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# Choke Performance

Learning Objectives

Purpose of a choke
Critical and sub-critical flow
Pressures and rates across a choke

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Choke Performance

## The purpose of the choke is to control the surface pressure

For safety reasons, need to be able to reduce surface pressure
Acts a means to control maximum flow rate

Choke Performance

## Critical flow (sonic flow)

Pressure disturbance downstream of the restriction has no effect on
the rate or upstream pressure

## Subcritical flow (subsonic flow)

Flow is below critical rate and pressure drop through the restriction
is affected by changes downstream and upstream

Choke Design

designing chokes

## If you have critical flow, downstream pressure and

separator pressure will not affect rate yet provide safe
surface pressures

Choke

d1

p1 d2 v2 p2

v1

Isothermal, incompressible flow

## The energy equation can be written across the choke to develop

a relationship to calculate the pressure drop.

## If we have no work (W), friction (hL), or elevation change (z2 = z1)

Choke Performance

Now 22 >> 12

p2 p1
or 2 2 p1 p2
2 1
2
0 2
2

q q
but 2
A2 d 2
2
4

Choke Equations

## Cg = Geometry and units conversion

Cf = Correction factor for non-ideal flow

Single phase liquid
Subcritical flow occurs
0 .5
P1 P2
qL 1022.7 C D d 2

L
qL= Liquid flow rate, STB/day P1, P2 = pressure, psia
d = choke diameter, inches L = liquid specific gravity
CD 0.85 = estimated choke coefficient

## Choke coefficient can be determined using the graph in next page.

It is required to calculate the Reynolds number:
v = fluid velocity, ft/sec
d v
RE = liquid density
= liquid viscosity

Single phase liquid

Single phase gas

## Accounting for the compressible nature of the vapor, a similar

relationship can be developed for gas flow.

1
2
q g 27.611C D P1d 2 y k y k
T k 2 k 1
sc

P T Z 12 k 1
sc g 1 1

Single phase liquid

## qL = Liquid production rate, STB/day.

R = Gas Liquid ratio SCF/STB.
d = Choke diameter, inches.

Multiphase flow

## Empirical variables determined by different people

Investigator a b c Cx
Ros 1 2.00 0.500 235
Gilbert 1 1.89 0.546 259
Baxendell 1 1.93 0.546 321
Achong 1 1.88 0.650 649