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Reviewed Work(s): Kinaald: A Study of the Navaho Girl's Puberty Ceremony by Charlotte
Johnson Frisbie
Review by: Louise Lamphere
Source: American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 70, No. 4 (Aug., 1968), pp. 779-780
Published by: Wiley on behalf of the American Anthropological Association
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Book Reviews 779

change. There are also

sides of papers
the International descr
Boundary, give thei
attention to
hitherto unsuccessful one culture in depth.
attempts ofOver theth
to revive their native
years a steadylanguage and
stream of young anthropologis
have cut their teeth on anthropological
tence of Indian self-identitity among fiel
dinaga Mohawks,work who among lack the
the Iroquois. There tradi
has been a
ture found in other Iroquois
continuous dialogue com
between this generatio
where Indian self-identity is also
and those older anthropologists stron
who are respon
Factionalism continues to intrigue
sible for the renaissance stu
of Iroquoian studies
Iroquois culture. One
generation paper
ago. That descr
this interaction betwee
course of factionalism in the Seneca Nation age groups has been successful is evidenced b
during the mid-nineteenth century. The thrill of problems and data that are continual
the new
observing in modern Iroquoia cultural patterns
recorded by the Jesuits in the seventeenth cen-
tury is a constant attraction for doing fieldA Study of the Navaho Girl's Pu-
work among the Iroquois. A very good berty
gives a detailed analysis of the Bowl BIE.
Game Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan
among the Onondaga and presents some brief
University Press, 1967. xiii, 437 pp., 8 ap-
comparisons with other Iroquois communities pendices, bibliography, 7 charts, 15 figures,
where the game is also played. index. $15.00.
Interest in Iroquois history and culture has
been intimately involved with the formal desig- Reviewed by LOUISE LAMPHERE
nation of ethnohistory as an approach in an- Brown University
thropology, and throughout the years ethnohis-The author has presented a detailed analysis
tory has been a major concern of many of theIro-
Navaho girl's puberty ceremony and in
quoian scholars. There are three studies so indoing
this has made a significant contribution to
volume that utilize this approach: a challenge,
the study of Navaho religion. The emphasis is
based on careful examination of documents, on theof textual and musical analysis of Kinaaldi
the assertion that the Iroquois had matrilocal
songs. Songs form the central part of any Na-
patterns of residence in the first half of vaho
the sev-
ceremony; yet they have been relatively
enteenth century; a reassessment of theneglected
etymo- in the literature on religion, which
logy of the name "Iroquois" (which it consists
is sug-mainly of myth texts and descriptions
gested may be of Montagnais origin);ofand a behavior ignoring the songs chanted si-
probe into the identity and location of multaneously.
the his- Fortunately, the neglect is being
toric site of Hochelaga, which was mentioned
remedied by this and other studies of the Bless-
by Jacques Cartier in 1535 and which ing may Waybeceremonial complex conducted by eth-
the same as an archeological site nearnomusicologists
McGill at Wesleyan University under
the direction of David McAllester.
University in Montreal that was first described
by J. W. Dawson in the nineteenth century.In addition to musical aspects analyzed by
Eight papers in these proceedings deal thewith
author, the data on mythology, ceremonial
the prehistory of the Iroquois. A series of prob- variations in religious practices,
lems continue to dominate interest in this
social change make the book of more gen-
eral interest
for one, whether Iroquois culture developed in to students of Navaho society.
situ in New York State and the surrounding
Chapter 1 discusses the Kinaaldai myth and
area or whether it was introduced by migration
compares versions collected by the author with
from the Southeast, the Ohio Valley, or some
others available in publications, notes, and files.
other place. One emphasis also very evidentChapterin2 describes two ceremonies observed
Iroquois archeology these days is the extensive
and taped by the author. A record of partici-
pating personnel and conversations about the
analysis of house, settlement, and demographic
patterns. In addition to brief site reports, some
organization of activities provides excellent raw
of these papers on archeology also discuss datagen-
on Navaho cooperation and decision-mak-
eral methodology in archeology. One conclu-ing in a ceremonial context. A comparison with
ceremonies in other communities shows the
sion is evident: Iroquois studies are rapidly
closing the gap in continuity between range archeo-of variations for various ritual acts.
logical and ethnographic data. The analysis of Kinaaldd music occupies the
While this is a slim volume, and somethirdof thechapter. Its great length makes the discus-
papers are very brief preliminary statements, it
sion somewhat difficult to follow despite the
reflects in sum the solid and viable naturemany
of Ir-subheadings. The final summary (p. 334)
oquoian studies. Perhaps more than anythingis a concise outline of the chapter and guide to
else, these proceedings demonstrate the benefits
its contents. Music and song texts in Navaho
that accrue when a band of scholars, on are both
provided for several examples of each type

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780 American Anthropologist [70, 1968]
of song analyzed. A free English In Anthropology
translation No.is1.) [Prescott, Ari
given for all examples, and in a fewCollege
Prescott cases Press,
the 1967. xii, 67 pp
spoken Navaho and literal English translations
dex, 1 map, 6 photographs, references.
are also provided. In some instances, several
versions of the same song are compared Reviewed
variations cited. University of British Columb
Chapter 4 discusses the meaning of the Handsomely produced and with magni
Kinaaldi ceremony, its symbolism, and its place photographs, some by George Wharton
in Navaho religion. The final chapter deals with and some by Euler, this slim book tells a
changes in the ritual in response to Navaho ac- we are likely to know of the Ghost Da
among the Pai (Walapai and Havasu
Chapter 4 is perhaps the weakest part of the which began in 1889. It assembles conte
book, relying heavily on previous interpreta- rary accounts taken from Arizona newsp
tions of Navaho religion by Clyde Kluckhohn from Indian Affairs archives, and from v
and Gladys Reichard rather than using the data other publications; information gather
presented earlier to reach new conclusions. Spier in 1918 and under Kroeber in 192
These anthropological analyses have emphasized additional information collected by Doby
the "communion" aspects of Navaho religion, Euler in 1952-1957. The study attempts
stressing concepts translated into the English count for acceptance of the dance, to disc
terms "harmony," "beauty," and "happiness"; relevance of the events for various theories of
all heavily laden with a long history of Chris-revitalization movements, and to deal with the
tian meaning. A more fruitful approach is sug- effects of the dance on tribal integration.
gested by David Aberle, who stresses the "ma- The theoretical approach is primarily that of
nipulative" aspects of Navaho ritual (The Nava-Leighton's classification of generic psychologi-
ho Singer's 'Fee': Payment or Prestation?," in cal stresses. The authors indicate that the Pai
D. H. Hymes and W. E. Bittle, eds., Studies in were threatened with loss of water resources
Southwestern Ethnolinguistics, The Hague, and land, with death at the hands of settlers,
1967). He outlines ways in which offerings and with serious disease, with disruption of family
other mythologically prescribed actions coercelife by settlers who took sexual advantage of
supernatural aid and bind the patient, singer, and Pai women, and with arbitrary exercise of au-
supernatural in a chain of reciprocity. The textsthority. After unsuccessful efforts to eliminate
in Chapter 3 reveal how the songs either recount these threats by force, the Pai accepted domi-
relationships stated in Navaho mythology or nation as the price for retaining a portion of their
describe the ritual actions being performed si- homeland. Then they turned to "in-group and
multaneously. The content of the songs supportsself-aggression." An alternative to this response
Aberle's analysis since they can be interpreted aswas the symbolic aggression of the Ghost Dance,
an integral part of the reciprocity which is de-with its promise that the Whites would disappear
scribed in myth and acted out in ceremonies. It and the Indians be returned to a life of plenty.
is a credit to the author's painstaking presen- A successful outcome of the dance was not forth-
tation of song texts that this relaionship can be coming; among the Walapai, the failure of an
effort to revive a dead man by magical means
Since there are a number of morphopho-
seems to have led to a loss of belief in the
nemic changes made when the spoken
is transformed into a singing style, the
first criticism of this work is that consid-
of songs can only be revealed by several trans-
erably more could have been done with the
lations. That the author provides question
examples of
of differential acceptance of the Ghost
song texts, spoken Navaho, and literalDanceand free
among the Pai. Like most books on reli-
English translations is one of the most valuable this one is long on details on
gious movements,
aspects of the book, since accurate the data
movementareand short on details of the con-
made available to those interested in text
various as-
of the movement, although the section on
pects of Navaho religion. In sum, this excellent
stress provides the broad picture. Specifically,
work shows how a detailed analysis theof a spe-
authors allege that the Havasupai took up
cialized topic can contribute more generally to than did the Walapai because
the dance later
the work of other anthropologists. they suffered less from the various threats expe-
rienced by both groups, but the book fails to
provide supporting detail. Furthermore, four
The Ghost Dance of 1889 among Walapai
the Pai In- are mentioned several times:
dians of Northwestern Arizona. HENRY
Serum andF.Koara, who supported the dance,
DOBYNS and ROBERT C. EULER. Foreword by brought his group in late and
Leve Leve, who
Edward H. Spicer. (Prescott College Studies
danced separately from the body of the Wala-

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