíements ít pícks up underground.
Dísposíng oí thís vustevuter suíeív poses probíems. Lndííuted íructuríng chemícuís und vustevuter cun íurther contumínute
vuter suppííes through uccídentuí spííís und íeuks. And, vhen íructuríng íoosens gus, ít cun cuuse methune to mígrute ínto
neurbv househoíd veíís vhích cun cuuse veíís und houses to expíode. Aíthough the índustrv hus íong cíuímed thut hvdruu-
ííc íructuríng ís suíe, scores oí documented cuses oí vuter contumínutíon neur nuturuí gus drííííng sítes índícute othervíse.
1he expunsíon oí hvdruuííc íructuríng uííects smuíí communítíes most proíoundív ucross ruruí Amerícu. 1he resídents ure not
protected írom the índustrv's ímpucts on theír vuter und thus íur huve struggíed to get the uttentíon oí theír poíítícíuns. lev
stutes stríctív reguíute hvdruuííc íructuríng, und the íederuí government exempted ít írom the sectíon oí the Suíe Drínkíng
\uter Act thut protects vuter írom underground íníectíons, umong other íuvs thut protect Amerícu's uír und vuter, ín the
Lnergv loíícv Act oí 2005. Congress pussed these exemptíons uíter íntensíve íobbvíng írom íormer Více lresídent Díck
Chenev und the energv índustrv.
Nov, muíor rívers thut serve us drínkíng vuter sources ure ín dunger. ln íuct u recent report decíured the Lpper Deíuvure
Ríver ín lennsvívuníu und Nev York und the Mononguheíu Ríver ín lennsvívuníu und \est Vírgíníu to be tvo oí the top l0
endungered rívers ín the countrv due to the potentíuí contumínutíon írom nuturuí gus drííííng ín the Murceííus Shuíe.
As munv íocuí resídents und poíícvmukers huve brought uttentíon to the dungers oí drííííng, some progress hus been mude to
protect vuter. Nev York ís strengtheníng íts stute-íeveí reguíutíons und Nev York Cítv ís cuíííng íor u morutoríum on íurther
drííííng ín íts vutershed. Cther entítíes, such us líover Mound, 1exus, und the Deíuvure Ríver ßusín Commíssíon, huve cuííed
íor morutoríums on nev permíts. Congress hus churged the L.S. Lnvíronmentuí lrotectíon Agencv (LlA) víth prepuríng u
report ubout thís process und íts potentíuí huzurds. Lven some shurehoíders oí drííííng compuníes huve sígned resoíutíons
questíoníng hvdruuííc íructuríng becuuse oí theír concerns ubout íts ímpucts on vuter. ßut víth more veíís dríííed everv duv,
greuter eííorts must be mude to keep Amerícu's vuter suíe.
1he íederuí government must requíre compuníes to díscíose the contents oí theír chemícuís und compív víth íuvs thut pre-
vent the contumínutíon oí underground drínkíng vuter. No íurther drííííng shouíd occur untíí the ímpucts on vuter ure íuíív
understood und reguíutíons ure ín píuce to protect the pubííc írom those ímpucts. Meunvhííe, the Lníted Stutes shouíd be
pursuíng nev, renevubíe uíternutíve energv sources thut uvoíd dumuge to the countrv's vuter resources, humun heuíth und
the envíronment.
Food & Water Watch
v
Policy Recommendations
1he íederuí government shouíd puss the lructuríng Responsíbííítv und Avureness oí Chemícuís (lRAC) Act (H.R. 2766, S.
l2l5) to cíose the íoophoíe thut excíudes hvdruuííc íructuríng írom reguíutíon under the Suíe Drínkíng \uter Act.
Stutes shouíd puss íegísíutíon to requíre the nuturuí gus índustrv to report the chemícuís used íor hvdruuííc íructuríng or to
ímpíement other meusures to protect vuter quuíítv und the heuíth oí resídents.
Congress shouíd píuce u morutoríum on íssuíng nev permíts íor hvdruuííc íructuríng untíí uíter the LlA pubííshes íts studv on
the eííect oí hvdruuííc íructuríng on vuter quuíítv, expected ín 20l2.
1he LlA shouíd conduct uddítíonuí studíes on hvdruuííc íructuríng to exumíne íts eííects on humun heuíth und the
envíronment.
Congress shouíd estubíísh u nev íederuí reguíutorv ugencv to oversee the íossíí íueí índustríes. Recent trugedíes the oíí spííí
ín the Cuíí, the míne expíosíon ín \est Vírgíníu, und the seríous probíems posed bv hvdruuííc íructuríng reveuí thut the
exístíng íederuí ugencíes ure símpív not protectíng the Amerícun peopíe. 1hís nev ugencv vouíd íocus on protectíng pubííc
heuíth, vorker suíetv und the envíronment.
A map of all the shale gas extraction sites in the country, created by the U.S. Energy Information Administration and last updated in March 2010.
More information is available at www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/natural_gas/analysis_publications/maps/maps.htm.
vi
1he con||nued secut||v and econom|c hea||h
o| |he In||ed S|a|es depends on a sus|a|nab|e
supp|v o| bo|h enetgv and va|et. 1hese
|vo ct|||ca| tesoutces ate |nex|t|cab|v and
tec|ptoca||v ||nled: |he ptoduc||on o| enetgv
tequ|tes |atge vo|umes o| va|et vh||e |he
|tea|men| and d|s|t|bu||on o| va|et |s equa||v
dependen| upon tead||v ava||ab|e. |ov·
cos| enetgv. 1he na||on´s ab||||v |o con||nue
ptov|d|ng bo|h c|ean. a||otdab|e enetgv and
va|et |s be|ng set|ous|v cha||enged bv a
numbet o| emetg|ng |ssues.
Sand|a !a||ona| Iabota|ot|es
Food & Water Watch
1
1oduv, the grovíng nuturuí gus índustrv ín the Lníted Stutes
promíses un ubundunt, onshore, domestíc source oí íueí thut
produces íever curbon emíssíons thun couí und oíí vhen
burned u quuíítv thut índustrv groups use to íustíív seíí-
íng the product us ºcíeun.¨
2
ßut nev methods oí drííííng íor
nuturuí gus reveuí thut ít ís íur írom u cíeun source oí energv.
\hííe recent veíí und pípeííne expíosíons ín lennsvívuníu,
\est Vírgíníu und 1exus huve brought uttentíon to the ímme-
díute dungers oí the íossíí íueí productíon,
3
u íess obvíous but
perhups even more probíemutíc síde eííect ís the dumuge thut
drííííng íor nuturuí gus cun do to íocuí vuter und to the
heuíth oí the peopíe vho drínk ít.
1he greut dunger thut the current rupíd expunsíon oí the
nuturuí gus índustrv poses to domestíc vuter resources ís u
kev exumpíe oí vhv the Lníted Stutes must ensure thut nev
energv poíícíes protect pubííc vuter, und vhv the countrv
shouíd be uggressíveív seekíng nev cíeun energv uíternutíves
not supportíng hvdruuííc íructuríng íor nuturuí gus.
C
íeun energv shouíd not put ííves ín dunger. Nothíng íííustrutes thís better thun the
mussíve oíí spííí írom ßl's Deepvuter Horízon oííshore oíí ríg ín the Cuíí oí Mexíco,
vhích hus híghííghted the dumuge thut unsuíe energv productíon cun do to our veíí-
beíng vhen ít poííutes our vuter. Yet some índustrv unuívsts ure usíng the spííí ín the Cuíí
to suggest thut the Lníted Stutes shouíd ínvest ín unother energv source thut uíso poses
greut rísk to vuter: nuturuí gus.
1

Introduction
Not So Fast, Natural Gas: Why Accelerating Risky Drilling Threatens America’s Water
2
The Rise of Natural Gas
Lven beíore the oíí spííí ín the Cuíí brought uttentíon to nutu-
ruí gus us u potentíuí source oí onshore energv, the nuturuí
gus índustrv ín the Lníted Stutes vus poísed to expund. As
recentív us 2005, the CLC oí LxxonMobíí ut the tíme hud de-
cíured, ºCus productíon hus peuked ín North Amerícu.¨
4
ßut
bv 2008, munv ín the índustrv expected thut to chunge drustí-
cuíív. Nuvígunt Consuítíng's 2008 ºNorth Amerícun Nuturuí
Cus Suppív Assessment,¨ prepured íor u group thut promotes
nuturuí gus, descríbed u recent ºrupíd escuíutíon¨ ín nev
productíon, vhích ít predícted vouíd contínue especíuíív
ín ureus vhere there ure shuíe rock íormutíons.
5

1he chunge ín outíook díd not occur becuuse nev gus
deposíts vere díscovered, but becuuse ít suddenív seemed
economícuí to extruct gus on u íurge scuíe írom sources thut
vere prevíousív ínuccessíbíe. Hístorícuíív, most nuturuí gus
productíon cume írom ºconventíonuí¨ source rocks such us
íímestone und porous sundstone.
6
ln these rock íormutíons,
gus ís íooseív heíd und cun íov íreeív írom pores ín the
rock. Munv oí the veíís used vere knovn us ºvertícuí veíís,¨
dríííed struíght ínto the ground.
7
Munv eurív veíís ºvere
never ubíe to produce u murketubíe quuntítv oí nuturuí gus.¨
8
Cther rock íormutíons such us ºtíght¨ (dense, íess porous)
sunds, couí beds und shuíe contuíned gus, but ít vus heíd too
tíghtív víthín those rocks to muke íts vuv ínto the trudí-
tíonuí veíís víthout uddítíonuí stímuíutíon.
9
More recentív,
hovever, dríííers íound u vuv to uccess these hurd-to-reuch,
ºunconventíonuí¨ gus sources usíng u method cuííed hvdruu-
ííc íructuríng, sometímes reíerred to us ºíruckíng¨ íor short.
A graphic illustrating how hydraulic fracturing is conducted in the Marcellus Shale. Created by Al Granberg, courtesy of ProPublica. More information
available at www.propublica.org/special/hydraulic-fracturing-national. Note: This image does not depict the natural faults and fractures which can
also exist under the ground near drilling sites. If the fissures produced from drilling (see image) were to intersect with these naturally occurring
cracks in the ground, liquids or gases could migrate through the rock formations and potentially contaminate water.
Food & Water Watch
3
ln thís method, dríííers íníect hvdruuííc íuíds u míxture oí
vuter, chemícuís und sund ínto the veíís to creute pres-
sure thut crucks the rocks, uííovíng the gus to escupe und
íov ínto the veíís.
l0
1hís stímuíutíon techníque becume
cupubíe oí producíng even more gus vhen ít vus combíned
víth u never drííííng techníque knovn us ºhorízontuí veíís.¨
lnsteud oí símpív drííííng vertícuíív ínto the ground us hud
been common ín conventíonuí extructíon, the end oí u
horízontuí veíí curves dírectíonuíív ínto the rock íormutíon,
vhích meuns the veíí hus the potentíuí to reuch ínto more
íructures und extruct more gus.
11
Hvdruuííc íructuríng hus been used ín lennsvívuníu sínce
the l960s, und horízontuí veíís huve been dríííed ín 1exus
sínce l929.
l2
ßut ít vus onív recentív thut thev becume more
economícuí to use on u íurge scuíe.
l3
lírst, the eíícucv oí
the technoíogv ímproved.
l4
1hen, the príces oí gus vent up,
vhích mude ít uppeur more proítubíe to drííí.
l5
línuíív, uíter
íntensíve íobbvíng bv the índustrv, the Lnergv loíícv Act oí
2005 exempted the índustrv írom íederuí reguíutíons thut
vouíd protect drínkíng vuter írom hvdruuííc íructuríng.
16
1he
pussuge oí thís íegísíutíon meunt thut dríííers couíd use the
technoíogv víthout íederuí oversíght oí unv potentíuí vuter
contumínutíon, so compuníes dídn't huve to íoííov the suíest
pructíces.
l7
Hvdruuííc íructuríng suddenív becume much
more proítubíe.
Accordíng to Nuvígunt Consuítíng, uíthough conventíonuí
nuturuí gus productíon decííned betveen l998 und 2007,
overuíí productíon íncreused due to the índustrv's ubííítv
to tup ínto unconventíonuí sources.
l8
ln the decude írom
l998 to 2008, gus írom unconventíonuí sources grev írom
28 percent to 46 percent oí the totuí L.S. productíon.
l9
1he
bíggest íncreuse ín unconventíonuí productíon cume írom
shuíe. Accordíng to the energv consuítíng group lHS CLRA,
shuíe gus íncreused írom l percent to 20 percent oí the L.S.
nuturuí gus suppív betveen 2000 und 20l0.
20

The “Shale Gas Revolution”
Seeíng thís, some índustrv experts ure predíctíng thut gus
írom unconventíonuí sources ís u muíor ºgume chunger,¨
purtív becuuse oí hvdruuííc íructuríng's potentíuí to produce
gus írom shuíe.
2l
1hese rock íormutíons ure buríed deep
beneuth the ground, und hvdruuííc íructuríng ís the preíerred
method to obtuín gus írom them.
22
1here ure over 20 uc-
tíve shuíe gus ºpíuvs,¨ or sítes turgeted íor extructíon, ín the
Lníted Stutes,
23
but ít onív recentív seemed economícuíív
sensíbíe to tup ínto them on u íurge scuíe. Some, such us
the ßurnett Shuíe ín 1exus, huve uíreudv seen u greut deuí oí
deveíopment.
24
ßut others, such us the Murceííus Shuíe ín the
northeust, huve íust begun to see íurge-scuíe drííííng víth the
udvent oí hvdruuííc íructuríng und príce íncentíves thut muke
drííííng seem vorthvhííe.
25
lndustrv estímutes oí hov much gus couíd be produced
ín the Lníted Stutes huve skvrocketed becuuse oí thís nev
ubííítv to tup ínto shuíe. ln 2008, Nuvígunt Consuítíng
cíuímed thut L.S. Lnergv lníormutíon Admínístrutíon num-
bers greutív underestímuted the umount oí gus uvuííubíe írom
thís source.
26
Munv such índustrv estímutes hínge on the
Murceííus Shuíe beíng u íurge nev source oí gus. Scíentísts
ut lenn Stute und Stute Lníversítv oí Nev York ut lredoníu
pubííshed reseurch índícutíng thut the Murceííus Shuíe couíd
be u ºSuper Cíunt gus íeíd.¨
27
Accordíng to the Lníted
Stutes Ceoíogícuí Survev, thís estímute vouíd meun thut the
íormutíon couíd produce enough gus to suppív the totuí L.S.
nuturuí gus demund íor tvo veurs, uíthough unother estímute
bv Chesupeuke Lnergv índícuted thut ít couíd suppív the totuí
L.S. demund oí gus íor ubout l5 veurs ut current rutes oí
consumptíon.
28

Such numbers huve generuted u greut deuí oí enthusíusm
ín the energv índustrv íor nuturuí gus. 1he 20l0 lHS CLRA
coníerence, vhere poíícvmukers und energv compunv CLCs
get together to tuík ubout the energv busíness, hud everv-
one tuíkíng ubout nuturuí gus.
29
1he chuírmun oí the energv
consuítíng group thut put on the coníerence vrote ín the
\a|| S|tee| Ioutna| thut nuturuí gus vííí be the ºthe bíggest
energv ínnovutíon oí the decude¨ und bríng íorth u shuíe gus
ºrevoíutíon.¨
30
ßv the end oí 2009, LxxonMobíí, the sume
compunv thut hud decíured nuturuí gus u dud ín 2005, sígned
u deuí to buv out X1C Lnergv to become the bíggest nuturuí
gus producer ín the countrv.
3l
The Industry Lobby
Nov thut the índustrv ís ínvestíng ín nuturuí gus, ít ís uíso ín-
vestíng íts energv ín seíííng ít. 1. ßoone líckens, u bííííonuíre
oíí tvcoon, turned hís uttentíon írom vínd energv to nuturuí
gus ín u seríes oí drumutíc teíevísíon udvertísements und u
nutíonvíde tour.
32
Chesupeuke Lnergv, one oí the íurgest
nuturuí gus producers ín the Lníted Stutes, heíped sturt the
Amerícun Cíeun Skíes loundutíon ín 2007, vhích educutes
poíícvmukers und the pubííc ubout the beneíts oí nuturuí
gus.
33
1he Amerícun Nuturuí Cus Aíííunce cume together to
present u unííed voíce beíore Congress und hus spent
Sl.6 mííííon on íobbvíng sínce ít sturted ín 2009.
34
Murketers und íobbvísts uíso urgue other potentíuí meríts oí
nuturuí gus besídes íts theoretícuí ubundunce. Some men-
tíon thut domestíc gus couíd reduce dependence on íoreígn
oíí.
35
And, despíte the envíronmentuí ímpucts ussocíuted víth
íts productíon, nuturuí gus uppeuís to poíícvmukers vorríed
ubout cíímute chunge becuuse ít emíts íever curbon emís-
síons vhen burned thun couí or oíí. Most recentív, ín the
uítermuth oí the Deepvuter Horízon oíí spííí ín the Cuíí oí
Mexíco, nuturuí gus proponents ure presentíng domestíc
shuíe us u good onshore uíternutíve to oííshore drííííng.
36

Not So Fast, Natural Gas: Why Accelerating Risky Drilling Threatens America’s Water
4
The Mad Rush to Drill
As uíí thís hvpe hus hít the medíu und Cupítoí Hííí, smuíí
tovns neur gus píuvs uíí uround the countrv huve seen u mud
rush to drííí neur theír communítíes. lor exumpíe, Coíorudo
hus íong produced nuturuí gus: ít guve out u record number
oí permít uppíícutíons ín 2008.
46

1he muddest rush to drííí hus been ín ureus neur gus-beuríng
shuíe. 1hís trend begun vhen hvdruuííc íructuríng und horí-
zontuí veíís íncreused productíon ín the ßurnett Shuíe ín
lorth \orth, 1exus, íust ín the pust íev veurs. Accordíng to
Nuvígunt Consuítíng, deveíopments ín the use oí hvdruuííc
íructuríng und horízontuí veíís eventuuíív íed to u 3,000 per-
cent íump ín productíon betveen l998 und 2007.
47

Seeíng the ßurnett us un exumpíe, dríííers huve turned theír
uttentíon to the Antrím Shuíe ín Míchígun, the luvettevíííe
Shuíe ín Arkunsus, the \oodíord Shuíe ín Ckíuhomu, the
Huvnesvíííe Shuíe ín Louísíunu, und the Murceííus Shuíe,
u huge rock íormutíon thut ííes under íurge portíons oí
lennsvívuníu, Nev York, Chío und \est Vírgíníu, us veíí us
purts oí Vírgíníu, Murvíund und lentuckv.
48
1he Murceííus Shuíe hus uttructed the most uttentíon írom
deveíopers. Runge Resources-Appuíuchíu, LLC begun to tup
ínto the píuv ín 2003 und begun to produce Murceííus gus ín
2005.
49
Sínce then, Runge Resources hus guíned permíts íor
more thun l50 veíís ín íust one countv, und munv compu-
níes huve íoííoved íts íeud.
50
ln the decude príor to 2008, ít
vus common to huve l0 uctíve rígs ín lennsvívuníu.
5l
1hut
number vus up to 40 bv 2008.
52
As oí September 2008,
lennsvívuníu's ßureuu oí Cíí und Cus Munugement índícuted
thut 277 veíís hud been dríííed und ít hud gíven out un-
other 5l8 permíts.
53
ln 2009, the number oí permíts grunted
íumped 300 percent.
54
1hís trend sees no sígn oí stoppíng.
Accordíng to the lennsvívuníu Depurtment oí Lnvíronmentuí
lrotectíon, compuníes reported drííííng 575 Murceííus veíís
íust ín the írst huíí oí 20l0, bríngíng the totuí Murceííus
veíís reported dríííed ín lennsvívuníu to l,597.
55
1here ís u íot oí monev ut stuke ín the success oí these veíís.
Accordíng to the I|nanc|a| 1|mes, spendíng on shuíe vent
írom l5 percent to 50 percent oí totuí gus expíorutíon und
productíon ínvestments ín 2009.
56
Cne expert toíd the !ev
)otl 1|mes thut he predícted more thun 20 oíí und gus com-
puníes vouíd ínvest S700 mííííon ín the Murceííus Shuíe, und
up to huíí oí thut vouíd be ín lennsvívuníu.
57
In the search
íor gus, compuníes such us Chesupeuke Lnergv, Anudurko
letroíeum, und Cubot Cíí und Cus ure íeusíng mííííons oí
ucres oí íocuí íunds. 1he cost oí íeusíng míneruí ríghts ín
lennsvívuníu íumped írom S300 un ucre ín míd-lebruurv
2008 to S2,l00 ín Apríí thut sume veur.
58
ßut vhííe dríííers see doííur sígns, munv íocuí resídents, orgu-
nízutíons und poíícvmukers see dísuster. Líke most íossíí íueí
Not-So-Clean Energy
Legislators creating energy policies are increasingly con-
cerned with fighting climate change by finding new “clean”
energy sources that can reduce national carbon emissions.
Natural gas proponents often call the fuel a “clean” energy
source because it creates fewer carbon emissions than
traditional fossil fuels when burned. For example, America’s
Natural Gas Alliance says natural gas is “twice as clean as
coal.”
37
When burned, natural gas emits half as much car-
bon dioxide as coal and 70 percent as much as oil.
38
But calling natural gas “clean” compared to the worst
carbon offenders is misleading. Natural gas, like all fos-
sil fuels, emits carbon when burned. In fact, the fuel was
responsible for a fifth of all energy-related carbon dioxide
emissions in the United States in 2008.
39

More importantly, even if the gas emits fewer carbon
emissions when the end product is burned, the produc-
tion of natural gas could be just as bad as other fossil fuels
when it comes to contributing to climate change. In 2010,
Professor Robert Howarth at Cornell University conducted
a preliminary analysis that concluded the greenhouse gas
footprint of natural gas could be similar to diesel oil and
coal, and may be worse in terms of global warming.
40
One
reason for this finding is that natural gas production, like all
fossil fuel industries, is an energy-intensive process. The
total carbon footprint of the fuel must include emissions
from the energy used to make wells, transport and cre-
ate pipelines for the gas, treat the waste, and perform all
other processes related to drilling,
41
not just the emissions
released when the fuel is burned. Also, natural gas pro-
duction releases methane into the atmosphere, which is a
gas 30 times worse than carbon dioxide when it comes to
contributing to global warming.
42
In 2007, the natural gas
industry released more methane than the coal industry —
and that was before the recent aggressive expansion.
43

Other sources of energy are cleaner than natural gas.
ExxonMobil was told to pull a commercial off the air in
England because it made the claim that natural gas is “one
of the world’s cleanest fuels.”
44
The Advertising Standards
Authority, a watchdog group, took issue with the claim be-
cause while it may be cleaner than coal and oil, the com-
mercial also mentioned wind and solar — which certainly
emit fewer greenhouse gases.
45
Further, characterizing natural gas as clean ignores all of
the other environmental and health impacts that come
along with the drilling itself. Like all fossil fuel production,
drilling for natural gas is a polluting industrial process that
consumes energy and can damage air, water, infrastruc-
ture, and people’s health and well-being.
Food & Water Watch
5
productíon, nuturuí gus drííííng ís u hurmíuí índustríuí process
repíete víth envíronmentuí dumuge und rísks to pubííc
heuíth. lt turns out thut the sume hvdruuííc íructuríng technoí-
ogv drívíng the grovth oí the índustrv greutív threutens the
countrv's vuter resources.
Hvdruuííc íructuríng ís nov used ín 90 percent oí oíí und
nuturuí gus veíís ín the Lníted Stutes.
60
ßoth vertícuí und hor-
ízontuí veíís ín the Murceííus Shuíe thut produce ºeconomíc
voíumes¨ oí gus tvpícuíív use hvdruuííc íructuríng.
61
Anv nev
veíís ín shuíe rock íormutíons thut vííí produce íurge quuntí-
tíes oí gus vííí more thun ííkeív requíre the process. \íth the
píunned huge expunsíon oí the índustrv und ííttíe govern-
ment oversíght, thís couíd depíete und contumínute vuter on
un unprecedented scuíe.
The Dangers of Hydraulic Fracturing
ln order to creute the íructures thut breuk the nuturuí gus íree,
dríííers íníect mííííons oí guííons oí hvdruuííc íuíds mude
up oí vuter, chemícuís und sund ínto underground rock
íormutíons.
62
1he chemícuís, vhích íncíude ucíds, bíocídes,
corrosíon ínhíbítors, deíoumers, emuísííers, geííunts, resíns,
suríuctunts und víscosííers,
63
heíp the vuter to creute crucks
ín the rock, vhííe the sund, or ºproppunts,¨ heíp the gus
move through bv keepíng the crucks ín the rock open.
64
1hís
process poses vuter-reíuted envíronmentuí und heuíth rísks
íor munv reusons.
It Can Deplete Local Water
1he huge voíume oí vuter needed to drííí veíís und íruc-
ture the rocks cun druv dovn íocuí vuter sources. lt tukes
250,000 guííons oí vuter to drííí u tvpícuí horízontuí veíí ín
the ßurnett Shuíe.
65
1hen, ít tukes more vuter to íructure ít
ín íuct, ubout 90 percent oí vuter used bv the nuturuí gus
índustrv to compíete u veíí ín thut regíon ís used íor íruck-
íng.
66
ln u vertícuí veíí, u síngíe íruck cun tuke írom huíí u
mííííon to more thun u mííííon guííons oí vuter: u horízontuí
veíí íruck cun requíre severuí mííííon guííons.
67
Accordíng to
Chesupeuke Lnergv, u tvpícuí íruck ín u deep horízontuí veíí
ín the ßurnett Shuíe tukes 3.8 mííííon guííons oí vuter.
68

1hese mííííons oí guííons oí vuter must come írom some-
vhere. Líther the compuníes use íocuí ground or suríuce
vuter resources, or thev truck ít ín írom outsíde sources.
ln the ßurnett Shuíe, 56 percent comes írom groundvuter,
43 percent comes írom suríuce vuter und the remuíníng
umount, íess thun l percent, ís reused or recvcíed vuter.
69
In
the Susquehunnu Ríver ßusín, 55 percent oí vuter used íor
nuturuí gus drííííng comes írom suríuce vuter, und 45 percent
írom íocuí vuter utííítíes.
70

Accordíng to the Nev York Depurtment oí Lnvíronmentuí
Conservutíon, vuter víthdruvuís íor drííííng cun huve u víde
runge oí ímpucts on íocuí vuter, íncíudíng streum íov reduc-
tíon, degrudutíon oí streum uses, hurm to uquutíc íííe, uquííer
depíetíon und ínudequute vuter suppív duríng tímes oí
drought.
7l
1ruckíng ín vuter to the veíís íncreuses truííc on
ruruí rouds, struíns íocuí ínírustructure und uííects the quuíítv
oí íííe ín the communítíes.
1hese tvpes oí ímpucts ure oí purtícuíur concern ín vuter-
stressed ureus, such us the Southvest, vhere u greut deuí oí
drííííng occurs.
72
ßut even ín ureus vhere dríííers ussume
thut there ure píentííuí vuter resources, the íurge quuntítíes
oí vuter demunded bv the índustrv cun tuke u toíí. Aíreudv,
streums ín lennsvívuníu huve dríed up sínce nuturuí gus drííí-
ers cume to tovn.
73
Top 20 Producers of Natural Gas
According to the Natural Gas Supply Association, an in-
dustry trade group, the top 20 natural gas producers in the
United States during the first quarter of 2010 were:
1 XTO Energy (Cross Timbers Oil)
2 Anadarko
3 Chesapeake Energy
4 BP
5 Devon Energy
6 Encana
7 ConocoPhillips
8 Chevron
9 ExxonMobil
10 Royal Dutch Shell plc
11 Williams Energy (Barrett Res.)
12 EOG Resources
13 Southwestern Energy Co.
14 Occidental
15 Apache
16 Petrohawk Energy Corporation
17 El Paso Energy
18 Newfield Exploration
19 Ultra Petroleum
20 Questar Corp.
59
Iven |n ateas vhete dt|||ets
assume |ha| |hete ate p|en|||u|
va|et tesoutces. |he |atge
quan||||es o| va|et demanded
bv |he |ndus|tv can |ale a |o||.
Not So Fast, Natural Gas: Why Accelerating Risky Drilling Threatens America’s Water
6
It Can Contaminate Local Water
lerhups un even bígger concern ure the eííects the íructuríng
chemícuís cun huve on íocuí vuter quuíítv und pubííc heuíth.
Accordíng to the Croundvuter lrotectíon Councíí und ALL
Consuítíng, u normuí concentrutíon oí chemícuís ís betveen
0.5 und 2 percent.
74
1hís meuns thut u stundurd horízontuí
veíí íruck usíng 3 mííííon guííons oí vuter couíd contuín
írom l5,000 to 60,000 guííons oí chemícuís.
Dríííers do not vunt to reveuí vhut chemícuís thev use
becuuse thev consíder ít u trude secret.
75
1he índustrv ís not
requíred bv the íederuí government to díscíose the tvpe or
quuntítv oí chemícuís ít uses, und onív l0 drííííng stutes
requíre compuníes to ííst thís íníormutíon.
76
ßecuuse oí thís,
ít ís dííícuít to knov exuctív vhut chemícuís míght muke
theír vuv ínto neurbv vuter sources. Hovever, índependent
reseurch bv 1he Lndocríne Dísruptíon Lxchunge (1LDX) com-
pííed u ííst oí 435 íructuríng products contuíníng 344 chemí-
cuís ín lebruurv 2009.
77

\hííe the exuct composítíon oí some oí the chemícuís couíd
not be determíned, munv vere ídentííed ure toxíc. A íurther
unuívsís bv 1LDX exumíned 4l products used ín lennsvívuníu
íructuríng operutíons. Cí the 63 chemícuís ín these products,
22 chemícuís couíd not be ídentííed. Cí the 4l remuíníng
chemícuís, 98 percent vere ussocíuted víth skín, eve or sen-
sorv orgun eííects, 95 percent couíd cuuse respírutorv eííects,
83 percent ure ussocíuted víth gustroíntestínuí or ííver eííects,
69 percent couíd dumuge the bruín, 67 percent couíd huve
curdíovuscuíur eííects, und 69 percent couíd huve ºother¨
eííects such us chunges ín veíght, teeth und bone, or deuth. ln
uddítíon, 45 percent vere voíutííe, vhích meuns thev couíd
be reíeused ínto the uír und cuuse íurther hurm íí ínhuíed,
svuííoved or put ín contuct víth skín.
78
Aíter íruckíng, some oí the íuíds thut contuín these chemí-
cuís come buck up out oí the veíí. 1he índustrv cuíís thís
vustevuter ºproduced vuter.¨ Much oí thís vuter muv be
mude up oí hvdruuííc íuíds, uíthough some muv be vuter
írom the rock íormutíon ít ís ímpossíbíe to dístínguísh hov
much ís vhích.
79
1he Croundvuter lrotectíon Councíí und
ALL Consuítíng reported thut produced vuter cun muke up
íess thun 30 percent to more thun 70 percent oí the íníected
vuter voíume.
80
1he rest oí the íuíds remuín underground.
8l
lí these toxíc chemícuís íeuk ínto underground vuter sources
vhen thev ure íníected ínto the ground, thev cun dumuge vuter
quuíítv ín surroundíng vuter sources.
82
Croundvuter contumí-
nutíon ís especíuíív dungerous becuuse ít ís dííícuít to cíeun up
und ís poorív monítored und reguíuted.
83
Sínce chemícuís cun
move síovív through underground vuter sources, contumínu-
tíon cun go undetected íor íong períods oí tíme.
84

1he índustrv hus íong cíuímed thut hvdruuííc íructuríng ís
suíe becuuse thev beííeve the vuter thut ís not recovered vííí
stuv ín rock íormutíons buríed deep under the ground vhere
ít cunnot reuch drínkíng vuter sources.
85
lndustrv represen-
tutíves poínt to u studv bv the LlA pubííshed ín 2004 thut
concíuded thut hvdruuííc íructuríng does not present hurm to
drínkíng vuter to support theír cíuím.
86

Hovever, un overvheímíng bodv oí evídence índícutes thut
thís concíusíon, und the índustrv cíuím, ure not true. Nev
evídence índícutes thut hvdruuííc íructuríng íuíds írom gus
drííííng sítes cun muke íts vuv ínto íocuí veíís. ln \vomíng,
ll out oí 39 veíís tested uround the tovn oí luvííííon ín
2009 reveuíed contumínutíon víth chemícuís thut the LlA
suíd vere potentíuíív connected to gus drííííng.
87
Resídents
oí Dímock, lennsvívuníu, sued Cubot Cíí & Cus Corporutíon
ín November 2009 íor uííegedív contumínutíng theír veíís,
mukíng them síck.
88
Cuses oí methune íeukíng ínto veíís neur
drííííng sítes muv be evídence thut drínkíng veíís ure con-
nected to underground vuter sources. lí the gus cun move
through rocks und contumínute íocuí veíís, ít ís ííkeív thut
íruckíng vuter cun, too. A studv bv Curíeíd, Coíorudo, índí-
cuted thut munv veíís neur drííííng sítes vere contumínuted
víth methune, umong other chemícuís.
89

1he ííkeííhood thut chemícuís írom íruckíng vííí end up ín
vuter sources cun be uííected bv the nuture oí the geoíogv
ín the ureu. lor exumpíe, kurst ís u tvpe oí rock íormutíon
through vhích groundvuter cun move quíckív.
90
lí contumí-
nunts enter kurst uquííers, thev cun eusíív spreud ínto ground-
vuter sources.
9l
1hís ís u concern reíuted to íruckíng ín Nev
York, becuuse there ure rock íormutíons ín the ground neur
the Murceííus Shuíe thut geoíogísts beííeve couíd be kurstíc.
92

Food & Water Watch
7
Nuturuí íuuíts und íructures ure unother geoíogícuí íuctor thut
cun uííect the dunger to vuter írom íruckíng. Nuturuíív occur-
ríng crucks under the ground cun íncreuse rísks írom drííííng
becuuse íí mun-mude íructures íntersect víth these nuturuí
íructures, ííquíds or guses couíd move írom one rock íormu-
tíon to unother, und possíbív through to underground vuter
sources.
93
1hís ís u dunger vherever there ure munv nuturuí
íuuíts und íructures ín the geoíogv. lor ínstunce, Nev York
Stute hus munv nuturuí íuuíts und íructures.
94
1he Nev York
Cítv Depurtment oí Lnvíronmentuí Conservutíon cíted thís us
one oí íts muíor concerns regurdíng drííííng neur Nev York
Cítv's prístíne vutershed, especíuíív gíven thut munv oí these
structures huve not been thoroughív consídered ín prevíous
unuívses oí the suíetv oí íructuríng.
95
1he dunger couíd be exucerbuted bv the combínutíon
oí horízontuí veíís víth íructuríng, us ís proposed ín the
Murceííus Shuíe regíon. lumes Northrup, huvíng been ín
the energv busíness íor 30 veurs, churucterízes horízontuí
hvdroíructuríng us símííur to ºthe expíosíon oí u mussíve pípe
bomb underground.¨
96
He suvs thut ºthe horízontuí hvdro-
íructuríng oí shuíe gus ís u potentíuí deííverv mechunísm
íor toxíc chemícuís und nuturuí gus ínto uquííers.¨
97
1hís ís
becuuse u horízontuí veíí truveís some íength through u rock
íormutíon, vhích meuns ít cun creute more íructures thun
u vertícuí veíí. ßecuuse ít creutes more íructures, there ís
u hígher chunce thut the mun-mude íructures vííí íntersect
víth nuturuíív occurríng íuuíts und íructures thut uíreudv exíst
under the ground.
98
ln íuct, the Nev York Cítv Depurtment
oí Lnvíronmentuí Conservutíon suíd thut the ºmígrutíon oí
íruckíng chemícuís und/or poor quuíítv íormutíon vuter ínto
overívíng groundvuter, vutershed streums, reservoírs, und
dírectív ínto tunneís ís u reusonubív íoreseeubíe rísk.¨
99
luuí Rubín, u hvdrogeoíogíst ín Nev York, suvs thut the
ínterconnectíon oí nuturuí íuuíts und íructures mukes íruckíng
dungerous even íí the íuíds used díd not contuín toxíc chemí-
cuís becuuse ít couíd íucííítute the connectíon oí deep suííne
or rudíouctíve íuíds ín the eurth víth íreshvuter sources.
l00

Accordíng to hís unuívsís, ígnoríng the ínterconnectíon oí nut-
uruí íuuíts und íructures ís u ºrecípe íor envíronmentuí dísuster
throughout Ctsego Countv und the Appuíuchíun busín.¨
l0l

Lven ut the tíme oí the LlA's 2004 studv, u vhístíebíover ut
the ugencv submítted hís ovn unuívsís, vhích decíured thut
the concíusíons oí the studv vere ¨scíentíícuíív unsound und
contrurv to the purposes oí the íuv,¨ und thut íve oí the seven
members oí the peer revíev puneí thut upproved ít ºuppeur to
huve coníícts oí ínterest und muv beneít írom LlA's decísíon
not to conduct íurther ínvestígutíon or ímpose reguíutorv con-
dítíons.¨
l02
1he heud oí the ugencv íuter revíeved the studv
und íound thut ít vus u ííteruture revíev, íuckíng uctuuí nev
testíng.
l03
Aíter pubííc outcrv und íederuí heuríngs, Congress
commíssíoned the LlA to produce u nev studv to reevuíu-
ute the ímpucts oí hvdruuííc íructuríng on vuter. 1he report ís
expected to be reíeused to the pubííc ín 20l2.
l04

It Can Cause House and Well Explosions
1he presence oí methune ín househoíd veíís ís troubííng
becuuse ít índícutes thut vuter írom hvdruuííc íructuríng muv
huve contumínuted drínkíng vuter: hovever, the methune
ítseíí ís uíso u heuíth huzurd. Aíthough the gus evuporutes out
oí the vuter, ít cun buííd up ín uír. lt ís not suíe to breuthe
íurge quuntítíes oí methune ínhuííng the íumes cun
cuuse nuuseu, vomítíng, dízzíness und suííocutíon.
l05
1he
gus cun uíso cuuse u more ímmedíute dunger: lt ís híghív
íummubíe.
l06
Some resídents neur gus drííííng sítes huve íound thut thev
cun ííght vuter írom theír tups on íre,
l07
und the presence oí
gus ín homes hus cuused íutuí uccídents. ln 2004, u house ín
leííerson Countv, lennsvívuníu, expíoded, kííííng three peo-
píe. Cther neurbv communítíes ín lennsvívuníu huve expe-
ríenced contumínuted und expíodíng veíís, gus íeukíng ínto
neurbv rívers und drínkíng vuter, und propertíes no íonger ít
to ínhubít becuuse oí the gus buíídup.
l08
ßv Muv 20l0, the
lennsvívuníu Depurtment oí Lnvíronmentuí lrotectíon (DLl)
hud seen more then 50 ínstunces oí methune-reíuted uccí-
dents vhere drííííng vus the ííkeív source oí the methune.
l09

1he Chío Depurtment oí Nuturuí Resources uíso ímpíícuted u
muííunctíoníng veíí und hvdruuííc íructuríng ín íts unuívsís oí
u 2007 house expíosíon.
ll0
lndustrv representutíves oíten suv thut gus ín veíís couíd
come írom u source other thun nuturuí gus drííííng.
111
ßut, us
the oíí und gus ííuíson íor Curíeíd Countv toíd the íournuí-
ísm nonproít lrolubíícu, ºlt ís híghív unííkeív thut methune
vouíd huve mígruted through nuturuí íuuíts und íructures und
coíncídentuíív urríved ín domestíc veíís ut the sume tíme oíí
und gus deveíopment sturted, uíter huvíng been dovn there
. íor over 65 mííííon veurs.¨
ll2
It Produces Toxic Wastewater
Hvdruuííc íructuríng produces probíemutíc vustevuter thut
ís dííícuít to díspose oí suíeív. 1hís vustevuter cun contuín
hvdruuííc íructuríng chemícuís, us veíí us íurge quuntítíes oí
º1otuí Díssoíved Soííds¨ u meusurement oí the umount
oí mutter díssoíved ín vuter, used bv LlA us u meusure-
ment oí contumínutíon. 1he vuter pícks up these soííds írom
íts íournev underground, vhích muv íncíude rudíouctíve
eíements íound nuturuíív ín rock.
ll3
1he hígh íeveí oí 1otuí
Díssoíved Soííds cun muke the vustevuter íve tímes us suítv
us seuvuter.
ll4
lí thís vuter seeps buck ínto the envíronment,
ít cun hurm íocuí vuter sources. ln 2009, the lennsvívuníu
DLl íound thut vustevuter írom the nuturuí gus índustrv vus
uppurentív contumínutíng the Mononguheíu Ríver.
ll5
1he
DLl uddressed the íssue ut the tíme bv íoveríng díschurges
und uníockíng neurbv dums to dííute the contumínutíon.
116

lt uíso ínvestíguted vhether nuturuí gus vustevuter muv huve
contríbuted to the deuth oí ísh ín u creek thut íeeds ínto the
sume ríver.
ll7
Not So Fast, Natural Gas: Why Accelerating Risky Drilling Threatens America’s Water
8
A common method oí dísposíng oí thís oíí und gus produced
vuter ís bv underground íníectíng puttíng ít ín dísposuí
veíís ín rock íormutíons under the ground.
ll8
1hís muv pose
rísks to groundvuter. Another method thut dríííers use ís to
send theír vustevuter to sevuge píunts, vhích then treut und
dííute the product und reíeuse ít buck ínto suríuce vuters.
Aíthough thís method hus been used ín lennsvívuníu, stun-
durd vustevuter treutment píunts ure not equípped to deuí
víth íurge quuntítíes oí thut sort oí vuste.
ln 2008, lennsvívuníu's oíí und gus veíís produced 9 míí-
ííon guííons oí vustevuter u duv: bv 20ll, the DLl predícts
thev vííí creute l9 mííííon.
ll9
As oí Cctober 2009, drííííng
compuníes ín the stute vere truckíng theír vustevuter to
muítípíe treutment píunts.
l20
1hís ís not u sustuínubíe soíu-
tíon. Accordíng to lrolubíícu, no vustevuter treutment píunt
ín lennsvívuníu cun currentív remove 1otuí Díssoíved Soííds
írom the vuter, und ít ís unííkeív thut unv nev píunts vííí be
ubíe to do so bv 20ll.
l2l
\ustevuter cun íurther contumínute íocuí vuter íí there
ure uccídents on drííííng sítes thut uííov íts uncontroííed
reíeuse ínto the envíronment. \hen one veíí expíoded ín
lennsvívuníu, ºsendíng u gus píume 75 íeet ínto the uír und
vustevuter cuscudíng onto the ground,¨ ít took l6 hours
beíore the vustevuter íeuk vus stopped.
l22
Símííurív, u vuste
pít ín Coíorudo íeuked l.6 mííííon guííons, vhích mígruted
through the ground und íuter reuched the Coíorudo Ríver.
l23

1he íruckíng chemícuís, too, cun get ínto the envíronment
íí thev ure uccídentuíív spíííed. ln Louísíunu, l6 cuttíe díed
uíter drínkíng u ºmvsteríous íuíd¨ neur u drííííng ríg.
l24
It Can Have Wide-Ranging Health and
Environmental Effects
An overvheímíng bodv oí evídence shovs thut nuturuí gus
drííííng cun hurm íocuí vuter quuíítv vhether írom the
íructuríng ítseíí or írom ussocíuted uccídents. lrolubíícu
íound more thun l,000 documented cuses oí contumínuted
vuter neur drííííng sítes uround the countrv.
l25
Aíong víth
these cuses oí contumínutíon huve come munv unexpíuíned
ííínesses, both ín humuns und unímuís.
l26

So íur, íocuí resídents ín smuíí communítíes huve borne
the brunt oí vuter contumínutíon írom gus drííííng. lurther
deveíopment couíd huve even more vídespreud eííects
becuuse vuter ís connected through vutersheds. ln íts 20l0
Most Lndungered Rívers report, Amerícun Rívers decíured the
Lpper Deíuvure Ríver ín lennsvívuníu und Nev York und
the Mononguheíu Ríver ín lennsvívuníu und \est Vírgíníu to
be tvo oí the top l0 endungered rívers ín the countrv due to
the potentíuí contumínutíon írom nuturuí gus drííííng ín the
Murceííus Shuíe.
l27
lrolubíícu reported thut deveíopíng gus
und other energv deposíts uíong the Coíorudo Ríver couíd
contumínute the ríver und put the vuter suppív oí one out oí
l2 Amerícuns ut rísk.
l28
Nev York Cítv ís concerned ubout the potentíuí ímpucts on
the drínkíng vuter oí íts mííííons oí resídents. Currentív, Nev
York Cítv does not huve to ííter íts drínkíng vuter becuuse
íts reservoírs und the rívers ín the Cutskííí Mountuíns thut sup-
pív íts vuter ure so cíeun. Nev York Cítv's chíeí uccountunt
suíd drííííng neur these sources couíd dumuge vuter quuíítv,
vhích vouíd íorce the cítv to buííd u nev Sl0 bííííon vuter
treutment píunt und ruíse vuter rutes bv 30 percent.
l29

NYC oíícíuís usked íor protectíve perímeter uround íts
síx Cutskííí reservoírs und connectíng ínírustructure.
l30

Aíter much pubííc opposítíon to drííííng, one compunv,
Chesupeuke Lnergv unnounced thut ít hud no íntentíon
to drííí nuturuí gus veíís ín Nev York Cítv's vutershed.
l3l

Hovever, the compunv suíd ít stííí beííeved thut drííííng ín
unv vutershed vus suíe.
l32
Not Just Water: Air Pollution, Too
Water contamination is not the only health hazard from
natural gas drilling that has harmed people’s lives. The
industry also brings air pollution.
Residents near the Barnett Shale, where much natural gas
drilling has already happened, have seen the effects of
air pollution. For example, the small town of Dish Texas is
located near 11 natural gas compression stations in the
Barnett Shale area. The mayor, hearing complaints from
residents, brought their concerns about smell, noise and
health problems to state legislators, to no avail. Residents
even complained of headaches and blackouts and report-
ed neurological defects and blindness in horses.
133
The town hired a private environmental consultant, who
found that air samples contained high levels neuro-
toxins and carcinogens.
134
The Texas Commission on
Environmental Quality (TCEQ) also found toxins in the air
near wells in the Barnett Shale gas field. Benzene, a chem-
ical that can cause immune disorders and cancer, was
found at levels of 500 to 1,000 parts per billion — more
than five times higher than the TCEQ’s limit.
135
Privately
funded tests found that air samples also included large
quantities of carbon disulfide, which can cause neurologi-
cal problems.
136
Another study showed that natural gas production creates
smog-forming compounds and greenhouse gas emissions.
It found that the natural gas and oil industry in the Barnett
Shale area created more smog-forming emissions than the
motor vehicles in the same area, with greenhouse gas emis-
sions equivalent to two 750 MW coal-fired power plants.
137
Food & Water Watch
9
Government failures
A compunv voíunturíív movíng to reíruín írom drííííng ís
un unomuív. \íth mííííons oí doííurs ín proíts ut stuke, the
compuníes thut drííí íor gus ure not mukíng the choíces thut
ure best íor pubííc vuter íí there ure no reguíutíons ín píuce
íorcíng them to do so especíuíív vhen drííííng neur smuíí
communítíes víth ííttíe poíítícuí cíout. Lníortunuteív, current
government íuvs und reguíutíons do not protect the pubííc
írom the ímpucts oí gus drííííng.
Sínce the íederuí government does not reguíute hvdruuííc
íructuríng, thut tusk ís íeít to the stutes. Díííerent stutes vurv ín
the reguíutíons thev huve ín píuce to protect resídents írom
drííííng, und the resources thut thev huve uvuííubíe to uctu-
uíív eníorce those íuvs. Some stutes, such us Coíorudo, huve
moved to tíghten theír reguíutíons, but gups remuín.
l38
Cnív
l0 stutes surveved requíre thut íructuríng chemícuís be dís-
cíosed. No stutes requíre thut dríííers document the umount
oí íuíd íeít underground uíter íructuríng.
l39

Meunvhííe, the íederuí government hus not pussed ud-
dítíonuí protectíons sínce the índustrv's recent expunsíon.
ln 2005, the energv íobbv, íed bv then-Více lresídent Díck
Chenev convínced Congress to puss the Lnergv loíícv Act oí
2005, vhích exempted the índustrv írom u number oí íederuí
reguíutíons thut protect uír, vuter und pubííc heuíth. Chenev
vus CLC oí the energv compunv Huíííburton írom l995
to 2000 und the compunv hus been u muíor proponent oí
hvdruuííc íructuríng. Sínce then, the nuturuí gus índustrv hus
been exempted írom the sectíon oí the Suíe Drínkíng \uter
Act thut uííovs the L.S. Lnvíronmentuí lrotectíon Agencv to
reguíute the íníectíon oí toxíc chemícuís underground.
l40
1hís
meuns thut the íederuí bodv churged víth protectíng humun
heuíth und the envíronment cunnot reguíute the ímpucts oí
hvdruuííc íructuríng on groundvuter.
Legísíutors huve íntroduced bííís ín the House und Senute
thut, íí pussed, vouíd cíose thís íoophoíe ín the Suíe Drínkíng
\uter Act reíerred to us the ºHuíííburton¨ íoophoíe.
l4l

1hís lructuríng Responsíbííítv und Avureness oí Chemícuís
(lRAC) Act vouíd gíve the LlA the uuthorítv to reguíute
hvdruuííc íructuríng under the Suíe Drínkíng \uter Act und
vouíd requíre compuníes to pubíícív díscíose the chemícuís
thut thev use ín íruckíng un ímportunt írst step ín under-
stundíng the ímpucts oí the índustrv.
l42
\hííe thís íegísíu-
tíon hus strong support írom consumer und envíronmentuí
orgunízutíons, ít hus uíreudv íuced strong opposítíon írom the
índustrv.
l43
Local and State Activism
\hííe the íederuí government ís stundíng ídív bv, munv íocuí
poíícvmukers und orgunízutíons ure tukíng uctíon to protect
theír vuter und ííves írom nuturuí gus drííííng.
Some stutes ure strengtheníng theír reguíutíons. ln 2008,
Nev York, under pressure írom íts íurgest cítv, moved to
The “Halliburton Loophole”
One of the ways that the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) protects water under the Safe Drinking Water
Act is through its Underground Injection Control (UIC)
program, which creates regulations for how to safely place
liquids underground through injection wells.
144

Prior to 1997, the EPA had decided not to regulate hydrau-
lic fracturing through its UIC program. However, when the
Legal Environmental Assistance Foundation (LEAF) sued
EPA, the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that the
hydraulic fracturing of coals in Alabama should be regu-
lated by the EPA’s UIC program under the authority of the
Safe Drinking Water Act.
145

In 2005, the Energy Policy Act changed the section of the
Safe Drinking Water Act that gives EPA authority to run
its UIC program to specify that hydraulic fracturing does
not qualify as “underground injection”
146
— despite the
fact that the process involves shooting large quantities of
liquids into the ground. This specifically removed hydraulic
fracturing from EPA regulation of underground injection.
This exemption has been dubbed the “Halliburton loop-
hole” because of the role that the company Halliburton
appears to have played in its passage.
147
Halliburton has
long been a proponent of hydraulic fracturing. The com-
pany says that it “performed the first commercial applica-
tion of hydraulic fracturing” in 1949 and “has always led
the industry in developing and applying new fracturing
technology.”
148
Former Vice President Dick Cheney served
as the CEO of Halliburton from 1995 to 2000, and critics
accused him of keeping financial ties to the company while
he was in office.
149
In his role as vice president, he served
as chairman of an energy task force, the National Energy
Policy Development Group, which outlined a new national
energy policy in a report titled, “Reliable, Affordable and
Environmentally Sound Energy for America’s Future.”
150
In
the process of leading this task force, Cheney held many
secret meetings with the heads of energy companies.
151

So it was not surprising to see an exemption for hydraulic
fracturing show up in legislation after Vice President and
his task force recommended it. According to ProPublica,
the exemption was pushed through without hearings by
the Republican majority in Congress, and passed as part
of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.
152
The exemption from the Safe Drinking Water Act is only
one of many exemptions from federal rules that the energy
industry enjoys. (See box entitled Exemptions from other
regulations on page 10 for more information).
Not So Fast, Natural Gas: Why Accelerating Risky Drilling Threatens America’s Water
10
requíre compuníes to reveuí the chemícuís thev use,
l55
und íts
governor communded thut the stute updute íts envíronmentuí
revíev process.
l56
Meunvhííe, munv uctívísts und poíícvmuk-
ers huve cuííed íor morutoríums on íurther drííííng. Nev York
Cítv und munv Nev York-bused envíronmentuí orgunízutíons
pushed theír stute íegísíutor lumes ßrennun to cuíí íor u moru-
toríum on drííííng ín the cítv's vutershed.
l57
1he lennsvívuníu
House ºovervheímíngív¨ pussed íegísíutíon to huít uddítíonuí
drííííng ín stute purks ín Muv 20l0 the sume month thut
líover Mound 1ovn Councíí ín 1exus suspended uíí nev
gus veíí permíts.
l58
And íust u íev veeks íuter, the Deíuvure
Ríver ßusín Commíssíon extended u recent bun on nev gus
drííííng to íncíude ºexpíorutorv¨ veíís.
l59
Lven some vho stund to proít írom the drííííng ure questíon-
íng vhether ít ís u good ídeu. 1he shurehoíders ín muíor oíí
und gus compuníes beííeve thut there ís ínuncíuí rísk ín un
ínvestment thut cuuses envíronmentuí dumuge especíuíív
sínce munv stutes muv sturt strengtheníng theír reguíutíons.
ln 20l0, 26 percent oí LxxonMobíí shurehoíders voted íor u
proposuí thut vouíd requíre the compunv to studv the rísks
oí hvdruuííc íructuríng, but the compunv bourd reíected the
proposuí.
l60
1hís vus ímpressíve, consíderíng thut ít guíned
íve tímes more votes thun the usuuí shurehoíder support íor
u írst-tíme envíronmentuí resoíutíon.
161
Cne índustrv expert
suíd thut l0 percent support íor símííur resoíutíons ís consíd-
ered ºremurkubíe.¨
l62
Lven more remurkubíe, the shurehoíd-
ers' opposítíon vus so strong thut thev ííed u notíce víth
the L.S. Securítíes und Lxchunge Commíssíon stutíng theír
opposítíon to the compunv's behuvíor.
l63

Shurehoíders oí other compuníes, such us Cubot Cíí & Cus
und LCC Resources lnc., huve voted on símííur resoíu-
tíons.
l64
1he Sísters oí St. lruncís oí lhííudeíphíu brought
íorth u resoíutíon ut Chesupeuke Lnergv Corp.
l65
1he most
successíuí vote uguínst íruckíng occurred ut \ííííum Cos.
lnc., vhere 42 percent oí shurehoíders voíced concern ubout
the pructíce.
166

1hese steps tovurds ruísíng uvureness und stoppíng drííííng
ure u good sturt, but víth more permíts uííocuted und veíís
dríííed everv duv, more needs to be done to protect ground
und suríuce vuter írom nuturuí gus productíon.
Conclusion
ßv one estímute, the Murceííus Shuíe couíd meet the cur-
rent L.S. demund íor nuturuí gus íor tvo veurs. ßv unother, ít
couíd suppív l5 veurs vorth oí íueí. ßut hov íong vouíd ít
tuke íocuí communítíes und theír vutersheds to recover írom
uíí the dumuge thut couíd occur víth thut gus productíon:
And vhut huppens vhen the gus runs out:
1he íong-term suíetv oí vuter ís íur more ímportunt thun the
umount oí monev thut some compuníes cun muke drííííng íor
nuturuí gus ín the short run. 1hut ís vhv íederuí reguíutíons
must protect the pubííc írom the ímpucts oí nuturuí gus drííí-
íng víth hvdruuííc íructuríng. Compuníes must be requíred
to díscíose the chemícuís thev use. 1hev must be subíect to
reguíutíon íí thev ure íníectíng chemícuís ínto the ground thut
couíd uííect vuter quuíítv, und thut reguíutíon must uppív to
uíí stutes. 1he compuníes must be heíd uccountubíe íor theír
vustevuter. Meunvhííe, there shouíd be u morutoríum on
hvdruuííc íructuríng untíí íts eííects on vuter quuíítv ure íuíív
understood und there ure íuvs ín píuce to protect vutersheds
írom the íuíí extent oí those ímpucts.
1he oííshore dísuster ín the Cuíí must not encouruge u mud
rush to pursue unother hurmíuí, poorív understood íossíí íueí
energv productíon method onshore. 1hut ís vhv the Lníted
Stutes must seek nev energv productíon methods thut uvoíd
hurm to vuter not hvdruuííc íructuríng íor nuturuí gus.
Exemptions from Other Federal
Regulations
The Safe Drinking Water Act was not the only law de-
signed to protect public water that was circumvented
by the Energy Policy Act of 2005. The Energy Policy Act
also changed the Clean Water Act to broaden oil and gas
industry exemptions from needing permits for stormwater
discharges.
153
The industry enjoys a wide range of other federal exemp-
tions as well. One analysis found that the oil and gas
industry escapes regulations through loopholes in the
Safe Drinking Water Act; Clean Water Act; Clean Air Act;
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation
and Liability Act; Resource Conservation and Recovery
Act; National Environmental Policy Act and Toxic Release
Inventory under the Emergency Planning and Community
Right-to-Know Act.
154
Our Next Disaster?
Some human health hazards from natural gas drilling
are even more immediately obvious than air and water
pollution. In June 2010 in West Virginia, seven workers
were burned when a well exploded.
167
That same week in
Pennsylvania, a well exploded, blasting flames and spew-
ing 35,000 gallons of wastewater.
168
With technical and safety failures in the offshore drilling
rigs in the gulf at the forefront of the media’s attention,
these recent events have some media outlets questioning
whether natural gas is really a safe alternative to offshore
drilling. It turns out the culprit in the Pennsylvania explo-
sion was a malfunctioning “blowout preventer” — the
same piece of faulty equipment that failed to prevent the
BP oil spill.
169
Food & Water Watch
11
Policy Recommendations
- 1he íederuí government shouíd puss the lructuríng
Responsíbííítv und Avureness oí Chemícuís (lRAC) Act
(H.R. 2766, S. l2l5) to cíose the íoophoíe thut excíudes
hvdruuííc íructuríng írom reguíutíon under the Suíe
Drínkíng \uter Act.
- Stutes shouíd puss íegísíutíon to requíre the nuturuí gus
índustrv to report the chemícuís used íor hvdruuííc íruc-
turíng or to ímpíement other meusures to protect vuter
quuíítv und the heuíth oí resídents.
- Congress shouíd píuce u morutoríum on íssuíng nev per-
míts íor hvdruuííc íructuríng untíí uíter the LlA pubííshes
íts studv on the eííect oí hvdruuííc íructuríng on vuter
quuíítv, expected ín 20l2.
- 1he LlA shouíd conduct uddítíonuí studíes on hvdruuííc
íructuríng to exumíne íts eííects on humun heuíth und the
envíronment.
- Congress shouíd estubíísh u nev íederuí reguíutorv ugen-
cv to oversee the íossíí íueí índustríes. Recent trugedíes
the oíí spííí ín the Cuíí, the míne expíosíon ín \est
Vírgíníu, und the seríous probíems posed bv hvdruuííc
íructuríng reveuí thut the exístíng íederuí ugencíes ure
símpív not protectíng the Amerícun peopíe. 1hís nev
ugencv vouíd íocus on protectíng pubííc heuíth, vorker
suíetv und the envíronment.
Endnotes
l Heínrích, Lrík. ºAíter un oíí cuíumítv, ís ít tíme íor nuturuí gus:¨ 1|me. lune l5,
20l0.
2 Amerícu's Nuturuí Cus Aíííunce. |\ebsíte| ºCíeun.¨ Avuííubíe ut vvv.ungu.
us/vhv-nuturuí-gus/smurt-energv-choíce/cíeun/. Accessed on lune l7, 20l0.
Croundvuter lrotectíon Councíí und ALL Consuítíng. ºModern Shuíe Cus
Deveíopment ín the Lníted Stutes: A lrímer.¨ lrepured íor L.S. Depurtment
oí Lnergv Cííce oí lossíí Lnergv und Nutíonuí Lnergv 1echnoíogv Luborutorv.
Apríí 2009 ut 5.
3 Lohun, 1uru. |ßíog| ºCur Next Dísuster: 3 Nuturuí Cus Accídents ín l \eek.¨
Chunge.org Lnvíronment. lune 8, 20l0.
4 ºLxxon suvs N. Amerícu gus productíon hus peuked.¨ Reu|ets. lune 2l, 2005.
5 Nuvígunt Consuítíng. ºNorth Amerícun Nuturuí Cus Suppív Assessment.¨
lrepured íor Amerícun Cíeun Skíes loundutíon. luív 4, 2008 ut l5.
6 Croundvuter lrotectíon Councíí und ALL Consuítíng. ºModern Shuíe Cus
Deveíopment ín the Lníted Stutes: A lrímer.¨ lrepured íor L.S. Depurtment
oí Lnergv Cííce oí lossíí Lnergv und Nutíonuí Lnergv 1echnoíogv Luborutorv.
Apríí 2009 ut l5.
7 Arthur, l.D.: ßohm, ß., und Luvne, M. ºHvdruuííc íructuríng consíderutíons
íor nuturuí gus veíís oí the Murceííus shuíe.´ lrepured íor presentutíon ut 1he
Ctound \a|et Ito|ec||on Counc||. Cíncínnutí, Chío. September 2l-24, 2008
ut 7-8.
8 Arthur, l.D.: ßohm, ß., und Luvne, M. ºHvdruuííc íructuríng consíderutíons
íor nuturuí gus veíís oí the Murceííus shuíe.´ lrepured íor presentutíon ut 1he
Ctound \a|et Ito|ec||on Counc||. Cíncínnutí, Chío. September 2l-24, 2008.
At 6.
9 Croundvuter lrotectíon Councíí und ALL Consuítíng. ºModern Shuíe Cus
Deveíopment ín the Lníted Stutes: A lrímer.¨ lrepured íor L.S. Depurtment
oí Lnergv Cííce oí lossíí Lnergv und Nutíonuí Lnergv 1echnoíogv Luborutorv.
Apríí 2009 ut l5.
l0 Arthur, l.D.: ßohm, ß., und Luvne, M. ºHvdruuííc íructuríng consíderutíons
íor nuturuí gus veíís oí the Murceííus shuíe.´ lrepured íor presentutíon ut
1he Ctound \a|et Ito|ec||on Counc||. Cíncínnutí, Chío. September 2l-24,
2008 ut 8: Hurper, lohn. º1he Murceííus ShuíeAn Cíd ºNev¨ Cus Reservoír
ín lennsvívuníu.¨ ßureuu oí 1opogruphíc und Ceoíogíc Survev. Iennsv|van|a
Ceo|ogv. Voí 38, No. l. Spríng 2008 ut l0.
ll Arthur, l.D.: ßohm, ß., und Luvne, M. ºHvdruuííc íructuríng consíderutíons
íor nuturuí gus veíís oí the Murceííus shuíe.´ lrepured íor presentutíon ut 1he
Ctound \a|et Ito|ec||on Counc||. Cíncínnutí, Chío. September 2l-24, 2008.
ut 8.
l2 Hurper, lohn. º1he Murceííus ShuíeAn Cíd ºNev¨ Cus Reservoír ín
lennsvívuníu.¨ ßureuu oí 1opogruphíc und Ceoíogíc Survev. Iennsv|van|a
Ceo|ogv. Voí 38, No. l. Spríng 2008 ut l0.
l3 Nuvígunt Consuítíng. ºNorth Amerícun Nuturuí Cus Suppív Assessment.¨
lrepured íor Amerícun Cíeun Skíes loundutíon. luív 4, 2008 ut l0.
l4 Croundvuter lrotectíon Councíí und ALL Consuítíng. ºModern Shuíe Cus
Deveíopment ín the Lníted Stutes: A lrímer.¨ lrepured íor L.S. Depurtment
oí Lnergv Cííce oí lossíí Lnergv und Nutíonuí Lnergv 1echnoíogv Luborutorv.
Apríí 2009 ut 9.
l5 Croundvuter lrotectíon Councíí und ALL Consuítíng. ºModern Shuíe Cus
Deveíopment ín the Lníted Stutes: A lrímer.¨ lrepured íor L.S. Depurtment
oí Lnergv Cííce oí lossíí Lnergv und Nutíonuí Lnergv 1echnoíogv Luborutorv.
Apríí 2009 ut 9.
l6 Lustgurten, Abruhm. ºNuturuí Cus loíítícs.¨ Itopub||ca. Muv 26, 2009: L.S.
Lnvíronmentuí lrotectíon Agencv. Lnderground lníectíon Controí lrogrum.
ºHvdruuííc lructuríng.¨ Cctober l
st
, 2009.
l7 Lustgurten, Abruhm. ºNuturuí Cus loíítícs.¨ Itopub||ca. Muv 26, 2009: L.S.
Lnvíronmentuí lrotectíon Agencv. Lnderground lníectíon Controí lrogrum.
ºHvdruuííc lructuríng.¨ Cctober l
st
, 2009.
l8 Nuvígunt Consuítíng. ºNorth Amerícun Nuturuí Cus Suppív Assessment.¨
lrepured íor Amerícun Cíeun Skíes loundutíon. luív 4, 2008 ut 8.
l9 Nuvígunt Consuítíng. ºNorth Amerícun Nuturuí Cus Suppív Assessment.¨
lrepured íor Amerícun Cíeun Skíes loundutíon. luív 4, 2008 ut 8.
20 lHS CLRA. ºlueííng North Amerícu's Lnergv luture: 1he Lnconventíonuí
Nuturuí Cus Revoíutíon und the Curbon Agendu.¨ (Specíuí Report). 20l0 ut
LS-l.
2l \vnn, Cerurd und ßen Hírschíer. ºDAVCS-Shuíe gus ís L.S. energv ºgume
chunger¨-ßl CLC.¨ Reu|ets. lunuurv 28, 20l0.
22 Croundvuter lrotectíon Councíí und ALL Consuítíng. ºModern Shuíe Cus
Deveíopment ín the Lníted Stutes: A lrímer.¨ lrepured íor L.S. Depurtment
oí Lnergv Cííce oí lossíí Lnergv und Nutíonuí Lnergv 1echnoíogv Luborutorv.
Apríí 2009 ut l5.
23 L.S. Lnergv lníormutíon Admínístrutíon. |Mup| ºShuíe Cus líuvs Lover 48
Stutes.¨ Murch l0, 20l0.
24 Nuvígunt Consuítíng. ºNorth Amerícun Nuturuí Cus Suppív Assessment.¨
lrepured íor Amerícun Cíeun Skíes loundutíon. luív 4, 2008 ut 4l.
25 Hurper, lohn. º1he Murceííus ShuíeAn Cíd ºNev¨ Cus Reservoír ín
lennsvívuníu.¨ ßureuu oí 1opogruphíc und Ceoíogíc Survev. Iennsv|van|a
Ceo|ogv. Voí 38, No. l. Spríng 2008 ut 2.
26 Nuvígunt Consuítíng. ºNorth Amerícun Nuturuí Cus Suppív Assessment.¨
lrepured íor Amerícun Cíeun Skíes loundutíon. luív 4, 2008 ut 6.
27 lenn Stute Líve. ºLnconventíonuí nuturuí gus reservoír couíd boost L.S. sup-
pív.¨ lunuurv l7, 2008.
28 Soeder, Duníeí l. und \ííííum M. luppeí. L.S. Depurtment oí the lnteríor, L.S.
Ceoíogícuí Survev. º\uter resources und nuturuí gus productíon írom the
Murceííus Shuíe.¨ (luct Sheet 2009-3032). Muv 2009.
29 1ronche, lohn-Luurent. º ´Lnconventíonuí gus revoíutíon' hot topíc ut coníer-
ence.¨ Iot| \ot|h Bus|ness Itess (1exus). Murch l5, 20l0.
30 Yergín, Duníeí und Robert lneson. ºAmerícu's Nuturuí Cus Revoíutíon.¨
|Cpíníon| 1he \a|| S|tee| Ioutna|. November 2, 2009.
3l Cíurk, Andrev. ºLxxon Mobíí move ínto nuturuí gus víth S4lbn buvout oí X1C
Lnergv.¨ 1he Cuatd|an. December l4, 2009.
32 lruuss, Cííííord. ºlorget \índ. líckens 1urns locus to Cus.¨ 1he !ev )otl
1|mes. lunuurv l4, 20l0.
33 Cusseímun, ßen. ºNuturuí-Cus lroducers Luunch Lobbvíng Croup.¨ 1he \a||
S|tee| Ioutna|. lebruurv 25, 2009.
34 Cusseímun, ßen. ºNuturuí-Cus lroducers Luunch Lobbvíng Croup.¨ 1he \a||
S|tee| Ioutna|. lebruurv 25, 2009: Snvder, lím. ºNuturuí gus íobbv chuííengíng
couí.¨ 1he H|||. Murch l, 20l0.
35 Amerícu's Nuturuí Cus Aíííunce. |\ebsíte| Avuííubíe ut vvv.ungu.us/vhv-
nuturuí-gus/. Accessed on lun l8, 20l0.
36 lunchuck, lerrí. ºlíckens pushes nuturuí gus uíter oíí spííí.¨ Oa||as Bus|ness
Ioutna|. lune l5, 20l0: ºCouíd Muckenzíe gus guín momentum írom Cuíí oíí
spííí:¨ ¬|asla O|spa|ch. Muv 7, 20l0.
37 Amerícu's Nuturuí Cus Aíííunce. |\ebsíte| ºCíeun.¨ Avuííubíe ut vvv.ungu.us/
vhv-nuturuí-gus/smurt-energv-choíce/cíeun/. Accessed on lune l7, 20l0.
38 Croundvuter lrotectíon Councíí und ALL Consuítíng. ºModern Shuíe Cus
Deveíopment ín the Lníted Stutes: A lrímer.¨ lrepured íor L.S. Depurtment
oí Lnergv Cííce oí lossíí Lnergv und Nutíonuí Lnergv 1echnoíogv Luborutorv.
Apríí 2009 ut 5.
39 L.S. Lnergv lníormutíon Admínístrutíon. ºLmíssíons oí Creenhouse Cuses ín
the L.S. 2008 Cvervíev.¨ December 8, 2009 ut 2.
40 Hovurth, Robert. Corneíí Lníversítv. ºlreíímínurv Assessment oí the
Creenhouse Cus Lmíssíons írom Nuturuí Cus Cbtuíned bv Hvdruuííc
lructuríng.¨ (Druít). Murch l7 20l0.
4l Hovurth, Robert. Corneíí Lníversítv. ºlreíímínurv Assessment oí the
Creenhouse Cus Lmíssíons írom Nuturuí Cus Cbtuíned bv Hvdruuííc
lructuríng.¨ (Druít). Murch l7 20l0.
Not So Fast, Natural Gas: Why Accelerating Risky Drilling Threatens America’s Water
12
42 Nutíonuí Scíence loundutíon. ºCuestíons und Ansvers on lotentíuíív Lurge
Methune Reíeuses írom Arctíc, und Cíímute Chunge.¨ Murch 4, 20l0: L.S.
Lnergv lníormutíon Admínístrutíon. ºLmíssíons oí Creenhouse Cuses ín the
L.S. 2008 Cvervíev.¨ December 8, 2009 ut 4.
43 ßrucmort, leísí et uí. Congressíonuí Reseurch Servíce. ºMethune Cupture:
Cptíons íor Creenhouse Cus Lmíssíon Reductíon.¨ September l7, 2009 ut l4.
44 líunkett, lohn. ºLxxonMobíí to contest bun on ud íor ííqueíed nuturuí gus.¨
1he Cuatd|an. September 3, 2008.
45 líunkett, lohn. ºLxxonMobíí to contest bun on ud íor ííqueíed nuturuí gus.¨
1he Cuatd|an. September 3, 2008.
46 Denníson, Doug. Císson Assocíutes. lrepured íor Coíorudo Nuturuí Areus
lrogrum, Coíorudo Depurtment oí Nuturuí Resources. |loverpoínt| ºCeoíogv
oí Coíorudo's Muíor Cíí und Cus ßusíns.¨ \ííííums, Duvíd. ºMuíor gus-
producíng stutes debutíng Coíorudo-stvíe drííííng reguíutíons.¨ 1he Co|otado
lndependen|. Muv 2l, 20l0.
47 Nuvígunt Consuítíng. ºNorth Amerícun Nuturuí Cus Suppív Assessment.¨
lrepured íor Amerícun Cíeun Skíes loundutíon. luív 4, 2008 ut l0.
48 Nuvígunt Consuítíng. ºNorth Amerícun Nuturuí Cus Suppív Assessment.¨
lrepured íor Amerícun Cíeun Skíes loundutíon. luív 4, 2008 ut l0.
49 Hurper, lohn. º1he Murceííus ShuíeAn Cíd ºNev¨ Cus Reservoír ín
lennsvívuníu.¨ ßureuu oí 1opogruphíc und Ceoíogíc Survev. Iennsv|van|a
Ceo|ogv. Voí 38, No. l. Spríng 2008 ut 9.
50 Hurper, lohn. º1he Murceííus ShuíeAn Cíd ºNev¨ Cus Reservoír ín
lennsvívuníu.¨ ßureuu oí 1opogruphíc und Ceoíogíc Survev. Iennsv|van|a
Ceo|ogv. Voí 38, No. l. Spríng 2008 ut 9.
5l Moss, lerrv. Nutíonuí lurk Servíce, L.S. Depurtment oí the lnteríor. ºlotentíuí
Deveíopment oí the Nuturuí Cus Resources ín the Murceííus Shuíe.¨ December
2008 ut 3.
52 Moss, lerrv. Nutíonuí lurk Servíce, L.S. Depurtment oí the lnteríor. ºlotentíuí
Deveíopment oí the Nuturuí Cus Resources ín the Murceííus Shuíe.¨ December
2008 ut 3.
53 Moss, lerrv. Nutíonuí lurk Servíce, L.S. Depurtment oí the lnteríor. ºlotentíuí
Deveíopment oí the Nuturuí Cus Resources ín the Murceííus Shuíe.¨ December
2008.
54 1urner, lord. ºStute-íssued Murceííus shuíe gus veíí drííííng permíts íncreuse
300% ín 2009. 1he Ia|t|o|·!evs. November 4, 2009.
55 lennsvívuníu Depurtment oí Lnvíronmentuí lrotectíon. ßureuu oí Cíí und Cus
Munugement. Stuíí Communícutíon. Lmuíí on ííe ut lood & \uter \utch. lune
29, 20l0.
56 Dízurd, lohn. ºShuíe gus numbers muv not udd up.¨ 1he I|nanc|a| 1|mes.
November l, 2009.
57 lruuss, Cííííord. º1here's Cus ín 1hose Hííís.¨ !ev )otl 1|mes. Apríí 8, 2008.
58 lruuss, Cííííord. º1here's Cus ín 1hose Hííís.¨ !ev )otl 1|mes. Apríí 8, 2008.
59 Nuturuí Cus Suppív Assocíutíon. º1op 40 lroducers: L.S. Nuturuí Cus
lroductíon.¨ lune 9, 20l0.
60 Curííío, Víctor. 1exus Ruííroud Commíssíon, Representíng the lnterstute Cíí und
Cus Compuct Commíssíon. 1estímonv ín íront oí House Lnergv und Commerce
Commíttee, l09
th
Congress. lebruurv l0, 2005.
6l Arthur, l.D.: ßohm, ß., und Luvne, M. ºHvdruuííc íructuríng consíderutíons
íor nuturuí gus veíís oí the Murceííus shuíe.´ lrepured íor presentutíon ut 1he
Ctound \a|et Ito|ec||on Counc||. Cíncínnutí, Chío. September 2l-24, 2008
ut 8.
62 Arthur, l.D.: ßohm, ß., und Luvne, M. ºHvdruuííc íructuríng consíderutíons
íor nuturuí gus veíís oí the Murceííus shuíe.´ lrepured íor presentutíon ut
1he Ctound \a|et Ito|ec||on Counc||. Cíncínnutí, Chío. September 2l-24,
2008 ut l0. Croundvuter lrotectíon Councíí und ALL Consuítíng. ºModern
Shuíe Cus Deveíopment ín the Lníted Stutes: A lrímer.¨ lrepured íor L.S.
Depurtment oí Lnergv Cííce oí lossíí Lnergv und Nutíonuí Lnergv 1echnoíogv
Luborutorv. Apríí 2009 ut 58-60.
63 1he Lndocríne Dísruptíon Lxchunge. ºlroducts und Chemícuís Lsed ín
lructuríng.¨ lebruurv 2009.
64 Hurper, lohn. º1he Murceííus ShuíeAn Cíd ºNev¨ Cus Reservoír ín
lennsvívuníu.¨ ßureuu oí 1opogruphíc und Ceoíogíc Survev. Iennsv|van|a
Ceo|ogv. Voí 38, No. l. Spríng 2008 ut l0.
65 Chesupeuke Lnergv. |luctsheet| º\uter Lse ín ßurnett Deep Shuíe Cus
Lxpíorutíon.¨ Murch 20l0.
66 Huves, 1om. |loverpoínt| º\uter Lse und Conservutíon ín ßurnett Shuíe
Lnergv Deveíopment.¨ lresented ut Ckíuhomu lndependent letroíeum
Assocíutíon Svmposíum, Ckíuhomu Cítv, Cl. Apríí 3, 2008 ut l5.
67 Hurper, lohn. º1he Murceííus ShuíeAn Cíd ºNev¨ Cus Reservoír ín
lennsvívuníu.¨ ßureuu oí 1opogruphíc und Ceoíogíc Survev. Iennsv|van|a
Ceo|ogv. Voí 38, No. l. Spríng 2008 ut ll-l2.
68 Chesupeuke Lnergv. |luctsheet| º\uter Lse ín ßurnett Deep Shuíe Cus
Lxpíorutíon.¨ Murch 20l0.
69 Huves, 1om. |loverpoínt| º\uter Lse und Conservutíon ín ßurnett Shuíe
Lnergv Deveíopment.¨ lresented ut Ckíuhomu lndependent letroíeum
Assocíutíon Svmposíum, Ckíuhomu Cítv, Cl. Apríí 3, 2008 ut l6.
70 Hoíímun, lennííer. |loverpoínt| Susquehunnu Ríver ßusín Commíssíon.
ºNuturuí Cus Deveíopment.¨ lunuurv 29, 20l0 ut l5.
7l Nev York Stute Depurtment oí Lnvíronmentuí Conservutíon Dívísíon oí Míneruí
Resources. ºDruít Suppíementuí Ceneríc Lnvíronmentuí lmpuct Stutement on
the Cíí Cus und Soíutíon Míníng Reguíutorv lrogrum: \eíí lermít lssuunce
íor Horízontuí Drííííng und Hígh-Voíume Hvdruuííc lructuríng to Deveíop the
Murceííus Shuíe und Cther Lov-lermeutbííítv Cus Reservoírs.¨ September 2009
ut 6-4 to 6-8.
72 Soedoer, Duníeí l. und \ííííum M. luppeí. L.S. Depurtment oí the lnteríor,
L.S. Ceoíogícuí Survev. º\uter resources und nuturuí gus productíon írom the
Murceííus Shuíe.¨ (luct Sheet 2009-3032). Muv 2009 ut 4.
73 1he líttsburgh Chunneí \1AL 4. º1eum 4: lu. Streums Druíned Drv ßv
Dríííers.¨ November l3, 2008.
74 Croundvuter lrotectíon Councíí und ALL Consuítíng. ºModern Shuíe Cus
Deveíopment ín the Lníted Stutes: A lrímer.¨ lrepured íor L.S. Depurtment
oí Lnergv Cííce oí lossíí Lnergv und Nutíonuí Lnergv 1echnoíogv Luborutorv.
Apríí 2009 ut 6l.
75 Lustgurten, Abruhm. ºDoes Nuturuí-gus Drííííng Lndunger \uter Suppííes:¨
B|oombetg Bus|nessveel. November ll, 2008.
76 L.S. Depurtment oí Lnergv Cííce oí lossíí Lnergv und Nutíonuí Lnergv
1echnoíogv Luborutorv. ºStute Cíí und Nuturuí Cus Reguíutíons Desígned to
lrotect \uter Resources.¨ Muv 2009 ut 25.
77 1he Lndocríne Dísruptíon Lxchunge. ºlroducts und Chemícuís Lsed ín
lructuríng.¨ lebruurv 2009.
78 1he Lndocríne Dísruptíon Lxchunge (1LDX). ºChemícuís Lsed ín Nuturuí Cus
lructuríng Cperutíons: lennsvívuníu.¨ Apríí 2009.
79 Croundvuter lrotectíon Councíí und ALL Consuítíng. ºModern Shuíe Cus
Deveíopment ín the Lníted Stutes: A lrímer.¨ lrepured íor L.S. Depurtment
oí Lnergv Cííce oí lossíí Lnergv und Nutíonuí Lnergv 1echnoíogv Luborutorv.
Apríí 2009 ut 67.
80 Croundvuter lrotectíon Councíí und ALL Consuítíng. ºModern Shuíe Cus
Deveíopment ín the Lníted Stutes: A lrímer.¨ lrepured íor L.S. Depurtment
oí Lnergv Cííce oí lossíí Lnergv und Nutíonuí Lnergv 1echnoíogv Luborutorv.
Apríí 2009 ut 66.
8l Croundvuter lrotectíon Councíí und ALL Consuítíng. ºModern Shuíe Cus
Deveíopment ín the Lníted Stutes: A lrímer.¨ lrepured íor L.S. Depurtment
oí Lnergv Cííce oí lossíí Lnergv und Nutíonuí Lnergv 1echnoíogv Luborutorv.
Apríí 2009 ut 67.
82 Nev York Stute Depurtment oí Lnvíronmentuí Conservutíon Dívísíon oí Míneruí
Resources. ºDruít Suppíementuí Ceneríc Lnvíronmentuí lmpuct Stutement on
the Cíí Cus und Soíutíon Míníng Reguíutorv lrogrum: \eíí lermít lssuunce
íor Horízontuí Drííííng und Hígh-Voíume Hvdruuííc lructuríng to Deveíop the
Murceííus Shuíe und Cther Lov-lermeutbííítv Cus Reservoírs.¨ September 2009
ut 6-l6.
83 L.S. Lnvíronmentuí lrotectíon Agencv. ºCroundvuter Cíeunup ut Superíund
Sítes.¨ (LlA 540-l-96 008).December l996 ut 3: See lood & \uter \utch.
ºLnmeusured Dunger: Amerícu's Hídden Croundvuter Crísís.¨ luív 2009.
84 L.S. Lnvíronmentuí lrotectíon Agencv. Cííce oí Reseurch und Deveíopment
Cííce oí \uter. º\eííheud lrotectíon: A Cuíde íor Smuíí Communítíes.¨ (LlA
625-R-93-002) lebruurv l993.
85 Yergín, Duníeí und Robert lneson. ºAmerícu's Nuturuí Cus Revoíutíon.¨
|Cpíníon| 1he \a|| S|tee| Ioutna|. November 2, 2009.
86 Supíen, louquín. ºLlA Admínístrutor lorecusts lotentíuí Shíít on ßush-Lru
Drííííng Loophoíe.¨ Itopub||ca. Muv 22, 2009.
87 Hurdíe, lohn. ºL.S. índs vuter poííuted neur gus-drííííng sítes.¨ Reu|ets. August
8, 2009.
88 Hurdíe, lon. ºlennsvívuníu resídents sue over gus drííííng.¨ Reu|ets. November
20, 2009.
89 LRS Corporutíon. ºlhuse l Hvdrogeoíogíc Churucterízutíon oí the Mumm
Creek líeíd Areu ín Curíeíd Countv.¨ lrepured íor ßourd oí Countv
Commíssíoners, Curíeíd Countv Coíorudo. Murch 23, 2006 ut LS-3.
90 Dívísíon oí Drínkíng und Cound \uters. Chío Lnvíronmentuí lrotectíon
Agencv. ºChío lurst Areus.¨ September ll, 2007.
9l Dívísíon oí Drínkíng und Cound \uters. Chío Lnvíronmentuí lrotectíon
Agencv. ºChío lurst Areus.¨ September ll, 2007: 1uvíor, Churíes und Lurí
Creene. LS Ceoíogícuí Survev. ºCuuntítutíve Approuches ín Churucterízíng
lurst Aquííers.¨
92 \eurv, D.l. ºlreíímínurv Mup oí lotentíuíív lurstíc Curbonute Rocks ín the
Centruí und Southern Appuíuchíun Stutes.¨ (L.S. Ceoíogícuí Survev Cpen-lííe
Report 2008-ll54) (Avuííubíe onííne onív). 2008.
93 Luvtís, Steven. Nev York Cítv Depurtment oí Lnvíronmentuí lrotectíon. (Letter).
Re: Druít Suppíementuí Ceneríc Lnvíronmentuí lmpuct Stutement on the Cíí,
Cus und Soíutíon Míníng Reguíutorv lrogrum (duted 9/30/2009). Submítted to
NYSDLC ßureuu oí Cíí & Cus Reguíutíon. December 22, 2009 ut 7.
94 Nev York Stute Depurtment oí Lnvíronmentuí Conservutíon. ºDruít
Suppíementuí Ceneríc Lnvíronmentuí lmpuct Stutement on the Cíí, Cus und
Soíutíon Míníng Reguíutorv lrogrum. \eíí lermít lssuunce íor Horízontuí
Drííííng und Hígh-Voíume Hvdruuííc lructuríng to Deveíop the Murceííus Shuíe
und Cther Lov-lermeubííítv Cus Reservoírs.¨ September 2009 ut 4-26.
95 Luvtís, Steven. Nev York Cítv Depurtment oí Lnvíronmentuí lrotectíon. (Letter).
Re: Druít Suppíementuí Ceneríc Lnvíronmentuí lmpuct Stutement on the Cíí,
Cus und Soíutíon Míníng Reguíutorv lrogrum (duted 9/30/2009). Submítted to
NYSDLC ßureuu oí Cíí & Cus Reguíutíon. December 22, 2009 ut 7.
96 Northrup, lumes. Ctsego 2000. º1he Lníque Lnvíronmentuí lmpucts oí
Horízontuíív Hvdroíruckíng Shuíe.¨ August l8, 20l0.
97 Northrup, lumes. Ctsego 2000. º1he Lníque Lnvíronmentuí lmpucts oí
Horízontuíív Hvdroíruckíng Shuíe.¨ August l8, 20l0.
98 Northrup, lumes. Ctsego 2000. º1he Lníque Lnvíronmentuí lmpucts oí
Horízontuíív Hvdroíruckíng Shuíe.¨ August l8, 20l0.
Food & Water Watch
13
99 Luvtís, Steven. Nev York Cítv Depurtment oí Lnvíronmentuí lrotectíon. (Letter).
Re: Druít Suppíementuí Ceneríc Lnvíronmentuí lmpuct Stutement on the Cíí,
Cus und Soíutíon Míníng Reguíutorv lrogrum (duted 9/30/2009). Submítted to
NYSDLC ßureuu oí Cíí & Cus Reguíutíon. December 22, 2009 ut 8.
l00 Rubín, luuí. Hvdroquest. Comments on the Scope oí LlA's lroposed Studv oí
Hvdruuííc lructuríng. August l0, 20l0.
l0l Rubín, luuí. Hvdroquest. Comments on the Scope oí LlA's lroposed Studv oí
Hvdruuííc lructuríng. August l0, 20l0.
l02 \ííson, \eston. LlA Lmpíovee. |Letter| LlA Aííovs Huzurdous líuíds to be
lníected ínto Cround \uter: A report on LlA's íuííure to protect Amerícu's
ground vuter írom the ímpucts oí oíí und gus productíon. Cctober 8, 2004.
l03 lovíer, 1om. |ßíog| ºLlA Admínístrutor deíends hvdruuííc íructuríng studv.¨
Hous|on Chton|c|e. Apríí 28, 20l0.
l04 lovíer, 1om. |ßíog| ºLlA Admínístrutor deíends hvdruuííc íructuríng studv.¨
Hous|on Chton|c|e. Apríí 28, 20l0.
l05 Mutheson 1rí-Cus. Muteríuí Suíetv Dutu Sheet. Methune, Compressed Cus.
December ll, 2008.
l06 Mutheson 1rí-Cus. Muteríuí Suíetv Dutu Sheet. Methune, Compressed Cus.
December ll, 2008.
l07 ßovd, Shuun. CßS 4 Denver. ºlíummubíe vuter íoundíng lt. Lupton Home.¨
Murch 20, 2009.
l08 \ííbur, 1om. ºlu. seeks stronger drííííng ruíes to combut methune mígrutíon.¨
l|haca Ioutna|. Muv 23, 20l0.
l09 \ííbur, 1om. ºlu. seeks stronger drííííng ruíes to combut methune mígrutíon.¨
l|haca Ioutna|. Muv 23, 20l0.
ll0 Chío Depurtment oí Nuturuí Resources Dívísíon oí Míneruí Resources
Munugement, ºReport on the lnvestígutíon oí the Nuturuí Cus lnvusíon oí
Aquííers ín ßuínbrídge 1ovnshíp oí Ceuugu Countv, Chío.¨ September l, 2008
ut 5.
lll Lustgurten, Abruhm. ºCoíorudo studv íínks methune ín vuter to drííííng.¨
Itopub||ca. Apríí 22, 2009.
ll2 Lustgurten, Abruhm. ºCoíorudo studv íínks methune ín vuter to drííííng.¨
Itopub||ca. Apríí 22, 2009.
ll3 Croundvuter lrotectíon Councíí und ALL Consuítíng. ºModern Shuíe Cus
Deveíopment ín the Lníted Stutes: A lrímer.¨ lrepured íor L.S. Depurtment
oí Lnergv Cííce oí lossíí Lnergv und Nutíonuí Lnergv 1echnoíogv Luborutorv.
Apríí 2009 ut 70.
ll4 Supeín, louquín. º\íth Nuturuí Cus Drííííng ßoom, lennsvívuníu luces un
Cnsíuught oí \ustevuter.¨ Itopub||ca. Cctober 3, 2009.
ll5 Supeín, louquín. º\íth Nuturuí Cus Drííííng ßoom, lennsvívuníu luces un
Cnsíuught oí \ustevuter.¨ Itopub||ca. Cctober 3, 2009.
ll6 Supeín, louquín. º\íth Nuturuí Cus Drííííng ßoom, lennsvívuníu luces un
Cnsíuught oí \ustevuter.¨ Itopub||ca. Cctober 3, 2009.
ll7 Supeín, louquín. º\íth Nuturuí Cus Drííííng ßoom, lennsvívuníu luces un
Cnsíuught oí \ustevuter.¨ Itopub||ca. Cctober 3, 2009.
ll8 Croundvuter lrotectíon Councíí und ALL Consuítíng. ºModern Shuíe Cus
Deveíopment ín the Lníted Stutes: A lrímer.¨ lrepured íor L.S. Depurtment
oí Lnergv Cííce oí lossíí Lnergv und Nutíonuí Lnergv 1echnoíogv Luborutorv.
Apríí 2009 ut 69.
ll9 Supeín, louquín. º\íth Nuturuí Cus Drííííng ßoom, lennsvívuníu luces un
Cnsíuught oí \ustevuter.¨ Itopub||ca. Cctober 3, 2009.
l20 Supeín, louquín. º\íth Nuturuí Cus Drííííng ßoom, lennsvívuníu luces un
Cnsíuught oí \ustevuter.¨ Itopub||ca. Cctober 3, 2009.
l2l Supeín, louquín. º\íth Nuturuí Cus Drííííng ßoom, lennsvívuníu luces un
Cnsíuught oí \ustevuter.¨ Itopub||ca. Cctober 3, 2009.
l22 \orden, Amv. ºCus spevs írom N.\. lu. veíí rupture.¨ Ih||ade|ph|a lnqu|tet.
lune 5, 20l0.
l23 Lustgurten, Abruhm. ºHov the \est's Lnergv ßoom Couíd 1hreuten Drínkíng
\uter íor l ín l2 Amerícuns.¨ Itopub||ca. December 2l, 2008.
l24 Lustgurten, Abruhm. ºl6 Cuttíe Drop Deud Neur Mvsteríous líuíd ut Cus
Drííííng Síte.¨ Itopub||ca. Apríí 30, 2009.
l25 Lustgurten, Abruhm. ºßuríed Secrets: ls Nuturuí Cus Dríííng Lndungeríng L.S.
\uter Suppííes:¨ Itopub||ca. November l3, 2008.
l26 Lustgurten, Abruhm. ºßuríed Secrets: ls Nuturuí Cus Dríííng Lndungeríng L.S.
\uter Suppííes:¨ Itopub||ca. November l3, 2008.
l27 Amerícun Rívers. ºAmerícu's Most Lndungered Rívers.¨ 20l0 Ldítíon.
l28 Lustgurten, Abruhm. ºHov the vest's energv boom couíd threuten drínkíng
vuter íor l ín l2 Amerícuns.¨ Itopub||ca. December 2l, 2008.
l29 Lustgurten, Abruhm. ºlructured ReíutíonsNev York Cítv Sees Drííííng us
1hreut to íts \uter Suppív.¨ Itopub||ca. August 6, 2008: Lustgurten, Abruhm.
ºNYC: Cus drííííng vííí ruíse the cost oí vuter bv 30 percent.¨ Itopub||ca.
December l6, 2008
l30 Lustgurten, Abruhm. ºlructured ReíutíonsNev York Cítv Sees Drííííng us
1hreut to íts \uter Suppív.¨ Itopub||ca. August 6, 2008.
l3l Chesupeuke Lnergv. |lress Reíeuse| Chesupeuke Lnergv Corporutíon Conírms
Decísíon not to Drííí íor Nuturuí Cus ín the Nev York Cítv \utershed.¨ Cctober
28, 2009.
l32 Chesupeuke Lnergv. |lress Reíeuse| Chesupeuke Lnergv Corporutíon Conírms
Decísíon not to Drííí íor Nuturuí Cus ín the Nev York Cítv \utershed.¨ Cctober
28, 2009.
l33 ßurnett, lohn. ºHeuíth íssues íoííov nuturuí gus drííííng ín 1exus.¨ National
Iub||c Rad|o. November 3, 2009.
l34 ßurnett, lohn. ºHeuíth íssues íoííov nuturuí gus drííííng ín 1exus.¨ National
Iub||c Rad|o. November 3, 2009.
l35 Lee, Míke. ºStute vorríed ubout uír poííutíon neur ßurnett Shuíe veíís.¨ Star-
1e|egtam (1exus). November 22, 2009.
l36 Lee, Míke. ºStute vorríed ubout uír poííutíon neur ßurnett Shuíe veíís.¨ Star-
1e|egtam (1exus). November 22, 2009.
l37 Armenduríz, Aí. Lnvíronmentuí Deíense lund. ºLmíssíons írom nuturuí gus
productíon ín the ßurnett Shuíe ureu und opportunítíes íor cost-eííectíve ím-
provements.¨ lunuurv 26, 2009 ut l.
l38 \ííííums, Duvíd. ºMuíor gus-producíng stutes debutíng Coíorudo-stvíe drííííng
reguíutíons.¨ Co|otado lndependen|. Muv 2l, 20l0.
l39 L.S. Depurtment oí Lnergv Cííce oí lossíí Lnergv und Nutíonuí Lnergv
1echnoíogv Luborutorv. ºStute Cíí und Nuturuí Cus Reguíutíons Desígned to
lrotect \uter Resources.¨ Muv 2009 ut 25.
l40 Suíe Drínkíng \uter Act: 42 L.S.C. 300(h)d: Lustgurten, Abruhm. ºNuturuí Cus
loíítícs.¨ Itopub||ca. Muv 26, 2009: L.S. Lnvíronmentuí lrotectíon Agencv.
Lnderground lníectíon Controí lrogrum. ºHvdruuííc lructuríng.¨ Cctober l
st
,
2009.
l4l Lustgurten, Abruhm. ºlRAC ActCongress lntroduces 1vín ßííís to Controí
Drííííng und lrotect Drínkíng \uter.¨ Itopub||ca. lune 9, 2009: Nev York
1ímes |Ldítoríuí|. º1he Huíííburton Loophoíe.¨ November 2, 2009.
l42 1ext oí S. l2l5: lructuríng Responsíbííítv und Avureness oí Chemícuís (lRAC)
Act. lntroduced ín Senute lune 9, 2009.
l43 Lustgurten, Abruhm. ºlRAC ActCongress lntroduces 1vín ßííís to Controí
Drííííng und lrotect Drínkíng \uter.¨ Itopub||ca. lune 9, 2009
l44 L.S. Lnvíronmentuí lrotectíon Agencv. ºlrotectíng Drínkíng \uter 1hrough
Lnderground lníectíon Controí.¨ Drínkíng \uter locket Cuíde r2. (LlA 8l6-l-
02-00l) lunuurv 2002.
l45 L.S. Depurtment oí Lnergv. Nutíonuí Lnergv 1echnoíogv Luborutorv. Strutegíc
Center íor Nuturuí Cus. ºMore Restríctíve Reguíutíon (Hvdruuííc lructuríng)
Couíd lmpuct Nuturuí Cus Suppív.¨ lune 200l.
l46 Lnergv loíícv Act 2005. lubííc Luv l09-58. August 8, 2005. Sec. 322.
l47 Nev York 1ímes |Ldítoríuí|. º1he Huíííburton Loophoíe.¨ November 2, 2009.
l48 Huíííburton. |lress Reíeuse| ºHuíííburton Ceíebrutes 50-Yeur Anníversurv oí
lrocess thut ºLnergízed¨ Cíí und Cus lndustrv.¨ lune 2l, l999.
l49 Murphv, lurrett. ºChenev's Huíííburton 1íes Remuín.¨ CBS!evs. \ushíngton,
September 26, 2003.
l50 Abrumovítz, Míchueí und Steven Muíson. ºlupers detuíí índustrv's roíe ín
Chenev's energv report.¨ 1he \ash|ng|on Ios|. luív l8, 2007: Nutíonuí Lnergv
loíícv Deveíopment Croup. ºNutíonuí Lnergv loíícv: Report oí the Nutíonuí
Lnergv loíícv Deveíopment Croup.¨ Muv 200l.
l5l Mííbunk, Dunu und lustín ßíum. ºDocument suvs oíí chíeís met víth Chenev
tusk íorce.¨ \ash|ng|on Ios|. November l6, 2005.
l52 Lustgurten, Abruhm. ºNuturuí Cus loíítícs.¨ Itopub||ca. Muv 26, 2009.
l53 losník, Renee. Cíí und Cus Accountubííítv lroíect/Lurthvorks. º1he oíí und
gus índustrv's excíusíons und exemptíons to muíor envíronmentuí stututes.¨
Cctober 2007 ut 2.
l54 losník, Renee. Cíí und Cus Accountubííítv lroíect/Lurthvorks. º1he oíí und
gus índustrv's excíusíons und exemptíons to muíor envíronmentuí stututes.¨
Cctober 2007 ut 2.
l55 Lustgurten, Abruhm. ºNev York Stute 1íghtens Drííííng Controís.¨ Itopub||ca.
luív 22, 2008.
l56 Lustgurten, Abruhm. ºCovernor Sígns Drííííng ßííí ßut Crders Lnvíronmentuí
Lpdute. Itopub||ca. luív 23, 2008.
l57 ßuttev, Aíííson. ºN.Y. píuns to consíder íuv íímítíng nuturuí gus drííííng.¨
Itopub||ca. September 9, 2008.
l58 Vítuíí, Creg. ºHuít stute íorest gus íeuses.¨ 1he Ih||ade|ph|a lnqu|tet. Muv 23,
20l0: Hundíev, \endv. ºlíover Mound puts end to nev gus drííííng.¨ 1he
Oa||as Motn|ng !evs. Muv 29, 20l0.
l59 ßuuers, Sundv. ºDeíuvure Ríver puneí extends íts gus-drííííng bun.¨ 1he
Ih||ade|ph|a lnqu|tet. lune l5, 20l0.
l60 As You Sov. IR !evsv|te. ºLxxonMobíí Shurehoíders Strongív Supprt
Díscíosure oí Nuturuí Cus ´lruckíng Rísks.¨ Muv 26, 20l0.
l6l As You Sov. IR !evsv|te. ºLxxonMobíí Shurehoíders Strongív Supprt
Díscíosure oí Nuturuí Cus ´lruckíng Rísks.¨ Muv 26, 20l0.
l62 Muvkuth, Andrev. ºActívíst nuns bríngíng íruckíng to u vote.¨ Ih||ade|ph|a
lnqu|tet. lune 6, 20l0.
l63 L.S. Securítíes und Lxchunge Commíssíon, \ushíngton D.C. As You Sov.
ºShurehoíder Rebuttuí to the LxxonMobíí Cpposítíon Stutement Regurdíng
Hvdruuííc lructuríng.¨
l64 Muvkuth, Andrev. ºActívíst nuns bríngíng íruckíng to u vote.¨ Ih||ade|ph|a
lnqu|tet. lune 6, 20l0.
l65 Muvkuth, Andrev. ºActívíst nuns bríngíng íruckíng to u vote.¨ Ih||ade|ph|a
lnqu|tet. lune 6, 20l0.
l66 Muvkuth, Andrev. ºActívíst nuns bríngíng íruckíng to u vote.¨ Ih||ade|ph|a
lnqu|tet. lune 6, 20l0.
l67 Muvkuth, Andrev. ºlu. suspends gus drííííng ut Murceííus rupture síte.¨ 1he
Ih||ade|ph|a lnqu|tet. lune 7, 20l0.
l68 Muvkuth, Andrev. ºlu. suspends gus drííííng ut Murceííus rupture síte.¨ 1he
Ih||ade|ph|a lnqu|tet. lune 7, 20l0.
l69 Muvkuth, Andrev. ºlu. suspends gus drííííng ut Murceííus rupture síte.¨ 1he
Ih||ade|ph|a lnqu|tet. lune 7, 20l0.
Food & Water Watch
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