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University of the West of Scotland, Civil Engineering STEEL/4.

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RESISTANCE TO TRANSVERSE FORCES (EN1993-1-5, Cl.6)

WEB BEARING AND WEB BUCKLING OF STEEL BEAMS

Under concentrated loading from loads or reactions, webs may fail in bearing or buckling, as shown in
the diagrams below. When loads or reactions are applied through the flange to the web the resistance
of the beams to these forces should be assessed. The web has a certain amount of resistance to failure
and this can be assessed using the methods given in EN1993-1-5, Cl.6. If the resistance of the web is
exceed, stiffeners can be added at the point where the loads or reactions are present, to strengthen the
web. This would be in the form of plates welded to the web and flanges at right angles to the web.

In this module, we will consider the strength of the unstiffened web of a beam, but not the design of
stiffeners.

WEB BEARING AND BUCKLING

Under concentrated loading, from applied point loads or from support reactions, the web of a beam
may fail as shown in the figures below.

ss Assumed load
dispersion

WEB BEARING

WEB BUCKLING

The standard checks that the capacity is not exceeded. Stiffeners should be provided where the local
compressive force FEd applied through the flange by loads or reactions exceeds the capacity FRd of the
unstiffened web. In this module we will consider the capacity of the web, but not the design of
stiffeners.
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Cl.6.1 of EN1993-1-5 states that resistance of webs of rolled beams may be determined in accordance
with Cl.6.2 of EN1993-1-5, provided that the compression flange is adequately restrained in the lateral
direction. There are three types of load application considered, and shown in Figure 6.1 from EN1993-
1-5 below:-

a) through the flange and resisted by shear forces in the web,


b) though one flange and transferred through the web directly to the other flange,
c) through one flange adjacent to an unstiffened end.

DESIGN RESISTANCE (Cl.6.2)

From Cl.6.2 of EN1993-1-5, for unstiffened or stiffened webs, the design resistance under transverse
forces should be taken as
f yw Leff t w
FRd
M1
where tw is the thickness of the web
fyw is the yield strength of the web
Leff is the effective length for resistance to transverse forces, which should be determined
from:-

Leff = F y

where y is the effective loaded length (from Cl.6.5 of EN1993-1-5) appropriate to the length of stiff
bearing ss (from Cl.6.3 of EN1993-1-5)
F is the reduction factor due to local buckling (from Cl.6.4(1) of EN1993-1-5)

STIFF BEARING LENGTH (Cl.6.3)

The stiff bearing length is the length over which the applied load is effectively distributed. The slope
of load dispersion is taken as 1:1 (45o). However, ss should not be taken as larger than hw, the depth of
the web. Figure 6.2 from EN1993-1-5 gives several examples of ss and this is shown below:-
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REDUCTION FACTOR F (Cl.6.4)

The reduction factor F should be obtained from:-

0 .5
F 1 .0
F
y t w f yw
where F
Fcr
3
t
Fcr 0.9 k F E w

hw
where kF is taken from Figure 6.1 above for the particular case.
tw is the thickness of the web
fyw is the yield strength of the web
y is the effective loaded length (from Cl.6.5 of EN1993-1-5)

EFFECTIVE LOADED LENGTH y (Cl.6.5)

The effective loaded length y depends on various factors including m1 and m2.

f yf b f
m1
f yw t w
2
h
m2 0.02 w if F 0.5
t
f
m2 0 if F 0.5

Since the value of m2 which should be used is dependent on the value of F , try the first expression
and if F turns out to be > 0.5, then use the other expression for m2.

The expression to be used for y depends on the type of loading arrangement from Figure 6.1 above. If
the loading arrangement is types (a) or (b) then :-


y s s 2t f 1 m1 m2 , but y distance between adjacent transverse stiffeners.

If the loading arrangement is type (c) then y should be taken as the smallest value from the equations
below:-
University of the West of Scotland, Civil Engineering STEEL/4.4
2
m1 e
y e t f m2
2 t f
OR
y e t f m1 m2

2
k F E tw
where e ss c
2 f yw hw

VERIFICATION (Cl.6.6)

The local compressive force FEd applied through the flange by loads or reactions is compared to the
capacity FRd of the unstiffened web.

FEd
1 .0
FRd
FEd
2 1.0
f yw Leff t w
M1
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EXAMPLE 1

The grade S275, 254 x 146 x 37 UB shown below supports a factored load of 220kN applied by a
203 x 133 x 30 UB. The flange of the 254 x 146 x 37 UB is restrained against rotation relative to the
web and lateral movement relative to the other flange. Check the 254 x 146 x 37 UB for resistance to
transverse forces and hence show that no stiffeners are required.

200kN (Factored load)

203 x 133 x 30 UB 254 x 146 x 37 UB

The type of load application in Figure 6.1 of EN1993-1-5 is type (a). However, there are no vertical
stiffeners on this beam as shown in Figure 6.1.

The design resistance from Cl.6.2 of EN1993-1-5 is

f yw Leff t w
FRd
M1
where tw is the thickness of the web
fyw is the yield strength of the web
Leff is the effective length for resistance to transverse forces, which should be determined
from:-

Leff = F y

where y is the effective loaded length (from Cl.6.5 of EN1993-1-5) appropriate to the length of stiff
bearing ss (from Cl.6.3 of EN1993-1-5)
F is the reduction factor due to local buckling (from Cl.6.4(1) of EN1993-1-5)

The stiff bearing length from Figure 6.2 of EN1993-1-5 is:-

ss = 2(tf + r) = 2 x (9.6 + 7.6) = 34.4mm

Note that this is using the dimensions of the 203 x 133 x 30UB.

0 .5
F 1 .0
F
y t w f yw
where F
Fcr
t3
Fcr 0 .9 k F E w
hw
University of the West of Scotland, Civil Engineering STEEL/4.6
where kF is taken from Figure 6.1 above for the particular case.
tw is the thickness of the web
fyw is the yield strength of the web
y is the effective loaded length (from Cl.6.5 of EN1993-1-5)

For type (a) loading from Figure 6.1:-


2
h
k F 6 2 w
a

hw is the depth of the web and for the lower beam 254 x 146 x 37 UB:-

hw = 256.0 (2 x 10.9) = 234.2mm

The value of a is large as there are no vertical stiffeners. This means that the second term in the
equation tends to zero, therefore take kF = 6.

Youngs modulus, E = 210000N/mm2 from EN1993-1-1 Cl.3.2.6.

t w3 6.33
Fcr 0.9k F E 0.9 6 210000 1210731N
hw 234.2

Effective loaded length y depends on the value of m1 and m2.

From Table 3.1 of EN1993-1-1, the yield strength fy = 275N/mm2. fyf the yield strength of the flange
and fyw the yield strength of the web are also 275N/mm2.

f yf b f 275 146.4
m1 23.24
f ywt w 275 6.3
2
h 234.2
2

m2 0.02 w 0.02 9.23 if F 0.5


t 10.9
f

For loading arrangement type (a) from Figure 6.1:-


y ss 2t f 1 m1 m2 34.4 2 10.9 1 23.24 9.23 180.4mm
y t w f yw 180.4 6.3 275
F 0.508 This is > 0.5, therefore OK for value of m2 used.
Fcr 1210731

0.5 0. 5
F 0.984 1.0
F 0.508

Leff = F y = 0.984 x 180.4 = 177.5mm

f yw Leff t w 275 177.5 6.3


FRd 10 3 308kN
M1 1.0
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FEd 220
0.71 1.0 therefore satisfactory, and no stiffeners are required.
FRd 308
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EXAMPLE 2

The beam in Example 2 of chapter 3 will be checked for resistance to transverse forces. The beam
selected in that example was a grade S275, 406 x 178 x 54 UB. At each end, the beams is supported by
a 125 x 75 x 12 angle, and the factored reaction force at this point is 131.7kN. The flange of the beam
is restrained against rotation relative to the web and lateral movement relative to the other flange.

3mm

406 x 178 x 54 UB

ss

125 x 75 12 L

The type of load application in Figure 6.1 of EN1993-1-5 is type (c). Although the load is applied
from beneath, it is the same type of loading arrangement at the end of a beam.

The design resistance from Cl.6.2 of EN1993-1-5 is

f yw Leff t w
FRd
M1
where tw is the thickness of the web
fyw is the yield strength of the web
Leff is the effective length for resistance to transverse forces, which should be determined
from:-

Leff = F y

where y is the effective loaded length (from Cl.6.5 of EN1993-1-5) appropriate to the length of stiff
bearing ss (from Cl.6.3 of EN1993-1-5)
F is the reduction factor due to local buckling (from Cl.6.4(1) of EN1993-1-5)

The stiff bearing length, using the principles from Figure 6.2 of EN1993-1-5 is:-

ss = (tf + r) + tf/2 -3 = (12 + 11) +6 -3 = 26mm

Note that this is using the dimensions of the angle.


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0 .5
F 1 .0
F
y t w f yw
where F
Fcr
3
t
Fcr 0.9 k F E w
hw
where kF is taken from Figure 6.1 above for the particular case.
tw is the thickness of the web
fyw is the yield strength of the web
y is the effective loaded length (from Cl.6.5 of EN1993-1-5)

For type (c) loading from Figure 6.1:-

s c 26 0
k F 2 6 s 2 6 2.04 6
hw 380.8

hw is the depth of the web of the beam:-

hw = 402.6 (2 x 10.9) = 380.8mm

Youngs modulus, E = 210000N/mm2 from EN1993-1-1 Cl.3.2.6.

t w3 7 .7 3
Fcr 0.9k F E 0.9 2.04 210000 462240 N
hw 380.8

Effective loaded length y depends on the value of m1 and m2.

From Table 3.1 of EN1993-1-1, the yield strength fy = 275N/mm2. fyf the yield strength of the flange
and fyw the yield strength of the web are also 275N/mm2.

f yf b f 275 177.7
m1 23.08
f yw t w 275 7.7
2
h 380.8
2

m2 0.02 w 0.02 24.41 if F 0.5


t 10.9
f

For loading arrangement type (c) from Figure 6.1, y is the smaller value from two equations:-
2
k F E tw
e ss c
2 f yw hw
2
kF E tw 2.04 210000 7.7 2
121.3mm
2 f yw hw 2 275 380.8
s s c 26 0 26mm
Therefore e = 26mm
2
m1 e
2
23.08 26
y e t f m2 26 10.9 24.41 96.34mm
2 t f 2 10.9
OR
y e t f m1 m2 26 10.9 23.08 24.41 101.1mm
University of the West of Scotland, Civil Engineering STEEL/4.10
Therefore y = 96.34mm

y t w f yw 96.34 7.7 275


F 0.664 This is > 0.5, therefore OK for value of m2 used.
Fcr 462240

0.5 0 .5
F 0.753 1.0
F 0.664

Leff = F y = 0.753 x 96.34 = 72.5mm

f yw Leff t w 275 72.5 7.7


FRd 153603 N 154kN
M1 1 .0

FEd 131.7
0.86 1.0 therefore satisfactory, and no stiffeners are required.
FRd 154