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1. Analog signal is a continuous signal which represents physical measurements.

Digital signals are discrete time signals generated by digital modulation.The difference
between analog and digital technologies is that in analog technology, information is
translated into electric pulses of varying amplitude. In digital technology, translation of
information is into binary format (zero or one) where each bit is representative of two
distinct amplitudes. Bellows are more details for differences between analog signal and
digital signal.
Analog Digital

Waves Denoted by sine waves Denoted by square waves

Uses continuous range of values to Uses discrete or discontinuous values


Representation
represent information to represent information

Subjected to deterioration by noise Can be noise-immune without


Data
during transmission and write/read deterioration during transmission and
transmissions
cycle. write/read cycle.

More likely to get affected reducing Less affected since noise response
Response to Noise
accuracy are analog in nature

Digital hardware is flexible in


Flexibility Analog hardware is not flexible.
implementation.

Can be used in analog devices only. Best Best suited for Computing and digital
Uses
suited for audio and video transmission. electronics.

There is no guarantee that digital


Analog signal processing can be done in signal processing can be done in real
Bandwidth
real time and consumes less bandwidth. time and consumes more bandwidth
to carry out the same information.

Memory Stored in the form of wave signal Stored in the form of binary bit

Digital instrument draws only


Power Analog instrument draws large power
negligible power

Cost Low cost and portable Cost is high and not easily portable

Analog instruments usually have a scale Digital instruments are free from
Errors which is cramped at lower end and give observational errors like parallax and
considerable observational errors. approximation errors.

Base on the table above, there are more advantages in using digital signal then analog
signal, so in the future, the trend toward use the (b) digital signal.

OSI and TCP / IP protocols


1. OSI Protocols: a conceptual model consists of seven layers, each layer that has a
different function. OSI Layer consists of: Physical, Data link, Network, Transport,
Session, Presentation, and Application. OSI model is the main architectural model
networks which describe how data and network information communicate from a
computer application to another computer application through a transmission
media.
2. TCP/IP protocol: a data communications standard used by the Internet

community in exchanging data from one computer to another computer in a


network the Internet.