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Choke Performance

Learning Objectives

Purpose of a choke
Critical and sub-critical flow
Pressures and rates across a choke

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Choke Performance

The purpose of the choke is to control the surface pressure


For safety reasons, need to be able to reduce surface pressure
Acts a means to control maximum flow rate

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Choke Performance

Critical flow (sonic flow)


Pressure disturbance downstream of the restriction has no effect on
the rate or upstream pressure

Subcritical flow (subsonic flow)


Flow is below critical rate and pressure drop through the restriction
is affected by changes downstream and upstream

Critical flow rule of thumb

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Choke Design

The property of critical flow is taken advantage of in


designing chokes

If you have critical flow, downstream pressure and


separator pressure will not affect rate yet provide safe
surface pressures

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Choke

d1

p1 d2 v2 p2

v1

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Isothermal, incompressible flow

The energy equation can be written across the choke to develop


a relationship to calculate the pressure drop.

If we have no work (W), friction (hL), or elevation change (z2 = z1)

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Choke Performance

Now 22 >> 12

p2 p1
or 2 2 p1 p2
2 1
2
0 2
2

q q
but 2
A2 d 2
2
4

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Choke Equations

This can be written as

Cg = Geometry and units conversion


Cf = Correction factor for non-ideal flow

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Single phase liquid
Subcritical flow occurs
0 .5
P1 P2
qL 1022.7 C D d 2

L
qL= Liquid flow rate, STB/day P1, P2 = pressure, psia
d = choke diameter, inches L = liquid specific gravity
CD 0.85 = estimated choke coefficient

Choke coefficient can be determined using the graph in next page.


It is required to calculate the Reynolds number:
v = fluid velocity, ft/sec
d v
RE = liquid density
= liquid viscosity

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Single phase liquid

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Single phase gas

Accounting for the compressible nature of the vapor, a similar


relationship can be developed for gas flow.


1
2
q g 27.611C D P1d 2 y k y k
T k 2 k 1
sc

P T Z 12 k 1
sc g 1 1

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Single phase liquid

Critical flow only

qL = Liquid production rate, STB/day.


R = Gas Liquid ratio SCF/STB.
d = Choke diameter, inches.
pwh= Wellhead pressure, psia

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Multiphase flow

Empirical variables determined by different people

Investigator a b c Cx
Ros 1 2.00 0.500 235
Gilbert 1 1.89 0.546 259
Baxendell 1 1.93 0.546 321
Achong 1 1.88 0.650 649

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Any Questions?

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