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Engineering

Qatar University

(CHME 324)

Chemical Engineering Lab 1

[Laboratory Manual]

Fall 2016

1 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

College of Engineering

Qatar University

CHME-324

Laboratory Manual

(Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer Lab)

September, 2016

i CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Contents

Laboratory Manual .............................................................................................................. 1

Contents ............................................................................................................................... i

Preface ................................................................................................................................ iii

Syllabus .............................................................................................................................. iv

General Guidelines ............................................................................................................. xi

Title Page (Full Report) .................................................................................................................... xii

Rubrics Components ......................................................................................................................... 13

Lab Rule Observations and Compliance........................................................................................... 17

Guidelines for Technical Report Writing ......................................................................................... 18

Using Excel (Level 1): Plotting curves using Excel ......................................................................... 22

Using Excel (Level 2): Applying Curve Fits Modeling.................................................................... 21

A Practical Guide to Error Analysis ................................................................................................. 28

Fluid Mechanics Experiments ........................................................................................... 31

F1: Fluid Friction in Pipes ................................................................................................................ 32

1. Objective ................................................................................................................................ 32

2. Introduction and Theory ......................................................................................................... 32

3. Experimental Setup and Procedure ........................................................................................ 37

4. Report Requirements .............................................................................................................. 38

5. References .............................................................................................................................. 39

6. Experimental Data Log Sheet for Experiment (F1) ............................................................... 40

F2: Flow Meter Demonstration Apparatus ....................................................................................... 41

1. Objective ................................................................................................................................ 41

2. Introduction and Theory ......................................................................................................... 41

3. Experimental Setup and Procedure ........................................................................................ 46

4. Report requirements ............................................................................................................... 47

5. References .............................................................................................................................. 48

6. Experimental Data Log Sheet for Experiment (F2) ............................................................... 49

F3: Energy Losses in Bends and Fittings .......................................................................................... 50

1. Objectives ............................................................................................................................... 50

2. Introduction and Theory ........................................................................................................ 50

3. Experimental Setup and Procedure ........................................................................................ 55

4. Report Requirement ............................................................................................................... 56

ii CHME324 Laboratory Manual

5. References .............................................................................................................................. 57

6. Experimental Data Log Sheet for Experiment (F3) ............................................................... 58

F4: Centrifugal Pump Performance .................................................................................................. 61

1. Objective: ............................................................................................................................... 61

2. Background and Theory ......................................................................................................... 61

3. Experimental Setup and Procedure ........................................................................................ 66

4. Report requirements ............................................................................................................... 70

5. References .............................................................................................................................. 70

Heat Transfer Experiments ............................................................................................... 71

H1: Conduction along a Simple Bar ................................................................................................. 72

H2. Lumped capacity model ............................................................................................................. 81

H3: Heat Exchanger .......................................................................................................................... 84

iii CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Preface

The fluid mechanics and heat transfer laboratory at Qatar University provides a promising setting to

help chemical engineering students become better engineering practitioners. They get hands on

experience of working with laboratory setups the theories of which they studied in Fluid Mechanics

and Heat Transfer courses. This course helps to reinforce and enhance the understanding of fluid

mechanics and heat transfer learned in theoretical courses.

This edition of the Chemical Engineering Laboratory I (CHME 324) manual comes as a result of

needing to improve contents and better organization of the previous edition in accordance with

various suggestions received from faculties and students. The lab safety, lab rule observations, and

guidelines for preparing laboratory reports are incorporated herein this edition.

It is hoped that with the latest modifications, students and instructors will find this edition of the

manual clear and easier to follow and use.

However, our target in the future is to develop this laboratory further with new experimental setups

and further improvements in the laboratory manual. This is an ongoing process. The continued help

and support of the Department of Chemical Engineering and its faculties in preparing this manual is

highly acknowledged.

iv CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Syllabus

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

CHME 324 -Chemical Engineering Lab I (1-0-3)

Fall 2016

Instructor Information

Name: Dr.Ahmed Elkhatat

Academic title: Teaching Assistant

Office:BCR-219

Phone: 4403-4153

E-mail: ahmed.elkhatat@qu.edu.qa

Office Hours:

(1) Please send me email for appointment if you want to discuss anything related to the

course in the following timings.

A-Sunday: 10:30-11:30 am (Office hours Room-C07)

B- Tuesday: 10:30-11:30 am (Office hours Room-C07)

C-Thursday: 10:30-11:30 am (Office hours Room-C07)

(2) You also can contact me by email anytime and I will respond to your questions if I am

available.

TA Information

N/A

Class/Laboratory Schedule

Day/Time/Location:

1) L51: Sunday, 3:30-6:20 pm. G113/G217/G224.

2) L54: Monday, 3:30-6:20 pm. G113/G217/ G224.

3) L01: Wednesday, 3:30-6:20 pm. G113/G217/ G224.

Coordinator Information

Name: Mohammad Hasan Arshad

Academic title: Teaching Assistant

Office: College of Engineering Building, Corridor 7, G228

Phone: 4403- 4151

E-mail: marshad@qu.edu.qa

v CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Course Information

Catalog Description:

Experiments in Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer: Frictional Pressure Losses in Pipes & Fittings, Pump

Performance, Convection, and Double Pipe and Shell & Tube Heat Exchangers.

Credits:

1

Contact Hours:

3

CHME 213 Fluid Mechanics, ENGL 203 English Language II

CHME 311 Heat Transfer*

Textbook(s):

Chemical Engineering Laboratory I Manual

References:

Ron Darby. Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics, Ed.2. CRC Press (2001)

Holman, J.P. "Heat Transfer", McGraw Hill, New York (1997).

Geankoplis, C.J. "Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles", Prentice Hall, New

Jersey (2003).

Fox, R.W., McDonald, A.T., and Pritchard, P.J. "Introduction to Fluid Mechanics", John Wiley and

Sons, New Jersey (2006)

Course Objectives:

Experimental study of heat transfer and fluid flow. Emphasis is on open laboratory projects with

electronic instrumentation; experimental design with analytical, numerical and graphical analysis of

data

Upon successful completion of this course, you will be able to:

1. Safely and effectively carry out experiments in a group setting [b, d, f].

2. Design experiments to measure certain data [b]

3. Analyze experimental results by utilizing acquired technical engineering knowledge from

previous coursework [a, b]

4. Utilize technical literature such as handbooks, textbooks, manuals, etc. to obtain the

required physical properties. [b, i]

5. Use appropriate software (e.g. Excel) to solve equations and interpret experimental results.

[b, k]

6. Prepare professional technical reports [g].

The graduates of the Qatar University Chemical Engineering Program should be able to:

Dr. Ahmed Elkhatat

vi CHME324 Laboratory Manual

chemical engineering problems

b. Design and conduct experiments, as well as analyze and interpret data

c. Design a system, component or a process to meet desired needs within realistic constraints

such as economic, environmental, social, political, ethical, health and safety,

manufacturability, and sustainability

d. Function on multidisciplinary teams

e. Identify, formulate and solve chemical engineering problems

f. Understand professional and ethical responsibility

g. Communicate effectively both orally and in writing

h. Recognize global, economic, environmental and societal impact of engineering solutions

i. Recognize the need and have the ability to engage in lifelong learning

j. Recognize contemporary issues related to the chemical engineering profession

k. Use the techniques, skills and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice

This course supports the following student outcomes:

Course a b c d e f g h i j k

Outcomes

1 X X X

2 X

3 X X

4 X X

5 X X

6 X

Average Duration (minutes) = -

Average Length (pages) =15

Orientation lecture on safety

procedure and over profession lab rules observation 1 hour

and ethical behavior

to be expressed in lab

vii CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Topics Covered:

Lab orientation and safety regulation guidelines including

1

awareness of associated hazards

Tutorial on data analysis and interpretation. 1

Measuring Head Loss due to Friction in Pipes 1

Centrifugal Pump Performance and Analysis 1

Flow meters demonstration 1

Energy Loss in Bends 1

Tubular Heat Exchanger 1

Heat Conduction (Simple Bar / Cylinders) 1

Lumped capacity un steady state Heat Transfer 1

Total 9

Method of Instruction:

Laboratory Experiments. Instructor will give a tutorial at the beginning of the semester on how to

use statistical analysis, and use the results to interpret data meaningfully.

Assessment Methods and Grading Policy

Quizzes 15%

Reports 50%

Laboratory rules 5%

Final Exam 20%

Engineering : 100%

General Education :0

Computer/Software Usage

Microsoft Word and Excel

Laboratory Projects

Applicable

viii CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Attendance is Mandatory according to University Policies. More than 25% absence will not

qualify you for the course credit.

You can contact by email any time and I will respond to your questions if I am available.

You can also send me email for an appointment if you want to discuss anything related to the

course.

The Tool of communication will BB (blackboard). It will be the student's responsibility to

check the announcements.

The university Plagiarism/Cheating policy will be strictly followed (Check Student

Integrity Code).

General Guidelines For Submitting Reports.

(1) The report should be submitted as a Word file (not PDF) on the SafeAssignment

(BB), Excell Calculations should be submitted as well on Safeassignment.

(2) Full report shall include: Title Page, Abstract, Introduction, Methodology

[experiment Setup, Procedure, Sample Calculation], Results and Discussion,

Conclusion, References.

(3) Deadline of Reports submission is 10 days starting from the day of conducting the

Experiment (By 12:00 noon) (for example: 1: If your Lab is on Sunday, your

submission deadline will be Wednesday 12:00 noon) - (2: If your Lab is on

Monday, your submission deadline will be Thursday 12:00 noon) - (2: If your Lab

is on Thursday, your submission deadline will be Sunday 12:00 noon).

(4) Take care: Late Submittion will be (10% for the first day, 25% for the second day,

50 % for the third day, 100% for the fourth day).

(5) Team Leader will be responsible for fairly distributing of the tasks in the reports,

and also will be responsible for submitting the reports via SafeAssign or by email.

ix CHME324 Laboratory Manual

The students of the Department of Chemical Engineering shall follow Qatar Universitys Student

Integrity Code. Practices violating this code include (but are not limited to):

Cheating or copying in any student assignments

Plagiarism in any submitted work: Such as the use of the work, ideas, images or words of

someone else without his/her permission; use of someone else's wording, name, phrase,

sentence, paragraph or essay without using quotation marks, and misrepresentation of the

sources that were used.

Inappropriate Collaboration: Such as working with someone else in developing, organizing or

revising a submitted work without acknowledging that person's help. This work may include: a

project, a paper, an oral presentation, a research, a design project or a take-home examination,

use of tutors for writing, editing or fabricating a submitted work, and use of unauthorized

assistance in all cases of submitted work.

Attending an exam or any academic activity or obligation in replacement of another student

Dishonesty in examinations and submitted work: Such as submission of non-original paper,

test result, work and materials; any form of communication between or among students during

examination; cheating from another student during examination; copying from another's paper,

giving unauthorized assistance, obtaining unauthorized advance knowledge of examination

questions, and the use of mechanical or marking devices or procedures for the purpose of

obtaining false scores on machine-graded examinations; submitting any material prepared by

or purchased from another person or company.

Deliberate falsification of data

Helping or attempting to help another student to commit an act of academic dishonesty

Interference with other students' work

Violating this code can result in penalties following the Universitys regulations.

The University Student Learning Support Center (SLSC) provides academic support services to

male and female students at QU. The SLSC is a supportive environment where students can

seek assistance with academic coursework, writing assignments, transitioning to college

academic life, and other academic issues. SLSC programs include: Peer Tutoring, the Writi ng

Lab, Writing Workshops, and Academic Success Workshops. Students may also seek

confidential academic counseling from the professional staff at the Center.

Contact Information for Students Support and Learning Resources:

Tel: (00974) 4403 3876

Fax: (00974) 4403 3871

Location: Female Student Activities Building

E-mail: learningcenter@qu.edu.qa

Students at Qatar University have the right to pursue complaints related to faculty, staff, and other

students. The nature of the complaints may be either academic or non-academic. For more

information about the policy and processes related to this policy, you may refer to the students

handbook.

x CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Declaration

This syllabus and contents are subject to changes in the event of extenuating circumstances. The

instructor (with approval of the Head of Department) reserves the right to make changes as

necessary. If changes are necessitated during the term of the course, the students will be notified by

email communication and posting the notification on the online teaching tool Blackboard. It is

students responsibility to check on announcements made while they were absent.

Department of Chemical Engineering

Qatar University

College of Engineering

Department of Chemical Engineering

xi CHME324 Laboratory Manual

General Guidelines

xii

CHME324 Laboratory Manual

CHME324 [Chemical Engineering Lab I]

Title Page (Full Report)

Title of the

Experiment:

Date of experiment: Date of

submission:

Name ID Participation

Group

Team Leader

Student 1

Student 2

Student 3

Grades:

Item Grades Score

Spelling, grammar, sentence

05

Report presentation structure

Appearance and formatting 05

Abstract 10

Introduction and Theory 05

Experimental Setup / Procedure Experimental Setup / Procedure 05

Raw Data 05

Sample Calculation 10

Results and Discussions Analysis of Data: [Statistical

15

Analysis, Tables and Figures]

Discussions/Interpretation 25

Conclusion 10

Citation and References 05

Total 100

Comment

13 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Rubrics Components

Rubric Component Poor Fair Good Excellent

The report Prepares report

The report contains Prepares report that is

contains some that is

Spelling, grammar, frequent spelling free from

spelling and grammatically

sentence structure and grammatical grammatically

grammatical sound with few

[5 Marks] mistake. mistakes.

error. errors.

[Marks:0.5-1.5]. [Marks: 4-5]

[Marks: 1.5-2.5] [Marks: 2.5-4]

Does not Complies Complies to Complies fully to

comply with partially with prescribed prescribed format,

the prescribed the prescribed format. uses creativity in

format. format. Uses adequate presenting graph and

Graphs and Uses fair quality graphs table to analyze and

tables are quality graphs and table to interpret experimental

Appearance and

badly and table to analyze and data.

formatting

presented. analyze and interpret [Marks: 4-5]

[5 Marks]

[Marks:0.5-1.5]. interpret experimental

experimental data.

data. [Marks: 2.5-4 of 5]

[Marks: 1.5-2.5]

aspects of the one or more major aspects the major aspects of

experiment are major aspects of the carrying out the

missing of carrying out experiment, experiment or the

(Background, the experiment some minor results (Background,

Statement of or the results details are Statement of

Purpose, Summary (Background, missing Purpose, Summary of

of Procedure, Statement of (Background, Procedure, Summary

Abstract

Summary of Results Purpose, Statement of of Results and

[10 Marks]

and Significance of Summary of Purpose, Significance of

Findings). Procedure, Summary of Findings).

[Marks: 3-5]. Summary of Procedure, [Marks: 9-10].

Results and Summary of

Significance of Results and

Findings). Significance of

[Marks: 5-7]. Findings).

[Marks: 7-9].

14 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

theory are totally and theory are and theory are theory nicely written

irrelevant the a bit relevant relevant to the and presented

experiment. to the experiment. All necessary

Very little experiment. Introduction is background

background Some nearly principles for the

information introductory complete, experiment are

Introduction provided or information, missing some covered.

and Theory information is but still minor points. [Marks: 4-5].

[5 Marks] incorrect. missing some [Marks: 3-4].

[Marks: 1-2]. major points.

[Marks: 2-3].

is not well written setup is well setup is well well written,

and missing written, but written, but illustrative figures are

important details, still missing still missing relative and clear.

illustrative figures important minor details, The procedure is

were not included details, illustrative well-written in

or irrelative. illustrative figures miss paragraph format, and

The procedure is figures were some details. all experimental

not written in not clear. The procedure details are covered.

paragraph format .The procedure is written in [Marks: 4-5].

Experimental and/or missing is written in paragraph

Setup, Procedure [5 several important paragraph format.

Marks] experimental format, but still Important

details. [Marks: missing some experimental

0.5-1.5]. important details are

experimental covered.

details. However,

[Marks: 1.5- some minor

2.5]. details are

missed.

[Marks: 2.5-

4.0].

15 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Raw data are not Raw data are Raw data are Raw data are well

included or well organized, well organized, organized, but still

irrelative. [Marks: but still but still missing missing minor details.

0.5-1.5]. missing minor details. [Marks: 4-5].

Sample Calculations important [Marks: 2.5-

Sample details. 4.0].

calculations are [Marks: 1.5- Sample Calculations

processed with 2.5]. Sample Sample calculations

many mistakes that Calculations are processed

led to incorrect Sample Sample correctly with no

major results. Calculations calculations are mistakes. [Marks: 8-

[Marks: 1-3]. Sample processed with 10].

calculations very little Tables calculations are

Analysis of Data, are processed mistakes that processed correctly

Statistical Analysis with some didnt affect the with no mistakes.

is not included or mistake that results. [Marks: Professional

relevant. Figures, affected some 5-8]. presentation of graphs

graphs and tables minor results. and tables.

are missing or [Marks: 3-5] Analysis of Data,

irrelevant. [Marks: All statistical Analysis of Data,

Results and

1-3]. Analysis of Data, Analysis, Quality of results was

Statistical Tables and analyzed statistically

Discussion

Discussion/ Analysis, Figures are (e.g. Standard

(Raw Data, Sample

Interpretation Tables and correctly deviation, AAD% etc.)

Calculations

Analysis of Data, Discussion is figures contain drawn, but Trends of results

incomplete with errors or are some have explained well with the

Discussions/Interpre

incorrect poorly minor problems physical principle

tation)

interpretation of constructed, or could still be learned in the

trends indicating a have missing improved. corresponding theory

lack of titles, captions [Marks: 8-13] course. [Marks: 13-15

understanding of or numbers, of 15].

fundamentals. units missing Discussion/

[Marks: 5-10]. or incorrect, Interpretation Discussion/

etc. . [Marks: Most of the Interpretation

3-8]. results have All important trends

been correctly and data comparisons

Discussion/ interpreted and have been interpreted

Interpretation discussed with correctly and

Some of the only some discussed, Trends of

results are minor mistakes. results explained well

correctly [Marks: 15- with the physical

interpreted and 20].. principle learned in the

discussed. corresponding theory

[Marks: 10- course. Possible

15]. sources of error

(reasons of deviation

of the results)

discussed well.

[Marks: 20-25].

16 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

missing the regarding conclusions important points are

important points, major points is have been covered.

or dont reflect on written, but drawn, but need [Marks: 8-10].

the experiment. brief and is minor

Conclusion

[Marks: 0-2.5]. missing improvements.

[ 10 Marks]

significant [Marks: 5-8].

pieces of

information.

[Marks: 2.5-

5].

References are Most of the References are References are in

absent or irrelevant. references are cited and in standard format.

References are not in standard standard format, Referencing in the

in standard format format, but no but a few text is also in

No citation in the referencing in References were standard format.

text. the text. taken from un- Sources of content

[Marks: 0-1]. Most of the authentic source are authentic (e.g.

references are (e.g. Textbook, journal

cited in the text, Wikipedia,) , paper, academic

References but not in vague or websites).

[5 Marks] standard format. generic References indicate

[Marks: 1-2.5]. references. an extensive literature

References search was

dont indicate performed.

an extensive [Marks: 3.5-5].

literature

search was

performed.

[Marks: 2.5-

3.5].

17 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Students need to observe lab rules and so they will be monitored based on the followings.

Basis

once the experiment is completed

2 Wear LAB coats during entire duration

3 Submit reports and pre-lab sheet at the

beginning of the LAB session before the start of

the experiment.

4 Each student must bring a bound, hardcover

laboratory notebook to each laboratory session.

5 Wear gloves (wherever applicable). Be aware of

the possible hazards related to ones own

experiment and comply with those.

6 Follow a proper start-up and shut down

procedure according to LAB manual provided.

7 Stick to own group experiment and not move

elsewhere, leaving the running apparatus

unattended.

8 No eating, smoking, or chatting, use of mobile

phones, etc. during entire LAB session.

at the end of an experiment in the same clean

state as when entering the LAB). Not throwing

thrash papers here and there.

10 Show experimental observation sheet to

instructor before leaving the lab at the end of an

experiment and get his signature.

18 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

A-1 GENERAL REMARKS

In this course you are asked to submit seven technical reports. Therefore, your reports should

seek to inform, instruct, and often to persuade that its interpretation of the data is the correct one.

In general,

(1) Report format should be A4 plain white paper. Pages must be numbered. Margins are to be

kept at a minimum one inch on each side. Each section should begin on a new page.

(2) Every table, graph, chart, drawing etc. must have a number and a title to identify it and

must be referenced in the text body of the report. Figures, charts, and drawings usually have

their numbers and titles below, whereas tables have their numbers and titles above. Use

Arabic numbers for all. Symbols, subscripts, abbreviations, superscripts and letters must be

defined the first time they occur in the text.

(3) Use past tense, passive voice, and third person to describe what was done. Pronouns as I, we,

he should be avoided

(4) Backup your judgments with data and scientific facts and avoid sensationalism.

(5) Plagiarism is not permitted, always give a reference to the source of any piece of information

you copy of the literature. Cite your references as you proceed through the report using

embraced a number (e.g., [1], [2]) and match a list of numbered references at the end of

your report. References must occur in (sequential) order in the body of your report, therefore

before you mention or cite reference [4], for example, you must have referred to references

[1], [2], and [3] and so on.

19 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

The following items are required for your technical written report. The report must be organized in

the order listed below with each section beginning on a new page.

1. Title Page.

2. Abstract.

3. Table of Contents.

4. List of Tables.

5. List of Figures.

6. Introduction.

7. Experimental Setup and Procedure.

a. Experimental Setup.

b. Procedure.

8. Results and discussion

a. Raw Data (Original Data).

b. Sample Calculation.

c. Analysis of Data: [Statistical Analysis, Tables and Figures].

d. Discussions/Interpretation

9. Conclusions

10. References

11. Appendices (If any)

1. Title Page

Use title page provided to you.

2. Abstract

The abstract is the only basis for another reader's decision whether or not your work is of

relevance to him. This requires careful writing. It should briefly state the Background, Statement of

Purpose, Summary of Procedure, Summary of Results and Significance of Findings). An abstract

should not exceed two-thirds of a page. The abstract is best written after you finish the write up of

your report and before you prepare the Table of Contents.

20 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

3. Table of Contents

List every division and heading in the report and give the number of the page on which it

starts to appear. It is essential that titles and subtitles match those occurring in the text. Therefore, the

best approach here is to cut the titles and headings from the body of the report and paste them in the

Table of Contents. It is evident thus that this part of the report is best written after preparing the final

report in its ultimate organized structure.

4. List of Tables

List every table along with its title and give the number of the page on which it appears.

5. List of Figures

List every drawing and graph with its title and give the number of the page on which it

appears.

6. Introduction

This is intended to give the unfamiliar reader the required background so that he/she can

follow up and understand your work. Use your own words to provide some background information

about your experiments and a discussion of why the experiment was carried out (i.e., the importance

of the study). Include enough information about the theory needed for a reader who is unfamiliar with

the topic of your experiment. This section also contains the background for the calculations and the

derivation of the equations involved. Sources of equations and derivations should be referenced and

the equations must be numbered. The last paragraph in the introduction must bring into focus the

direct objective(s) of the performed experimental work.

Include Experimental Setup, which is a description, together with a schematic diagram of the

equipment (if any) is needed. Procedure, should be well-written in paragraph format covering all

experimental details (Dont copy paste from manual). Passive voice, and third person to describe

what was done. Pronouns as I, we, he should be avoided.

This part includes Raw Data (Original Data), where the original data sheets used in the

laboratory, with the title and the date of the experiment, should appear in this section. Instructor's

approval must appear on that sheet. Sample Calculation, where a complete step by step calculations

using the original data and showing the transformation of the experimental data into calculated

results. Analysis of Data: [Statistical Analysis, Tables and Figures], where table calculations should

21 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

processed correctly with no mistakes, and graphs and tables should be resented professionally.

Moreover, the quality of the results should be analyzed statistically (e.g. Standard deviation, AAD%

etc.). Discussions/Interpretation, Results must be discussed and compared with theory and/or

literature. Each table or graph should be explained in writing and the trends of the curves must be

justified. Sources of errors, if any, and their relation to the obtained data must be stated. Different

paragraphs must be used to discuss different tables or graphs. Always refer to figure number when

discussing this figure. Trends of results should be explained well with the physical principle learned

in the corresponding theory course.

9. Conclusions

findings. This section must not exceed two thirds of a page. You (can) provide your suggestions or

ideas to modify the procedure or the equipment in order to improve the experiment, state them and

explain why they should be done. Such recommendations are highly appreciated.

10. References

All references cited in the report should be listed in the order of their appearance in the report.

Your text and lab manual can serve as your primary source material, but you should search out and

use other sources. A proper reference for a book should include the name of the author(s), the title,

the publishers, and place and year of publications (e.g., S. E. Kegley, and J. Andrews, The Chemistry

of Water, University Science Books, California, 1998). For a journal article, the reference should

include the name of the author(s), the article title, the journal title and volume number, the year in

which this issue was published and the page numbers on which the article begins (e.g., G. Bassel, N.

Dural, and A. L. Hines, Liquid-liquid equilibria of sulfolane-benzene pentane, Industrial and

Engineering Chemistry Research, Volume 28, 1989, 1369- 1374).

11. Appendices

Extra calculations, derivations, calibrations and methods of analysis should appear in these sections.

22 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Here is brief steps to draw a curve using excel:

1. Highlight the data in both columns, and then press Insert Scatter Scatter

with only markers.

You will get the graph (as shown below) without axis title.

2. Remove any letters or words from the graph. Add the title for x-axis (horizontal) as follows:

Layout Axis Titles Primary Horizontal Axis Titles Title Below Axis (then write

the title)

23 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Then add the title for y-axis (vertical) as follows: Layout Axis Titles Primary

Vertical Axis Titles Rotate Title (then write the title). Do not forget to write the

UNITS as well.

Trendline More Trendline Options select Linear tick Display equation on chart

21 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Modeling

Curve Fits Modeling is also known as (Regression Analysis), and it used to find the best

fit line or curve for a series of data points. From that line or curve, an equation can be

produced anywhere along the curve.

There are two types of curve fits models; (1) Least squares curve fits, and (2) nonlinear

curve fits

Least Squares Curve Fits

1) How Does. It Work?

By minimizing the square of the error between the original data, and the values

predicted by the equation.

2) Advantages of the Least squares curve Fits

Popular, Simple and being well understood

3) Disadvantages of the Least squares curve Fits

Very sensitive to outliers of the data

1) Linear: = +

2) Polynomial:

a. 2nd Order: = 2 + +

b. 3rd Order: = 3 + 2 + +

3) Exponential: =

4) Power: =

5) Logarithmic = . () +

Choosing a model for a particular data set may be a difficult task. Depending

on your field of study, you may find a certain equation that is used on a

regular basis, so,

1) Do some research to see what curve fit is used with the data you have.

2) Use the scatter plot option in the Excel to plot the data, and see the

general shape of the curve.

22 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

1) Use the scatter plot option in the Excel to plot the data, and see the general shape

of the curve

2) The general shape looks linear, so its equation is Y=mX+C (where, m and C are

variables)

3) To build the model, you have to put initial estimation values for (m) and (C) (fore

example m=1, c=1)

4) Create a column (Y model) and built its equation (Y=mX+C) (Note: here X=B3,

m=$H2, and C=$I2) ($ is used to freeze the cell while filling the column.

23 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

24 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

6) As these data are a model not actual data, so it is better to draw them as a line, not

scatter points

25 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

7) As you see, this model doesnt fit the experimental data set, because (m and C)

are not correct values, so, in order to make it fit Least Square Curve Model will be

used

a. Create (Error^2) column with equation (Ymodel Y)^2 (why squared ?

Because without square some data will be positive an some will be

negative, so in order to exclude all signs square will be applied to all

values.

c. Since the squared error is high we will try to reduce it by changing the

values of both (me and C) until error become minimum.

d. You can judge your data from (Average Absolute Deviation)

exp erimental theoritica l 100

AAD

theoritica l n

e. Create another column (Error Diviation) and use the equation (=Abs(Y-

model Y)/y)*100) and fill the column, then calculate the Average

Absolute Deviation (AAD)

26 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

f. Now, we will use solve to make the irritation to have the minimum value

for (Error^2)

i. DataSolver

ii. Set ObjectiveChose the submission f Error^2

iii. To:Min

iv. By Changing variable cellselect m and C cells.

v. Solve

g. As you see, the Y model becomes fitted to the dataset, and the Error^2

become the minimum, and the AAD is 14.35%

h. The Y model can be improved by removing the outliers (any point lies an

abnormal distance from from other points), and use the solver agan to

recalculate the data. the Error^2 becomes the minimum, and the AAD is

7.15%.

27 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

method is Y=2.3X+3.4

28 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Error analysis of experimental results depends on the type of error estimate. When we do

multiple but identical measurements of the same quantity, we can define the range

(difference between the largest and smallest values of the measurements), the variance

and the Standard Deviation.

( )

=

The more commonly used Standard Deviation (SD) of the n measurements is:

( )

=

In these equations, (n) is the number of independent measurements, (Xi ) is the value of

the measured quantity (X) in the (n) experiment, and (Xave) is the average value of (X)

from then experiments.( SD) is often expressed as a percentage:

% = %

In statistical terms, these equations express the expected random differences between the

results of individual but identical measurements of the same quantity. Assuming a

Gaussian distribution of the measured value, we expect that 67% of the measurements

will be within one SD from the average value, and 95% (one out of twenty) will be

within two SD from the average. In other words, if we would do an additional

experiment, we expect a 67% chance that that measured value will be with one SD from

Xave.

The accuracy of the measured value depends on whether we know what the real value

should be, for instance, if we re-measure a value of a quantity known from the literature

or accurately known by some other method:

% = %

If the experiment only has random errors, a good experimentalist would expect that the

measured Xave is within 1 or 2 SD from the real (literature or otherwise known) value.

If not, we would suspect systematic errors in our measurement method, and a detailed

analysis of each factor in the experimental determination would be required.

29 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

When we measure a certain quantity, a good engineer must always estimate the error

involved in the measurement, and report the measured value with the estimated error. For

instance, if we measure a height of 84 cm on a manometer with 1 cm accuracy, we

express the height as 84 1 cm.

The (1 cm) is the absolute error in the height. The % (relative) error is (1/84)100% =

(1.2%). Therefore, in subsequent calculations using this cm, it is write cm = 841 (cm)

or = 84 cm 1.2%. The rules for using absolute or relative errors in subsequent

calculations are as follows:

1. For addition and subtraction: absolute error = (absolute errors)

2. For multiplication and division: %error = (% errors)

Example 1:

Weighing the mass of a sample by first weighing an empty beaker, then beaker +

sample, on a 1 mg balance.

2. Mass empty beaker = 24.235 0.001 g subtract

3. Mass sample = 0.084 0.002 g or 0.084 g 2.4%

Note that the errors add up, and that a small error in each of the two masses

becomes a large % error when the difference between the masses of the beaker

with and without sample is small!

Example 2:

Determine the density of a liquid by determining the mass of a given volume of

liquid. By using a1.00 mL micropipette (assuming that the 1.00 mL micropipette

delivers a volume of 1.000.02 mL) (0.02 mL half a drop).

Using again the previous 1 mg balance.

2. Mass empty beaker = 24.235 0.001 g subtract

3. Mass of 1.00 mL liquid = 1.129 0.002 g

So far the method is the same as in the first example. To calculate the density:

() =

1. m = 1.129 0.002 g = 1.129 0.18% g

2. V = 1.00 0.02 mL = 1.00 2.0% mL

3. Then, density = 1.129 2.2% g/mL (1.129 0.025 g/mL)

30 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

(1) By applying significant figure rules to the addition of the % errors:

0.18% + 2.0% = 2.2%, not 2.18%.

(2) As a good experimentalist, when we need a more accurate determination of a

measured quantity, we find the factor that contributes the most to the overall error

(in this case the volume of the micropipette), and redesign the experiment, in this

case e.g. by using 25.0 mL transfer pipet instead. Doing so we can bring the

volume error back to 0.2% (0.05 mL). Actually then the weighing error would

be smaller also!

(3) There is no use in reporting error limits (or, for that matter SD values), with more

than 2 significant figures, and in many cases just one significant figure is enough.

For instance, for the mass of the above example, we could simply write m = 1.129

g 0.2%

(4) Calculations such as in the two examples above depend on the ability of the

experimentalist to estimate the errors involved in each individual measurement,

such as the error in the mass (determined by the type of balance used, e.g. 1 mg,

10 mg or 0.1 mg) or the error in the volume delivered. In many cases, depending

on the accuracy required, we can decide on which balance to use. For instance, in

example 2, if we use a 25.0 mL transfer pipet, there is no need to use a 0.1 mg or

even a 1 mg balance, just a 10 mg balance still gives the mass to 0.08% (210

mg error in the difference), still well less than the 0.2% error in the volume. Such

considerations make you into a skilled experimentalist!

(5) The error propagation calculation presented in the two examples above represents

a simple but practical method that will always give us the maximum error limits

of the final result. The pure statistician, as opposed to the practical chemist or

engineer, will say that the error limit we calculated is too large, because chances

are that not all errors work in the same direction. Therefore, from a statistical

point of view, the expected final error limits will be smaller, and given by:

For addition and subtraction: Absolute error = (error )2

For multiplication and division: %Relative error = = (%error )2

(6) If the number of duplicate measurements is relatively small (<5) the method of

adding the absolute (addition/subtraction) or relative (multiplication/division) is

the best and safest method to find estimated error limits with the error propagation

method.

If more detail is needed a full discussion of error limits, statistical methods, and error

propagation calculations can be found for instance in:

D.P. Shoemaker, C.W. Garland, J.W. Nibler, Experiments in Physical Chemistry,

McGraw Hill International Editions, fifth edition, NY, USA, 1989, ISBN 0-07-100398.3

(or other editions of the same volume).

31 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Fluid Mechanics

Experiments

32 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

1. Objective

To determine fluid friction coefficient and Reynolds number for flow of water through a

pipe, and compare it with the head loss observed from direct measurement.

Flow losses occur during the flow of real fluids due to friction and turbulence

(eddies). Flow losses in pipes cause pressure losses and must therefore be taken into

account when designing piping systems. A pipe is a closed conduit through which fluid

flows under the pressure. The frictional resistance a fluid is subjected to its flows in a

pipe, which results in a continuous loss of energy, or total head of the fluid.

Osborne Reynolds (1883) found that flows in pipes of different diameters and

different fluids could be related to each other using the dimensionless group named

(Reynolds Number):

= = . ()

Where is the pipe diameter, is the fluid velocity, is the fluid density, is the fluid

viscosity and is the fluid volumetric flow rate.

Reynolds found that as the velocity of the flow increased, its characteristics were changed

from a laminar flow regime that is characterized by smooth and steady low to turbulent

flow regime, which is characterized by fluctuations and agitation in the flow.

Different laws of fluid resistance apply to laminar and turbulent flow. For a given fluid

flowing in a pipe, experiments show that for laminar flow, the hydraulic gradient

(friction losses per unit length) is proportional to the velocity of the flow, whereas for

turbulent flow, a power law relation is more appropriate.

The energy loss per unit mass in a pipe ( )can be determined from the equation

= = . ()

33 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Since energy loss per unit mass in a pipe ( )can be related to kinetic energy per mass

( ) through Friction Coefficient , i.e.

= . ()

Then

= . ()

In circular pipes

= ( ) . ()

Where () is Fanning friction factor, thus

= ( ) . ()

P

In terms of head loss (hL = )

g

= = . ()

The hydraulic gradient

= . ()

So, the Fanning friction factor can be determined experimentally from head loss or

hydraulic gradient.

= . ()

There were different empirical equations for the determination of Fanning friction factor:

1) Fanning friction factor in laminar flow.

The Hagen poiseuille equation is used to determine Fanning friction factor in

laminar flow. This equation is valid for <2000

= . ()

34 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

A. Blasius equation can be used to find Faning friction factor for Newtonian

fluids in smooth tubes quite well over a range of Reynolds numbers from

about 5000 to 105

.

= . ()

.

B. Colebrook equation is used to determine Faning friction factor for

Newtonian fluids in Rough Pipes (Transition turbulent zone). In this zone

both Reynold Number and relative roughness affect the friction

factor

.

= [ + ] . ()

.

.

= ( ) . ()

independent on Reynold number NRe , and is a function only of the relative

roughness . Here, the Reduced Colebrook equation is used to determine

D

=( ) . ()

[. /(/)]

.

=( ) . ()

([. /(/)])

Fanning friction factor can be determined for all regimes by either Churchill

equation, or by Moodys Chart.

35 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

A. Churchill equation (1977) can be used for all flow regimes, where it

represents the Fanning friction factor over the entire range of Reynolds

numbers within the accuracy of the data used to construct the Moody

diagram, including a reasonable estimate for the intermediate or transition

region between laminar and turbulent flow.

( )

= [( ) + ] . ()

( + )/

= . . . ()

+ .

[ ( )]

,

=( ) . ()

B. Moodys Chart

36 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

(1) The laminar region (for NRe < 2000) is described by the theoretical

HagenPoiseuille equation. In laminar flow the only fluid property that

influences friction loss is the viscosity (because the density cancels out).

Furthermore, the roughness has a negligible effect in laminar flow, as will

be explained shortly.

(2) The critical zone is the range of transition from laminar to turbulent

flow, which corresponds to values of NRe from about 2000 to 4000. Data

are not very reproducible in this range, and correlations are unreliable.

(3) The so-called transition zone in is the region where the friction factor

depends strongly on both the Reynolds number and relative roughness.

(4) The region in the upper right of the diagram where the lines of constant

roughness are horizontal is called complete turbulence, rough pipes or

fully turbulent. In this region the friction factor is independent of

Reynolds number (i.e., independent of viscosity) and is a function only of

the relative roughness.

(5) For turbulent flow in smooth tubes, the semiempirical Blasius models

represent the friction factor quite well. Whether a tube is hydraulically

smooth or rough depends upon.

37 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

The test apparatus (GUNT HM 150.11) allows to study the pressure losses in

pipes, piping elements and shut-off devices. In addition, the differential pressure method

is presented for measuring the flow rate.

The experimental unit contains six different pipe sections capable of being shut

off individually. The pipe sections are equipped with piping elements such as bends,

elbows and branches. In one pipe section, different shut-off devices and measuring

objects are installed to determine the flow rate. The measuring objects are made of

transparent material and provide excellent insight into the inner structure. The pressure

measuring points in the piping system are designed as annular chambers. This creates a

largely interference-free pressure measurement.

The experiments measure the pressure losses in pipes and piping elements, such

as branches and bends. The opening characteristic of the shut-off devices are also

recorded. The pressures are measured with tube manometers.

The experimental unit is easily positioned and securely on the work surface of the

38 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

HM 150 base module. The water is supplied and the flow rate measured by HM 150.

Alternatively, the experimental unit can be operated by the laboratory supply.

Technical Data

(1) Internal diameter of pipe work at the first measuring section d = 0.0168 m

Measuring length = 800 mm

(2) The internal diameter of the pipework at the second measuring section= d =

0.0268

Measurement length= 500 mm

(3) Roughness of pipe= 0.001 mm

Procedure

1. Connect The pressure gauge to desired measuring points (pipe 1, L=0.8 m,

D=0.0168).

2. Switch on the pump. Close the valve completely and check whether both levels of

manometers are same.

3. Start with lowest flow rate possible.

4. Take the manometer reading and measure flow rate by taking volume and time

reading.[Hint: make sure you take the time approximately close to 1 minute to

minimize the time error].

5. Repeat the same step for Pipe#2 [L=0.5 m, D=0.0268 m].

4. Report Requirements

1) Construct a relation between the flow rate and Reynold Number. Discuss the

obtained trend.

2) Calculate the Fanning friction factor of the pipe for each flow rate using equation

(9).

3) Using equation (9), construct a relation between head loss and velocity to find the

Fanning friction factor.

4) Calculate the friction coefficient of the pipe for each flow rate using equation (4)

5) Using equation (4), construct a relation between pressure loss and velocity to find

39 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

6) Find the Fanning friction factor theoretically using Hagen poiseuille, Blasius,

Colebrook, Reduced Colebrook and Churchill equations.

7) Construct a relation between fanning friction factor and Reynold Number. Fit the

model = using least Least Squares Curve Fits. Find values of A and B.

8) Simulation part: using theoretical calculation- find the pressure drop due to

friction in pipe flow for a fixed flow rate and length of pipe but vary the pipe

diameter as 0.0168 m, 0.02 m,0.025 m & 0.03 m. Hence establish the relation

between pressure drop and pipe diameter.

9) Ask your Instructor on the visualization model to show the effect of static head

and pipe diameter on the pressure drop.

5. References

1) Ron Darby. Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics, Ed.2. CRC Press (2001)

2) J.O Wilkes, Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers, Prentice Hall, Boston,

(2005).

3) GUNT Instruction Manual, HM150.11 Fluid Friction Apparatus.

40 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Date:

Group Number:

Team Members Name: Student I.D. #:

.

=============================================================

Pipe# 1 (d = 0.0168 m):L=800 mm

Liter sec cm of H2O cm of H2O

Notes/Observations

41 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

1. Objective

1) To demonstrate the application of flow meters in the measurement of flow

rate and velocity in a pipe.

2) To find the values of discharge coefficient Cd of Venturi- and Orifice

meters experimentally.

3) To calibrate Venturi- and Orifice meters

4) To investigate the pressure recovery in Venturi- and Orifice meters

Most common methods for measuring the flow rate in pipes include: Pitot-tube, Nozzle,

Venturi, and Orifice flow meters. There are also other comprehensive flow meters such

as Turbine, Vane, Coriolis, Ultrasonic and Magnetic flow meters.

Venturi Flow meter

Venturi Flowmeter is referred to as Obstruction meter, because the basic principle

involves introduction an obstruction into the flow channel, and then measuring the

pressure drop across the obstruction, which is related to the flow rate. Fluid flows through

a reduced area, which results in an increase in the velocity at that point.

The corresponding change in pressure between point 1 (upstream of the constriction) and

point 2 (at the position of the minimum area) is measured and is then related to the flow

rate through the energy balance.

The velocities are related by the continuity equation, and the Bernoulli equation relates

the velocity change to the pressure change.

Figure 1:Schematic diagram of Venturi Flowmeter (on the left), and Industrial

Venturi Flow meter (on the right) (Source: Control Plus INC)

42 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

The Volumetric flow rate can be determined using the following equation,

( )

= . . ()

( )

idealities in the system (friction and deviation from the plug flow).

Miller (1983) described ( ) as a function of (() ) for > 4000by general

equation

= + . . ()

()

Table 1: Discharge Coefficient terms of Miller (1983) for different types of Venturi

flow meter

Orifice Flowmeter is also referred to as Obstruction meter, because the basic principle

involves introduction an obstruction into the flow channel, and then measuring the

pressure drop across the obstruction, which is related to the flow rate. In the Orifice meter

the fluid stream that leaves the orifice hole contracts to an area considerably smaller than

that of the orifice hole itself (due to the inward radial momentum). This is called Vena

Contracta. Due to Vena Contracta there is an abrupt and uncontrolled expansion of the

fluid stream downstream of the orifice, which leads to considerable eddying and

dissipation of more energy, resulting in a significantly higher net friction loss and lower

pressure recovery.

43 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

2

Contraction Ratio for Vena Contracta (CC)= 2 = ( 2 ) . (For highly turbulent

flow 0.6)

The Volumetric flow rate can be determined using the following equation,

( )

= . . ()

( )

idealities in the system (friction and deviation from the plug flow).

Miller (1983) described ( ) as a function of (() ) for > 4000by general

equation

= +

()

Miller Chart (Figure 3) can be also used to find the discharge coefficient for

orifice meters (note = )

44 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Table 2: Discharge Coefficient terms of Miller (1983) for different types of Orifice

flow meter

Fig 3: Miller (1983) Chart for Orifice Flow Meter (Ron Darby, 2011)

45 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Meters Experimentally

Discharge coefficient (Cd) can be determined by constructing a relation between, Timed

Flow Rate (Qt) (Actual Flow rate) and Orifice or Venturi meter flow rate supposing that

(Cd) is 1 (Ideal flow rates) (Qi). The slope is then (Cd). The actual flow rate is equal to the

volume of fluid collected divided by the time needed to collect, or can be determined

through a calibrated Rotameter.

= . . ()

iteration (when Q is unknown)

If head loss, density, pipe and flow meter diameters are given, but the flow rate is needed

i.e. { , , , , } are given, but { , } is to be found, then the following steps will

be conducted:

1) Assume that ( ) Is 0.61 (in orifice) or 0.98 (in Venturi) and calculate ( ).

( )

=

( )

2) Using ( ) determine (()1 ). Where =

4) If ( ) doesnt match ( ) then use ( ) to obtain ( ).

5) Repeat [Steps 2-4] until there are no more changes.

Loss coefficient can be determined based on the velocity through the pipe

( )( )

= . . ()

Also, Loss coefficient can be determined based on the velocity through the Orifice

( )( )

= . . ()

46 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

The equipment consists of a Venturi meter, variable area meter and orifice plate, installed

in a series configuration to permit direct comparison. A flow control valve permits

variation of the flow rate through the circuit. Pressure tappings are incorporated so that

the head loss characteristics of each flow meter may be measured. These tappings are

connected to an eight-tube manometer bank incorporating a manifold with an air bleed

valve.

Pressurisation of the manometers is facilitated by a hand pump. The circuit and

manometer are attached to a support framework, which stands on the working top of the

Hydraulics Bench. The bench is used as the source of water supply and for volumetrically

calibrating each flow meter.

Technical Details

Plate diameter: 20 mm

Orifice Pipe diameter: 51.9 mm

Throat diameter: 16 mm

Venturi

Pipe diameter: 26 mm

47 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Procedure:

(1) Open the apparatus valve until the Rotameter shows a reading of approximately

10 mm.

(2) When a steady flow is maintained measure the reading of Rotameter and record

the readings of the manometers in observation table 2.

(3) Repeat this procedure for a number of equidistant values of Rotameter readings

up to the point in which the maximum pressure values can be recorded from the

manometer.

4. Report requirements

1. Derive the equation of Flow meter from both energy balance and mass balance

equations.

2. Find the discharge coefficient of both Venturi and Orifice meters experimentally,

and discuss the difference between the discharge coefficient for Venturi and

orifice.

1

Calibration was conducted by Eng. Arshad

Dr. Ahmed Elkhatat

48 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

3. Find the discharge coefficient of orifice meter using Miller (1983) chart, and

compare it with that one obtained experimentally.

4. Use the iteration method described above to calculate the flow rate of the Orifice

flow meter, and compare it with a flow rate obtained from Rotameter

5. Calculate % pressure recovery for both flow meters. Comment on the values with

reasons.

6. Calculate the loss coefficient in the Orifice meter, Discuss it.

5. References

(1) Ron Darby. Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics, Ed.2. CRC Press (2001).

(2) J.O Wilkes, Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers, Prentice Hall, Boston,

2005.

49 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Date:

Group Number:

.

==============================================================

OBSERVATION TABLE

Venturi Flow Meter Orifice Flow Meter

S.No Rotameter (cm)

h1 (mm) h2 (mm) h3 (mm) h1 (mm) h2 (mm) h3 (mm)

10

50 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

1. Objectives

The purpose of this experiment is to study the pressure (head) losses through some

common types fittings and valve common to piping systems. The losses, called minor

losses, will be evaluated in the form of the loss coefficient K and compared with the

L

theoretical values.

Bends are provided in pipes to change the direction of flow through it, while enlargement

and contraction fitting are used to connect pipes of different sizes.

In long pipelines, the friction losses are much larger than these (minor losses) due to

fittings. Hence, the latter is often neglected. But, in shorter pipelines, their consideration

is necessary for the correct estimate of losses.

The pressure drop (or head loss) due to bends and fittings can be determined by

= ()

= . ()

constant at high Reynolds number ( > ) for a particular flow

geometry,and is usually the velocity in the pipe upstream of the bends.

Loss coefficient in bents and fittings can be determined experimentally using equation (1)

or (2) for each flow rate . For turbulent regime, where Loss Coefficent is constant, it can

be determined by construction a relation between head loss and dynamic head, so, loss

coefficient can be determined from the slope.

51 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

In case of enlargement and contraction fittings, and due to changes in the cross section

area,there is a change in the static pressure. Thus, in order to compensate for this change

a correction to the kinetic energy should be involved.

1) For Sudden Epansion (Enlargement):

Head loss in the expansion ( ) is equal to the measured static pressure

( ) plus correction for kinetic head due to expansion ( ( )).

=

Head loss in the contraction ( ) is equal to the measured static pressure

( ) minus correction for kinetic head ( ( )). Loss coefficient

=

There are several correlation expressions for ( ). However, their accuracy are not the

same, so hereunder they are listed in order of increasing accuracy.

(1) Tabulated Loss Coefficient.

(2) Equivalent L/D Method.

(3) Crane Method.

(4) 2K Method (Hooper Method).

(5) 3k Method (Darby Method).

Values of ( ) are tabulated in several references (Textbooks and Handbooks), as a

52 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

However, there are not accurate, because ( ) varies with both size (scale) of fitting

and the degree of the turbulence ( )

This correlation assumes that there is some length of pipe ( ) that has the same friction

loss as that which occurs in fittings at given degree of turbulence ( ).

= ( )

( ) is the loss coefficient of the fitting or valve.

() is the fanning friction factor in the pipe at the given pipe &.

( ) is tabulated in various references.

Crane method is a modification of (L/D) method, where it recognizes that there is a

higher degree of turbulence in the fitting comparing with the pipe at given ( ).

0.0625

= 4 ( ) where = 2

[log(3.7 )]

2K method is based on experimental data in various valves and firrings over a wide

range of ( ).

= + ( + )

, : 2K loss coefficient parameters.

:Internal diameter of the pipe that contains the fitting (in inches).

53 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

= + ( + . )

,

.

, :nominal pipe size (in inches).

54 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

55 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Description of experimental setup

The equipment is mounted on a free-standing framework, which supports the test

pipework and instrumentation. The following typical pipe fittings are incorporated for

study: mitre bend, 90 elbow, swept bends (large and small radius), sudden contraction

and sudden enlargement. All are instrumented with upstream and downstream pressure

tappings. These tappings are connected to a bank of 12 water manometer tubes, mounted

on the framework. Pressurisation of the manometers is facilitated by a hand pump. A gate

valve is used to control the flow rate.

A separate gate valve is instrumented with upstream and downstream pressure tappings,

which are connected to a differential gauge on the edge of the framework. The unit stands

on the working top of the Hydraulics Bench, which is also used as the source of water

supply.

Figure 1. Energy Losses in Bends Apparatus (Front View on the left ) and

(Apparatus Diagram on the right)

Technical Details

Differential pressure gauge: 0-3 bar

Enlargement diameter: 26.2mm

Contraction diameter: 19.48mm

45 mitre, Elbow, Short bend, Large bend, Enlargement,

Fittings:

Contraction

56 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Experimental Procedure

Experiment 1:

Measure loss across all the pipe fittings except the gate valve, which should be

kept fully open. Adjust the flow from the bench control valve and, at a given flow rate.

Start with lowest flow rate possible (idea is to have laminar flow regime for 2-3

trials) and then take height reading from all of the manometers after the levels have

steadied. In order to determine the volume flow rate, you should carry out a timed

volume collection using the volumetric tank .This is achieved by closing the ball valve

and measuring with a( stop watch) time taken to accumulate a known volume of fluid in

the tank, which is read from the sight glass. You should collect fluid for at least one

minute to minimize time errors.

Repeat this procedure to give a total of at least five sets of measurements of flow rate.

Experiment 2:

Measure loss across gate valve only. Clamp off the connecting tubes to the miter bend

pressure taping (to prevent air being drown into the system). Start with the gate valve

closed and open fully both the bench valve and the test rig flow control valve. Now open

the gate valve by approximately 25% (After taking up any back lash). For each of at least

5 flow rates, measure pressure drop across the valve from the pressure gauge; adjust the

flow rate by the use of the test rig flow control valve. Once measurements have started,

do not adjust the gate valve. Determine the volume flow rate by timed collections.

( Note: In order to open desire % of GATE valve, count no. of turns required to open the

valve completely and then open number of required turn for given % opening).

4. Report Requirement

(1) Using equation (1) or (2) determines the loss coefficient of the different fittings

you have. Compare between (Kf )of laminar and (Kf ) of turbulent flow regimes.

(2) Construct a relation using equation (1) or (2) to obtain the loss coefficient.

Discuss your results..

57 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

(3) From literature, find most possible theoretical expressions of (Kf).Compare them

with experimental results, and discuss the results.

(4) Study the relation between (Kf)and Reynold number.

5. References

(1) Ron Darby. Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics, Ed.2. CRC Press (2001).

(2) Armfield Instruction Manual, Losses in the bends F1-22, March 2004.

58 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Date:

Group Number:

.

.

.

.

FITTINGS:

OBSERVATION TABLES

Manometer Manometer Vol

Time

Fitting h1 h2 V

s

(mm) (mm) Liter

METER

ELBOW

SHORT BEND

ENLARGEMENT

CONTRACTION

Table2. Raw Data Run#2

Manometer Manometer Vol

Time

Fitting h1 h2 V

s

(mm) (mm) Liter

METER

ELBOW

SHORT BEND

ENLARGEMENT

CONTRACTION

59 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Manometer Manometer Vol

Time

Fitting h1 h2 V

s

(mm) (mm) Liter

METER

ELBOW

SHORT BEND

ENLARGEMENT

CONTRACTION

Manometer Manometer Vol

Time

Fitting h1 h2 V

s

(mm) (mm) Liter

METER

ELBOW

SHORT BEND

ENLARGEMENT

CONTRACTION

Manometer Manometer Vol

Time

Fitting h1 h2 V

s

(mm) (mm) Liter

METER

ELBOW

SHORT BEND

ENLARGEMENT

CONTRACTION

Manometer Manometer Vol

Time

Fitting h1 h2 V

s

(mm) (mm) Liter

METER

ELBOW

SHORT BEND

ENLARGEMENT

CONTRACTION

60 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

GATE VALVE

25% open

Gauge Reading Flow Rate Measurement

50% open

Gauge Reading Flow Rate Measurement

Notes/Observations

61 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

1. Objective:

To obtain the characteristic curves such as the Input Power (P), efficiency (), and

the head generated (H) by the pump with respect to the flow rate (Q) obtained for a single

stage centrifugal pump operating at inherent speed and to use these pump curves to

explain and demonstrate the concepts of power management, energy conservation, and

cost savings (having to do with required pump power and pressures).

Most of Pumps can be broadly classified into: (1) Positive Displacement Pumps that

characterized by constant flow rate and variable head, and (2) Centrifugal Pumps, which

characterized by constant head and variable flow rate. The operation of centrifugal pump

is based on the transfer of the kinetic energy (angular momentum) from the rotating

impeller to the Fluid.

Figure (1) Centrifugal Pump (on the left; schematic diagram, and on the right;

industrial centrifugal pump) (Source: http://www.dccleaningsystem.com/)

When the fluid enters the eye of the impeller (figure 1), its kinetic energy and momentum

are then increased by the high speed of the rotating impeller.The kinetic energy is then

converted to pressure energy (Head) in the volute. Centrifugal pumps are characterized

by a constant head that determined from the pump design, shape, size and the speed and

62 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

size of the impeller, However, the volumetric flow rate (Capacity) of the centrifugal

pump depends on the flow resistance of the system, thats why it is variable.

This type of pump has two main components: an impeller and a stationary housing.

The impeller consists of a number of blades, usually curved, arranged in a regular pattern

around the shaft. Figure 1 is a picture of the different type of impellers used in the

centrifugal pump.

Pump Performance

Real pumps are never ideal and the performance of the pumps is determined

experimentally by the manufacturer and typically given in terms of pump curves.

Typically performance is given by curves of:

The operating characteristics of a centrifugal pump may be described or illustrated by

using graphs of pump performance. The three most commonly used graphical

representations of pump performance are:

(1) Efficiency versus capacity.

(2) Power versus capacity.

(3) Head versus capacity.

(4) NPSH versus capacity.

Real pumps are never ideal where the work that's put into the fluid by the pump ()

(or the Hydraulic Power ) doesnt equal to work put into the pump from the motor

engine ( ) (or the Shaft power ) due to an energy loss from motor to pump.

However, this energy dissipation cant be characterized, so it is accounted for by pump

efficiency

= = = . . ()

63 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

It usually refers to the mechanical power input (motor, engine) to the pump (Shaft Power)

as pump power, while that power by the fluid into the pump is referred as hydraulic

power.

Hydraulic Power: is equal to force times speed

= = . . ()

Mechanical Power: is equal to torque () times angular speed ()of the motor.

= = () = . . ()

-Where N=rotational speed of pump in RPM.

Since =

= = . . ()

[3] Pump Head

By solving equations (3) and (4) for pump head

=

= ()

From equation (5) it is obvious that:

So, Pump head is determined primarily by impeller size (R) and speed, and

pump efficiency.

Pump Head is independent of Fluid density, Thus, centrifugal pump develops the

same head regardless of its density or SP.GR.

Although Pump Head is independent of flow rate of the fluid, However, there is

a limitation of the flow that a given pump can handle. When, flow rate

approaches that limit, the developed head starts to drop off.

The maximum efficiency of most pumps occurs near the flow rate where the

head starts to drop significantly.

The head that is observed at the time when the flow is zero is called the shutoff

head and it simply means that the discharged valve is closed.

The optimum conditions for operation occur when the required 'duty point' of

head and flow coincides with a point of maximum efficiency. This point is

called Best efficiency point (BEP), Figure (2).

64 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

The required pump head is also known as (system curve) or (operating curve), and it can

be produced from the energy balance equation.

+ + + = + + . ()

if the flow regime is laminar).

Kinetic head is usually neglected.

Thus, energy balance equation can be written as (figure 3)

+ () + = + + () . ()

Figure (3) Representation of discharge head, suction head and total static head

(Source: Redrawn from http://www.pumpfundamentals.com)

Dr. Ahmed Elkhatat

65 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Note that:

Liquid flows from the suction side to the discharge side.

Suction head is head available just before the pump, = +

Discharge head is the head of the exit from the pump, = + +

Pump head is head required for the pump, =

Thus, head required for the pump can be obtained by rearranging equation (7)

= + ( ) + (() + () )

Where = ( ) and, includes all pipes, fittings, etc

= + ( ) + ( ) . ()

Note that:

Equation (8) is System Pump Head Equation (System Curve).

Pump Head is a quadratic function of Q for highly turbulent flow (i.e. Constant )

Pump Head is a linear function of Q at laminar flow, because value is inversely

proportional to Reynold number.

66 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

[1] Experimental Setup

The equipment comprises of a centrifugal water pump driven by an electric

motor, which is mounted on a support plinth together with a clear acrylic reservoir and

associated pipe work for continuous circulation. Clean water is used as the operating fluid

and a drain valve at the base of the reservoir allows the water to be drained after use.

Appropriate sensors are incorporated on the unit to facilitate analysis of the pump

performance when connected to a suitable computer via an interface device (IFD). In

addition to the tapings required by the pressure sensors. The flow of water through the

centrifugal pump is regulated by a flow control valve installed in the discharge pipework

of the pump. Adjustment of this valve allows the head/flow produced by the pump to be

varied. The pump intake valve allows the effect of suction losses to be investigated.

67 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

[2]Procedure

[2.1] Preparation of Experiment

68 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

[2.3]Using Sofware

69 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

70 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Technical Details

Orifice diameter d = 0.018m, Orifice discharge coefficient Cd = 0.61

Cross-sectional area of the pump inlet A1= 0.00029865 m2

Change in elevation head (Vertical distance between inlet and outlet = 0.048 m

4. Report requirements

(1) Calculate flow rate using orifice data for each case. Create a new column in

EXCEL sheet for this flow rate.

(2) Calculate efficiency using the flow rate you calculated (not from excel program),

and replace this efficiency with one calculated by the program.

(3) Generate pump characteristic curves by plotting Head, power input and efficiency

vs. flow rate for all the speed you studied. Discuss the trend in detail and justify it

and compare with the ideal pump curve one. Find BEP (best efficiency point) on

the graph.

(4) Generate a system curve for the giving pipe flow system provided by the

instructor (contact instructor to get data for system curve). Find the operating

point of the pump using system curve and pump curve.

(5) Create a suitable model for the relation between system curve and pump capacity,

and correlate this model with theory.

5. References

(1) Ron Darby. Chemical Engineering Fluid Mechanics, Ed.2. CRC Press (2001).

(2) J.O Wilkes, Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers, Prentice Hall, Boston,

2005.

(3) Armfield Instruction Manual, Centrifugal pump demonstration unit FM 20,

January 2005.

71 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Heat Transfer

Experiments

72 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

1. Objectives

To solve the heat equation for a general long solid rod and to compare theoretical

predictions with the actual temperature measurements made in the lab.

To find thermal conductivity of brass and compare it with the value in the

literature.

adjacent less energetic particles as a result of interactions between the particles. In solids,

conduction is the combined result of molecular vibrations and free electron mobility.

Metals typically have high free electron mobility, which explains why they are good heat

conductors.

Conduction is defined as the transfer of energy from more energetic particles to

adjacent less energetic particles as a result of interactions between the particles. In solids,

conduction is the combined result of molecular vibrations and free electron mobility.

Metals typically have high free electron mobility, which explains why they are good heat

conductors.

Perhaps the simplest phenomenon that can be modeled by the heat equation is

heat conduction in a long uniform rod. In most instances heat conduction occurs in three

dimensions: a situation that is complicated to analyze. In the laboratory, we use an

apparatus that exhibits one-dimensional heat flow to demonstrate the basic concepts

associated with the heat equation. The heat conduction apparatus consists of a cylindrical

metal bar that is insulated. The metal bar is electrically heated with constant wattage on

one end while the other end is exposed to cooling water. The cooling water is supplied

when the tubes from the back of the apparatus and the electric cooler are attached. The

cylinder is fitted with temperature sensors at evenly spaced locations along the rod. We

will also assume that all the heat flows in the axial direction due to an imposed

temperature as the bar is insulated in the peripheral direction

73 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

If a plan wall of a thickness (x) and area (Ax) supports a temperature difference (T),

then according to Fourier law the heat transfer rate per unit time (q) by conduction

through the wall is found to be:

dT

q x Ax (1)

dx

dT

q x kAx (2)

dx

Where (q) is the conduction heat flow in the x direction, (Ax) is the cross sectional

area normal to the (x) direction and (k) is the thermal conductivity. The negative sign

implies that heat is transferred in the direction of decreasing temperature. In more general

cases, Fourier's Law becomes a vector relationship, which includes all directions of heat

flow.

T T T

q (iq x jq y kqz ) k (i j k ) (3)

x y z

The thermal conductivity (k) varies between different materials and can be a

function of temperature. Because of the enhancement of heat transfer by free electrons,

thermal conductivity is analogous to electrical conductivity and hence, metals that are

good conductors of electricity are also good conductors of heat. Figure 2 shows the

thermal conductivity of various materials at low pressures.

74 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

3. Experimental

3.1 Description of Experimental Setup

The apparatus we will be using in this experiment is the H940 Heat Conduction

Unit. There are four items to this unit. The first item is the transformer with a circuit

breaker attached. The transformer consists of two cords, one of which plugs into an AC

outlet and the other into the calibration unit.

The second item is the calibration unit. The calibration unit has two basic

functions. One, it delivers heater power to the heater element within the test unit, and

two, it calibrates the temperatures at each of the nine positions so they can be read by the

digital meter. The far right knob adjusts the amount of power delivered to the heater. The

knob to the left is the temperature selector switch, which will give the temperature at any

75 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

The third item is the test unit. The test unit consist two test geometries, an

insulated brass bar for which samples can be placed between the two ends and an

insulated disk. Both of these test geometries have a hose running through the cold end for

which cold water from the sink can be passed through (Figure 6-3-2). The purpose of

having cold water running through the end of the bar or disk is to remove heat that is

produced form the other end. Once the rate at which heat is generated is equal to the rate

at which heat is removed, steady state equilibrium conditions will exist. At this point the

temperatures will be constant throughout the bar or disk and readings can be taken. There

are two heater cords, one from the test bar and the other from the test disk. The cord for

the desired test connects into the heater plug located in the lower right hand corner of the

calibration unit.

The last item of the conduction unit is a box that contains the samples,

thermocouples, and conducting paste. The samples can be placed in the bar test unit by

76 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

releasing the clamps and sliding the cold bar end out. The samples fit in only one way.

The thermocouples must be placed in order from 1 to 8. There is a label on both the

calibration unit and the test unit letting you know was the number 1 thermocouple starts.

The conducting paste is a highly conductive compound which is designed to decrease

contact resistance when applied to the ends of the connecting bars.

Useful Data: brass sample Diameter: 25 mm

distances between the thermocouple sensors are as follows

x1-2 = x2-3 = x3-4 = x4-5 = x5-6 = x6-7 = x7-8 = 0.015m

Take a brass sample (25 mm Diameter) and coat each end including the apparatus

with conducting compound.

**Please note that the distances between the thermocouple sensors are as follows

x1-2 = x2-3 = x3-4 = x4-5 = x5-6 = x6-7 = x7-8 = 0.015m

Allow a fair amount of cold water to flow through the test unit.

Select an intermediate position for the heater power control and allow sufficient

time (20-30 min.) for a steady state condition to be achieved. If temperature does

not stabilize after 30 minutes, assume steady state.

Record the temperature (T) at all eight sensor points and the input power reading

on the wattmeter (q) in Table 6-6-1.

Repeat the procedure for two other input powers keeping the equilibrium

temperature below 100o C. After each change, allow sufficient time (30 min.) to

achieve steady state conditions.

4. Safety Guidelines:

To avoid burns, do not touch any metal or plastic surfaces on the hot end of the

sample or test unit.

Avoid using a high cooling water flow to prevent disconnection of the hose from

the test unit.

Do not exceed 20 W power delivery under any circumstances, and do not allow

the temperature to go above 100 C at any of the thermocouple locations.

77 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Avoid using too much conducting paste as this may fry the unit.

5. Report Requirements

Derive governing energy equation (unsteady state included) for the heat

conduction case you studied in the lab. (Hint: Start with generation energy

equation and cancel the term not applicable to your case).

Write boundary and initial conditions.

Plot temperature profile along the length of cylinder at t=5min, 10 min, 15

minute, 20 min and 30 min. Comment on the plot with respect to the variation

with time. Did to get the steady state profile.

Plot steady state temperature profile and find thermal conductivity of brass

sample using slop of the temperature profile. Compare the value of thermal

conductivity with the values given in text.

6. References

J.P Holman, Heat Transfer, McGraw Hill, 2002.

Experimental. Operating and Maintenance Manual, PA HILTON, December

2005

78 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Date:

Group Number:

OBSERVATION TABLE

Time T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8

q (W)

(min)

(oC) (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC)

5

10

15

20

30

79 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Time V I T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8

q (W)

(min) (volts) (Amps)

(oC) (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC)

10

15

20

30

Time V I T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8

q (W)

(min) (volts) (Amps)

(oC) (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC)

10

15

20

30

Notes/Observations

80 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

81 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Introduction

model of transient head conduction. This model determines whether or not the

temperature gradient in a specific material is small enough to be negligible during

transient heat conduction, in which case the system can be considered uniform in

temperature. Transient heat conduction occurs when the object experiences a sudden

change in its thermal environment. If a hot object is submersed in a cool liquid, the

object will decrease in temperature over a duration of time until it reaches the

temperature of the liquid. This change in temperature occurs due to convection between

the object and the cooler water. The lumped capacitance model assumes that the

temperature gradient (which must exist if heat is to be conducted into or out of the

material) is negligible. Generally, the smaller the object, the better model this will be.

We assume that the temperature distribution in the object depends on the thermal

conductivity of the object material and the heat transfer conditions from the surface of the

object to the cooler liquid. Uniform temperature distribution will likely occur if the

resistance to heat transfer by conduction is small compared to the convection resistance at

the surface, so that the temperature gradient is not within the object but rather through the

liquid at the objects surface. An energy balance shows that the convection heat loss is

verification of a decrease in the internal energy of the object

dT

q hA(T T ) c

d

and with initial condition T T0 at 0 the equation can be solved as

hA

T T

e cV

T0 T

which is the lumped capacity model in equation form. The results of the experimental

analysis should indicate that the difference between the object and liquid temperature

decay exponentially to zero as the time reaches infinity. The time constant is dependent

Dr. Ahmed Elkhatat

82 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

on the lumped thermal capacitance and resistance of the object to convection heat

transfer. The verification of the Biot number must first be established to determine the

validity of using the lumped capacitance model. This dimensionless number

hV A

k

must be less than 0.1 for the lumped capacity model to apply. The thermal conductivity

(k) is assumed constant, and all other quantities can be determined either directly from

the experiment or through analysis of the experimental results.

Useful data:

Diameter of sphere= 45 mm

Experimental set up :

83 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Experimental procedure

Set the temperature of water bath around 60-80 oc.

Open the data acquisition software.

After the water temperature stabilizes at set temperature put the steel ball in water

bath and start recording the temperature using software.

After temperature reached steady state stop taking data.

Cooling in room temperature. Take the steel ball out and again start recording

temperature data until next 40-50 minute. This will be the case of cooling at

ambient temperature.

Report requirements

1. Start with general energy balance to develop lumped capacity model equation for

unsteady state heat transfer for sphere (This can be done in theory part)

2. Case 1 (heating the shape in constant temperature bath): plot the temperature of

shape with time. Find the temperature of shape at t=1 minute. Using the lumped

capacity equation and this temperature value at given time, calculate heat transfer

coefficient of hot water inside bath. compare this value with the expected value of

h.

3. Calculate Biot number by using calculated value of h and known values of

thermal conductivity & diameter of sphere. comment on the value with respect to

the validity of lumped capacity model.

4. Case 2: Cooling of hot sphere at room temperature: search for the value of

convective heat transfer coefficient h for the case you studied (table 4-1 in your

heat transfer text book could be helpful). Calculate Biot number for the case you

studied. Comment on the value.

5. Draw temperature profile with time (cooling). Discuss the trend in detail. Plot

theoretical temperature on the same plot , compare both and discuss. Find the

value of h for air for which theoretical and experimental plot exactly matches.

compare this value with the one you found in literature.

84 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

1. Objectives:

and countercurrent flow (flows in the opposite direction) and the effect on the

heat transferred, over all efficiency, temperature efficiencies and temperature

profiles through a Tubular Heat Exchanger.

To determine the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient for a Tubular Heat Exchanger

using the Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference to perform the calculations

(for co current and countercurrent flow).

To determine the theoretical over all heat transfer coefficient for co and counter

current heat exchanger and compare with the experimental one.

To find the effect of varying the temperature of hot fluid on heat transfer

coefficient.

2. Background

The process of heat exchange between two fluids that are at different temperatures

and separated by a solid wall occurs in many engineering applications. The device used

to implement this exchange is called a heat exchanger, and specific applications may be

found in space heating and air-conditioning, power production, waste heat recovery and

chemical processing. Heat exchangers are typically classified according to flow

arrangement and type of construction. In the first classification, flow can be

countercurrent or cocurrent (also called parallel). On the other hand, according to their

configuration, heat exchangers can be labeled as tubular, plate and shell & tube heat

exchangers.

The tubular heat exchanger is the simplest form of heat exchanger and consists of

two concentric (coaxial) tubes carrying the hot and cold fluids. Heat is transferred to/from

one fluid in the inner tube from/to the other fluid in the outer annulus via the metal wall

85 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

3. Theory

3.1 Experimental approach

3.1.1 Overall Efficiency

To design or predict the performance of a heat exchanger, it is essential to

determine the heat lost to the surrounding for the analyzed configuration. We can define a

parameter to quantify the percentage of losses or gains. Such parameter may readily be

obtained by applying overall energy balances for hot and cold fluids. If Qe is the heat

power emitted from hot fluid, meanwhile Qa the heat power absorbed by cold fluid

(neglecting potential and kinetic energy changes);

Qe mh Cph (Th,i Th,o ) (1)

Qa mc Cpc (Tc,o Tc,i ) (2)

m h , m c : Mass flow rate of hot and cold fluid, respectively.

Qa

Percentage of losses or gains P 100

Qe

these differ due to heat losses or gains to/from the environment.

The above formulas were deducted taking into account that hot fluid is rounded

by cold fluid. If the average cold fluid temperature is above the ambient air temperature

then heat will be lost to the surroundings resulting in P < 100%. If the average cold fluid

86 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

temperature is below the ambient temperature, heat will be gained resulting P> 100%.

3.1.2 Temperature efficiencies

of each fluid stream. The temperature change in each fluid stream is compared with the

maximum temperature difference between the two fluid streams giving a comparison

with an exchanger of infinite size.

Fig 1: Countercurrent and Co-current operation for a shell and tube heat exchanger

Th ,inlet Th ,outlet

Temperature efficiency for hot fluid h 100

Th ,inlet Tc,inlet

Tc ,outlet Tc ,inlet

Temperature efficiency for cold fluid c 100

Th,inlet Tc ,inlet

h c

Mean temperature efficiency m ,

2

Subscripts h and c stand for hot and cold, respectively.

87 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Because the temperature difference between the hot and cold fluid streams varies

along the length of the heat exchanger it is necessary to derive an average temperature

difference (driving force) from which heat transfer calculations can be performed. This

average temperature difference is called the Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference

(LMTD) tlm.

t 1 t 2

LMTD t lm (3)

ln( t 1 / t 2 )

Where,

t1 = T1-T4 ( temperature difference of hot and cold streams at one end)

t2 = T2-T3 ( temperature difference of hot and cold streams at other end)

We can define an overall heat transfer coefficient U as:

Qe W

U m2K (4)

At lm

Where,

Qe = Heat power emitted from hot fluid

A = Heat transmission area

exchanger has been developed. Here, an analytical study will be explained in order to

understand the initial steps of thermal and sizing design.

Analytical methods are only approximate in order to get an idea of the heat exchanger

size. The overall heat transfer coefficient is calculated assuming that is constant along all

the heat exchanger and can be predicted with convection correlations. Nevertheless, there

are many factors that affect this value, for instance, the influence of bubbles, corrosion,

etc. Manufacturers provide manuals that contain information more precise regarding the

88 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

heat exchangers they trade. Then, it is expected that the theoretical values differ from the

experimental ones, fundamentally due to the presence of bubbles. Of course,

experimental results are mandatory because they reflect real conditions of operation.

However, for heat exchanger selection it is convenience to have a methodology in order

to estimate the overall heat transfer coefficient or the size according to given temperature

range and flow specifications.

Before setting the equation that determines the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, lets

take some assumptions. The conduction resistance between hot and cold fluid could be

neglected, also resistance due to fouling.

1

Ui (5)

1 A A ln( ro / ri )

i i

hi ho Ao 2kL

Where

hi : Heat transfer coefficient of hot fluid [W/m2K]

ho : Heat transfer coefficient of cold fluid [W/m2K]

Ai: Heat transfer Area based on insider diameter

Ao: Heat Transfer Area based on outside diameter

ro: outside radius

ri: inside radius

L: heat transfer length

K: Thermal conductivity of tube material (steel)

In order to calculate hi and ho, the appropriate correlation will be used.

For flow in circular tubes:

NuD : 4.36 (Laminar flow, ReD < 2300)

Colburn equation

NuD : 0.023 ReD4/5 Pr1/3 (Turbulent flow, ReD > 2300)

hD

Nu D

k

Where D: Diameter of tube

k: Conductivity of fluid

If the tube is non circular, hydraulic diameter is used, instead.

89 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

4 Ac

Dh

P

Where Ac and P are the cross-sectional area and the wetted perimeter, respectively.

4. Experimental

There are three optional small-scale heat exchangers that can be installed to

illustrate the principles and different techniques of heat transfer between fluid streams.

The heat exchangers are individually mounted on a common bench-top Heat Exchanger

Service Unit. The unit supplies hot and cold water streams to the different heat

exchangers installed on it.

The following parameters can be modified for each small-scale heat exchanger:

volumetric flow rates of hot and cold fluids, hot fluid temperature and flow arrangements

(countercurrent or cocurrent).

Fig. 2: Heat Exchanger Service Unit with the Tubular Heat Exchanger installed.

90 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Description of the Tubular Heat Exchanger: under countercurrent operation.

The tubular heat exchanger consists of two concentric (coaxial) tubes carrying the

hot and cold fluids. The tubes are separated into two sections.

under co-current operation.

91 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

exchangers arranged in series in the form of a U. The hot water flows in the inner

tube and cold fluid in the outer annulus. The equipment allows the conversion from

Six temperature sensors are installed in the hot and cold fluid inlets, outlets and mid

positions.

Technical Data:

Each inner tube is constructed from stainless steel tube,8.3 mm ID, 9.5mm

OD.

Each outer annulus is constructed from clear acrylic tube, 12.0mm ID.

Each heat transfer section is 330mm long giving a combined heat transfer

4.2 Experimental Procedure

Load the HT31 Software and select countercurrent operation. For best results,

ensure that the data filter mode (Options IFD Sample Parameters) is set to

custom.

Select the PID temperature controller and set to 60C in automatic mode.

Sampling configuration should be set to manual.

Adjust the cold water control flow (not the pressure regulator) to give 1 liter/min.

and the hot water control to give 2 liters/min.

Allow the heat exchanger to stabilize. (Use the IFD Channel History screen to

monitor the temperatures).

92 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

Repeat the experiment for hot fluid flow rate from 2 and 3 liter/min and take a

sample reading when the temperature becomes stable.

Repeat the experiment using co current flow.

93 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

5. Report requirements

Calculate overall efficiency, temperature efficiency and overall heat transfer

coefficient. Compare the results for concurrent and counter current cases.

Calculate theoretical overall heat transfer coefficient for counter current HE and

compare with the experimental one.

Plot experimental overall heat transfer coefficient against hot water temperature

and comment on the trend.

6. References

J.P Holman, Heat Transfer, McGraw Hill, 2002.

Instruction manual Computer Compatible Tubular Heat Exchanger HT 31,

Armfield, November 2004.

94 CHME324 Laboratory Manual

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