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Candidate Name:

Index Number: c _J
CT Group ; 0"' r_
Membranes within and at the surface of cells have different ro les. The flowchart shows
a scheme to identify various organelles within the cell , by describing the structure and
function of their membranes.
membrane
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/ ~
encloses cell contents encloses a structure

-
cell surface membrane w1thtn the ce\

..... possesses pores


JC2 PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS
H2 BIOLOGY 9648
/
no pores present I \
23 September 2010
PAPER 1
1 hr 15 mins
I
single membrane
\ allows exit of mRNA

double membrane
I
protein synthesis
II

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
I \
transports lipid
I \
allows oxygen allows carbon dioxide
Do not open this question booklet until you are told to do so. enzymes synthesis to enter to enter
Write your name, CT group and Index number on this cover page and the optica l mark sheet Ill tV v VI
in the spaces provided.

Which of the following outcomes correctly identifies the various cellular organelles?
There are FORTY questions in this paper. Answer ALL questions. For each question, there are
four possible answers A. 8, C and D. Choose the one you consider correct and record your
choice in soft pencil on the optical mark sheet.
I II Ill IV v VI
A chlorop last vesicle smoothER roughER nucleolus mitochondrion
Read very carefully the instructions on the optical mark sheet. 8 nucleolus roughER vesicle smoothER nucleus mitochondrion
c nucleus smoothER mitochondrion roughER vesicle chloroplast
At the end of the examination , you are required to submit the optical mark sheet ONLY.
D nucleus roughER vesicle smoothER mitochondrion chloroplast
A NIL RETURN is required.

INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES


Each correct answer scores one mark. A mark will not be deducted for a wrong answer.
Any rough working should be done in this booklet.

This question booklet consists of a total of n_ printed pages, Including :this cover page.
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2 The figure shows two biological molecules. 3 In the production of isoleucine from threonine (pathway P), the end product acts as an
inhibitor of the first enzyme in the pathway. In the production of arginine (pathway Q) ,
CH 3 the end product has no influence on other enzymes in the pathway. The two pathways
I. H are shown in the figure.
H,C~-CH 3 I.
H-N-H
1Hz I
TH' 1"' inhibits enzyme t
0
o~=o
lH2
0
Pathway P:
!
threonine - - - compound X - - - compound Y ~
1
isoleucine
I o--J=o enzyme 1 enzyme 2 enzyme 3
0 I
I 0
I
TH'
HC--NH
C-TH-TH2
H2
I I substrate - compound M - ccmpm.nd N ~ arginine
HO-<fH 9=0 .? 7 PathwayQ :
enzyme 1 enzyme 2 enzyme 3
fiH 9Hz r=o 1=0
1H 9Hz lH' TH'
9H2 9Hz
1H, TH' TH2 TH2
Which of the following conclusions is correct?
1H2 TH2 TH2 9H2 I In pathway P, if the production of enzyme 3 stops, there would be increased
1H2 TH' TH' 9Hz production of isoleucine.
TH' TH' TH' TH'
'fHz TH2 THz TH'
II In pathway Q, if the production of enzyme 3 stops, there would be decreased
production of arginine.
TH2 fiH CH CH
II II
<fH2 TH TH TH Ill In pathway P, provided all enzymes are present, the production of isoleucine
would be continuous if there was a continuous supply of threonine.
9Hz 9Hz TH' THz
1H2 TH2 TH' 'fHz IV In pathway Q , provided all enzymes are present, the production of arginine
would be conti nuous if there was a continuous supply of substrate.
TH' TH2 TH' ?Hz
THz 9Hz TH' 9Hz
TH2 1H2 C(Hz C(Hz A I and Ill only
CHo 9H2 9H 2 9Hz 8 I and IV only
lH2 C(Hz 9Hz c II and Ill only
CH 3 CH3 CH:
D II and IV only
Molecule X Molecule Y"

Which of the following statements about the molecules X and Y is/are true? 4 How many different types of gametes would be produced by an organism of genotype
PpqqRrSsTTUu, if all of the genes assort independently?
I Only molecule Y is a phospholipid because it does not contain a glycerol
backbone. A 8
II Both molecules X and Y are amphipathic as they both have polar and non- B 10
polar components.
c 16
Ill When molecules X and Y are treated with phospholipases, the same products
D 64
are produced.

A I only
B II on ly
C I and Ill only
D II and Ill only

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION / 2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 3 ~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTiON 12010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 4
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5 The fi gure shows the life cycle of the water f ea, Daphnia. The cells of individu<>l P 6 DNA re plication is illustra ted in the figure.
conta in 10 ch romosomes.
3'

~~-
. OH 3' . 2"!,.
1-!lll =~.
~
NucleobdeX
OH3'-= 0HJ' . 1(( 5

Nucleotide Y ~ , ~ ' ' ' b.


3
'
~%~~~
5
sugar

3, ~~~ OH3' ~.
~P bas e .,.....~
5' 5' triphosphate

Which of the following are correct?


Which of the follo wing corre ctly describes the add ition of the next nucleotide(s) to the
Individual Ploidy Number of Reason for choice DNA strands und ergoing replication?
level chromosomes
I p 2n 20 The cells of P can undergo both A" Nucleotide X will be added to the leading strand .
mitosis and meiosis. 8 ''Nucleotide Y will be added to the leading strand.
II Q 2n 20 P produces eggs Q by mitosis wh ich C Nucleotide Y will be added to the leading strand and nucleotide X will be added
develop into females. to the lagging strand.
Ill s n 10 The gametic cells of p have D Nucleotide X will be added to the leading strand and nucleotide Y will be added
undergone normal meiosis. to the lagging strand.
IV T 2n 20 Random fertilisation of haploid
gametes from R and S occurred to
form zygote T.

A I and II only
B I and Ill only
C II and IV only
D All of the above

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~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION 12010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS ' .ill.
~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION 12010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS

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7 Two new viruses E and Z, which infect eukaryotic cells, have been identified. 9 Transcription of gene Q is controlled by transcription factor R. Gene Q is only
transcribed when transcription factor R is phosphorylated. Data on the tissue
In one experiment, the nucleic acid from each virus is isolated and analyzed over a distribution of transcription factor R and the activities of a protein kinase and a
range of temperatures. The light absorbance of nucleic acids changes when protein phosphatase specific for transcription factor R as shown in the table.
denaturation or annealing occurs. The behaviour of the nucleic acid from each virus is
shown in the graph. Tissue Transcription Protein kinase activity Protein phosphatase
factor R (arbitrary units) activity
(arbitrary units)
Muscle + 10 10
Heart + 1000 10

Light Virus E
Brain - 10 1000
~--

absorbance
(arbitrary units) Of these tissues, gene Q will be transcribed in

Virus Z A muscle only.


B heart only.
Temperature (C) c brain and heart only.
0 brain and muscle only.
In a second experiment, it is found that treatment with reverse transcriptase inhibitors
or with inhibitors of DNA synthesis blocks the ability of virus Z to infect cells. In
contrast, reverse transcriptase inhibitors have no effect on the ability of virus E to 10 Which of the following statement(s) is/are true of generalized and specialized
infect cells but DNA synthesis inhibitors block infection by virus E. transduction?
Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from both the experiments?
Generalized Transduction Specialized Transduction
A The genome of virus E is single-stranded RNA and that of virus Z is double- I Transfers any bacterial DNA. Transfers only certain bacterial genes.
stranded DNA. II Viral DNA is not replicated In the Viral DNA is replicated in the host cell
B The genome of virus E is double-stranded DNA and that of virus Z is single- host cell before being packed into a and packed into a capsid.
stranded RNA. capsid.
C The genome of virus E is double-stranded RNA and that of virus z_ is single- Ill Viral DNA is not integrated into the Viral DNA is integrated as a provirus
stranded DNA. bacterial chromosome. into the bacterial chromosome.
D The genome of virus E is double-stranded DNA and that of virus Z is double- IV Homologous recombination occurs Homologous recombination does not
stranded RNA. in the recipient cell. occur in the recipient cell.

A I only
8 In a bacterial cell, a mutation in an amino-acyl tRNA synthetase leads to the
attachment of alanine to the entire tRNAs.r population (alanyl-tRNA 5 "'). B I and Ill only
C II and IV only
Which of the following describes the result of using these aminoacyl-tRNAs for protein
synthesis in the cell? 0
.
All of the above

A The alanyl-tRNA ser will not function in protein synthesis.


B Proteins synthesised using the alanyl-tRNA 5 "' will contain serine and alanine in
equa l amounts.
C Proteins synthesised using the alanyl-tRNAs.r will contain on ly serine where
alan ine would normally occur.
D Proteins synthesised using the alanyi-tRNAs.r will contain only alanine where
serine would normally occur.

~ HWA CHO NG INSTITUTION /2010 J C2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRE LIMINARY EXAMINATIO NS ., !?i


~ HWA CHONG INSTITUT!ON I 20i 0 J C2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS

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11 The figu re shows the reproduction of a bacteria l ceil. 12 The figure shows three specialised regions, P, Q and R, present on a chromosome.

Which of the following incorreclly describes common features of the DNA at regions P,
Q and R?

I These reg ions are made up of tandem repeats .


lh DNA at these regions are associated with proteins.
Ill DNA at these reg ions are not expressed .
IV The length of DNA at these regions is highly conserved .

A I and II only
Which of the following can be concluded from the figure? B Ill and IV only
c I, II and IV only
A Some DNA are able to control their own replication.
D I, Ill and IV only
B This type of. reproduction results in the forma tion of genetically identical
offspring .
C Some DNA can be excised to form smaller DNA molecules .
D This type of reproduction divides the cell into two daughter cells by forming a cell
plate.

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13 The globin gene family in humans consists of the a, {3 and y genes. These genes code 14 During egg production in Drosophila , there is an increased production of eggshell
for the globin chains that make up haemoglobin and are expressed at different levels proteins. The genes which code for the eggshell proteins are clustered on the X
during different developmental stages. chromosome.

The graph shows the expression of the various globin chains during the prenatal (fetal} Key:
and postnatal (after birth} periods. --- Amount of DNA
20 40
-Amount of protein
Birth
Amount of 15 30
100
f a fJ
DNA(!lg)
10

__ ....
Amount of
20 protein (!19)

5 10
"'c
'(ij
.r.
(.)
c 10 15 20
:g 50 Time (hours)
0
0 Which of the following best explains the trends observed in the graph?
'#.
A Gene amplification has occurred, increasing the rate of transcription . Cytoplasmic
poly( A) tail addition has occurred, Increasing the duration of translation.
B DNA replication has occurred via the breakage-fusion-bridge cycle , increasing the
0 ' rate of and duration of translation.
0 2 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Prenatal Postnatal C Gene amplification has occurred, increasing the rate of mutation . Cytoplasmic
poly( A) tail addition has occurred, Increasing the duration of translation.
Age (months)
D DNA replication has occurred. The abundance and activity of eukaryotic translation
initiation factors are increased simultaneously, thereby increasing the rate of
Which of the following cannot account for the differences in the levels of expression of translation.
globin chains?

A Methyl groups are added to regulatory sequences of y-globin genes during the
postnatal period, allowing for some proteins to bind.
'- B Alternative splicing occurs in the mature mRNA of the a-globin and {3-globin genes,
resulting in differences in the rate of expression of globin chains during the
prenatal period.
C A growth factor triggers the expression of a transcription factor that increases the
rate of ,8-globin gene expression during the postnatal period .
D The shortening of poly(A) tail in the mRNA of y -globin genes reduces its stability,
resulting in a decrease in the rate of expression of y-globin chains during the
postnatal period .

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION 12010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAM INATiONS i1


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~.,.. HWA CHONG INSTITUTION 1201!1 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRE LIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 12
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15 Mortality due to lung cancer was foll owed in groups oi males In the United Kin gdnrn fo 16 The fi gure shows the re sults of the growth of both normal and cancer cells in a culture
50 years. The cumulative risk of dying from lung -::ancer 'l " function of ace 2'10 media in a laboratory over a period of four days.
smoking habits for four groups of males is sh own ir; 1 e frgure .

l never Cancer cells


Cancer cells
serum growth factors
~
c 15 stopped + serum growth factors
Q}
.a+' ~
.0
E Normal cells
"'
:; :::J
c: serum growth
E factors
:J Qi
u 10 (.)

.1f Normal cells


iii +serum growth faclors
t: stopped
0
E 5 age so
e
c:
ts
g' 2 3 4
.2 0 Time in culture
(days)
45 55 65 75 85
age (years) Whiqh of the following cannot be concluded from the figure?

Which of the following best explains the trends observed in the graph? A Cancer cells can proliferate in the absence of serum because their cell cycle
does not depend on the interaction between growth factors and their receptors,
I The slower the rate of accumulation of mutations, the lower the cumulative risk . which are located on the cell surface.

II When an individual stops smoking, he will undergo a decreased rate of B Normal cells growing in the culture exhibit a limited capacity for cell division and
mutation accumulation. their growth levels off when the growth factors become depleted.
C Cancer cells are able to continue dividing indefinitely due to the presence of
Ill The presence of cigarette smoke will cause the accumulation of mutations to
occur at an increased rate . telomerase, which adds telomere repeats at the 5' end of the chromosome.
D Cancer cells continue to grow regard less of the presence or absence of serum
IV There is little risk of a non-smoker dying of lung cancer.
growth factors whereas normal cells are dependent on growth factors for growth.

A I and IV only
B II and Ill only 17 In insects, sex is determined by a ZW chromosome system . Males are ZZ and females
are Z)N, A lethal .recessive allele is sometimes present on the Z chromosome in moths.
C Ill and IV only
D All of the above What would be !he sex ratio in the offspring of a cross belween a male heterozygote
and a normal female?

A 1 male :, 1 female
B 2 male :11 female
c 1 male : 2 female
D 3 male : 1 female

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18 The pedigre e of a family with hypophosphataemia is shown in the figure. 20 In sweet-pea plants, flowers may be either purple or white . Colour is determ ined by a
pair of genes with two allelic forms each (C , c and P, p). If at least one dominant allele
for each gene is present, the flower colour is purple. All other genotypes give rise to
wh ite flowers. If a plant with purple flowers and a genotype of CcPp had two pure-
Normal female breed ing parents with white flowers, the genotypes of those parents must have been
Generation 1: Normal male
A CCPP and ccpp .
Affected B CCpp and CCpp.
Generation II: A ffected male c ccPP and CCpp.
D Ccpp and ccPp .

Generation Ill: 21 The photomicrographs show two types of chloroplasts found in ma ize pla nts.

Which of the following can be concluded from the pedigree? {'


1., ; \
. . I
~
Mode of Inheritance Genotype of Individual 1-1 or 1-2
A Autosomal dominant lndivid uall-1 is a homozygote >: !!,~"

B Autosomal recessive Individual 1-2 is a homozygote


c Sex-linked dominant lndividuall-2 is a homozygote
D Sex-linked recessive lndividual l-1 is a homozygote
- - - -

19 The pedigree shows the inheritance of a conditi on known as galactosemia.

Norm al female

.,Norm al male

Affeded female

Affededmale
Chloroplast P Chloroplast Q

Which of the following can be concluded from these photomicrographs of the maize
chloroplasts?

I There is intense photosynthetic activity In chloroplast P as compared to


chloroplasf a.
12 13 14 15 16
II GP, the final product of photosynthesis in chloroplast P, is transported to
chloroplast Q where it is eventually converted to starch for storage.
What is the probability that the first child of individuals 15 and 16 wi ll be a normal boy? Ill Chloroplast P is found in reg ions of the maize plant which are exposed to more
direct sunlight as compared to chloroplast Q .
A 5 B 7 c 5 D 7
- - -
A II only
8 8 16 16
B I and I! only
c I and Ill on ly
D All of the above

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l!l HWA CHONG INSTITUTION / 2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 15
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'":"' HWA CHONG iNSTiTUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 16
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22 The figure illustrates the process of chemiosmosis in a recently discove rArJ 23 Rote ne and oligomycin are two metabolic poisons which affect c ellular respiration. The
photosynthetic bacterium in the Dead Sea. effects of rote ne and oligomycin on aerobic respiration are sum marised in theta 1-;:.

Ability to use glucose Ability to use oxygen ATP yi


I
Rotene Yes No
- - I Dec;ea ses
Oligomycin Yes Yes I Decrea ses _I
Which of the following correctly identifies the specific functions of these two metC~bo lic
poisons?

Rotene Oligomycin
A Electron transport inhibitor Inhibits A TP synthase
B Inhibits ATP synthase Electron transport inhibitor
H+
w c Dissipate proton gradient Inhibits ATP synthase

w w D Inhibits ATP synthase Dissipate proton gradient

H
H+
24 In an experiment, metabolically active cells were added to a container of nutrient
solution . The container was then sealed. The graph shows the levels of glucose,
caroon dioxide and oxygen over two continuous time intervals, X and Y.
Which of the following statements are correct about this photosynthetic bacterium?
Interval X Interval Y
I Bacteriorhodopsin acts as a light harvesting complex to harness the energy
from the sun.
II A TP formed in the cytoplasm will be used by the bacterium for cellular
activities. Concentration
(moldm") Glucose
Ill Protons diffuse down their concentration gradient from the cytoplasm to the cell
wall for the eventual production of ATP.
. . / . - - - - - - - - Carbon dioxide
IV The ATP synthase complex functions to couple the passage of protons down
their electrochemical gradient to the phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP.

A I and II only ~---------~~i _________________o~xygen


B Ill and IV only Time
(minutes)
C I, II and IV only
D All of the above Which of the following can be concluded from the graph?

A The experiment is carried out on animal cells . Aerobic respiration occurs during
intervallx while fermentation occurs during Interval Y.
B The experiment is carried out on yeast cells. Fermentation occurs during Interval
X while aerobic respiration occurs during interval Y.
C The experiment is carried out on yeast cells . Aerobic respiration occurs during
interval X while fermentation occurs during interval Y.
D The experiment is carried out on animal cells. Fermentation occurs during
interval X while aerobic respiration occu(s during interval Y .

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION 12010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 17


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25 SucCinic acid mono ethyl ester (EMS) is a drug which is used for the treatment of Type 27 Photomicrographs I, II and Ill show different regions of a motor neuron.
II diabetes. In a study, EMS was administered for 30 days to diabetic rats. The effect of
EMS on blood glucose concentration and insulin were studied. The results are shown
in the graph.
ffi!firiMJ Glucose --. ... Insulin
300 14

250 12

10
200
8
Glucose level Insulin level
150
(arbitrary un~s) (arbitrary units)
6

100 II Ill
4

Arrange the photomicrographs I, II and Ill in the order in which electrical signals are
50
2 transmitted through a motor neuron.

0 0 A 111~1~11
Cont rol EMS EMS EMS B 1~111~11
(2 pmoVg) (4 umol/g ) (8 ~mol/g)
c 11~1~111

Which of the following explains why diabetics are encouraged to use EMS to treat the ir D 111 ~ 11~1
condition?

A The administration of EMS significantly reversed the high glucose levels in diabetic 28 There is a mutation in Drosophila melanogaster called dunce. Drosophila that are
rats and is not dependent on the dosage of EMS. homozygous for dunce have a reduced amount of an enzyme called cyclic AMP
phosphodiesterase.
B In diabetic rats t reated with EMS , the level of plasma glucose was significantly
increased whereas the level of plasma insulin was significa ntly decreaseCl .,
Cells from dunce flies were treated for a short time with epinephrine, after which the
C EMS at a dose of 8 flmol/g showed a highly insignificant effect compared to 2 and epinephrine was removed. The rates of glycogen synthesis and glycogen breakdown
4flmol/g. were measured at timed intervals after the epinephrine treatment.
D The administration of EMS to decrease the blood glucose concentration is an Which of the following correctly reflects the rate of glycogen synthesis and glycogen
essential trigger for the body to revert to its normal homeostasis . breakdown in the dunce flies?

Rate of glycogen synthesis Rate of glycogen breakdown


26 A giant squid axon is placed in a solution identical to the in vivo environment. Its initial
resting membrane potential (RMP.) is -70mV. If an excess of potassium ions is added A Increased Decreased
to the surrounding medium and the system is allowed to equilibrate, the RMP will B Decreased Increased

A become more negative . c Decreased No change

B become less negative. D No change Increased


- - - - - - ~-~

C not change .
D be impossible to predict.

lll . SH.HWA CHONG INSTIT UTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I P RELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS
..,.. HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIO NS
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9 "'!"" 20
29 The figure outlines the events that occur upon ligand bindin g. 31 The four graphs represe nt simulations of genetic drift occurring in fruit fly populations of
two different sizes , 40 and 400.
cell cell
membrane membrane
nucleus Population &iZfl 40. Popu~lion slze a 40
second new 1.0 0.5
messengers proteins Golgl

,...r
apparatus
< 0.8 f.,.0.4
0 .

-+~
b.<J b.e::.i>
"Ls. ~ a.3
signaling - + ,...r,...r $&Cretlon
molecule >- trcm cell
C> b.<\ b. <.\
'\] b.
('./
i 0.4 ~
& a.2
~
! 0.2 < 0.1
a.o a.o
a '2a 4a 60 80 100 a 2a 40 60 60 100
Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 5 Generation Genntatfon
Population site 111 400 Popl.flauon size.=- 409
1.0 0.5
Which of the following correctly identifies the stages of cell signaling?
-i" 0.8 ~~
o
0.4

~
Signal Reception Signal Transduction Cellular Response ~ 0.6 [ 0.3
~
A Stage 1 Stage 3 Stage 5 [ 0.4 . . i 02.
...~ ~2L'
B Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 4
~ 0.1
c Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 5
0.0 .. a.o
0 2a 40' 60 80 ' 100 0 20 40 so 80 100
D Stage 2 Stage 4 Stage 5
Generation Generation

30 The graph shows the results of a breeding experiment with the vinegar fly. In each of Which of the followin g about genetic drift can be deduced from the graphs?
the first 25 generations the smallest flies were selected to produce the next generation.
After 25 generations the selection was reversed. From generations 25 to 35, the A It leads to non-random fixation of alleles in the population.
largest flies were chosen to breed the next generation.
B There is loss of heterozygosity in the population regardless of population size.
C It is a more powerful force of evolution in small populations.
D Given sufficient time , genetic drift can produce drastic changes in allele
selection tor small selection for large frequencies in large populations.
body size txxty size
average body size
(artlitrary units)
32 The wounds of , patients who have undergone surgery are susceptible to bacterial
infections by EIJterococcus faecium and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
(MRSA). Methicillin and other antibiotics are often used to treat infections of surgical
wounds, but do not always cure them.
5 10 15 20 25 35
m.mber of generations
Which of the .follo wi ng statements about the development of resistance to antibiotics in
bacteria sue~ as Enterococcus faecium and MRSA is correct?

With respect to the genes controlling body size, the results of the experiment suggest
A Individual bacteria that are not affected by antibiotics evolve resistance .
that
B Bacteria that are exposed to methicillin will become resistant to all antibiotics to
A after 25 generations, there was no genetic variation . which they are exposed.

B for the first 25 generations. there was no genetic variation. C A number of individuals in a population of bacteria may be resistant to methicillin.

C selection between generations 25 and 35 had a significant effect on average body D A person who is resistant to methicillin Will pass on the methicillin-resistant gene to
size. the bacteria.

0 if selection for small body size continued after generation 25, average body size
would continue to fall.

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~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION 12010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS
' 21 ~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTIO N I 2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAM INAliONS 22

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33 Cabbage, Brassica o/eracea, and radish, Raphanus sativus, are both members of the
Brassicaceae family . The cells of each type of plant have 18 chromosomes . When 35 The figure shows the plasmid map of pUC19, which includes the positions of the origin
these plants are crossed, a sterile hybrid is produced. Two cells from a sterile hybrid of replication (ORI), multiple cloning sites (MCS) and two genes - ampR and /acZ.
plant are fused and the single cell that is formed is cultured. The flowchart shows the pUC19 is used for the production of human anti-thrombin Ill (hATIII) in the bacterium E.
steps involved. coli.
Htncll
cabbage X radish
=
2n 18 2n=18 ~ ..J!E!_ ~ ""''
.J!L . ~ .

l QMTTCGAGCTCGGTACCCGGGGATCCTCTAGAGTCGACCTGCAGGCATGCMGCTT'
-:s;cl SiNI ~ HlndiU -p;;-
sterile hyllrid plant ----
-~
-- XnMf
,__...,_._......-
~~
__. - -

l
two celts from sterile hybrid are fused

l
single cell is cultured

l
cell grows Into fertile plant
The restriction sites of three particular restriction enzymes, EcoRI, Pstl and Smal are
shown below.
Which of the following can be concluded from the flowchart?
I
A Cabbage and radish have identical chromosomes as they both belong to the EcoRisfl~
Brassicaceae family. ., ' l(..,<:{.Y,t ' ~ S'

8 Gametes from the fertile plant will be identical to those of the cabbage or the
radish.
c The fused cell has 18 pairs of homologous chromosomes and the sterile hybrid s l.t&E!JS!!IIiiii'll!
Put
has nine pairs of homologous chromosomes. .
-~
~,.
D The eventual fertile plant is considered an allopolyploid.
'
~ ~
34 Growth hormone deficient children can be treated with human growth hormone (hGH) Smal
that is manufactured by recombinant DNA technology. Certain steps are taken to itiiiM. . . . .S'
ensure that the eukaryotic gene can be expressed in the bacterial cell and undergoes
secretion into the surround ing medium. Which of the following can be concluded from the figures?

Which of the following steps needs to be done to ensure that hGH is secreted into the I Any restriction enzyme whose restriction site is found within the MCS can be
surrounding medium? used to cleave pUC19.
II pUC19 cleaved with EcoRI can anneal to hATIII eDNA cleaved with Pstl as
A Insertion of the viral promoter both restriction enzymes generate single-stranded overhangs of the same
8 Insertion of the bacterial lac promoter length.

C Insertion of the prokaryotic signal sequence Ill The use of Smal will require an additional step of ligating adaptors to the ends
of pUC19 and hAT Ill eDNA.
D Insertion of the prokaryotic trailer sequence
IV Colonies of E. coli transfomned with recombinant pUC19 will survive on agar
plates containing ampicillin and X-gal , giving a blue appearance.

A I and Ill only


B I and IV only
c II ano lli only
D All of !he above

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION 12010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIM INARY EXAM INATIONS 23 ~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION / 2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 24
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36 Adult polycystic kidney disease {APKD) is inherited in an autosomal dominant J'"'a'1ne,., 38 Childre n with severe combi ned immunodeficiency disorder (SCID) cannot produce the
In an investigation to determine the chromosomal locus of APKD, linkage ana !ys;s of many types of white blood cells that fight infections. This is because they do not have
the APKD gene was carried out on members of one family. Three separate VN T~. o:i, the functional gene to make the enzyme ADA. Some children with SCID have been
P, Q and R, located on separate chromosomes , were used. The results of the iinKage treated with stem cells . The treatment used with the children is described in the
analysis are shown in the figure. flowchart.

Normal female
Stem cells isolated
Norm al male from the child's bone
marrow
Affected

Affected male
11-1 11-2 11-3 11-4 11-5 11-6 11-7

Alleles present at various individuals' VNTR loci

1-1 1-2 11-1 11-2 11-3 11-4 11-5 11-6 11-7

VNTR locus P 2,6 1 '6 1'2 2,6 1'6 6,6 1 '2 6,6 1 '6

VNTR locus Q 1 '5 2,7 7,5 2,5 7 '1 2' 1 7 ,5 2' 1 7' 1

VNTR locus R 4,8 5,8 5,8 8,8 5 ,4 8,4 5 ,8 8,4 5,4


Genetically engineered stem
cells injected back into the
child
Which of the following can be concluded from the figure?
Which of the following explains why stem cells can be used in the treatment of SCID?
A Individual 1-1 is unaffected as he does not possess two copies of allele 5 for
VNTR locus Q .
I They can divide mitotically to replace existing cells.
B Individual 11-2 is affected as he inherited two copies of allele 8 for VNTR locus R.
II Due to their pluripotent nature, they have the ability to form only certain types
C lndividualll-5 Is unaffected as she did not Inherit allele 2 for VNTR locus Q. of white blood cells that restores the ability to fight infection.
D Individual 11-6 is affected as he inherited two copies of allele 6 for VNTR locus P. Ill As the stem cells are from the child's own cells, there Is no/little risk of
rejection.
IV The viral vector used to carry the functional ADA gene is capable of insertional
37 Which of the following poses the greatest limitation of the Human Genome Project in
mutagene!iis especially if it is an adenovirus.
disease analysis?

A It is not possible to store the genomic information of all individuals. A I and II orily

B There is too large a genetic difference between individuals to determine the loci B I and Ill only
of genes of interest. c II and IV only
I
C Too few model organisms exist for comparative genomic studies to take place. D Ill and IV only
D Environmental factors and gene interactions in disease are not taken into
account.

~
-.:- HWA CHONG INSTITUTION 12010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS
. 25
.m.
-.:- HWA CHONG INSTITUTION 12010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 26

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Fully
condense
d
chromoso t..g Which of the following is an accurate comparison between the use of viral and non-viral
mes: 1->
vectors in gene therapy?

Viral vector Non-viral vector

A Route of gene delivery is ex vivo and in Route of gene delivery is in vivo only.
vivo.
8 Host immunological response can be There is no host immunological
extensive. response.
c Duration of gene expression in vivo is Duration of gene expression is not
short-lived. short-lived. i
D Safety concerns include possibility of Safety concerns include host
insertional mutagenesis into host inflammatory response.
genome. - - -

40 The carp is a freshwater fish. It was introduced to Australia, wh;ere it became a pest.
Scientists are trying to control the carp by using gene technology. They have inserted a
gene into carp embryos that prevents the production of an enzyme , aromatase. The
inserted gene causes female embryos to develop as males.

Release of genetically modified carp with the inserted gene could reduce the
population of carp.

Which of the following is true?

A All released male carps can mate with normal females and passed on the
inserted gene.
8 Only male offspring can be produced when the released male carps mated with
normal females.
C There will be a reduction of females in the population over time.
'"D All of the above.

End of Paper---

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 27


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Index Number:

Candidate Name: CT Group: 0957_


-----------------------------

HWA CHONG


.
INSTITUTION
.....,......., ... ,.

war-
.
..

JC2 PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS


H2 BIOLOGY 9648
PAPER 2
14 September 2010 2 hrs

. INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES"/
Do not open the question booklets until you are told to do so.
There are 4 question booklets (I to IV) to this paper. Write your name, CT group and index
number on the cover pages of the booklets in the spaces provided. Write in blue or black pen.

SECTION A
This section contains SEVEN questions. Answer ALL questions.
Write your answers in the spaces provided on the question paper.

SECTION B
1\H~wer ONE question. Your answers must be in continuous prose, where appropriate.
Wri~(i! your answers on the writing paper provided.
BEGIN EACH PART ON A FRESH SHEET OF WRITING PAPER. A NIL RETURN is required.

At the end of the examination, FOR EXAMINER'S USE


11. circle the number of the Section B question you have
1 /10
answered in the opposite grid.
2. submit All question booklets and answer sheets to 2 /10
Secti on B separately. 3 /12
4 /12
INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES 5 /11
The intended number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at 6 /12
the end of each question I question part.
7 /13
8 or9 /20

Total /100

This paper consists of .1 booklets and a total of 24 printed pages, including this cover page.

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BOOKLET I
SECTION A: STRUCTURED QUESTIONS
QUESTION 1
Stachyose is a storage oligosaccharide found in beans, peas and other legumes. Stachyose
can only be metabolized by anaerobic microorganisms in the large intestine. It is responsible for
the production of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and other gases which collectively make up
what is known as flatulence. The structure of stachyose is shown in Fig. 1.1.

CH20H ~CH2 ~C H2

"~"" l "ff~ l
'Y-J ~ OH OH
fo"
.
!;~
HJ'L.(L~H20H
OH OH
galactose galactose glucose fructose

Fig.1.1
(a) Define the term glycosidic bond. [1]

(b) Several commercial products are available to assist in the digestion of oligosaccharides
like stachyose. Suggest how such products prevent the production of flatulence . [1]

(c) When small amounts of paper containing cellulose are ingested by children, there is
usually no gas production. Suggest one reason and a possible consequence of such an
event. [2]

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 2

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An enzyme known as a-galactosidase cleaves a(1 ,6) glycosidic bonds to sequentially release
terminal galactose residues. The breakdown of stachyose by a-galactosidase is a two-step
process. In the first step of this process, stachyose is hydrolysed to galactose and raffinose.

(d) With reference to Fig. 1.1, draw the products of the first step in this hydrolysis. [2]

Fig. 1.2 illustrates the activity of a-galactosidase on the substrate stachyose-over a period of
time.
/

1.8

1.6 stachyose
1.4
~ 1.2
.s
0::I 1.0
"'0
0
n.. 0.8
L..
galactose
L..
0
c 0.6
C1l
0C1l 0.4 raffinose
Q)
n:::
0.2
0.0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26
Time (hr)

Fig. 1.2

(e) With reference to Fig. 1.2, explain why the level of raffinose remains relatively constant.
[2]

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 3

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(f) Suggest why the rate al/ which stachyose is broken down decreases as the
concentration of galactose increases. [2]

[Total: 10 ma~ks]

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 4

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QUESTION 2 /

Fig. 2.1 shows a few stages (A- F) of meiosis in the lily, Lilium longiflorum.

'
.

A 8 c

D E F
Fig. 2.1
(a) With reference to Fig. 2.1,
(i) arrange these stages in the correct sequence. [1]

(ii) describe the main events that will occur to complete meiosis after stage A. [2]

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 5

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Scientists suspected that colchicine, a drug that binds to tubulin, may arrest cells in meiosis. To
test this hypothesis, cells of the lily were treated with colchicine. The diameter and length of
microtubules formed were analysed. The results of the experiment are shown in Fig. 2.2.

3.2

2.8

2.4

2.0
Length of
0.40 1.6 microtubules
Length
{IJm)
Diameter of 0.30 1.2
microtubules Diameter
(I.Jm) 0.20 . Q8
Recovery
0.10 0.4
Colchicine (no colchicine)

0.00 0.0
0 10 20 30 40
Time
(hours)

Fig. 2.2

(b) With reference to Fig. 2.2 , describe and explain how colchicine is able to inh ibit
meiosis . [3}

* HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 6

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A scientist has succeeded in growing a new.hybrid variety of lily plant. However, this plant was
found to be sterile. In order to investigate the cause of the sterility, pollen cells of the sterile
plant were compared to the pollen cells of a normal lily plant. Both samples of pollen cells were
labelled with a fluorescent DNA binding dye and the level of florescence was detected. The
results obtained from the normal lily plant and the new variety are shown in Fig. 2.3a and Fig.
2.3b respectively.

Number Number
of pollen of pollen
cells cells

1x 2x 3x / 4x 1x 2x 3x 4x
;

Amount of DNA {fluorescence) Amount of DNA {fluorescence)


Fig. 2.3a . Fig. 2.3b

(c) (i) Account for the presence of three peaks of fluorescence in the sample seen in Fig. 2.3a.
[2]

(ii) Suggest why the fluorescence shown in Fig. 2.3b is different from that of Fig. 2.3a. [2]

[Total: 10 marks]

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 7

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Candidate N a m e : - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Index Number:

CT Group: 09S7_
I
BOOKLET II
SECTION A: STRUCTURED QUESTIONS {continued)

QUESTION 3
An experiment was conducted to determine the sequence of different RNA polymerase-binding
DNA fragments in E. coli. The RNA polymerase binding fragments were isolated using the
procedure shown in Fig. 3.1. The segment of DNA bound by RNA polymerase is protected from
DNase I digestion, and is hence known as the protected DNA fragment.

y
/

Bind th~ 'protein w ith a


DNA fragment
containinga binding' site
for the protein .

Treat with P.~ I

l
lso l~te the protected
DNA fragment

Sequence the protected DNA fragment

Fig. 3.1

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 8

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The non-template strand sequenc~s of the protected DNA fragments, corresponding to the
promoter sequences of the following operons, are shown in Fig. 3.2. The initiation sites (+1) of
the various operons are highlighted in black

Operon Initiation
site (+1 )

TGTG.AATTGTGAGCGG

TCTCCAT~CCCGTTTTT
rrnE1 CGCCTCC.TCGACACGG

rrnA1 CA CAC.CCGCGCCGCTG

Consensus sequence: TAT AA T

Fig. 3.2

(a) With reference to Fig. 3.2,


{i) name and describe the region in Box X. [2]

(in) identify which of the promoters listed would give rise to the lowest rate of transcription.
Give a reason for your choice. [2]

(b) When the protected DNA fragments were subsequently mixed with RNA polymerase, no
binding occurred. Suggest a reason for this observation. [1]

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 9

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(c) Describe what is meant by ti)e positive regulation of the lac operon. [2]

Fig . 3.3 shows the percentage of regulatory sites spanning the indicated base position~ in
different operons in E. coli.

80
Activator
binding sites Repressor
60 binding sites

% of regulatory sites
at indicated positions
40
in different operons

-80 .pj) .2o


Base position
Fig. 3.3
(d) With reference to Fig. 3.3,

(u) indicate using~ on the x-axis of the graph the base position of the promoter. [1]

(ii) outline the role of the repressor binding site in an operon . [1]

(iii) state and explain whether the structure of the lac operon conforms to the data shown. [3]

[Total: 12 marks]

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 10

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QUESTION 4
Ras proteins are coded for by Ras proto-oncogenes and function as molecular switches that
control many intracellular signaling pathways. They are set to the 'on' state through interaction
with a molecule of GTP. Fig. 4.1 shows the interaction between a Ras protein and a molecule of
GTP. The two most frequently altered amino acid residues found in rat bladder tumours, glycine
12 (Giy 12) and glutamine 61 (Gin 61), are closely associated with the GTP.

Fig. 4.1

(a/ With reference to Fig. 4.1,


(i) describe the structure of a Ras protein. [1]

(ii) explain how the structure of the Ras protein is maintained. [2]

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 11

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Ras DNA and amino acid sequences from ten closely related species of rats were analysed. It
was found that a three amino acid sequence is highly conserved near the regions where Gly 12
and Gin 61 are located respectively. Fig. 4.2 summarizes the DNA and amino acid sequences
of these highly conserved regions.

Codon 11 12 13 60 61 62
DNA
CCT GGC GCA GTC CAG TTG
Consensus
%Matching
100/100/97 100/100/99 99/99/37 99/98/91 100/100/98 100/100/100
Consensus
Amino Acid
Pro Gly Ala Val Gin Trp
Consensus
%Matching
99 100 97 97 100 98
Consensus -
.
Ftg. 4.2
/
i
(b) State a reason why the third base position of many codons is less conserved than the
first and second position. [1]

A guanine to thymine change in the second base position of codon 12 leads to a change in the
amino acid coded for from glycine to valine, resulting in its conversion from a proto-oncogene to
an oncogene.

{c) Explain how the amino acid change may alter the normal function of the Ras protein. [2]

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 12

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In a sample of rat bladder tumours, more than a thousand different mutations in the p53 tumour
suppressor gene were found. A mutation frequency map of the mutated p53 tumour suppressor
gene is shown in Fig. 4.3. The mutation frequency map comprises the following: --
., the incidence of tumour-derived mutation at each amino acid residue is indicated by the
height of the bars,
the amino acid sequence is indicated in a single-letter nomenclature,
the underlined residues are those most highly conserved in the protein in normal rats, and
the rectangles and arrows represent a-helices and [3-pleated sheets respectively.

IR175

I
-

l
0

I
- h - I I .._ L I L IL
KTYQGSYGF RLGFLHSGTAKSYTCTYSPALNKMFCQlo_AKTCPVQLVNDSTPPPGTRVRAMAIYKQSQHMTEVYRRCPHHERCSDSDGLAPPQHLIRVEGN
J I , I
--.J.U .. - -. -
- - 1 f I
100 no 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200
~~~~~~..::::---._____-~

/
R248
R273

G245 R249

I
I - .I.a.
I
I- -.I
I
&..I l I
.&...... .... ..
LRVEYLODRNTF RHSVVVPYEPPEVGSDCTIIHYNYMCNSSCMGGMNRRPIL T IITLEDSSGNLLGRNSFEVRVCACPGRDRRTEEENLRKKGEPHHELP
t I t J
-
J
-
I
201 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300
~~~~~

Fig. 4.3
(d) With reference to Fig. 4.3,
(i) deduce the relationship between the locations of the mutations and their frequency of
occurrenc~ in the p53 tumour suppressor gene. [2]

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 13

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. .
(ii) explain how these mutations in the p53 gene can contribute to the formation of rat
bladder tumours. [2]

The formation of tumours is the result of a multi-step process.


(e) In addition to mutations in both proto-oncogene and tumour suppressor genes, describe
a process which can contribute to the multi-step model of cancer formation. [2]

[Total: 12 marks]

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 14

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Index Number:

Candidate N a m e : - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - CT Gro~p: 0957_

BOOKLET Ill
SECTION A: STRUCTURED QUESTIONS (continued)

QUESTION 5
Chickpeas may contain a lipase inhibitor that prevents the digestion of fats. The presence of this
lipase inhibitor is controlled by a gene with alleles L w. Lx and Lv, each of which codes for a
different type of lipase inhibitor. Hence, a plant with the genotype Lwlx will produce two types of
lipase inhibitor, inhibitor W and inhibitor X. A fourth recessive allele, L0 , does not code for a
lipase inhibitor.

(a) Identify whether the inheritance of lipase inhibitor shows continuous or discontinuous
variation. Give a reason for yo,ur choice. [2]

A second character, seed texture, is controlled by another gene located on a different


chromosome and is controlled by two alleles. Smooth seed-coat, T, is dominant over wrinkled
'>C:f-!d- coat, t

Two chickpea plants were crossed. Their seeds were collected and counted. One of the
parental chickpea plants is found to contain only inhibitor X and has smooth seed-coats. The
progeny of the cross is summarized in Fig. 5.1.

lnhibitor(s) present in seed Number of seeds Seeds with smooth


seed-coat I %
Wand X 47 50
w 49 50
X 96 50
F1g. 5.1

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 15

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(b) With reference to Fig. 5.1, /
(i) explain the mode of inheritance observed in chickpeas. [3]

(ii) state the genotypes of the parents in the cross. [1]


Genotype of parent 1: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Genotype of parent 2: _ _ _ _ _ __

(c) Using suitable symbols, draw a genetic diagram to explain th.~results of this cross. [5]

[Total: 11 marks)

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 16

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QU ESTION 6
Blood glucose levels are regulated by the hormone glucagon. Glucagon. exerts its effects by
binding to a receptor molecule on the cell surface membrane and eventually stimulating the
production of glucose. A summary of these events is shown in Fig. 6.1 .

Glucagon

Adenylyl cyclase

Cell surface membrane

Receptor molecule

ATP Cyclic AMP

Inactive enzyme --------1~


Active enzyme

Glycogen Glucose

Fig. 6.1

ta) With reference to Fig. 6.1 ,


(i} outline the role of G proteins in cell signaling. [1]

{ii) describe one process in the pathway which allows downstream relay proteins to be
activated . [1]

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 17

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Glucose is broken down during glycolysis. Fig. 6.2 shows an outline of steps A and B that
occurs during glycolysis. Step A represents the first reaction of glycolysis where a phosphate
group from an ATP molecule is transferred to glucose.

fructose
ADP+ Pi bisphosphate

Step B
2xtriose
ATP
phosphate

ADP+PI

Step A
ATP

glucose 2 xpyruvate

Fig. 6.2
{b} With reference to Fig. 6.2,
(i) state the net gain of A TP molecules per molecule of glucose at the end of glycolysis. [1]

{ii) describe why the phosphorylation of glucose by ATP in step A allows the reactions of
glycolysis to continue. [2]

(c} Suggest a benefit of regulating the steps of glycolysis. [1]

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 18

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rhe energy levels of steps A and B,in the glycolytic pathway are shown in Fig. 6.3. These two
processes involve a large release of energy (represented by negative change in Gibbs free
energy or .6.G) and are irreversible.

Glucose
0

AG/KJmor'
-30 ATP

ADP
F-1,6-BP
50

Fig. 6.3

(d) With reference to Fig. 6.3, explain why the .6.G of steps A and B is negative and account
for its significance in glycolysis. (3]

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 19

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Fig. 6.4 shows the changes in blood glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations in a person
following consumption of glucose solution.

0 60 120 180 240


t
glucose solution
time/min

taken

Fig. 6.4

(e) With reference to Fig. 6.4, explain how insulin and glucagon levels are homeostatically
controlled over the first 180 minutes. [3]

[Total: 12 marks]

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 20

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Index Number:!L _ _ _ ____.
Candidate Name: _______________ CT Group: 0957_

BOOKLET IV
SECTION A: STRUCTURED QUESTIONS (continued)
QUESTION 7
(a} Describe the classification of species into taxonomic groups. [2]

Only four families of river dolphins have been found in rivers around the worla Fig~ 7.1 shows
the river systems that these four extant families inhabit.

River River dolphin family


Amazon, Brazil lniidae
Parana, ArQentina Pontoporiidae
Yangtze, China Lipotidae
Indus and GanQes, India Platanistidae
Fig. 7.1

The river dolphins exhibit morphologies that are highly modified from that of the marine
~iofpt"1ins, including long beaks, flexible necks, good echo-location and very poor eyesight. Fig.
7/2. shows the geographic distribution of river dolphins.

Fig. 7.2

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION I 2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 21

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(b) With reference to Fig. 7.1 and Fig. 7.2, explain the biological concept of species. [2]

The phylogenetic relationships of the river and marine dolphins were studied. Fig. 7.3 sh<)WS
three cladograms (I - Ill) that were generated based on morphology of fossils, morphology of
living animals and molecular sequences.

Ill Molecurai ~equences


:M~ticeti
Pl~~terii~ ......- - - - -... Pfi}r~t~{d~*
Zipbiidiie .Pbyseteiidae .
,....----zipbiidae
Sqttalod~llti~ ...,.____.. Pliitanj;~dilo
...Piatamsiid~t: r - - - - - Z ipbiidne-
Squalodelphi<ltte t:ipotldae
.....- -ErimtnMpllidae
-- Lipotida ..--+-Inii<tl)t
.---Delphiuoid.,e.
lnlidae. P~nlb.Ji)Ol'iidae

Pouwpoi'li~; Lipoiidae
.Monl>tl()ntit
Mmiodoi}tidae
a . - - + - Pftocoi:md.'le- Ifuidt\e
Ph~llnida~
Delphin.ldll~ ..:Oelplili:iidae

Fig. 7.3

{c) Circle in cladogram II of Fig. 7.3 the paraphyletic group of the four extant families of
river dolphins and indicate with an asterisk (*) their most recent common ancestor.
[1]
(d) With reference to Fig. 7.2 and Fig. 7.3,
(i) suggest why there are more families present in cladogram I, produced from the
morphology of fossils, than for the other cladograms. [1]

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 22

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{ii) explain how cladogram It can be used to determine the evolutionary relationship
between Platanistidae, Lipotidae, lniidae and Pontoporiidae. [3]

{iii) identify which other family of river dolphins is most closely related to Platanistidae based
only on data from cladogram Ill. [1]

Cladogram II indicates the four families are more closely related than cladogram Ill.
{e) With reference to Fig. 7.2 and Fig. 7.3, explain how these dolphins look so similar when
l

they are found in different rivers around the world . [3]

[Total: 13 marks]

--- End of Section A---

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 23

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SECTION 8: FREE RESPONSE QUESTIONS
Answer ONE of the following two free response questions.
Your answer must be in continuous prose, where appropriate. -
Your answer should be illustrated by large, clearly labelled diagrams, where appropriate.
BEGIN EACH PART ON A FRESH SHEET OFWRITING PAPER.
A NIL RETURN is required.

QUESTION 8
(a) Discuss whether viruses are living or non-living organisms and explain why viruses are
obligate parasites. [9]

{b) Describe the lytic cycle of a bacteriophage. [7]

{c) Some bacteriophages have both a lysogenic and a lytic cycle. Sugg-est reasons why it
may be advantageous for a b~_cteriophage to have a lysogenic cycle. [4]

QUESTION 9
(a) (i) Describe how genotype is linked to phenotype. [6]

(ii) Explain how genes are inherited from one generation to the next. [6]

(b) Explain , with two named examples, how the environment may affect the phenotype. [8]

--- End of Section B ---

--- End of Paper ---

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 24

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Index Number:!..._ _ _ ___.

Candidate Name : - - - - - - - - - - - - - - CT Group: 0957_

HWA CHONG INSTITUTION

JC2 PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS


H2 BIOLOGY 9648
PAPER 3
17 September 2010 2 hrs

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
Do not open the question booklets until you are told to do so.
There are three question booklets (I to Ill) to this paper. Write your name:-
CT group and
index number on the cover pages of the booklets in the spaces provided. Write in blue or
black pen. /

SECTION A
This section contains THREE questions. Answer ALL questions.
W rite your answers in the spaces provided on the question paper.

SECTION B
This section contains ONE question. Answer the question.
Your answer must be in continuous prose, where appropriate.
i!'i!rite y oiJir answers on the writing paper provided.
!\ ~, IL RETURN is required .

SECTION C
This section contains ONE question with three parts (a), (b) and (c). Answer ALL parts.
Your answer must be in continuous prose, where appropriate.
Write your answers on the writing paper provided.
BEGIN EACH PART ON A FRESH SHEET OF WRITING PAPER. A NIL RETURN is required.

At the end of the examination, submit ALL question booklets and answer sheets to Section B
and C separately.
FOR EXAMINER'S USE
INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES
1 /14
The intended number of marks is given in brackets [)
at the end of each question I question part. 2 /14
3 /12
4 /12
5 /20
Total /72

This paper consists of~ booklets and a total of 15 printed pages, including this cover page.

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BOOKLET I
SECTION 'A: STRUCTURED QUESTIONS
QUESTION 1
The soybean, Glycine max, is a crop plant that has been extensively genetically modified. A
new transgenic variety of Glycine max carries the ahas gene from another plant, Arabidopsis
thaliana. The ahas gene, coding for the enzyme acetohydroxyacid synthase, confers
resistance to the herbicide imazapyr.

Fig. 1.1 shows one method in which the ahas gene may be inserted into soybeans.

Donor plant
(A. thaliana)

Cwp plant
A. tumefaciens
(G. m ax)

~enzymes /

@
,)
isolated
@> ycr:;]
(L)
IT0

plant cells R
1~1
Fig. 1.1

(a) With reference to Fig. 1.1,


(i) describe the importance of steps P and Q to the procedure. [2]

P: ___________________________________________________________

Q:
---------------------------------------------------------------

HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS


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2
(ii) outline the steps involved for structure R to be grown into a transgenic plant. [2]

In order to generate the recombinant Ti plasmids used in Fig. 1.1, a gene cassette was
constructed from the genomic DNA of three different organisms. The gene cassette ~as

then inserted into the Ti plasmid , as shown in Fi g. 1.2.

T he gene cassette comprises the following three sequences:


cauliflower mosaic virus (CMV) promoter,
firefly luciferase gene, a reporter gene that catalyzes the oxidation of the substrate
..
luciferin. In the process, light is emitted, allowing the detection of geo_e expression of
the inserted transgene, and
/
ahas gene from A. tha/iana .

CMV promoter

Lucif erase gene

ahas gene

Fig.1 .2

(b) With reference to Fig. 1.2,


(i) describe how the gene cassette can be constructed. [2]

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 3


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(ii) explain why it is not necessary for eDNA to be used in the construction of the gene
cassette. / [2]

(iii) suggest an advantage of using luciferase as the reporter gene. [1]

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be carried out using DNA from the cells of the
soybean to ascertain if the recombinant Ti plasmid has been successfully inserted. The first
180 base pairs of the template strand of the A. thaliana ahas gene, whicli ts 2365 bases in
length, is shown in Fig. 1.3.

1 cttgtatcca ttctcttaac caataaaaaa agaaagaaag atcaatttga taaatttctc


61 agccacaaat tctacattta ggttttagca tatcgaaggc tcaatcacaa atacaataga
121 tagactagag attccagcgt cacgtgagtt ttatctataa ataaaggacc aaaaatcaaa

Fig.1.3

(c) With reference to Fig. 1.3,


{i) state the 15bp long sequence of the primer that amplifies only the coding region of
the ahas gene. [1]

(ii) suggest why this primer may not be a good primer for PCR. [1]

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 4


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Three separate PCR reactions were carried ciut on three transgenic soybean plants, TS1,
TS2 and TS3, that had undergone the process shown in Fig. 1.1. A different set of primers
designed to amplify the entire gene sequence was used. Gel electrophoresis of the PCR
products was subsequently carried out. The results are shown in Fig. 1.4.

TS1 TS2 TS3 DNA ladder

4.0kb
Key:
2.3kb TS1: Transgenic soybean 1
1.9kb
TS2: Transgenic soybean 2
0.6kb TS3: Transgenic soybean 3

Fig.1.4

(d) With reference to Fig. 1.4,


(i} identify which transgenic soybean has undergone successful transformation with the
full-size PCR product. [1]

(ii} give an explanation for your answer in (d}(i}. [2]

[Total: 14 marks]

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 5


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Index Number:
/

Candidate N a m e : - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - CT Group: 09S7_

BOOKLET II
SECTION A: STRUCTURED QUESTIONS (continued)

QUESTION 2
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common life-threatening disease in people of European
descent. It is a recessive genetic trait. Genetic screening is used to test for the presence of
recessive alleles which cause CF. Fig. 2.1 shows a risk analysis following the screening for
recessive alleles of a couple who are planning a pregnancy.

Screening of the cells from mouth swabs or blood samples from each partner

..;.z
Neither parent is
/

One partner is a
li
Both partners are
a carrier carrier carriers
' --

Low chance of
... 7
Low chance of
li
High chance of
cystic fibrosis in cystic fibrosis in cystic fibrosis in
offspring offspring offspring

Fig. 2.1

(a) With reference to Fig. 2.1,


(i) explain why the chance of having a child with CF is not zero , even if neither partner is
a carrier. [2]

(ii) describe why it is necessary to test for several different recessive alleles in the
screening for CF. [2]

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 6


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(iii} suggest why cells from mouth swabs or blood samples are used rather than
/
gametes. [1]

CF is caused by a non-functional chloride ion channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane


conductance regulator (CFTR). It spans the cell membrane as illustrated in Fig. 2.2.

Extracellular
fluid

NBD1

Key: R Domain
NBD1 -Nucleotide Binding Domain 1
R Domain - Regulatory Domain
...__ - --- -- - - - - - - - - - - - '
Fig. 2.2

A flow of chloride ions through CFTR channels is needed for the normal functioning of
epithelial cells. The CFTR channel opens when ATP binds to it and closes when the ATP is
hydrolysed. CF may result from a mutation that brings about a change of an amino acid
coded for in NBD1 of the CFTR protein, which is thought to bind to ATP.

(b) With reference to Fig. 2.2, explain what happens when this CFTR protein is mutated.
[2]

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 7


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The effect of different concentrations of A TP on the opening of two forms of mutated CFTR
proteins, A and B, and normal CFTR, is shown in Fig. 2.3.

Normal CFTR
!
-j l

Mutant protein A
75 . I

Percentage of chloride
I '
ion channels open Mutant protein B
50

25

0
102
Concentration of ATP I 1-Jmol dm-3
(log scale)

Fig. 2.3

(c) With reference to Fig. 2.3,


(i) compare the effect of increasing ATP concentration on the three different CFTR
channels. [3]

(ii) deduce if the information given supports the hypothesis that A and B are products of
mutations, each coding for a different amino acid in the region of the NBD1. [2]

..f- HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 8


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A. third form of mutated CFTR protein, C, possess a base substitution in the R domain in Fig.
2.2. Mutant protein C is not inserted into the cell membrane and hence is non-functional.
However, when mutant protein C is inserted into a cell membrane, it allows a chloride ion
flow almost equivalent to that of a normal CFTR.

(d) Suggest why this is so. [2]

[Total: 14 marks]

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 9


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Index Number:
/
/

Candidate Name: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . . , - - CT Group: 09S7_

BOOKLET Ill
SECTION A: STRUCTURED QUESTIONS (continued)

QUESTION 3
Stem borers are insects that cause damage to maize crops. In Kenya, a study was carried
out to investigate the efficiency of the Bt gene and its protein product against three species
of stem borer. The stem borers were allowed to feed on nine transgenic maize plants (A-1),
modified with the Bt gene. Fig. 3.1 shows the leaf areas damaged by the stem borers after
feeding on maize leaves for five days.

Non-transgenic maize

c
D
Transgenic
maize plants,
modified with E
Btgene
F

-I

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Leaf area damaged I mm:l

Key for species of stem borer:


Sesamia calamistis lll Eldana saccharina Busseo/a fusca

Fig. 3.1

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 10


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{a} With reference to Fig. 3.1,
(i) identify which species of stem borer was most successfully controlled by the genetic
engineering of the maize plants. [1]

(ii) give reasons for your choice in (a)(i). [2]

(iii) suggest why the species you have identified in (a)(i) is most affected by the Bt
protein. [1]

Before genetically modified maize can be used as a food source, risk assessment must be
carried out. Fig. 3.2 shows the results of a 90-day study that was performed in which adult
male and adult non-pregnant female rats were fed with either:
seeds from a Bt maize variety,
seeds from the original non-Bt maize variety, or
.. commercially prepared rat food.

Ali the diets had similar nutritional qualities.

Mean male body mass Mean female body mass


600 350
l ! l - i l i i i ! . -i !- l ! l i
i i ' i i i ;
f - - ---- --t--j-+ --!--~
500 300 , ! ! l f"t""f 'A
CJ ! !
-...
<f)
<f) <f)
<f) !I)
ca 400 E 250
=-~l=.:_~~~:!-~-- + . -+-+ t+-+--+--
E >-
>- ""0
""0
0
0
CD __:8fF~ ;-!--- +---+--+ +-+ - +--+--
CD 300 200

200 150
0 14 28 42 56 70 84 0 14 28 42 56 70 84
Test day Test day

Key: -o- Bt maize -tr Non-Bt maize -o- Rat food

Fig. 3.2

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION I 2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 11


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(b) W ith reference to Fig. 3.2,
{i) suggest why non-pregnant/female rats were used in the experiment. [1]

(ii) discuss the use of Bt maize as a food source on the growth of the rats. [2]

(iii) state a conclusion for the use of Bt maize as a food sou_r~e compared to the other
diets tested. [1]

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 12


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Studies have shown that Bt proteins are released by plant roots and remain in the soil. One
study investigated the biomass of microbes in the soil surrounding the roots of:
Bt maize,
non-Bt maize, and
non-Bt maize treated with an insecticide (1).

These microbes are decomposers and aid in recycling of nutrients in the soil ecosystem.
Fig. 3.3 shows the biomass of microbes at two different times in the growth cycle of the
maize plants during flowering and harvesting. Error bars represent standard error of the
mean.

500 ,.......
',-------------------------------
1--- ----~- ---------- ----- -
! . ...... -- ------
400

300
Biomass I
1
JJ9 g soil
200

i 100

0
Flowering Harvesting

Key: Bt maize Bl Non-Bt maize 0 Non-Bt maize + I

Fig. 3.3

(c) With reference to Fig. 3.3, compare the biomass of microbes in the soils surrounding
the roots of Bt maize and non-Bt maize. [2]

The researchers' original hypothesis stated that the microbes would be negatively affected
by the Bt protein released by the plant roots.

(d) Discuss whether the data shown in Fig. 3.3 supports this hypothesis. [2]

[Total: 12 marks]

--- End of Section A---

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION 12010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 13


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SECTION B: PLANNIN~ QUESTION
kNIL RETURN is required.

QUESTION 4
You are required to plan, but not carry out, an investigation into the effect of varying
concentrations of copper sulfate on the hydrolysis of starch by the enzyme amylase.

Amylase is an enzyme present in saliva. It catalyses the hydrolysis of starch to glucose.


Copper sulfate is a non-competitive inhibitor of the hydrolysis of starch by the enzyme
amylase.

Your planning must be based on the assumption that you have been provided with the
following equipment and materials which you may use:

copper sulfate solution

amylase solution

starch solution

iodine solution

buffer solution

test tubes

droppers
white tile

stopwatch

syringes

beaker for water bath


hot water

Your plan should have a clear and helpful structure to include:


~~> an explanation of the theory to support your practical procedure
a description of the method used, including the scientific reasoning behind the method,
and any relevant safety measures
how you will record your results and ensure that they are as accurate and reliable as
possible
proposed layout of results tables and graphs with clear headings and labels
the correct use of technical and scientific terms
[Total: 12 marks]

--- End of Section B ---

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 14


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SECTION C: FREE RESPONSE QUESTIONS
Answer ALL parts of this question.
Your answer must be in continuous prose, where appropriate.
Your answer should be illustrated by large, clearly labeled diagrams, where appropriate.
BEGIN EACH PART ON A FRESH SHEET OF WRITING PAPER.
A NIL RETURN is required.

QUESTION 5
{a) Outline the process of nucleic acid hybridisation and explain how it can be used to
detect and analyse restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP}. [8]

{b) Describe what is meant by linkage analysis and explain why certain disease causing
alleles can only be detected by linkage analysis. [8]

(c) Suggest two requirements necessary for successful linkage analysis using RFLPs.[4]
/

[Total: 20 marks]

--- End of Section C ---

-----END OF PAPER-----

~ HWA CHONG INSTITUTION /2010 JC2 H2 BIOLOGY I PRELIMINARY EXAMINATIONS 15


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