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Department of Chemical

Qatar University

(CHME 324)
Chemical Engineering Lab 1
[Laboratory Manual]
Fall 2016

Instructor: Dr. Ahmed Elkhatat

1 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Department of Chemical Engineering

College of Engineering

Qatar University


Chemical Engineering Laboratory I

Laboratory Manual
(Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer Lab)

September, 2016

Dr. Ahmed Elkhatat

i CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Laboratory Manual .............................................................................................................. 1
Contents ............................................................................................................................... i
Preface ................................................................................................................................ iii
Syllabus .............................................................................................................................. iv
General Guidelines ............................................................................................................. xi
Title Page (Full Report) .................................................................................................................... xii
Rubrics Components ......................................................................................................................... 13
Lab Rule Observations and Compliance........................................................................................... 17
Guidelines for Technical Report Writing ......................................................................................... 18
Using Excel (Level 1): Plotting curves using Excel ......................................................................... 22
Using Excel (Level 2): Applying Curve Fits Modeling.................................................................... 21
A Practical Guide to Error Analysis ................................................................................................. 28
Fluid Mechanics Experiments ........................................................................................... 31
F1: Fluid Friction in Pipes ................................................................................................................ 32
1. Objective ................................................................................................................................ 32
2. Introduction and Theory ......................................................................................................... 32
3. Experimental Setup and Procedure ........................................................................................ 37
4. Report Requirements .............................................................................................................. 38
5. References .............................................................................................................................. 39
6. Experimental Data Log Sheet for Experiment (F1) ............................................................... 40
F2: Flow Meter Demonstration Apparatus ....................................................................................... 41
1. Objective ................................................................................................................................ 41
2. Introduction and Theory ......................................................................................................... 41
3. Experimental Setup and Procedure ........................................................................................ 46
4. Report requirements ............................................................................................................... 47
5. References .............................................................................................................................. 48
6. Experimental Data Log Sheet for Experiment (F2) ............................................................... 49
F3: Energy Losses in Bends and Fittings .......................................................................................... 50
1. Objectives ............................................................................................................................... 50
2. Introduction and Theory ........................................................................................................ 50
3. Experimental Setup and Procedure ........................................................................................ 55
4. Report Requirement ............................................................................................................... 56

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ii CHME324 Laboratory Manual

5. References .............................................................................................................................. 57
6. Experimental Data Log Sheet for Experiment (F3) ............................................................... 58
F4: Centrifugal Pump Performance .................................................................................................. 61
1. Objective: ............................................................................................................................... 61
2. Background and Theory ......................................................................................................... 61
3. Experimental Setup and Procedure ........................................................................................ 66
4. Report requirements ............................................................................................................... 70
5. References .............................................................................................................................. 70
Heat Transfer Experiments ............................................................................................... 71
H1: Conduction along a Simple Bar ................................................................................................. 72
H2. Lumped capacity model ............................................................................................................. 81
H3: Heat Exchanger .......................................................................................................................... 84

Dr. Ahmed Elkhatat

iii CHME324 Laboratory Manual

The fluid mechanics and heat transfer laboratory at Qatar University provides a promising setting to
help chemical engineering students become better engineering practitioners. They get hands on
experience of working with laboratory setups the theories of which they studied in Fluid Mechanics
and Heat Transfer courses. This course helps to reinforce and enhance the understanding of fluid
mechanics and heat transfer learned in theoretical courses.
This edition of the Chemical Engineering Laboratory I (CHME 324) manual comes as a result of
needing to improve contents and better organization of the previous edition in accordance with
various suggestions received from faculties and students. The lab safety, lab rule observations, and
guidelines for preparing laboratory reports are incorporated herein this edition.
It is hoped that with the latest modifications, students and instructors will find this edition of the
manual clear and easier to follow and use.
However, our target in the future is to develop this laboratory further with new experimental setups
and further improvements in the laboratory manual. This is an ongoing process. The continued help
and support of the Department of Chemical Engineering and its faculties in preparing this manual is
highly acknowledged.

Dr. Ahmed Elkhatat

iv CHME324 Laboratory Manual



CHME 324 -Chemical Engineering Lab I (1-0-3)
Fall 2016

Instructor Information
Name: Dr.Ahmed Elkhatat
Academic title: Teaching Assistant
Phone: 4403-4153
Office Hours:
(1) Please send me email for appointment if you want to discuss anything related to the
course in the following timings.
A-Sunday: 10:30-11:30 am (Office hours Room-C07)
B- Tuesday: 10:30-11:30 am (Office hours Room-C07)
C-Thursday: 10:30-11:30 am (Office hours Room-C07)
(2) You also can contact me by email anytime and I will respond to your questions if I am

TA Information
Class/Laboratory Schedule
1) L51: Sunday, 3:30-6:20 pm. G113/G217/G224.
2) L54: Monday, 3:30-6:20 pm. G113/G217/ G224.
3) L01: Wednesday, 3:30-6:20 pm. G113/G217/ G224.

Coordinator Information
Name: Mohammad Hasan Arshad
Academic title: Teaching Assistant
Office: College of Engineering Building, Corridor 7, G228
Phone: 4403- 4151

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v CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Course Information
Catalog Description:
Experiments in Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer: Frictional Pressure Losses in Pipes & Fittings, Pump
Performance, Convection, and Double Pipe and Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers.


Contact Hours:

Prerequisites (* with concurrency):

CHME 213 Fluid Mechanics, ENGL 203 English Language II
CHME 311 Heat Transfer*

Chemical Engineering Laboratory I Manual

Ron Darby. Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics, Ed.2. CRC Press (2001)
Holman, J.P. "Heat Transfer", McGraw Hill, New York (1997).
Geankoplis, C.J. "Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles", Prentice Hall, New
Jersey (2003).
Fox, R.W., McDonald, A.T., and Pritchard, P.J. "Introduction to Fluid Mechanics", John Wiley and
Sons, New Jersey (2006)

Course Objectives:
Experimental study of heat transfer and fluid flow. Emphasis is on open laboratory projects with
electronic instrumentation; experimental design with analytical, numerical and graphical analysis of

Course LearningOutcomes (CLO):

Upon successful completion of this course, you will be able to:
1. Safely and effectively carry out experiments in a group setting [b, d, f].
2. Design experiments to measure certain data [b]
3. Analyze experimental results by utilizing acquired technical engineering knowledge from
previous coursework [a, b]
4. Utilize technical literature such as handbooks, textbooks, manuals, etc. to obtain the
required physical properties. [b, i]
5. Use appropriate software (e.g. Excel) to solve equations and interpret experimental results.
[b, k]
6. Prepare professional technical reports [g].

The letter in [ ] reference the corresponding chemical engineering student outcomes*.

* Chemical Engineering Student Outcomes:

The graduates of the Qatar University Chemical Engineering Program should be able to:
Dr. Ahmed Elkhatat
vi CHME324 Laboratory Manual

a. Apply knowledge of mathematics, science and engineering principles in dealing with

chemical engineering problems
b. Design and conduct experiments, as well as analyze and interpret data
c. Design a system, component or a process to meet desired needs within realistic constraints
such as economic, environmental, social, political, ethical, health and safety,
manufacturability, and sustainability
d. Function on multidisciplinary teams
e. Identify, formulate and solve chemical engineering problems
f. Understand professional and ethical responsibility
g. Communicate effectively both orally and in writing
h. Recognize global, economic, environmental and societal impact of engineering solutions
i. Recognize the need and have the ability to engage in lifelong learning
j. Recognize contemporary issues related to the chemical engineering profession
k. Use the techniques, skills and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice

Relationship of Course Outcomes to "a" to "k" ABET Student Outcomes:

This course supports the following student outcomes:

Related Student Outcomes

Course a b c d e f g h i j k
1 X X X
2 X
3 X X
4 X X
5 X X
6 X

Additional ABET Requirements:

1) Oral Communications: Number of Presentations =-

Average Duration (minutes) = -

2) Written Communications: Number of Submitted Reports =7

Average Length (pages) =15

3) Professional and Ethical Implications:

Topic Spent Grading Strategy Time

Orientation lecture on safety
procedure and over profession lab rules observation 1 hour
and ethical behavior
to be expressed in lab

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vii CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Topics Covered:

Topics Chapter Section CO Weeks

Lab orientation and safety regulation guidelines including
awareness of associated hazards
Tutorial on data analysis and interpretation. 1
Measuring Head Loss due to Friction in Pipes 1
Centrifugal Pump Performance and Analysis 1
Flow meters demonstration 1
Energy Loss in Bends 1
Tubular Heat Exchanger 1
Heat Conduction (Simple Bar / Cylinders) 1
Lumped capacity un steady state Heat Transfer 1

Total 9

Method of Instruction:
Laboratory Experiments. Instructor will give a tutorial at the beginning of the semester on how to
use statistical analysis, and use the results to interpret data meaningfully.
Assessment Methods and Grading Policy

Pre-lab test 10%

Quizzes 15%
Reports 50%
Laboratory rules 5%
Final Exam 20%

ABET Contribution of Course to Professional Component

Math & Basic Science : 0

Engineering : 100%
General Education :0

Computer/Software Usage
Microsoft Word and Excel

Laboratory Projects

Course Ground Rules

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viii CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Attendance is Mandatory according to University Policies. More than 25% absence will not
qualify you for the course credit.
You can contact by email any time and I will respond to your questions if I am available.
You can also send me email for an appointment if you want to discuss anything related to the
The Tool of communication will BB (blackboard). It will be the student's responsibility to
check the announcements.
The university Plagiarism/Cheating policy will be strictly followed (Check Student
Integrity Code).
General Guidelines For Submitting Reports.
(1) The report should be submitted as a Word file (not PDF) on the SafeAssignment
(BB), Excell Calculations should be submitted as well on Safeassignment.
(2) Full report shall include: Title Page, Abstract, Introduction, Methodology
[experiment Setup, Procedure, Sample Calculation], Results and Discussion,
Conclusion, References.
(3) Deadline of Reports submission is 10 days starting from the day of conducting the
Experiment (By 12:00 noon) (for example: 1: If your Lab is on Sunday, your
submission deadline will be Wednesday 12:00 noon) - (2: If your Lab is on
Monday, your submission deadline will be Thursday 12:00 noon) - (2: If your Lab
is on Thursday, your submission deadline will be Sunday 12:00 noon).
(4) Take care: Late Submittion will be (10% for the first day, 25% for the second day,
50 % for the third day, 100% for the fourth day).
(5) Team Leader will be responsible for fairly distributing of the tasks in the reports,
and also will be responsible for submitting the reports via SafeAssign or by email.

Student Integrity Code []

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ix CHME324 Laboratory Manual

The students of the Department of Chemical Engineering shall follow Qatar Universitys Student
Integrity Code. Practices violating this code include (but are not limited to):
Cheating or copying in any student assignments
Plagiarism in any submitted work: Such as the use of the work, ideas, images or words of
someone else without his/her permission; use of someone else's wording, name, phrase,
sentence, paragraph or essay without using quotation marks, and misrepresentation of the
sources that were used.
Inappropriate Collaboration: Such as working with someone else in developing, organizing or
revising a submitted work without acknowledging that person's help. This work may include: a
project, a paper, an oral presentation, a research, a design project or a take-home examination,
use of tutors for writing, editing or fabricating a submitted work, and use of unauthorized
assistance in all cases of submitted work.
Attending an exam or any academic activity or obligation in replacement of another student
Dishonesty in examinations and submitted work: Such as submission of non-original paper,
test result, work and materials; any form of communication between or among students during
examination; cheating from another student during examination; copying from another's paper,
giving unauthorized assistance, obtaining unauthorized advance knowledge of examination
questions, and the use of mechanical or marking devices or procedures for the purpose of
obtaining false scores on machine-graded examinations; submitting any material prepared by
or purchased from another person or company.
Deliberate falsification of data
Helping or attempting to help another student to commit an act of academic dishonesty
Interference with other students' work

Violating this code can result in penalties following the Universitys regulations.

Academic Support and Learning Resources

The University Student Learning Support Center (SLSC) provides academic support services to
male and female students at QU. The SLSC is a supportive environment where students can
seek assistance with academic coursework, writing assignments, transitioning to college
academic life, and other academic issues. SLSC programs include: Peer Tutoring, the Writi ng
Lab, Writing Workshops, and Academic Success Workshops. Students may also seek
confidential academic counseling from the professional staff at the Center.
Contact Information for Students Support and Learning Resources:
Tel: (00974) 4403 3876
Fax: (00974) 4403 3871
Location: Female Student Activities Building

Student Complaints Policy

Students at Qatar University have the right to pursue complaints related to faculty, staff, and other
students. The nature of the complaints may be either academic or non-academic. For more
information about the policy and processes related to this policy, you may refer to the students

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This syllabus and contents are subject to changes in the event of extenuating circumstances. The
instructor (with approval of the Head of Department) reserves the right to make changes as
necessary. If changes are necessitated during the term of the course, the students will be notified by
email communication and posting the notification on the online teaching tool Blackboard. It is
students responsibility to check on announcements made while they were absent.

May 15, 2015

Department of Chemical Engineering

Qatar University
College of Engineering
Department of Chemical Engineering

Dr. Ahmed Elkhatat

xi CHME324 Laboratory Manual

General Guidelines

Dr. Ahmed Elkhatat


CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Department of Chemical Engineering

CHME324 [Chemical Engineering Lab I]
Title Page (Full Report)

Title of the
Date of experiment: Date of
Name ID Participation
Team Leader
Student 1
Student 2
Student 3

Item Grades Score
Spelling, grammar, sentence
Report presentation structure
Appearance and formatting 05
Abstract 10
Introduction and Theory 05
Experimental Setup / Procedure Experimental Setup / Procedure 05
Raw Data 05
Sample Calculation 10
Results and Discussions Analysis of Data: [Statistical
Analysis, Tables and Figures]
Discussions/Interpretation 25
Conclusion 10
Citation and References 05
Total 100


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Rubrics Components
Rubric Component Poor Fair Good Excellent
The report Prepares report
The report contains Prepares report that is
contains some that is
Spelling, grammar, frequent spelling free from
spelling and grammatically
sentence structure and grammatical grammatically
grammatical sound with few
[5 Marks] mistake. mistakes.
error. errors.
[Marks:0.5-1.5]. [Marks: 4-5]
[Marks: 1.5-2.5] [Marks: 2.5-4]
Does not Complies Complies to Complies fully to
comply with partially with prescribed prescribed format,
the prescribed the prescribed format. uses creativity in
format. format. Uses adequate presenting graph and
Graphs and Uses fair quality graphs table to analyze and
tables are quality graphs and table to interpret experimental
Appearance and
badly and table to analyze and data.
presented. analyze and interpret [Marks: 4-5]
[5 Marks]
[Marks:0.5-1.5]. interpret experimental
experimental data.
data. [Marks: 2.5-4 of 5]
[Marks: 1.5-2.5]

Several major Abstract misses Most of the Abstract covers all

aspects of the one or more major aspects the major aspects of
experiment are major aspects of the carrying out the
missing of carrying out experiment, experiment or the
(Background, the experiment some minor results (Background,
Statement of or the results details are Statement of
Purpose, Summary (Background, missing Purpose, Summary of
of Procedure, Statement of (Background, Procedure, Summary
Summary of Results Purpose, Statement of of Results and
[10 Marks]
and Significance of Summary of Purpose, Significance of
Findings). Procedure, Summary of Findings).
[Marks: 3-5]. Summary of Procedure, [Marks: 9-10].
Results and Summary of
Significance of Results and
Findings). Significance of
[Marks: 5-7]. Findings).
[Marks: 7-9].

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14 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Introduction and Introduction Introduction Introduction and

theory are totally and theory are and theory are theory nicely written
irrelevant the a bit relevant relevant to the and presented
experiment. to the experiment. All necessary
Very little experiment. Introduction is background
background Some nearly principles for the
information introductory complete, experiment are
Introduction provided or information, missing some covered.
and Theory information is but still minor points. [Marks: 4-5].
[5 Marks] incorrect. missing some [Marks: 3-4].
[Marks: 1-2]. major points.
[Marks: 2-3].

Experimental setup Experimental Experimental Experimental setup is

is not well written setup is well setup is well well written,
and missing written, but written, but illustrative figures are
important details, still missing still missing relative and clear.
illustrative figures important minor details, The procedure is
were not included details, illustrative well-written in
or irrelative. illustrative figures miss paragraph format, and
The procedure is figures were some details. all experimental
not written in not clear. The procedure details are covered.
paragraph format .The procedure is written in [Marks: 4-5].
Experimental and/or missing is written in paragraph
Setup, Procedure [5 several important paragraph format.
Marks] experimental format, but still Important
details. [Marks: missing some experimental
0.5-1.5]. important details are
experimental covered.
details. However,
[Marks: 1.5- some minor
2.5]. details are
[Marks: 2.5-

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Raw Data Raw Data Raw Data Raw Data

Raw data are not Raw data are Raw data are Raw data are well
included or well organized, well organized, organized, but still
irrelative. [Marks: but still but still missing missing minor details.
0.5-1.5]. missing minor details. [Marks: 4-5].
Sample Calculations important [Marks: 2.5-
Sample details. 4.0].
calculations are [Marks: 1.5- Sample Calculations
processed with 2.5]. Sample Sample calculations
many mistakes that Calculations are processed
led to incorrect Sample Sample correctly with no
major results. Calculations calculations are mistakes. [Marks: 8-
[Marks: 1-3]. Sample processed with 10].
calculations very little Tables calculations are
Analysis of Data, are processed mistakes that processed correctly
Statistical Analysis with some didnt affect the with no mistakes.
is not included or mistake that results. [Marks: Professional
relevant. Figures, affected some 5-8]. presentation of graphs
graphs and tables minor results. and tables.
are missing or [Marks: 3-5] Analysis of Data,
irrelevant. [Marks: All statistical Analysis of Data,
Results and
1-3]. Analysis of Data, Analysis, Quality of results was
Statistical Tables and analyzed statistically
Discussion/ Analysis, Figures are (e.g. Standard
(Raw Data, Sample
Interpretation Tables and correctly deviation, AAD% etc.)
Analysis of Data, Discussion is figures contain drawn, but Trends of results
incomplete with errors or are some have explained well with the
incorrect poorly minor problems physical principle
interpretation of constructed, or could still be learned in the
trends indicating a have missing improved. corresponding theory
lack of titles, captions [Marks: 8-13] course. [Marks: 13-15
understanding of or numbers, of 15].
fundamentals. units missing Discussion/
[Marks: 5-10]. or incorrect, Interpretation Discussion/
etc. . [Marks: Most of the Interpretation
3-8]. results have All important trends
been correctly and data comparisons
Discussion/ interpreted and have been interpreted
Interpretation discussed with correctly and
Some of the only some discussed, Trends of
results are minor mistakes. results explained well
correctly [Marks: 15- with the physical
interpreted and 20].. principle learned in the
discussed. corresponding theory
[Marks: 10- course. Possible
15]. sources of error
(reasons of deviation
of the results)
discussed well.
[Marks: 20-25].

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16 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Conclusion is Conclusion All important Well-written, all

missing the regarding conclusions important points are
important points, major points is have been covered.
or dont reflect on written, but drawn, but need [Marks: 8-10].
the experiment. brief and is minor
[Marks: 0-2.5]. missing improvements.
[ 10 Marks]
significant [Marks: 5-8].
pieces of
[Marks: 2.5-
References are Most of the References are References are in
absent or irrelevant. references are cited and in standard format.
References are not in standard standard format, Referencing in the
in standard format format, but no but a few text is also in
No citation in the referencing in References were standard format.
text. the text. taken from un- Sources of content
[Marks: 0-1]. Most of the authentic source are authentic (e.g.
references are (e.g. Textbook, journal
cited in the text, Wikipedia,) , paper, academic
References but not in vague or websites).
[5 Marks] standard format. generic References indicate
[Marks: 1-2.5]. references. an extensive literature
References search was
dont indicate performed.
an extensive [Marks: 3.5-5].
search was
[Marks: 2.5-

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17 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Lab Rule Observations and Compliance

Students need to observe lab rules and so they will be monitored based on the followings.


1 Coming to LAB on time, and leaving the LAB

once the experiment is completed
2 Wear LAB coats during entire duration
3 Submit reports and pre-lab sheet at the
beginning of the LAB session before the start of
the experiment.
4 Each student must bring a bound, hardcover
laboratory notebook to each laboratory session.
5 Wear gloves (wherever applicable). Be aware of
the possible hazards related to ones own
experiment and comply with those.
6 Follow a proper start-up and shut down
procedure according to LAB manual provided.
7 Stick to own group experiment and not move
elsewhere, leaving the running apparatus
8 No eating, smoking, or chatting, use of mobile
phones, etc. during entire LAB session.

9 Maintaining cleanliness (leaving the equipments

at the end of an experiment in the same clean
state as when entering the LAB). Not throwing
thrash papers here and there.
10 Show experimental observation sheet to
instructor before leaving the lab at the end of an
experiment and get his signature.

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18 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Guidelines for Technical Report Writing


In this course you are asked to submit seven technical reports. Therefore, your reports should
seek to inform, instruct, and often to persuade that its interpretation of the data is the correct one.
In general,
(1) Report format should be A4 plain white paper. Pages must be numbered. Margins are to be
kept at a minimum one inch on each side. Each section should begin on a new page.
(2) Every table, graph, chart, drawing etc. must have a number and a title to identify it and
must be referenced in the text body of the report. Figures, charts, and drawings usually have
their numbers and titles below, whereas tables have their numbers and titles above. Use
Arabic numbers for all. Symbols, subscripts, abbreviations, superscripts and letters must be
defined the first time they occur in the text.
(3) Use past tense, passive voice, and third person to describe what was done. Pronouns as I, we,
he should be avoided
(4) Backup your judgments with data and scientific facts and avoid sensationalism.
(5) Plagiarism is not permitted, always give a reference to the source of any piece of information
you copy of the literature. Cite your references as you proceed through the report using
embraced a number (e.g., [1], [2]) and match a list of numbered references at the end of
your report. References must occur in (sequential) order in the body of your report, therefore
before you mention or cite reference [4], for example, you must have referred to references
[1], [2], and [3] and so on.

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19 CHME324 Laboratory Manual


The following items are required for your technical written report. The report must be organized in
the order listed below with each section beginning on a new page.

1. Title Page.
2. Abstract.
3. Table of Contents.
4. List of Tables.
5. List of Figures.
6. Introduction.
7. Experimental Setup and Procedure.
a. Experimental Setup.
b. Procedure.
8. Results and discussion
a. Raw Data (Original Data).
b. Sample Calculation.
c. Analysis of Data: [Statistical Analysis, Tables and Figures].
d. Discussions/Interpretation
9. Conclusions
10. References
11. Appendices (If any)

A short description of the report elements as stated above is given below:

1. Title Page
Use title page provided to you.

2. Abstract
The abstract is the only basis for another reader's decision whether or not your work is of
relevance to him. This requires careful writing. It should briefly state the Background, Statement of
Purpose, Summary of Procedure, Summary of Results and Significance of Findings). An abstract
should not exceed two-thirds of a page. The abstract is best written after you finish the write up of
your report and before you prepare the Table of Contents.

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3. Table of Contents
List every division and heading in the report and give the number of the page on which it
starts to appear. It is essential that titles and subtitles match those occurring in the text. Therefore, the
best approach here is to cut the titles and headings from the body of the report and paste them in the
Table of Contents. It is evident thus that this part of the report is best written after preparing the final
report in its ultimate organized structure.
4. List of Tables
List every table along with its title and give the number of the page on which it appears.

5. List of Figures
List every drawing and graph with its title and give the number of the page on which it

6. Introduction
This is intended to give the unfamiliar reader the required background so that he/she can
follow up and understand your work. Use your own words to provide some background information
about your experiments and a discussion of why the experiment was carried out (i.e., the importance
of the study). Include enough information about the theory needed for a reader who is unfamiliar with
the topic of your experiment. This section also contains the background for the calculations and the
derivation of the equations involved. Sources of equations and derivations should be referenced and
the equations must be numbered. The last paragraph in the introduction must bring into focus the
direct objective(s) of the performed experimental work.

7. Experimental Setup and Procedure

Include Experimental Setup, which is a description, together with a schematic diagram of the
equipment (if any) is needed. Procedure, should be well-written in paragraph format covering all
experimental details (Dont copy paste from manual). Passive voice, and third person to describe
what was done. Pronouns as I, we, he should be avoided.

8. Results and Discussion

This part includes Raw Data (Original Data), where the original data sheets used in the
laboratory, with the title and the date of the experiment, should appear in this section. Instructor's
approval must appear on that sheet. Sample Calculation, where a complete step by step calculations
using the original data and showing the transformation of the experimental data into calculated
results. Analysis of Data: [Statistical Analysis, Tables and Figures], where table calculations should

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21 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

processed correctly with no mistakes, and graphs and tables should be resented professionally.
Moreover, the quality of the results should be analyzed statistically (e.g. Standard deviation, AAD%
etc.). Discussions/Interpretation, Results must be discussed and compared with theory and/or
literature. Each table or graph should be explained in writing and the trends of the curves must be
justified. Sources of errors, if any, and their relation to the obtained data must be stated. Different
paragraphs must be used to discuss different tables or graphs. Always refer to figure number when
discussing this figure. Trends of results should be explained well with the physical principle learned
in the corresponding theory course.

9. Conclusions

Should be well-written in paragraph format to conclude of the results obtained significance of

findings. This section must not exceed two thirds of a page. You (can) provide your suggestions or
ideas to modify the procedure or the equipment in order to improve the experiment, state them and
explain why they should be done. Such recommendations are highly appreciated.

10. References

All references cited in the report should be listed in the order of their appearance in the report.
Your text and lab manual can serve as your primary source material, but you should search out and
use other sources. A proper reference for a book should include the name of the author(s), the title,
the publishers, and place and year of publications (e.g., S. E. Kegley, and J. Andrews, The Chemistry
of Water, University Science Books, California, 1998). For a journal article, the reference should
include the name of the author(s), the article title, the journal title and volume number, the year in
which this issue was published and the page numbers on which the article begins (e.g., G. Bassel, N.
Dural, and A. L. Hines, Liquid-liquid equilibria of sulfolane-benzene pentane, Industrial and
Engineering Chemistry Research, Volume 28, 1989, 1369- 1374).

11. Appendices

Extra calculations, derivations, calibrations and methods of analysis should appear in these sections.

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22 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Using Excel (Level 1): Plotting curves using Excel

Here is brief steps to draw a curve using excel:

1. Highlight the data in both columns, and then press Insert Scatter Scatter
with only markers.

You will get the graph (as shown below) without axis title.

2. Remove any letters or words from the graph. Add the title for x-axis (horizontal) as follows:
Layout Axis Titles Primary Horizontal Axis Titles Title Below Axis (then write
the title)

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23 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Then add the title for y-axis (vertical) as follows: Layout Axis Titles Primary
Vertical Axis Titles Rotate Title (then write the title). Do not forget to write the
UNITS as well.

3. If you want to use Linear Trendline option in Excel:

Trendline More Trendline Options select Linear tick Display equation on chart

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21 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Using Excel (Level 2): Applying Curve Fits

Curve Fits Modeling is also known as (Regression Analysis), and it used to find the best
fit line or curve for a series of data points. From that line or curve, an equation can be
produced anywhere along the curve.

Types of Curve Fits Methods

There are two types of curve fits models; (1) Least squares curve fits, and (2) nonlinear
curve fits
Least Squares Curve Fits
1) How Does. It Work?
By minimizing the square of the error between the original data, and the values
predicted by the equation.
2) Advantages of the Least squares curve Fits
Popular, Simple and being well understood
3) Disadvantages of the Least squares curve Fits
Very sensitive to outliers of the data

Types of the Least Squares Curve Fits

1) Linear: = +
2) Polynomial:
a. 2nd Order: = 2 + +
b. 3rd Order: = 3 + 2 + +
3) Exponential: =
4) Power: =
5) Logarithmic = . () +

How to chose your Best Fit Model?

Choosing a model for a particular data set may be a difficult task. Depending
on your field of study, you may find a certain equation that is used on a
regular basis, so,
1) Do some research to see what curve fit is used with the data you have.
2) Use the scatter plot option in the Excel to plot the data, and see the
general shape of the curve.

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How to Apply The Best Fit Model?

1) Use the scatter plot option in the Excel to plot the data, and see the general shape
of the curve

2) The general shape looks linear, so its equation is Y=mX+C (where, m and C are
3) To build the model, you have to put initial estimation values for (m) and (C) (fore
example m=1, c=1)
4) Create a column (Y model) and built its equation (Y=mX+C) (Note: here X=B3,
m=$H2, and C=$I2) ($ is used to freeze the cell while filling the column.

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5) Plot your Curve modle using (x) and (y mole) columns.

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6) As these data are a model not actual data, so it is better to draw them as a line, not
scatter points

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7) As you see, this model doesnt fit the experimental data set, because (m and C)
are not correct values, so, in order to make it fit Least Square Curve Model will be
a. Create (Error^2) column with equation (Ymodel Y)^2 (why squared ?
Because without square some data will be positive an some will be
negative, so in order to exclude all signs square will be applied to all

b. Calculate the submission of all data

c. Since the squared error is high we will try to reduce it by changing the
values of both (me and C) until error become minimum.
d. You can judge your data from (Average Absolute Deviation)
exp erimental theoritica l 100
theoritica l n
e. Create another column (Error Diviation) and use the equation (=Abs(Y-
model Y)/y)*100) and fill the column, then calculate the Average
Absolute Deviation (AAD)

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f. Now, we will use solve to make the irritation to have the minimum value
for (Error^2)
i. DataSolver
ii. Set ObjectiveChose the submission f Error^2
iii. To:Min
iv. By Changing variable cellselect m and C cells.
v. Solve

g. As you see, the Y model becomes fitted to the dataset, and the Error^2
become the minimum, and the AAD is 14.35%

h. The Y model can be improved by removing the outliers (any point lies an
abnormal distance from from other points), and use the solver agan to
recalculate the data. the Error^2 becomes the minimum, and the AAD is

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8) Then, the best fit model based on the least squared

method is Y=2.3X+3.4

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A Practical Guide to Error Analysis

1. The Standard Deviation (SD)

Error analysis of experimental results depends on the type of error estimate. When we do
multiple but identical measurements of the same quantity, we can define the range
(difference between the largest and smallest values of the measurements), the variance
and the Standard Deviation.

The variance, (S), of (n) individual measurements is defined as:

( )

The more commonly used Standard Deviation (SD) of the n measurements is:

( )

In these equations, (n) is the number of independent measurements, (Xi ) is the value of
the measured quantity (X) in the (n) experiment, and (Xave) is the average value of (X)
from then experiments.( SD) is often expressed as a percentage:

% = %

In statistical terms, these equations express the expected random differences between the
results of individual but identical measurements of the same quantity. Assuming a
Gaussian distribution of the measured value, we expect that 67% of the measurements
will be within one SD from the average value, and 95% (one out of twenty) will be
within two SD from the average. In other words, if we would do an additional
experiment, we expect a 67% chance that that measured value will be with one SD from

SD expresses the precision of a number of repeat measurements of the same quantity.

The accuracy of the measured value depends on whether we know what the real value
should be, for instance, if we re-measure a value of a quantity known from the literature
or accurately known by some other method:

% = %

If the experiment only has random errors, a good experimentalist would expect that the
measured Xave is within 1 or 2 SD from the real (literature or otherwise known) value.
If not, we would suspect systematic errors in our measurement method, and a detailed
analysis of each factor in the experimental determination would be required.

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2. Error Propagation Calculations

When we measure a certain quantity, a good engineer must always estimate the error
involved in the measurement, and report the measured value with the estimated error. For
instance, if we measure a height of 84 cm on a manometer with 1 cm accuracy, we
express the height as 84 1 cm.

The (1 cm) is the absolute error in the height. The % (relative) error is (1/84)100% =
(1.2%). Therefore, in subsequent calculations using this cm, it is write cm = 841 (cm)
or = 84 cm 1.2%. The rules for using absolute or relative errors in subsequent
calculations are as follows:
1. For addition and subtraction: absolute error = (absolute errors)
2. For multiplication and division: %error = (% errors)

Example 1:
Weighing the mass of a sample by first weighing an empty beaker, then beaker +
sample, on a 1 mg balance.

1. Mass beaker + sample = 24.319 0.001 g

2. Mass empty beaker = 24.235 0.001 g subtract
3. Mass sample = 0.084 0.002 g or 0.084 g 2.4%

Note that the errors add up, and that a small error in each of the two masses
becomes a large % error when the difference between the masses of the beaker
with and without sample is small!

Example 2:
Determine the density of a liquid by determining the mass of a given volume of
liquid. By using a1.00 mL micropipette (assuming that the 1.00 mL micropipette
delivers a volume of 1.000.02 mL) (0.02 mL half a drop).
Using again the previous 1 mg balance.

1. Mass beaker + 1.00 mL liquid = 25.364 0.001 g

2. Mass empty beaker = 24.235 0.001 g subtract
3. Mass of 1.00 mL liquid = 1.129 0.002 g

So far the method is the same as in the first example. To calculate the density:

() =

Now, by adding the %relative errors:

1. m = 1.129 0.002 g = 1.129 0.18% g
2. V = 1.00 0.02 mL = 1.00 2.0% mL
3. Then, density = 1.129 2.2% g/mL (1.129 0.025 g/mL)

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Note the following:

(1) By applying significant figure rules to the addition of the % errors:
0.18% + 2.0% = 2.2%, not 2.18%.
(2) As a good experimentalist, when we need a more accurate determination of a
measured quantity, we find the factor that contributes the most to the overall error
(in this case the volume of the micropipette), and redesign the experiment, in this
case e.g. by using 25.0 mL transfer pipet instead. Doing so we can bring the
volume error back to 0.2% (0.05 mL). Actually then the weighing error would
be smaller also!
(3) There is no use in reporting error limits (or, for that matter SD values), with more
than 2 significant figures, and in many cases just one significant figure is enough.
For instance, for the mass of the above example, we could simply write m = 1.129
g 0.2%
(4) Calculations such as in the two examples above depend on the ability of the
experimentalist to estimate the errors involved in each individual measurement,
such as the error in the mass (determined by the type of balance used, e.g. 1 mg,
10 mg or 0.1 mg) or the error in the volume delivered. In many cases, depending
on the accuracy required, we can decide on which balance to use. For instance, in
example 2, if we use a 25.0 mL transfer pipet, there is no need to use a 0.1 mg or
even a 1 mg balance, just a 10 mg balance still gives the mass to 0.08% (210
mg error in the difference), still well less than the 0.2% error in the volume. Such
considerations make you into a skilled experimentalist!
(5) The error propagation calculation presented in the two examples above represents
a simple but practical method that will always give us the maximum error limits
of the final result. The pure statistician, as opposed to the practical chemist or
engineer, will say that the error limit we calculated is too large, because chances
are that not all errors work in the same direction. Therefore, from a statistical
point of view, the expected final error limits will be smaller, and given by:
For addition and subtraction: Absolute error = (error )2
For multiplication and division: %Relative error = = (%error )2
(6) If the number of duplicate measurements is relatively small (<5) the method of
adding the absolute (addition/subtraction) or relative (multiplication/division) is
the best and safest method to find estimated error limits with the error propagation

If more detail is needed a full discussion of error limits, statistical methods, and error
propagation calculations can be found for instance in:
D.P. Shoemaker, C.W. Garland, J.W. Nibler, Experiments in Physical Chemistry,
McGraw Hill International Editions, fifth edition, NY, USA, 1989, ISBN 0-07-100398.3
(or other editions of the same volume).

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31 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Fluid Mechanics

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F1: Fluid Friction in Pipes

1. Objective
To determine fluid friction coefficient and Reynolds number for flow of water through a
pipe, and compare it with the head loss observed from direct measurement.

2. Introduction and Theory

Flow losses occur during the flow of real fluids due to friction and turbulence
(eddies). Flow losses in pipes cause pressure losses and must therefore be taken into
account when designing piping systems. A pipe is a closed conduit through which fluid
flows under the pressure. The frictional resistance a fluid is subjected to its flows in a
pipe, which results in a continuous loss of energy, or total head of the fluid.
Osborne Reynolds (1883) found that flows in pipes of different diameters and
different fluids could be related to each other using the dimensionless group named
(Reynolds Number):

= = . ()

Where is the pipe diameter, is the fluid velocity, is the fluid density, is the fluid
viscosity and is the fluid volumetric flow rate.

Reynolds found that as the velocity of the flow increased, its characteristics were changed
from a laminar flow regime that is characterized by smooth and steady low to turbulent
flow regime, which is characterized by fluctuations and agitation in the flow.
Different laws of fluid resistance apply to laminar and turbulent flow. For a given fluid
flowing in a pipe, experiments show that for laminar flow, the hydraulic gradient
(friction losses per unit length) is proportional to the velocity of the flow, whereas for
turbulent flow, a power law relation is more appropriate.
The energy loss per unit mass in a pipe ( )can be determined from the equation

= = . ()

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Since energy loss per unit mass in a pipe ( )can be related to kinetic energy per mass

( ) through Friction Coefficient , i.e.

= . ()


= . ()

In circular pipes

= ( ) . ()

Where () is Fanning friction factor, thus

= ( ) . ()

In terms of head loss (hL = )

= = . ()

The hydraulic gradient

= . ()

So, the Fanning friction factor can be determined experimentally from head loss or
hydraulic gradient.

= . ()

There were different empirical equations for the determination of Fanning friction factor:
1) Fanning friction factor in laminar flow.
The Hagen poiseuille equation is used to determine Fanning friction factor in
laminar flow. This equation is valid for <2000

= . ()

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2) Fanning friction factor in Turbielenr flow.

A. Blasius equation can be used to find Faning friction factor for Newtonian
fluids in smooth tubes quite well over a range of Reynolds numbers from
about 5000 to 105
= . ()
B. Colebrook equation is used to determine Faning friction factor for
Newtonian fluids in Rough Pipes (Transition turbulent zone). In this zone

both Reynold Number and relative roughness affect the friction


= [ + ] . ()


= ( ) . ()

C. In complete turbulent zone (Fully turbulence). Friction factor fis

independent on Reynold number NRe , and is a function only of the relative

roughness . Here, the Reduced Colebrook equation is used to determine

Faning friction factor for Newtonian fluids in Rough pipes.

=( ) . ()
[. /(/)]
=( ) . ()
([. /(/)])

3) Fanning friction factor for All Fow regimes.

Fanning friction factor can be determined for all regimes by either Churchill
equation, or by Moodys Chart.

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A. Churchill equation (1977) can be used for all flow regimes, where it
represents the Fanning friction factor over the entire range of Reynolds
numbers within the accuracy of the data used to construct the Moody
diagram, including a reasonable estimate for the intermediate or transition
region between laminar and turbulent flow.

( )

= [( ) + ] . ()
( + )/

= . . . ()

+ .
[ ( )]
=( ) . ()

B. Moodys Chart

Figure 1: Moody Chart (Redrawn, Ron Darby, 2011)

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(1) The laminar region (for NRe < 2000) is described by the theoretical
HagenPoiseuille equation. In laminar flow the only fluid property that
influences friction loss is the viscosity (because the density cancels out).
Furthermore, the roughness has a negligible effect in laminar flow, as will
be explained shortly.
(2) The critical zone is the range of transition from laminar to turbulent
flow, which corresponds to values of NRe from about 2000 to 4000. Data
are not very reproducible in this range, and correlations are unreliable.
(3) The so-called transition zone in is the region where the friction factor
depends strongly on both the Reynolds number and relative roughness.
(4) The region in the upper right of the diagram where the lines of constant
roughness are horizontal is called complete turbulence, rough pipes or
fully turbulent. In this region the friction factor is independent of
Reynolds number (i.e., independent of viscosity) and is a function only of
the relative roughness.
(5) For turbulent flow in smooth tubes, the semiempirical Blasius models
represent the friction factor quite well. Whether a tube is hydraulically
smooth or rough depends upon.

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3. Experimental Setup and Procedure

Figure 2: Front View of the The experimental unit: (GUNT HM150.11)

The test apparatus (GUNT HM 150.11) allows to study the pressure losses in
pipes, piping elements and shut-off devices. In addition, the differential pressure method
is presented for measuring the flow rate.
The experimental unit contains six different pipe sections capable of being shut
off individually. The pipe sections are equipped with piping elements such as bends,
elbows and branches. In one pipe section, different shut-off devices and measuring
objects are installed to determine the flow rate. The measuring objects are made of
transparent material and provide excellent insight into the inner structure. The pressure
measuring points in the piping system are designed as annular chambers. This creates a
largely interference-free pressure measurement.
The experiments measure the pressure losses in pipes and piping elements, such
as branches and bends. The opening characteristic of the shut-off devices are also
recorded. The pressures are measured with tube manometers.
The experimental unit is easily positioned and securely on the work surface of the

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HM 150 base module. The water is supplied and the flow rate measured by HM 150.
Alternatively, the experimental unit can be operated by the laboratory supply.

Technical Data
(1) Internal diameter of pipe work at the first measuring section d = 0.0168 m
Measuring length = 800 mm
(2) The internal diameter of the pipework at the second measuring section= d =
Measurement length= 500 mm
(3) Roughness of pipe= 0.001 mm

1. Connect The pressure gauge to desired measuring points (pipe 1, L=0.8 m,
2. Switch on the pump. Close the valve completely and check whether both levels of
manometers are same.
3. Start with lowest flow rate possible.
4. Take the manometer reading and measure flow rate by taking volume and time
reading.[Hint: make sure you take the time approximately close to 1 minute to
minimize the time error].
5. Repeat the same step for Pipe#2 [L=0.5 m, D=0.0268 m].

4. Report Requirements
1) Construct a relation between the flow rate and Reynold Number. Discuss the
obtained trend.
2) Calculate the Fanning friction factor of the pipe for each flow rate using equation
3) Using equation (9), construct a relation between head loss and velocity to find the
Fanning friction factor.
4) Calculate the friction coefficient of the pipe for each flow rate using equation (4)
5) Using equation (4), construct a relation between pressure loss and velocity to find

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the friction factor.

6) Find the Fanning friction factor theoretically using Hagen poiseuille, Blasius,
Colebrook, Reduced Colebrook and Churchill equations.
7) Construct a relation between fanning friction factor and Reynold Number. Fit the

model = using least Least Squares Curve Fits. Find values of A and B.

8) Simulation part: using theoretical calculation- find the pressure drop due to
friction in pipe flow for a fixed flow rate and length of pipe but vary the pipe
diameter as 0.0168 m, 0.02 m,0.025 m & 0.03 m. Hence establish the relation
between pressure drop and pipe diameter.
9) Ask your Instructor on the visualization model to show the effect of static head
and pipe diameter on the pressure drop.

5. References
1) Ron Darby. Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics, Ed.2. CRC Press (2001)
2) J.O Wilkes, Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers, Prentice Hall, Boston,
3) GUNT Instruction Manual, HM150.11 Fluid Friction Apparatus.

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6. Experimental Data Log Sheet for Experiment (F1)

Group Number:
Team Members Name: Student I.D. #:

Pipe# 1 (d = 0.0168 m):L=800 mm

S.No Volume Time h1 h2

Liter sec cm of H2O cm of H2O

Outlet water temperature ...0C


Instructor signature: Date:

Dr. Ahmed Elkhatat

41 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

F2: Flow Meter Demonstration Apparatus

1. Objective
1) To demonstrate the application of flow meters in the measurement of flow
rate and velocity in a pipe.
2) To find the values of discharge coefficient Cd of Venturi- and Orifice
meters experimentally.
3) To calibrate Venturi- and Orifice meters
4) To investigate the pressure recovery in Venturi- and Orifice meters

2. Introduction and Theory

Most common methods for measuring the flow rate in pipes include: Pitot-tube, Nozzle,
Venturi, and Orifice flow meters. There are also other comprehensive flow meters such
as Turbine, Vane, Coriolis, Ultrasonic and Magnetic flow meters.
Venturi Flow meter
Venturi Flowmeter is referred to as Obstruction meter, because the basic principle
involves introduction an obstruction into the flow channel, and then measuring the
pressure drop across the obstruction, which is related to the flow rate. Fluid flows through
a reduced area, which results in an increase in the velocity at that point.
The corresponding change in pressure between point 1 (upstream of the constriction) and
point 2 (at the position of the minimum area) is measured and is then related to the flow
rate through the energy balance.
The velocities are related by the continuity equation, and the Bernoulli equation relates
the velocity change to the pressure change.

Figure 1:Schematic diagram of Venturi Flowmeter (on the left), and Industrial
Venturi Flow meter (on the right) (Source: Control Plus INC)

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The Volumetric flow rate can be determined using the following equation,

( )
= . . ()
( )

Where is Discharge Coefficient that included to account for the non

idealities in the system (friction and deviation from the plug flow).
Miller (1983) described ( ) as a function of (() ) for > 4000by general

= + . . ()
Table 1: Discharge Coefficient terms of Miller (1983) for different types of Venturi
flow meter

Orifice Flow meter

Orifice Flowmeter is also referred to as Obstruction meter, because the basic principle
involves introduction an obstruction into the flow channel, and then measuring the
pressure drop across the obstruction, which is related to the flow rate. In the Orifice meter
the fluid stream that leaves the orifice hole contracts to an area considerably smaller than
that of the orifice hole itself (due to the inward radial momentum). This is called Vena
Contracta. Due to Vena Contracta there is an abrupt and uncontrolled expansion of the
fluid stream downstream of the orifice, which leads to considerable eddying and
dissipation of more energy, resulting in a significantly higher net friction loss and lower
pressure recovery.

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Contraction Ratio for Vena Contracta (CC)= 2 = ( 2 ) . (For highly turbulent

flow 0.6)

Figure 2:Schematic diagram of Orifice Flowmeter

The Volumetric flow rate can be determined using the following equation,

( )
= . . ()
( )

Where is Discharge Coefficient that included to account for the non

idealities in the system (friction and deviation from the plug flow).
Miller (1983) described ( ) as a function of (() ) for > 4000by general

= +
Miller Chart (Figure 3) can be also used to find the discharge coefficient for
orifice meters (note = )

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Table 2: Discharge Coefficient terms of Miller (1983) for different types of Orifice
flow meter

Fig 3: Miller (1983) Chart for Orifice Flow Meter (Ron Darby, 2011)

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Determination of Disharge Coefficient (Cd) of Venturi and Orifice Flow

Meters Experimentally
Discharge coefficient (Cd) can be determined by constructing a relation between, Timed
Flow Rate (Qt) (Actual Flow rate) and Orifice or Venturi meter flow rate supposing that
(Cd) is 1 (Ideal flow rates) (Qi). The slope is then (Cd). The actual flow rate is equal to the
volume of fluid collected divided by the time needed to collect, or can be determined
through a calibrated Rotameter.
= . . ()

Determination of Disharge Coefficient (Cd) of Orifice Flow Meters by

iteration (when Q is unknown)
If head loss, density, pipe and flow meter diameters are given, but the flow rate is needed
i.e. { , , , , } are given, but { , } is to be found, then the following steps will
be conducted:
1) Assume that ( ) Is 0.61 (in orifice) or 0.98 (in Venturi) and calculate ( ).

( )
( )

2) Using ( ) determine (()1 ). Where =

3) Using (()1 ). Calculate ( ) using Miller equation (eq.2) or graph (Fig 3)

4) If ( ) doesnt match ( ) then use ( ) to obtain ( ).
5) Repeat [Steps 2-4] until there are no more changes.

Friction Loss in The Orifice meter

Loss coefficient can be determined based on the velocity through the pipe
( )( )
= . . ()

Also, Loss coefficient can be determined based on the velocity through the Orifice

( )( )
= . . ()

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3. Experimental Setup and Procedure

The equipment consists of a Venturi meter, variable area meter and orifice plate, installed
in a series configuration to permit direct comparison. A flow control valve permits
variation of the flow rate through the circuit. Pressure tappings are incorporated so that
the head loss characteristics of each flow meter may be measured. These tappings are
connected to an eight-tube manometer bank incorporating a manifold with an air bleed
Pressurisation of the manometers is facilitated by a hand pump. The circuit and
manometer are attached to a support framework, which stands on the working top of the
Hydraulics Bench. The bench is used as the source of water supply and for volumetrically
calibrating each flow meter.

Figure 3: Front view of the experimental unit

Technical Details

Plate diameter: 20 mm
Orifice Pipe diameter: 51.9 mm

Throat diameter: 16 mm
Pipe diameter: 26 mm

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Figure 4: Calibration graph of the Rotameter1

(1) Open the apparatus valve until the Rotameter shows a reading of approximately
10 mm.
(2) When a steady flow is maintained measure the reading of Rotameter and record
the readings of the manometers in observation table 2.
(3) Repeat this procedure for a number of equidistant values of Rotameter readings
up to the point in which the maximum pressure values can be recorded from the

4. Report requirements
1. Derive the equation of Flow meter from both energy balance and mass balance
2. Find the discharge coefficient of both Venturi and Orifice meters experimentally,
and discuss the difference between the discharge coefficient for Venturi and

Calibration was conducted by Eng. Arshad
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48 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

3. Find the discharge coefficient of orifice meter using Miller (1983) chart, and
compare it with that one obtained experimentally.
4. Use the iteration method described above to calculate the flow rate of the Orifice
flow meter, and compare it with a flow rate obtained from Rotameter
5. Calculate % pressure recovery for both flow meters. Comment on the values with
6. Calculate the loss coefficient in the Orifice meter, Discuss it.

5. References
(1) Ron Darby. Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics, Ed.2. CRC Press (2001).
(2) J.O Wilkes, Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers, Prentice Hall, Boston,

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6. Experimental Data Log Sheet for Experiment (F2)


Group Number:

Team Members Name: Student I.D. #:


Venturi Flow Meter Orifice Flow Meter
S.No Rotameter (cm)
h1 (mm) h2 (mm) h3 (mm) h1 (mm) h2 (mm) h3 (mm)


Instructors Signature: Date:

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F3: Energy Losses in Bends and Fittings

1. Objectives
The purpose of this experiment is to study the pressure (head) losses through some
common types fittings and valve common to piping systems. The losses, called minor
losses, will be evaluated in the form of the loss coefficient K and compared with the

theoretical values.

2. Introduction and Theory

Bends are provided in pipes to change the direction of flow through it, while enlargement
and contraction fitting are used to connect pipes of different sizes.
In long pipelines, the friction losses are much larger than these (minor losses) due to
fittings. Hence, the latter is often neglected. But, in shorter pipelines, their consideration
is necessary for the correct estimate of losses.
The pressure drop (or head loss) due to bends and fittings can be determined by

= ()

= . ()

Where is the loss coefficient in bends and fittings. It is practically

constant at high Reynolds number ( > ) for a particular flow
geometry,and is usually the velocity in the pipe upstream of the bends.

Determination of Loss Coefficient Experimentally

Loss coefficient in bents and fittings can be determined experimentally using equation (1)
or (2) for each flow rate . For turbulent regime, where Loss Coefficent is constant, it can
be determined by construction a relation between head loss and dynamic head, so, loss
coefficient can be determined from the slope.

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In case of enlargement and contraction fittings, and due to changes in the cross section
area,there is a change in the static pressure. Thus, in order to compensate for this change
a correction to the kinetic energy should be involved.
1) For Sudden Epansion (Enlargement):
Head loss in the expansion ( ) is equal to the measured static pressure

( ) plus correction for kinetic head due to expansion ( ( )).

Loss coefficient for contraction can then be determined by:


2) For Sudden Contraction:

Head loss in the contraction ( ) is equal to the measured static pressure

( ) minus correction for kinetic head ( ( )). Loss coefficient

for contraction can then be determined by:


Determination of Loss Coefficient Theoretically

There are several correlation expressions for ( ). However, their accuracy are not the
same, so hereunder they are listed in order of increasing accuracy.
(1) Tabulated Loss Coefficient.
(2) Equivalent L/D Method.
(3) Crane Method.
(4) 2K Method (Hooper Method).
(5) 3k Method (Darby Method).

(1) Tabulated Loss Coefficient.

Values of ( ) are tabulated in several references (Textbooks and Handbooks), as a

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constant value for a given type of fitting or valve.

However, there are not accurate, because ( ) varies with both size (scale) of fitting
and the degree of the turbulence ( )

(2) Equivalent L/D Method.

This correlation assumes that there is some length of pipe ( ) that has the same friction
loss as that which occurs in fittings at given degree of turbulence ( ).

= ( )

( ) is the loss coefficient of the fitting or valve.
() is the fanning friction factor in the pipe at the given pipe &.

( ) is tabulated in various references.

(3) Crane method

Crane method is a modification of (L/D) method, where it recognizes that there is a
higher degree of turbulence in the fitting comparing with the pipe at given ( ).

= 4 ( ) where = 2

[log(3.7 )]

(4) 2K (Hooper) Method

2K method is based on experimental data in various valves and firrings over a wide
range of ( ).

= + ( + )

, : 2K loss coefficient parameters.
:Internal diameter of the pipe that contains the fitting (in inches).

(5) 3K (Darby) Method.

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Darby (2001) represented ( ) more accurately by 3K equation.

= + ( + . )

, , , : 3K loss coefficient parameters.

, :nominal pipe size (in inches).

Table (1): 3-KConstants for Loss Coefficient (Darby, 2011)

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Table (2): Loss Coefficient of Contraction and Expansion (Darby, 2011)

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3. Experimental Setup and Procedure

Description of experimental setup
The equipment is mounted on a free-standing framework, which supports the test
pipework and instrumentation. The following typical pipe fittings are incorporated for
study: mitre bend, 90 elbow, swept bends (large and small radius), sudden contraction
and sudden enlargement. All are instrumented with upstream and downstream pressure
tappings. These tappings are connected to a bank of 12 water manometer tubes, mounted
on the framework. Pressurisation of the manometers is facilitated by a hand pump. A gate
valve is used to control the flow rate.
A separate gate valve is instrumented with upstream and downstream pressure tappings,
which are connected to a differential gauge on the edge of the framework. The unit stands
on the working top of the Hydraulics Bench, which is also used as the source of water

Figure 1. Energy Losses in Bends Apparatus (Front View on the left ) and
(Apparatus Diagram on the right)

Technical Details

Pipe diameter: 19.48mm

Differential pressure gauge: 0-3 bar
Enlargement diameter: 26.2mm
Contraction diameter: 19.48mm
45 mitre, Elbow, Short bend, Large bend, Enlargement,

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Experimental Procedure
Experiment 1:

Measure loss across all the pipe fittings except the gate valve, which should be
kept fully open. Adjust the flow from the bench control valve and, at a given flow rate.
Start with lowest flow rate possible (idea is to have laminar flow regime for 2-3
trials) and then take height reading from all of the manometers after the levels have
steadied. In order to determine the volume flow rate, you should carry out a timed
volume collection using the volumetric tank .This is achieved by closing the ball valve
and measuring with a( stop watch) time taken to accumulate a known volume of fluid in
the tank, which is read from the sight glass. You should collect fluid for at least one
minute to minimize time errors.
Repeat this procedure to give a total of at least five sets of measurements of flow rate.

Experiment 2:

Measure loss across gate valve only. Clamp off the connecting tubes to the miter bend
pressure taping (to prevent air being drown into the system). Start with the gate valve
closed and open fully both the bench valve and the test rig flow control valve. Now open
the gate valve by approximately 25% (After taking up any back lash). For each of at least
5 flow rates, measure pressure drop across the valve from the pressure gauge; adjust the
flow rate by the use of the test rig flow control valve. Once measurements have started,
do not adjust the gate valve. Determine the volume flow rate by timed collections.

( Note: In order to open desire % of GATE valve, count no. of turns required to open the
valve completely and then open number of required turn for given % opening).

4. Report Requirement
(1) Using equation (1) or (2) determines the loss coefficient of the different fittings
you have. Compare between (Kf )of laminar and (Kf ) of turbulent flow regimes.
(2) Construct a relation using equation (1) or (2) to obtain the loss coefficient.
Discuss your results..

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(3) From literature, find most possible theoretical expressions of (Kf).Compare them
with experimental results, and discuss the results.
(4) Study the relation between (Kf)and Reynold number.

5. References

(1) Ron Darby. Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics, Ed.2. CRC Press (2001).
(2) Armfield Instruction Manual, Losses in the bends F1-22, March 2004.

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6. Experimental Data Log Sheet for Experiment (F3)


Group Number:

Team Members Name: Student I.D. #:



Table1. Raw Data Run#1

Manometer Manometer Vol
Fitting h1 h2 V
(mm) (mm) Liter
Table2. Raw Data Run#2
Manometer Manometer Vol
Fitting h1 h2 V
(mm) (mm) Liter

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Table3. Raw Data Run#3

Manometer Manometer Vol
Fitting h1 h2 V
(mm) (mm) Liter

Table4. Raw Data Run#4

Manometer Manometer Vol
Fitting h1 h2 V
(mm) (mm) Liter

Table5. Raw Data Run#5

Manometer Manometer Vol
Fitting h1 h2 V
(mm) (mm) Liter

Table6. Raw Data Run#6

Manometer Manometer Vol
Fitting h1 h2 V
(mm) (mm) Liter

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25% open
Gauge Reading Flow Rate Measurement

P1 (Bar) P2 (Bar) volume(L) Time (sec)

50% open
Gauge Reading Flow Rate Measurement

P1 (Bar) P2 (Bar) volume(L) Time (sec)


Instructor signature Date:

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F4: Centrifugal Pump Performance

1. Objective:

To obtain the characteristic curves such as the Input Power (P), efficiency (), and
the head generated (H) by the pump with respect to the flow rate (Q) obtained for a single
stage centrifugal pump operating at inherent speed and to use these pump curves to
explain and demonstrate the concepts of power management, energy conservation, and
cost savings (having to do with required pump power and pressures).

2. Background and Theory

Most of Pumps can be broadly classified into: (1) Positive Displacement Pumps that
characterized by constant flow rate and variable head, and (2) Centrifugal Pumps, which
characterized by constant head and variable flow rate. The operation of centrifugal pump
is based on the transfer of the kinetic energy (angular momentum) from the rotating
impeller to the Fluid.

Figure (1) Centrifugal Pump (on the left; schematic diagram, and on the right;
industrial centrifugal pump) (Source:

Working Principle Of Centrifugal Pump

When the fluid enters the eye of the impeller (figure 1), its kinetic energy and momentum
are then increased by the high speed of the rotating impeller.The kinetic energy is then
converted to pressure energy (Head) in the volute. Centrifugal pumps are characterized
by a constant head that determined from the pump design, shape, size and the speed and

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size of the impeller, However, the volumetric flow rate (Capacity) of the centrifugal
pump depends on the flow resistance of the system, thats why it is variable.
This type of pump has two main components: an impeller and a stationary housing.
The impeller consists of a number of blades, usually curved, arranged in a regular pattern
around the shaft. Figure 1 is a picture of the different type of impellers used in the
centrifugal pump.

Pump Performance
Real pumps are never ideal and the performance of the pumps is determined
experimentally by the manufacturer and typically given in terms of pump curves.
Typically performance is given by curves of:
The operating characteristics of a centrifugal pump may be described or illustrated by
using graphs of pump performance. The three most commonly used graphical
representations of pump performance are:
(1) Efficiency versus capacity.
(2) Power versus capacity.
(3) Head versus capacity.
(4) NPSH versus capacity.

[1] Pump Efficiency

Real pumps are never ideal where the work that's put into the fluid by the pump ()
(or the Hydraulic Power ) doesnt equal to work put into the pump from the motor
engine ( ) (or the Shaft power ) due to an energy loss from motor to pump.
However, this energy dissipation cant be characterized, so it is accounted for by pump

= = = . . ()

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[2] Pump Power

It usually refers to the mechanical power input (motor, engine) to the pump (Shaft Power)
as pump power, while that power by the fluid into the pump is referred as hydraulic
Hydraulic Power: is equal to force times speed
= = . . ()

Mechanical Power: is equal to torque () times angular speed ()of the motor.
= = () = . . ()
-Where N=rotational speed of pump in RPM.

Since =

= = . . ()

[3] Pump Head
By solving equations (3) and (4) for pump head


= ()

From equation (5) it is obvious that:
So, Pump head is determined primarily by impeller size (R) and speed, and
pump efficiency.
Pump Head is independent of Fluid density, Thus, centrifugal pump develops the
same head regardless of its density or SP.GR.
Although Pump Head is independent of flow rate of the fluid, However, there is
a limitation of the flow that a given pump can handle. When, flow rate
approaches that limit, the developed head starts to drop off.
The maximum efficiency of most pumps occurs near the flow rate where the
head starts to drop significantly.
The head that is observed at the time when the flow is zero is called the shutoff
head and it simply means that the discharged valve is closed.
The optimum conditions for operation occur when the required 'duty point' of
head and flow coincides with a point of maximum efficiency. This point is
called Best efficiency point (BEP), Figure (2).

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Figure (2) Centrifugal Pump Performance (Characteristic) Curves

[4] Required Pump Head

The required pump head is also known as (system curve) or (operating curve), and it can
be produced from the energy balance equation.

+ + + = + + . ()

Where, is for the flow regime ( =1 if flow regime is turbulent, and =2

if the flow regime is laminar).
Kinetic head is usually neglected.
Thus, energy balance equation can be written as (figure 3)

+ () + = + + () . ()

Figure (3) Representation of discharge head, suction head and total static head
(Source: Redrawn from
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Note that:
Liquid flows from the suction side to the discharge side.

Suction head is head available just before the pump, = +

Discharge head is the head of the exit from the pump, = + +

Pump head is head required for the pump, =

Thus, head required for the pump can be obtained by rearranging equation (7)

= + ( ) + (() + () )

Where = ( ) and, includes all pipes, fittings, etc

= + ( ) + ( ) . ()

Note that:
Equation (8) is System Pump Head Equation (System Curve).
Pump Head is a quadratic function of Q for highly turbulent flow (i.e. Constant )
Pump Head is a linear function of Q at laminar flow, because value is inversely
proportional to Reynold number.

Figure (4) Pump and System Curve

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3. Experimental Setup and Procedure

[1] Experimental Setup
The equipment comprises of a centrifugal water pump driven by an electric
motor, which is mounted on a support plinth together with a clear acrylic reservoir and
associated pipe work for continuous circulation. Clean water is used as the operating fluid
and a drain valve at the base of the reservoir allows the water to be drained after use.
Appropriate sensors are incorporated on the unit to facilitate analysis of the pump
performance when connected to a suitable computer via an interface device (IFD). In
addition to the tapings required by the pressure sensors. The flow of water through the
centrifugal pump is regulated by a flow control valve installed in the discharge pipework
of the pump. Adjustment of this valve allows the head/flow produced by the pump to be
varied. The pump intake valve allows the effect of suction losses to be investigated.

Figure (5) Experimental Setup

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[2.1] Preparation of Experiment

Figure (6) Preperation of Experiment

[2.2] Experimental Procedure

Figure (7) Experimental Procedure

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[2.3]Using Sofware

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Figure (8) Using Software

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Technical Details
Orifice diameter d = 0.018m, Orifice discharge coefficient Cd = 0.61
Cross-sectional area of the pump inlet A1= 0.00029865 m2
Change in elevation head (Vertical distance between inlet and outlet = 0.048 m

4. Report requirements
(1) Calculate flow rate using orifice data for each case. Create a new column in
EXCEL sheet for this flow rate.
(2) Calculate efficiency using the flow rate you calculated (not from excel program),
and replace this efficiency with one calculated by the program.
(3) Generate pump characteristic curves by plotting Head, power input and efficiency
vs. flow rate for all the speed you studied. Discuss the trend in detail and justify it
and compare with the ideal pump curve one. Find BEP (best efficiency point) on
the graph.
(4) Generate a system curve for the giving pipe flow system provided by the
instructor (contact instructor to get data for system curve). Find the operating
point of the pump using system curve and pump curve.
(5) Create a suitable model for the relation between system curve and pump capacity,
and correlate this model with theory.

5. References
(1) Ron Darby. Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics, Ed.2. CRC Press (2001).
(2) J.O Wilkes, Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers, Prentice Hall, Boston,
(3) Armfield Instruction Manual, Centrifugal pump demonstration unit FM 20,
January 2005.

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Heat Transfer

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H1: Conduction along a Simple Bar

1. Objectives

To solve the heat equation for a general long solid rod and to compare theoretical
predictions with the actual temperature measurements made in the lab.
To find thermal conductivity of brass and compare it with the value in the

2. Introduction and Theory

Conduction is defined as the transfer of energy from more energetic particles to

adjacent less energetic particles as a result of interactions between the particles. In solids,
conduction is the combined result of molecular vibrations and free electron mobility.
Metals typically have high free electron mobility, which explains why they are good heat
Conduction is defined as the transfer of energy from more energetic particles to
adjacent less energetic particles as a result of interactions between the particles. In solids,
conduction is the combined result of molecular vibrations and free electron mobility.
Metals typically have high free electron mobility, which explains why they are good heat
Perhaps the simplest phenomenon that can be modeled by the heat equation is
heat conduction in a long uniform rod. In most instances heat conduction occurs in three
dimensions: a situation that is complicated to analyze. In the laboratory, we use an
apparatus that exhibits one-dimensional heat flow to demonstrate the basic concepts
associated with the heat equation. The heat conduction apparatus consists of a cylindrical
metal bar that is insulated. The metal bar is electrically heated with constant wattage on
one end while the other end is exposed to cooling water. The cooling water is supplied
when the tubes from the back of the apparatus and the electric cooler are attached. The
cylinder is fitted with temperature sensors at evenly spaced locations along the rod. We
will also assume that all the heat flows in the axial direction due to an imposed
temperature as the bar is insulated in the peripheral direction

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Figure 1. Schematic of a long Cylindrical Insulated Bar

If a plan wall of a thickness (x) and area (Ax) supports a temperature difference (T),
then according to Fourier law the heat transfer rate per unit time (q) by conduction
through the wall is found to be:

q x Ax (1)
q x kAx (2)
Where (q) is the conduction heat flow in the x direction, (Ax) is the cross sectional
area normal to the (x) direction and (k) is the thermal conductivity. The negative sign
implies that heat is transferred in the direction of decreasing temperature. In more general
cases, Fourier's Law becomes a vector relationship, which includes all directions of heat
q (iq x jq y kqz ) k (i j k ) (3)
x y z

The thermal conductivity (k) varies between different materials and can be a
function of temperature. Because of the enhancement of heat transfer by free electrons,
thermal conductivity is analogous to electrical conductivity and hence, metals that are
good conductors of electricity are also good conductors of heat. Figure 2 shows the
thermal conductivity of various materials at low pressures.

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Figure 2. Thermal conductivity vs. temperature of various materials

3. Experimental
3.1 Description of Experimental Setup
The apparatus we will be using in this experiment is the H940 Heat Conduction
Unit. There are four items to this unit. The first item is the transformer with a circuit
breaker attached. The transformer consists of two cords, one of which plugs into an AC
outlet and the other into the calibration unit.
The second item is the calibration unit. The calibration unit has two basic
functions. One, it delivers heater power to the heater element within the test unit, and
two, it calibrates the temperatures at each of the nine positions so they can be read by the
digital meter. The far right knob adjusts the amount of power delivered to the heater. The
knob to the left is the temperature selector switch, which will give the temperature at any

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of the eight positions (Figure 3).

Figure 3. Front View of the Test Unit

The third item is the test unit. The test unit consist two test geometries, an
insulated brass bar for which samples can be placed between the two ends and an
insulated disk. Both of these test geometries have a hose running through the cold end for
which cold water from the sink can be passed through (Figure 6-3-2). The purpose of
having cold water running through the end of the bar or disk is to remove heat that is
produced form the other end. Once the rate at which heat is generated is equal to the rate
at which heat is removed, steady state equilibrium conditions will exist. At this point the
temperatures will be constant throughout the bar or disk and readings can be taken. There
are two heater cords, one from the test bar and the other from the test disk. The cord for
the desired test connects into the heater plug located in the lower right hand corner of the
calibration unit.
The last item of the conduction unit is a box that contains the samples,
thermocouples, and conducting paste. The samples can be placed in the bar test unit by

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releasing the clamps and sliding the cold bar end out. The samples fit in only one way.
The thermocouples must be placed in order from 1 to 8. There is a label on both the
calibration unit and the test unit letting you know was the number 1 thermocouple starts.
The conducting paste is a highly conductive compound which is designed to decrease
contact resistance when applied to the ends of the connecting bars.
Useful Data: brass sample Diameter: 25 mm
distances between the thermocouple sensors are as follows
x1-2 = x2-3 = x3-4 = x4-5 = x5-6 = x6-7 = x7-8 = 0.015m

3.2 Experimental Procedures

Take a brass sample (25 mm Diameter) and coat each end including the apparatus
with conducting compound.

**Please note that the distances between the thermocouple sensors are as follows
x1-2 = x2-3 = x3-4 = x4-5 = x5-6 = x6-7 = x7-8 = 0.015m

Insert the brass sample to the test unit.

Allow a fair amount of cold water to flow through the test unit.
Select an intermediate position for the heater power control and allow sufficient
time (20-30 min.) for a steady state condition to be achieved. If temperature does
not stabilize after 30 minutes, assume steady state.
Record the temperature (T) at all eight sensor points and the input power reading
on the wattmeter (q) in Table 6-6-1.
Repeat the procedure for two other input powers keeping the equilibrium
temperature below 100o C. After each change, allow sufficient time (30 min.) to
achieve steady state conditions.
4. Safety Guidelines:

To avoid burns, do not touch any metal or plastic surfaces on the hot end of the
sample or test unit.
Avoid using a high cooling water flow to prevent disconnection of the hose from
the test unit.
Do not exceed 20 W power delivery under any circumstances, and do not allow
the temperature to go above 100 C at any of the thermocouple locations.

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Avoid using too much conducting paste as this may fry the unit.

5. Report Requirements
Derive governing energy equation (unsteady state included) for the heat
conduction case you studied in the lab. (Hint: Start with generation energy
equation and cancel the term not applicable to your case).
Write boundary and initial conditions.
Plot temperature profile along the length of cylinder at t=5min, 10 min, 15
minute, 20 min and 30 min. Comment on the plot with respect to the variation
with time. Did to get the steady state profile.
Plot steady state temperature profile and find thermal conductivity of brass
sample using slop of the temperature profile. Compare the value of thermal
conductivity with the values given in text.

6. References
J.P Holman, Heat Transfer, McGraw Hill, 2002.
Experimental. Operating and Maintenance Manual, PA HILTON, December

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Experimental Data Log Sheet for Experiment (H2)


Group Number:

Team Members Name: Student I.D. #:


X (m) 0 0.015 0.03 0.045 0.06 0.075 0.09 0.105

Temperature reading at applied V=___________ volts, I=__________ amps

Time T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8
q (W)
(oC) (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC)



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Temperature reading at applied V=_______ volts, I=______ amps

Time V I T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8
q (W)
(min) (volts) (Amps)
(oC) (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC)





Temperature reading at applied V=_______________volts, I=__________ amps

Time V I T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8
q (W)
(min) (volts) (Amps)
(oC) (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC)






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Instructor signature Date:

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H2. Lumped capacity model

Objective: To validate lumped capacity unsteady state heat transfer model.


The lumped capacitance experiment tests the principle of lumped capacitance as a

model of transient head conduction. This model determines whether or not the
temperature gradient in a specific material is small enough to be negligible during
transient heat conduction, in which case the system can be considered uniform in
temperature. Transient heat conduction occurs when the object experiences a sudden
change in its thermal environment. If a hot object is submersed in a cool liquid, the
object will decrease in temperature over a duration of time until it reaches the
temperature of the liquid. This change in temperature occurs due to convection between
the object and the cooler water. The lumped capacitance model assumes that the
temperature gradient (which must exist if heat is to be conducted into or out of the
material) is negligible. Generally, the smaller the object, the better model this will be.
We assume that the temperature distribution in the object depends on the thermal
conductivity of the object material and the heat transfer conditions from the surface of the
object to the cooler liquid. Uniform temperature distribution will likely occur if the
resistance to heat transfer by conduction is small compared to the convection resistance at
the surface, so that the temperature gradient is not within the object but rather through the
liquid at the objects surface. An energy balance shows that the convection heat loss is
verification of a decrease in the internal energy of the object

q hA(T T ) c
and with initial condition T T0 at 0 the equation can be solved as
e cV
T0 T
which is the lumped capacity model in equation form. The results of the experimental
analysis should indicate that the difference between the object and liquid temperature
decay exponentially to zero as the time reaches infinity. The time constant is dependent
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on the lumped thermal capacitance and resistance of the object to convection heat
transfer. The verification of the Biot number must first be established to determine the
validity of using the lumped capacitance model. This dimensionless number

hV A
must be less than 0.1 for the lumped capacity model to apply. The thermal conductivity
(k) is assumed constant, and all other quantities can be determined either directly from
the experiment or through analysis of the experimental results.

Useful data:

Diameter of sphere= 45 mm

Material of sphere: stainless steel

Experimental set up :

special instrument for lumped system.

Figure # ( 1 ) : Experimental Set up.

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Experimental procedure

Switch on the heater of water bath.

Set the temperature of water bath around 60-80 oc.
Open the data acquisition software.
After the water temperature stabilizes at set temperature put the steel ball in water
bath and start recording the temperature using software.
After temperature reached steady state stop taking data.
Cooling in room temperature. Take the steel ball out and again start recording
temperature data until next 40-50 minute. This will be the case of cooling at
ambient temperature.
Report requirements

1. Start with general energy balance to develop lumped capacity model equation for
unsteady state heat transfer for sphere (This can be done in theory part)
2. Case 1 (heating the shape in constant temperature bath): plot the temperature of
shape with time. Find the temperature of shape at t=1 minute. Using the lumped
capacity equation and this temperature value at given time, calculate heat transfer
coefficient of hot water inside bath. compare this value with the expected value of
3. Calculate Biot number by using calculated value of h and known values of
thermal conductivity & diameter of sphere. comment on the value with respect to
the validity of lumped capacity model.
4. Case 2: Cooling of hot sphere at room temperature: search for the value of
convective heat transfer coefficient h for the case you studied (table 4-1 in your
heat transfer text book could be helpful). Calculate Biot number for the case you
studied. Comment on the value.
5. Draw temperature profile with time (cooling). Discuss the trend in detail. Plot
theoretical temperature on the same plot , compare both and discuss. Find the
value of h for air for which theoretical and experimental plot exactly matches.
compare this value with the one you found in literature.

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H3: Heat Exchanger

1. Objectives:

To demonstrate the differences between co current flow (flows in same direction)

and countercurrent flow (flows in the opposite direction) and the effect on the
heat transferred, over all efficiency, temperature efficiencies and temperature
profiles through a Tubular Heat Exchanger.
To determine the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient for a Tubular Heat Exchanger
using the Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference to perform the calculations
(for co current and countercurrent flow).
To determine the theoretical over all heat transfer coefficient for co and counter
current heat exchanger and compare with the experimental one.
To find the effect of varying the temperature of hot fluid on heat transfer

2. Background

The process of heat exchange between two fluids that are at different temperatures
and separated by a solid wall occurs in many engineering applications. The device used
to implement this exchange is called a heat exchanger, and specific applications may be
found in space heating and air-conditioning, power production, waste heat recovery and
chemical processing. Heat exchangers are typically classified according to flow
arrangement and type of construction. In the first classification, flow can be
countercurrent or cocurrent (also called parallel). On the other hand, according to their
configuration, heat exchangers can be labeled as tubular, plate and shell & tube heat
The tubular heat exchanger is the simplest form of heat exchanger and consists of
two concentric (coaxial) tubes carrying the hot and cold fluids. Heat is transferred to/from
one fluid in the inner tube from/to the other fluid in the outer annulus via the metal wall

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which separates the two fluids.

3. Theory
3.1 Experimental approach
3.1.1 Overall Efficiency
To design or predict the performance of a heat exchanger, it is essential to
determine the heat lost to the surrounding for the analyzed configuration. We can define a
parameter to quantify the percentage of losses or gains. Such parameter may readily be
obtained by applying overall energy balances for hot and cold fluids. If Qe is the heat
power emitted from hot fluid, meanwhile Qa the heat power absorbed by cold fluid
(neglecting potential and kinetic energy changes);

Qe mh Cph (Th,i Th,o ) (1)

Qa mc Cpc (Tc,o Tc,i ) (2)

m h , m c : Mass flow rate of hot and cold fluid, respectively.

hh,i , hh,o : Inlet and outlet enthalpies of hot fluid, respectively.

h c,i , h c,o : Inlet and outlet enthalpies of cold fluid, respectively.

Tc,i , Tc,o : Inlet and outlet temperatures of cold fluid, respectively.

Cp h , Cp c : Specific heats of hot and cold fluid, respectively.

Heat power lost (or gained): Q e Q a

Percentage of losses or gains P 100

If the heat exchanger is well insulated, Qe and Qa should be equal. In practice

these differ due to heat losses or gains to/from the environment.

The above formulas were deducted taking into account that hot fluid is rounded
by cold fluid. If the average cold fluid temperature is above the ambient air temperature
then heat will be lost to the surroundings resulting in P < 100%. If the average cold fluid

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temperature is below the ambient temperature, heat will be gained resulting P> 100%.
3.1.2 Temperature efficiencies

A useful measure of the heat exchanger performance is the temperature efficiency

of each fluid stream. The temperature change in each fluid stream is compared with the
maximum temperature difference between the two fluid streams giving a comparison
with an exchanger of infinite size.

Fig 1: Countercurrent and Co-current operation for a shell and tube heat exchanger

Th ,inlet Th ,outlet
Temperature efficiency for hot fluid h 100
Th ,inlet Tc,inlet
Tc ,outlet Tc ,inlet
Temperature efficiency for cold fluid c 100
Th,inlet Tc ,inlet
h c
Mean temperature efficiency m ,
Subscripts h and c stand for hot and cold, respectively.

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3.1.3 Overall heat transfer coefficient U

Because the temperature difference between the hot and cold fluid streams varies
along the length of the heat exchanger it is necessary to derive an average temperature
difference (driving force) from which heat transfer calculations can be performed. This
average temperature difference is called the Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference
(LMTD) tlm.
t 1 t 2
LMTD t lm (3)
ln( t 1 / t 2 )

t1 = T1-T4 ( temperature difference of hot and cold streams at one end)
t2 = T2-T3 ( temperature difference of hot and cold streams at other end)

Note: See Fig 1 to identify temperatures in co-current and counter-flow operation.

We can define an overall heat transfer coefficient U as:
Qe W
U m2K (4)
At lm
Qe = Heat power emitted from hot fluid
A = Heat transmission area

3.2 Analytical approach

Up to now, a methodology to evaluate the performance of a determined heat

exchanger has been developed. Here, an analytical study will be explained in order to
understand the initial steps of thermal and sizing design.
Analytical methods are only approximate in order to get an idea of the heat exchanger
size. The overall heat transfer coefficient is calculated assuming that is constant along all
the heat exchanger and can be predicted with convection correlations. Nevertheless, there
are many factors that affect this value, for instance, the influence of bubbles, corrosion,
etc. Manufacturers provide manuals that contain information more precise regarding the

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heat exchangers they trade. Then, it is expected that the theoretical values differ from the
experimental ones, fundamentally due to the presence of bubbles. Of course,
experimental results are mandatory because they reflect real conditions of operation.
However, for heat exchanger selection it is convenience to have a methodology in order
to estimate the overall heat transfer coefficient or the size according to given temperature
range and flow specifications.
Before setting the equation that determines the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, lets
take some assumptions. The conduction resistance between hot and cold fluid could be
neglected, also resistance due to fouling.
Ui (5)
1 A A ln( ro / ri )
i i
hi ho Ao 2kL

hi : Heat transfer coefficient of hot fluid [W/m2K]
ho : Heat transfer coefficient of cold fluid [W/m2K]
Ai: Heat transfer Area based on insider diameter
Ao: Heat Transfer Area based on outside diameter
ro: outside radius
ri: inside radius
L: heat transfer length
K: Thermal conductivity of tube material (steel)
In order to calculate hi and ho, the appropriate correlation will be used.
For flow in circular tubes:
NuD : 4.36 (Laminar flow, ReD < 2300)
Colburn equation
NuD : 0.023 ReD4/5 Pr1/3 (Turbulent flow, ReD > 2300)
Nu D
Where D: Diameter of tube
k: Conductivity of fluid
If the tube is non circular, hydraulic diameter is used, instead.

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4 Ac
Where Ac and P are the cross-sectional area and the wetted perimeter, respectively.
4. Experimental

4.1 Description of Experimental setup

There are three optional small-scale heat exchangers that can be installed to
illustrate the principles and different techniques of heat transfer between fluid streams.
The heat exchangers are individually mounted on a common bench-top Heat Exchanger
Service Unit. The unit supplies hot and cold water streams to the different heat
exchangers installed on it.
The following parameters can be modified for each small-scale heat exchanger:
volumetric flow rates of hot and cold fluids, hot fluid temperature and flow arrangements
(countercurrent or cocurrent).

Fig. 2: Heat Exchanger Service Unit with the Tubular Heat Exchanger installed.

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Tubular Heat Exchanger

Fig. 3: Tubular Heat Exchanger

Fig. 4: Diagram of tubular heat exchanger

Description of the Tubular Heat Exchanger: under countercurrent operation.

Please refer to figures 3, 4, and 5

The tubular heat exchanger consists of two concentric (coaxial) tubes carrying the

hot and cold fluids. The tubes are separated into two sections.

Fig. 5: Diagram of tubular heat exchanger

under co-current operation.

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91 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

The accessory consists of

two concentric tube heat

exchangers arranged in series in the form of a U. The hot water flows in the inner

tube and cold fluid in the outer annulus. The equipment allows the conversion from

countercurrent to co-current operation.

Six temperature sensors are installed in the hot and cold fluid inlets, outlets and mid


Technical Data:

Each inner tube is constructed from stainless steel tube,8.3 mm ID, 9.5mm


Each outer annulus is constructed from clear acrylic tube, 12.0mm ID.

Each heat transfer section is 330mm long giving a combined heat transfer

area of approximately 20000mm2.

4.2 Experimental Procedure
Load the HT31 Software and select countercurrent operation. For best results,
ensure that the data filter mode (Options IFD Sample Parameters) is set to
Select the PID temperature controller and set to 60C in automatic mode.
Sampling configuration should be set to manual.
Adjust the cold water control flow (not the pressure regulator) to give 1 liter/min.
and the hot water control to give 2 liters/min.
Allow the heat exchanger to stabilize. (Use the IFD Channel History screen to
monitor the temperatures).

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When the temperatures are stable, take a sample.

Repeat the experiment for hot fluid flow rate from 2 and 3 liter/min and take a
sample reading when the temperature becomes stable.
Repeat the experiment using co current flow.

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5. Report requirements
Calculate overall efficiency, temperature efficiency and overall heat transfer
coefficient. Compare the results for concurrent and counter current cases.
Calculate theoretical overall heat transfer coefficient for counter current HE and
compare with the experimental one.
Plot experimental overall heat transfer coefficient against hot water temperature
and comment on the trend.
6. References
J.P Holman, Heat Transfer, McGraw Hill, 2002.
Instruction manual Computer Compatible Tubular Heat Exchanger HT 31,
Armfield, November 2004.

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Dr. Ahmed Elkhatat