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Majorana *

20160823
emailgmzhang@tsinghua.edu.cn
DOI10.7693/wl20170303
( 100084)

Majorana fermions and topological quantum


computation

ZHU Guo-Yi WANG Rui-Rui ZHANG Guang-Ming
( State Key Laboratory for Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics and Department of Physics
Tsinghua UniversityBeijing 100084China)

1937 Majorana Dirac


Dirac
Majorana
Majorana
Majorana

Majorana

Majorana

Abstract In 1937, Majorana noticed that in a different representation the relativistic


wave equation for electrons proposed by Dirac has a solution describing chargeless neutral fermi-
ons, which have completely different properties from Dirac fermions. In particle physics, the
search for such Majorana fermions is still being pursued, while in condensed matter physics it has
already been found that certain kinds of quasiparticles in the low-energy excitations of topological
superconductors and fractional quantum Hall effects share a similar behavior to Majorana fermi-
ons. In particular, the vortex excitations in two-dimensional topological superconductors include
zero-energy Majorana fermion modes, which exhibit non-abelian anyonic statistical properties un-
der exchange operations, leading to the possibility of topological quantum computation. In this ar-
ticle we will review the physical models and realization of Majorana fermions, and then discuss
the corresponding implementation of topological quantum computation.
Keywords Majorana fermions, superconductivity, quantum computation

* (20121302227)

154 46 (2017 ) 3
1 2+1

70 Ettore Majorana
Dirac

Majorana
Majorana ( MZM)
Majorana () MZM
MZM
Majorana MZM
2N MZM
Majorana 2N1 N1
MZM

[1]
(WIMP)Majorana

Majorana
MZM




Majorana Majorana

Majorana s
Majorana

MZM
s
MZM

MZM
p p+ip

Majorana 2 Majorana

Majorana 2.1 Majorana

Schrdinger

46 (2017 ) 3 155

E= 0 i
p2/2m( E p m 0 1 0 -i 1 0
1 = 2 = 3 = . (8)
) 1 0 i 0 0 -1
Weyl Majorana
E i p -i (1)
t
Schrdinger Weyl

0 0 i 0 -i
0 = = . (9)
i = - 1 2 . (2) 0 0 i 0
t 2m
Majorana
0 -1 1 0 0
E 2 = p 2 + m2 0 = i = i
1 0 0 0
KleinGordon (10)
0 0 3 0 2
2 = i = i .
- 2 - m2 = 0 .
2

- 0 - 2 0
2
(3) 0
t
(10) i (i = 0123)
KleinGordon Majorana Dirac
Dirac (6) Majorana
Dirac 4
( x ) Dirac
i = ( p + m) ( x ) (4)
t Majorana ( Majorana
x = x = (tx ) 4 x 3

Dirac )
i (i = 123) Majorana
(4)(3) Dirac [2] Weyl Dirac
= ( R L ) (6)
T
i
{ } =
i j ij
2
i = 1 {i} = 0 2 = 1 (5) (i t - p ) R - m L = 0
(11)
Clifford 3+1 (i t + p ) L - m R = 0 .
i 4 Majorana
Dirac 44
44 Dirac c( x) = ( x) (12)
3+1 4

(i t - p ) R - im R 2 R* = 0
(13)
(i t + p ) L + im L 2 L = 0 .
*

Dirac (4) Lorentz


E=0 Majorana
(4) = (i)


(i

) (
- m = p - m = 0

) (6)
2.2 Majorana
p = (i t - p ) = /x

Dirac
- 0 0 0 -i 0 i
= = (7)
0 - 0 -i 0

156 46 (2017 ) 3
Majorana
Majorana
Dirac
Majorana 3 Majorana
Dirac U(1)
Dirac 3.1 p
Majorana
U(1)
MZM

Majorana Kitaev p
[3]

H =-t ( cj c j + 1 + cj + 1 c j ) - cj c j - 1
Majorana MZM
j 2
(18)
+ ( c c

j

j+1
*
]
+ cj + 1cj )
j N
t

MZM
Majorana (

MZM )
(13)
c j c j + 1 c ( x ) x c ( x ) p

Majorana
p
c j = 1 ( j1 + i j2 )cj = 1 ( j1 - i j2 ) (14)
2 2
j1 = cj + c j j2 = i ( cj - c j ) . (15)
H =[(-2t cos q - ) cq c q + i( sin q)cq c-q
i j q
(19)
{ } = 2
i j ij . (16) + i*(sin q)c q c -q] .
Bogliubov
n j = c c j = 1 (1 + i j1 j2 ) .

(17) E ( q) = (2t cos q + ) + (2| |sin q)
2 2
. (20)
2 j

n j 0 1 | | = 2t
MZM i j1 j2 1 1
MZM Dirac
MZM
Majorana (14)(18) Majorana

46 (2017 ) 3 157

2 j [
H = i - j, 1 j, 2 + (t + | |) j, 2 j + 1, 1
(21) Dirac

]
+ (-t + | |) j, 1 j + 1, 2 .
a j = 1 ( j, 2 + i j + 1, 1)a j = 1 ( j, 2 - i j + 1, 1) . (24)
2 2
(i) | | = t = 0
(23)

H = - cj c j - 1 (22) N-1
j 2 H = 2t a j a j - 1 (25)
j=1 2

a j
(ii) | | = t = 0
N-1 (23) 1, 1 N, 2
H = it j, 2 j + 1, 1 . (23)
j=1
MZM (1 N )

Kitaev

| | = t = 0
| | = t = 0

1
Kitaevp
MZM





1 Kitaev (a) | | = t = 0
s
MajoranaDirac
(b) | | = t = 0
Majorana Dirac (c)2t Kitaev [4]

H = dx - 1 2x - + i 2 x + V x 1
2 (a)(b)

2m
+ ( + h.c.) ] (26)
i 2 x
V x 1
(V x = g B B )


2 p
p MZM(b)
(a)
( + h.c.)



p 2

158 46 (2017 ) 3
| | + 2 < V x
2
4

MZM InSb InAs
dk x dk y
p [56] C=
4 (
h k h k h
x y
)(29)
g
h


3DelftInSb70 mK
0


0 mT 490 mT 10 mT 100 mT

p+ip

0 1 0 1
MZM [4]

f
3.2 p+ip


MZM

p x + ip y p x - ip y

p+ip

{

H = d 2 r + - -
2

2m
(27)
[
+ 1 0 e ( x + i y ) + h.c. .
2
i
]}

{
3 [5]
H = d k2 k k - k
2 2 2
MZM
4 2m

2 [
+ 1 0 ie k ( k x + ik y ) k + h.c.
i
]} (28)
k
= 1 d k2 (k -k ) h k
2

2 4 -k
h kx = - 0 ( k y cos + k x sin ) h k = 0 ( k x cos -
y

k y sin ) h kz = k -
2 2

2m
4
Nambu

46 (2017 ) 3 159


n p+ip

MZM

MZM
p+ip

( n + 1) ( n + 1)
n -i i
=e 2
= e 2
() . (31)




H edge = d 2 r{- +

i[(n + 1) + ] (30)
+ 1 0 e r + i + h.c.. n n
2 r

n n
n Abrikosov






m
Schro dinger (30)


m 0 m 0
E min = - E mout = (32)
R R

-i 2 - r -i 2 r
e dr
e dr
= e e =e e
Rin Rout 0
in im out im
0
.
+i 2 +i 2
m m

e -e
(33)
5

5 p+ip (a)


(b)
(c) ( MZM)
(d)
0 n
MZM
n

160 46 (2017 ) 3
MZM n
MZM



n/2 n

MZM
MZM
6 MZM MZM

MZM
s
p p+ip i - j j i k k ( k ij ) . (34)
[7]

Uij = 1 (1 + i j ) . (35)
2
2N MZM k i j

s k Uij kUij (36)
U
p+ip Fu [U12 U 23] = 1 3 (37)
s
Majorana
4 MZM 1 2
3.3 Majorana 3 4 7 4 MZM
Dirac ca cb
MZM
c a = 1 ( 1 + i 2 )c b = 1 ( 3 + i 4 ) . (38)
Majorana 2 2

p+ip
MZMMZM
MZM
MZM

Majorana
n

(
)
6 MZM

46 (2017 ) 3 161









7 4 MZM ()

Dirac na nb

n an b ( n an b = 01) 1 3

U 312 = 3 1 = ( c a + ca )( c b + cb )
0
1
n an b U n an b = (-1) nanb
2 na
31 (39)
n = 1 - n Dirac MZM
MZM
U
n an b U12 n an b = 1 (1 + 1 2 ) n an b
2

i (1 - 2n a )
=e 4 n an b
(40)
n an b U 31 n an b = 1 (1 + 3 1) n an b
2
a 0 + b 1 a 0 + bei 1 (
= 1
2
(
n an b + (-1) nanb
n a
) )
Dirac MZM
Dirac [8]
MZM
MZM

4

4.1





80 2003 [9]

162 46 (2017 ) 3
()

(braiding group)


MZM

MZM
9(a) T
4.2 MZM 3 T
1 T
2 T
8 3+1 1 T 1 2
( [10]Fu Kane[7]
)

0
2+1

(
)

2+1
()

v=1/3

ei/3
8 () 1(1)(a)
3+1
1 2

1
1
2 (b)
1 2

( 2)
2+1 2
1( 2) 2
1

(c)

46 (2017 ) 3 163

(FM)
Q
Abrikosov
MZM


MZM
hc Aharonov
9 MZM (a)(TS) 2e
(NS) MZM[10]
Casher hc Q
MZM MZM (b) Fu 2e
Kane STIS Q Q
AC = hc =
= 0 2e c e
MZM 0 2
=0 Iv
( = 2/3 -2/3
Q [11]
)
2MZM I v = I v0[1 + A cos( Q/e )] (41)
Q
= hc Aharonov
2e
Q
Casher AC =
e
= hc MZM
2e
(41) A=0
Iv

MZM

10 MZM [11](
4.3 MZM
MZM )

s MZM i j1 j2
p+ip 1 MZM
s 2N
(STIS ) MZM MZM
N
MZM MZM

MZM
MZM 9(b) 2N MZM
MZM N
P = (-i 2j - 1 2j ) (42)
10 j=1

s (SC) P2=1 P=1 P=1

164 46 (2017 ) 3
2N MZMs 1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
N CZ = . (44)
0 0 1 0
N1 0 0 0 -1
MZM
[4]2n+2
MZM n k
i 2k - 1 2k = 1 MZM MZM
MZM MZM
4 MZM
MZM
MZM 1 2 3
4nMZM4MZM 4
4 MZM i1 2
4k - 3 4k - 2 4k - 1 4k = -1
i
1 0 1 i
U12 = U 34 = e 4 U 23 = 1 (45)
MZM 0 -i 2 i 1
U12U23U12 Hadamard
i
1 1
U12U 23U12 = e 2 1 ~H .
n
(46)
2 1 -1
Pauli
i
(U12 ) = e 2 1 0 ~Z
2
Hadamard X (47)
0 -1
Y Z /8 [1213]
i
(U 23) = e 2 0 1 ~X .
2
0 1 (48)
1 0
11
1 1 0 1 0 -i
H = 1 X = Y =
2 1 -1 1 0 i 0
(43)
1 0 1 0
Z = T = i/4 .
0 -1 0 e
SWAP

Dirac 00 01 10
11 SWAP (CNOT)
Z (CZ)(
)
1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
SWAP = CNOT =
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 11
0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0

46 (2017 ) 3 165

MZM 2
CZ CNOT
-i
U 34U12-1U56-1 = e 4
diag (111 - 1) ~CZ (52)
1 0 0 0
12 6 MZM 3 ( 0 1 0-i
4 0
U 34U54U 43U 21U65U54U 34 = e ~CNOT . (53)
ab )
0 0 0 1
0 0 1 0
13
MZM
MZM /8

[14]


13 Majorana
MZM

p+ip
6 MZM (1 2 3 4
56) 3 (nanxnb) Majorana

n a = 1 (1 + i1 2 )n x = 1 (1 + i 3 4 )n b = 1 (1 + i5 6 )
2 2 2 2
(49)

12


MZM
n an b = 00 01 10 11 (50)
MZM
(nx nanb MZM Dirac
6 MZM MZM Dirac
) MZM
MZM
(6 ) i
U12 = e diag (11 - i - i )
4
MZM
(6 ) i Onnes
U 34 = e 4 diag (1 - i - i1) (51)
i
Cooper
(6 )
U56 = e 4 diag (1 - i1 - i )
1 0 i 0 1 i 0 0
0 1 0 i i 1 0 0
U 23 = 1 U 45 = 1
(6 ) (6 )

2 i 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 i Majorana
0 i 0 1 0 0 i 1 p+ip
U (6) 6 MZM MZM

166 46 (2017 ) 3

MZM

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137 [8] Sarma S DFreedman MNayak C. Physics Today200659(7)
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44(10S)131 32
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Topological Quantum Computation. arXiv1501.028132015 [10] Alicea JOreg Y
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7(5)412
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75(7)076501
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71(2)022316
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