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D5.

4 Final Report
June 2012 to January 2014

This document is the final report of the project the Endless Runway, an FP7 L0 project for the
European Commission. The project covers the period of June 2012 to January 2014. This report will
provide a publishable summery of the project and will give the main achievements of the project.
The template for final reports from EC has been followed. This document follows the guidelines for
producing a final report for EC.

Project Number 308292


Document Identification D5.4 Final Report
Status Final
Version 2.0
Date of Issue 05-03-2015
Author(s) Hesselink, Henk
Organisation NLR
Classification Public
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PROJECT FINAL REPORT

Grant Agreement number: ACP2-GA-2012-308292-ENDLESS RUNWAY


Project acronym:
Project title: The Endless Runway
Funding Scheme: FP7 L0
Period covered: from June 2012 to January 2014

Name of the scientific representative of the project's co-ordinator, Title and


Organisation:
H.H. (Henk) Hesselink
Sr. R&D Engineer
National Aerospace Laboratory, NLR
Tel: +31.88.511.3445
Fax: +31.88.511.3210
E-mail: henk.hesselink@nlr.nl

Project website address: www.endlessrunway-project.eu

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Document Change Log

Version Author Date Affected Sections Description of Change


0.1 H.H. Hesselink 20/2/2014 All Initial document

0.2 H.H. Hesselink 09/04/2014 All Document final draft

1.0 H.H. Hesselink 10/04/2014 All Version 1.0

2.0 H.H. Hesselink 05/03/2015 1.1 Corrected some figures

Document Distribution

Organisation Name
EC Ivan Konaktchiev
NLR Henk Hesselink
Ren Verbeek
Carl Welman
Joyce Nibourg
DLR Steffen Loth
ONERA Maud Dupeyrat
Sbastien Aubry
Peter Schmollgruber
INTA Francisco Mugoz Sanz
Mara Antonia Vega Ramrez
Albert Remiro
Francisco Ibaez
ILOT Marin Jez

Review and Approval of the Document

Organisation Responsible for Review Reference of comment documents Date


DLR, ONERA, INTA, ILOT 05-03-2015

Organisation Responsible for Approval Name of person approving the document Date
DLR, ONERA, INTA, ILOT 05-03-2015

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Table of Contents
Document Change Log 2
Document Distribution 2
Review and Approval of the Document 2
Table of Contents 3
Abbreviations 5
1 Final publishable summary report 7
1.1 The Endless Runway: executive summary 7
1.2 Summary description of project context and objectives 8
1.2.1 Introduction 8
1.2.2 Description of the Endless Runway 8
1.2.3 Operational concept 9
1.2.4 Projects objectives 9
1.3 The main S&T results/foregrounds 10
1.3.1 State of the art 10
1.3.2 The concept of operation and design of the Endless Runway 12
1.3.3 Evaluation of the basic principles 13
1.3.4 Airport design 17
1.3.5 ATM procedures 18
1.3.6 Simulations 23
1.3.7 Analysis 24
1.3.8 Aircraft optimised for use of the Endless Runway 25
1.3.9 Impact of the Endless Runway 27
1.3.10 Transition from today to the future 29
1.3.11 Final considerations 30
1.3.12 References 31
1.4 Potential impact and the main dissemination activities and exploitation of results 32
1.4.1 Capacity 32
1.4.2 Noise impact 33
1.4.3 Airport footprint 35
1.4.4 Technological assessment 36
1.4.5 Cost benefit assessment 37

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1.4.6 New developments 38


1.5 The address of the project public website, if applicable as well as relevant contact details 40
1.6 Project logo 40
1.7 Diagrams or photographs illustrating and promoting the work of the project 40
1.8 List of all beneficiaries with the corresponding contact names 43
2 Use and dissemination of foreground 44
3 FINAL REPORT ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE European Union FINANCIAL CONTRIBUTION 56

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Abbreviations

Acronym Definition
ACARE Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe
A-RAP Adaptive Runway Aiming Points
ARP Airport Reference Point
ATC Air Traffic Control
ATM Air Traffic Management
CBA Cost Benefit Assessment
CdG Charles de Gaulle (airport)
D-GPS Differential Global Positioning Systems
DLR Deutsches Zentrum fr Luft- und Raumfahrt
DOF Degrees of Freedom
EC European commission
ERAC Endless Runway Aircraft
EREA European Research Establishments in Aeronautics
GBAS Ground Based Augmentation Systems
GPS Global Positioning System
HUD Head-Up Display
ILOT Instytut Lotnictwa
ILS Instrument Landing System
INM Integrated Noise Model
INTA Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial
kts knots
Lden Level Day Evening Night
MARS Multi-Aircraft Ramp Systems
MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology
MLS Microwave Landing System
NLR Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium
NM Nautical Mile
ONERA Office National dtudes et de Recherches Arospatiales
S&T Science & Technology
SESAR Single European Sky ATM Research
TSFC Thrust Specific Fuel Consumption
TMA Terminal Manoeuvring Area

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1 Final publishable summary report


This chapter will provide a summary of the project as a project description and will state the main achievements that
have been reached in the course of the project. This part of this document contains a public summary that includes five
distinct parts (in line with the guidelines for providing a final report):

An executive summary of the project


A summary description of the project context and objectives
A description of the main S&T results/foregrounds
The potential impact (including the socio-economic impact and the wider societal implications of the project
so far) and the main dissemination activities and exploitation of results
The address of the project public website

Furthermore, promotion material and information on the project beneficiaries is provided.

1.1 The Endless Runway: executive summary


The Endless Runway proposes a novel and radical design for a runway: a circular track, circumventing the airport. This
runway is used for take-off in any direction and landing from any direction, thus offering the unique characteristic that
the runway can be used under any wind condition through the possibility for an aircraft to operate always with
headwind during take-off and landing. Moreover, it will allow aircraft to shorten their global trajectory through
optimized departure and arrival routes and avoid runway crossings overruns. The airport terminals with all aircraft,
passenger, baggage and freight facilities will be located mainly inside the circular runway.

The circle of the runway will need to be large enough to provide sufficient room for infrastructure and therefore, it will
have a radius of 1.5 kilometres, allowing current-day aircraft to use the circle without significant structural
modifications. The runway will be 140 meters wide, banked track as a compromise between safety and limiting
centrifugal forces.

Two operational concepts have been evaluated: one for the low wind case, where the complete circle can be used in
any direction as there is no point on the circle where the maximum crosswind is exceeded and one concept for the high
wind case, where the operation is limited to those points on the circle where crosswind is below the allowed limited. As
the circle always has two points (across of each other), the high wind case provides similar operations to an airport with
two parallel runways. The advantage of the Endless Runway is that the runways will always be available and can be
turned with the wind, compared to conventional runways.

Several aircraft can operate the 10 km. runway simultaneously. A scheduling algorithm is proposed, where aircraft will
be able to claim a number of segments, which they will need to perform their take-off or landing, depending on the
aircraft characteristics and their directions of origin and destination. Safety buffers will be included, both in space and
time, in between consecutive flights.

As the Endless Runway concerns a radical new layout for the airport, additional work has been performed to define an
Endless Runway Aircraft Concept (ERAC) that is optimized for operations on such circular runway. It follows that take-
off and landing tracks can be shortened with 10% compared to current day aircraft at straight runways.

The Endless Runway offers a sustainable airport that will allow operations in all directions independent of the wind. The
total area of land use of the airport is smaller than that of an airport with straight runways and a similar number of
movements. The project demonstrated a capacity similar to current-day major European hub airports. Costs for
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construction of the airport will be 10% to 70% higher; benefits will be gained from offering continuous capacity and
shorter trajectories.

The project did not find any show stoppers and demonstrated feasibility of the concept, including the use of the airport
for current-day aircraft.

1.2 Summary description of project context and objectives


1.2.1 Introduction

One of the scenarios of the European Research Establishments in Aeronautics (EREA) Air Transport System (ATS) 2050
study, the Unlimited Skies scenario, imagines an explosive growth of air traffic. If this happened, the lack of capacity at
airports would be a major constraint to growth, as also recognized by ACARE, the Advisory Council for Aeronautics
Research in Europe and in the Flightpath 2050 Study from EC. Airports already form a major bottleneck in the air
transport system. If nothing is done, part of the demand may not be accommodated. The current activities in the scope
of SESAR (Single European Sky ATM Research), although getting us closer to the capacity levels needed with its
advanced technologies, might not be sufficient to obtain the capacity needed for an intended three-fold increase in air
traffic, specifically under all weather conditions. More capacity is needed.

Extending existing airports or building new ones usually face the opposition of inhabitants and it takes many years
between the first identification of the need and the completion of the construction. For instance, making a runway
longer to accommodate larger aircraft, adding a tangent runway to an existing runway system in order not to close the
airport in high crosswind, and extending the airport outside of its current limits, are all measures that may encounter
strong opposition of local residents.

While airport capacity needs to be increased, authorities ask for optimised trajectories in order to reduce fuel
consumption, emissions and possibly noise. Current aircraft routes based on standard procedures in the departure and
approach phases are far from being direct: an aircraft flying from Toulouse-Blagnac to Paris-Orly, on a day of Autan
wind (coming from the south east), will take off facing the wind from runway 14L or 14R almost in the opposite
direction of its destination.

A number of physical constraints, such as wake vortex separation minima and cross- and tailwind limits, make it hard to
improve the performance of conventional airport configurations significantly. Major reasons for these capacity
limitations are the imposed direction of the runway system and the need to have aircraft operating along the same
approach path to the same touchdown point. Directionality results in a dependency to the wind direction and speed.
Using the same approach path results in trailing aircraft having to avoid wake vortices from leading aircraft.

In order to tackle the airport network capacity limitation and the efficiency requirement, an alternative design to
current airports is proposed: a circular runway concept. The main underlying idea is to operate the runway in any
direction safely whatever the wind direction, with any aircraft category, including those with long take-off and landing
rolls.

1.2.2 Description of the Endless Runway

The Endless Runway is an innovative concept for airport operations in the long-term future, based on a radically new
airport design encompassing a circular circumventing runway. In order to allow a sufficient number of operations, the
runway inner radius is set to 1500 meters. The total runway length therefore is about 10 000 meters, comparable in

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length to three straight runways; long enough to allow multiple simultaneous operations on the runway and to build
the airport infrastructure inside, while keeping the airport compact.

The runway width is set to 140 meters as a compromise between discomfort due to higher centrifugal forces for a
narrower runway and the costs of a wider runway. To limit the effects of the centrifugal forces, the circular runway
lateral profile is banked with increasing angles to the outside. As the aircraft accelerates for take-off, it moves from the
flat inner part of the runway toward the outer banked part until it reaches the lateral position on the runway where the
bank angle fits its lift-off speed. The same applies during landing the other way around.

The taxiway system consists of an outer and an inner taxiway ring between the runway and the terminals area. The
outer taxiway, operated in the same direction(s) as the runway, is connected to runway access points through high-
speed exit taxiways, where one aircraft can hold if needed. The inner taxiway is operated in the opposite direction to
the outer one. Taxiways between the airports buildings link the inner circular ring to the inner airfield area.

1.2.3 Operational concept

Three different operational cases can be identified for aircraft landing on the circular runway: strong wind, low wind,
and changing wind directions.
a) In strong wind conditions, those exceeding 20 kts, the aircraft will fly in sequence towards the Endless Runway
to allow for landing at the touchdown point where dependency from the wind is at a minimum (at exactly
headwind). Taking-off from the runway is following the same procedure. Parts of the runway must be avoided
for take-off or landing because of the crosswind. The operation is not different from todays operation, with
the exception that an optimum touchdown point always exists whereas for a conventional runway a certain
crosswind needs to be accepted.
b) In low wind conditions, aircraft can take-off and land in any direction. Aircraft are sequenced so that
consecutive aircraft originate from different directions and do not interfere with each other and will not have
needs for spacing according to wake turbulence categories. This enables the possibility to reduce take-off and
landing intervals between aircraft.
c) With changing wind, the aircraft sequence can gradually move with the wind direction. No break in the
sequence occurs as it is the case with conventional runway configurations. No costly operation for tactical
runway changes or runway directions change in operation will be necessary.

1.2.4 Projects objectives

Objectives of the project have been to 1) define a concept for a major hub airport, comparable to one of Europes large
hub airports of today, and 2) to assess the capacity of the Endless Runway by simulating the concept defined.

The proposed concept has been evaluated with respect to airport infrastructure design aspects, aircraft performance
aspects, and Air Traffic Management (ATM) aspects. For the infrastructure, the taxiways, aprons, terminals and all other
facilities have been defined as they must be located inside the circle.

For the aircraft performance aspects, the first question has been to evaluate landing and take-off of current-day,
conventional aircraft on the banked circular track and to evaluate the lateral forces on the landing gear and centrifugal
forces for the passengers. Apart from operating the Endless Runway with conventional aircraft, a new aircraft design
has been proposed, optimised for use on the Endless Runway.

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For evaluation of the ATM aspects, a planning method has been set up and simulated in fast time simulations to
evaluate the capacity that the Endless Runway could provide.
st
For the assessment of the Endless Runway, a comparison with July 1 , 2011, the busiest day ever, at Paris Charles de
Gaulle (CdG) airport has been made. Paris CdG is a busy hub airport, which stresses the available infrastructure to a
maximum, as the hub-function of the airport requires high arrival peak streams of traffic, high departure peak streams
and a large number of gates necessary at particular transfer periods during the day. The motivation for taking one of
the most demanding airports in Europe at its busiest day is that if the simulations demonstrate feasibility of the concept
for this airport at this day, it will work for almost any other airport in Europe as well.

Apart from the three aspects mentioned above (infrastructure, aircraft and ATM), an assessment has been made with
respect to costs and benefits for operating the Endless Runway, and an assessment of noise and the need for land area
has been performed.

1.3 The main S&T results/foregrounds


The Endless Runway is an innovative concept for airport operations in the long-term future, based on a radically new
airport design encompassing a circular circumventing runway. The lack of airport capacity is considered a major
constraint to growth within the air transport system of the future, according to by ACARE, the Advisory Council for
Aeronautics Research in Europe. The main idea of the Endless Runway is to operate the runway in any direction safely
whatever the wind direction. Further gains of a circular runway are the optimisation of air and ground aircraft
trajectories through the use of the best runway section and the compact airport footprint.

1.3.1 State of the art

The idea of a circular runway is not new: since the early days of aviation,
people discuss and experiment new ways of take-off and landing,
including the circular runway. Circular runways actually appeared since
the very beginning of aviation. Clment Ader in France started with a
th th
first circular take-off at the end of the XIX century. All along the XX
century, engineers submitted articles, reports and patents related to
circular runway concepts. In the middle of the 1960s, flight trials with
takes-offs and landings were even undertaken by U.S. army pilots on a
circular car track in Arizona.

In 1919, a circular track appears for the first time in the press, in the
Popular Science Monthly newspaper [1]. The concern in these days
was to find a way to take off and land in or near big cities such as New
York with skyscrapers of different heights. An idea was found to
construct a circular runway on top of the skyscrapers, without cutting
off light and air from the streets below. A banked circular track,
Figure 1 Circular track in Manhattan, 1919
made of iron, supported by several buildings, seemed to be a
solution to solve this accessibility problem.

In 1921, a first circular runway is patented by P.J. Backus [46]. He proposes a flat and small circular track way, which
was adapted to light aircraft of that time.

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In 1957, a refined design of the circular runway was proposed by Sir H. Tempest [1]. The problem at hand was the
future evolution of jet aircraft whose speed was expected to increase more and more, causing straight runways to be
longer and longer. Subsequent problem was the size of major airports. Their growth was limited by the land available,
the cost of the land, and the necessary expenses for building and maintaining them. Such constraints lead to the
circular runway concept (see Figure 2): with a 914 meters diameter, the runway would measure 2,870 meters and the
2 2
surface of such an airport would be of about 0.66 km (to be compared with the 12 km from London Airport at the
time). Thanks to the endless runway, the run on the runway could be extended, longer than its actual length,
accommodating aircraft take-off and landing runs as long as needed to reach take-off speed or full stop.

Figure 2 Perspective view of the circular runway airport, 1957

In 1964 and 1965, tests were undertaken at the General Motors Desert Proving Grounds track near Mesa, Arizona, on a
circular banked track [3]. The track used had a circumference of 8047 meters, that is to say a 1281 meters radius, was
13.7 meters wide and was banked from nearly 0 on the inside to 22 on the outside. This corresponds to equilibrium
speeds varying from 0 kts to about 140 kts, see Figure 3.

Figure 3 Flight trial on General Motors track, Arizona

Pilots reported that at first it was difficult to land with the correct roll angle and on the speed circle corresponding to
the landing speed. However, pilots reported that the runway tended to correct their errors regarding landing speed,
point of touchdown, and degree of bank. Aids such as a marking on the runway helped them for positioning. After a few
trials, pilots mastered the knack and they reported an exceptional lateral stability, the aircraft would easily find its

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natural line corresponding to its speed on the runway. The stability was such that cross winds were no more a factor,
removing the constraint to take off and land with headwind.

The experiments have not yet lead to the development of circular runways for operational use. One of the reasons why
the circular runway remained at experimental level was probably the cost of such a runway and the need for new
procedures and techniques. Construction costs would be higher than for capacity-equivalent conventional runways
because of the requirement for precise banking of the runway and for larger runway width (98 meters instead of
maximum 60 meters) and length (10,000 meters versus maximum 4,000 meters). Another reason was that the design
studies of these concepts study did not involve devising new landing techniques and procedures, which are necessary
for implementation in the air traffic environment.

Circular airports are coming back to designers mind conceiving for the airport of the future. During the Fentress
Global Challenge: Airport of the Future launched in the Spring 2011 and awarded early 2012, two students (one from
Stanford university and the other one, Thor Yi Chun, from Malaysia's University of Science) proposed both a circular
runway concept [4].

1.3.2 The concept of operation and design of the Endless Runway

Three different operational cases can be identified for aircraft landing on and taking-off from the circular runway:
strong wind, low wind, and changing wind directions.

a) In strong wind conditions, those exceeding 20 kts, the aircraft will fly in sequence towards the Endless Runway
to allow for landing at the touchdown point where dependency from the wind is at a minimum (at exactly
headwind). Taking-off from the runway is following the same procedure. Parts of the runway must be avoided
for take-off or landing because of the crosswind, see Figure 4. The operation is not different from todays
operation, with the exception that an optimum touchdown point always exists whereas for a conventional
runway a certain crosswind needs to be accepted.

> 20

Dc
No airborne
= cos() trajectory in this
area.

= (2 )
lim
=
Area where(e.g. )
Segments Rc = 1570 m DR
where
crosswindcrosswind
exceeds
exceeds 20 kts
20kts.
are denied for lift-off
and touchdown.

Figure 4 Closed areas at the runway with excessing crosswind

The part of the runway not allowed for lift-off and touchdown becomes shorter with increasing wind.

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b) In low wind conditions, aircraft can take-off and land in any direction. Aircraft are sequenced so that
consecutive aircraft originate from different directions and do not interfere with each other and will not have
needs for spacing according to wake turbulence categories. This enables the possibility to reduce take-off and
landing intervals between aircraft, see Figure 5.

Figure 5 Flexible sequencing of aircraft

c) With changing wind, the aircraft sequence can gradually move with the wind direction. No break in the
sequence occurs as it is the case with conventional runway configurations. No costly operation for tactical
runway changes or runway directions change in operation will be necessary.

Objective of the project is to define a concept for a major hub airport, comparable to one of Europes large hub airports
of today. For evaluating the aspects of the Endless Runway, a comparison will be made to the Paris Charles de Gaulle
(CdG) airport.

In order to allow a sufficient number of operations, the runway inner radius is set to 1500 meters. The total runway
length therefore is about 10 000 meters, comparable in length to three straight runways; long enough to allow multiple
simultaneous operations on the runway and to build the airport infrastructure inside, while keeping the airport
compact.

The runway width is set to 140 meters as a compromise between discomfort due to higher centrifugal forces for a
narrower runway and the costs of a wider runway. To limit the effects of the centrifugal forces, the circular runway
lateral profile is banked with increasing angles to the outside. As the aircraft accelerates for take-off, it moves from the
flat inner part of the runway toward the outer banked part until it reaches the lateral position on the runway where the
bank angle fits its lift-off speed. The same applies during landing the other way around.

1.3.3 Evaluation of the basic principles

Although the longitudinal stretch of the banked runway will be flat with respect to the aircraft, it must be assumed that
during take-off and landing, the aircraft may position itself a bit off its optimal take-off and landing point. At those
moments, clearance of the tip-back angle of the aircraft must be ensured. The wingtip height will be limited on a curved
runway track as indicated in Figure 6.

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Figure 6 Wingtip clearance

To evaluate operations on the Endless Runway, the most constraining aircraft that is currently in operation has been
selected for trial: the Boeing 747, where the outer engine will have the smallest clearance with the ground. The
evaluation will be performed with a 6 Degrees of Freedom (DOF) simulation tool. There are several 6DOF simulators
available (commercial and free) and all aeronautical research centers developed their own proprietary systems over the
years. Flight Gear was selected for use in the project.

The objective of the simulations is to take an existing passenger aircraft and to operate it on an Endless Runway airport
to both assess its behavior and define the attainable level of performance. The outcome of these evaluations is a direct
comparison of the aircraft behavior on the tracks, the determination of the level of take-off and landing performances
and the identification of the most promising runway cross section. The approach that has been used is illustrated in
Figure 7.

Flight Gear Virtual Mission Post Flight Analysis

Computer Screen Performance analysis


Flight Dynamics
Pilot inputs Model : JSBSim
Runway cross section
selection

3D parametric shapes 50

45

40

35

Reference Aircraft 30

3D model 25
y

Telemetry.txt
20

15

10

validated 0
0 20 40 60
x
80 100 120 140

.XML file

Figure 7 Approach used for the aircraft performance evaluation

Three different runway cross-sections have been compared, classified according to the speed variation they provide
along the circle radius (x):
Linear speed distribution: = .
Square speed distribution: = . 2
Root square speed distribution: = .

The first parametric study consists in fixing the reference runway width to 140 meters and applying the different
formulas to calculate the corresponding cross section. The B747-100 rotation speed was fixed to 160 kts. Figure 8
shows runway cross section shapes based on the different speed distribution, whereas Figure 9 gives the corresponding
speed distributions.

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Take-off distance: 3100 m


Average lateral acc.: 0.37 m/s
Average steering angle: 2.4
Take-off distance: 3050 m
Average lateral acc.: 0.38 m/s
Average steering angle: 3.8
Not suitable for taking-off
with the B747-100

Figure 8 Runway profiles associated to different speed distributions

Figure 9 Speed distributions

To compare the two possible speed distributions, the assessment has been made based on the maximum runway
height and runway volume and the three main performance criteria as given in Table 1.

Table 1 Comparison of the runway cross section parameters

Square root
Conventional Linear speed
speed
runway distribution
distribution

Take-off distance [m] 2860 3100 3050

Average absolute
[m/s] - 0.37 0.38
lateral acceleration

Average steering
[deg] - 2.4 3.8
angle

Runway maximum
[m] 0 31 47
height

3
Runway volume [m ] - 11 274 459 22 652 185

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Even if the square root speed distribution performs better than the other distributions, the difference is negligible while
differences regarding the size of the runway (and thus cost) are not. For these reasons, the runway cross section
following a linear speed distribution is selected as the most promising solution.

Since the width does not have a strong impact on the take-off distance, the value of 140 meters is acceptable to limit
the overall size of the Endless Runway. A smaller width is not recommended because of the resulting higher lateral
acceleration. During take-off and landing operations performed with the B747-100 model in Flight Gear, the landing
gear struts always operated within the defined ranges.

From the simulations and the subsequent data analysis, the B747-100 take-off distance on a circular runway is
increased of about 10% with respect to its reference value (in a curved abscissa). The B747-100 landing distance on a
circular runway is increased of about 13% with respect to its reference value (in a curved abscissa).

When the aircraft moves on the circular runway, in the lateral plane, the forces applied are the weight , the reaction
of the track on each wheel of the landing gear, summed up as , and the friction . A comparison with trains, shows
2
that they are designed so that passengers do not sustain a lateral acceleration higher than 1,2 m/s , which corresponds
to 0,23 g. An appropriate aircraft acceleration and deceleration during the ground roll could help optimizing passenger
comfort.

O R Centrifugal
force


Resultant
load

Figure 10 Forces operating on the aircraft on ground on a circular banked track with friction depicted

Regarding the passenger comfort, the simulations show that the average value of the acceleration is 0.66 m/s, below
the accepted limits.

With the circular runway models integrated in Flight


Gear, it is then possible to perform take-off simulations
with the validated B747-100 model. Figure 11
illustrates the take-off simulation.

Figure 11 Take-off simulation with the B747-100 on


a circular runway

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1.3.4 Airport design

The basis airport design principles are presented in Figure 12. The taxiway system consists of an outer and an inner
taxiway ring between the runway and the terminals area. The outer taxiway, operated in the same direction(s) as the
runway, is connected to runway access points through high-speed exit taxiways, where one aircraft can hold if needed.
The inner taxiway is operated in the opposite direction to the outer one. Taxiways between the airports buildings link
the inner circular ring to the inner airfield area. Finally, a dual taxiway system is available on the inner part of the
terminals. This taxiway design aims at avoiding bottlenecks and at providing a short routing between the aircraft stands
and the runway entry or exit point.

Figure 12 Basic airport design

One to four terminals with connected generic gates called Multi-Aircraft Ramp Systems (MARS) can be built depending
on the airport category (hub or seasonal), with additional remote stands in the latter case. The choice for midfield
buildings is justified as to occupy less space, on the order of 30 or 40 metres, as compared to the 100 to 150 meter
depth for standard airport terminals, leaving more space available inside the circle for further expansions. There will be
one main (larger) terminal building which will contain baggage claim areas, ticketing, airline offices and security
processing facilities. If the airport facilities need to be expanded, a linear configuration can be easily extended with the
addition of piers. The number of stands depends on the aircraft categories operating the airport: 99 positions are
available for wide-body aircraft or 198 for narrow-body aircraft, or a certain number in between if both are mixed.
Additional remote stands should be added in the central area to accommodate all wide-body aircraft in peak hours.
2
Taking into account 10 000 passengers per peak hour and 20 m /passengers hour, the necessary terminal area size will
2
be around 200 000 m . The actual available space in the four terminals accounts to slightly over one million square
meters.

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Furthermore, all essential facilities, such as fire stations, control tower and hangars can be included inside the circle.
2
Non-related aeronautical facilities are located on the outside, occupying an estimated surface of 2,360,000 m . The
2
total area available for the Endless Runway hub airport is approximately 11,545,000 m .

Access from the outside to the inside facilities is provided to employees and suppliers through tunnels passing under
the runway, and to passengers through an APM (Automated People Mover) connecting the main terminal to the
intermodal station located outside and to the parking lots that may be constructed under the runway (see Figure 13).

Figure 13 Parking area under the runway

Arriving aircraft will access the two concentric taxiways using high-speed exits under a 45 angle with the runway, as
can be seen in Figure 12. These curves allow mitigating passenger discomfort when the aircraft enters a high-speed exit
and a smooth steering of the aircraft. The selected taxiway configuration is advantageous from an operational
perspective. If the aircraft uses the optimum high-speed exit, the linear distance from the outer taxiway ring to the
terminal faade is only 347.5 m. Therefore it can be concluded that taxiing time can be significantly reduced if gates are
adequately assigned. The apron length has also been reduced using the MARS system, which substantially increases
gate flexibility.

1.3.5 ATM procedures

From the Air Traffic Management (ATM) perspective, the circular runway will be split in segments: an aircraft will use a
set of contiguous runway segments for take-off and landing, and several aircraft will be authorized to use distinct
runway strips simultaneously. With a high number of segments, flexibility will be increased as the required runway strip
can be optimized based on the required landing and take-off distances; with a low number of segments, unnecessary
parts of the runway might be blocked. On the other hand a high number of segments lead to more infrastructural,
coordination and calculation needs.

Eighteen segments were chosen as a good compromise: low enough to minimize the taxiway construction and
maintenance costs, movement area design and traffic complexity, and high enough to optimize throughput, runway
occupancy time and route efficiency.

Of course, a higher number of segments leads to even smaller delays. On Charles de Gaulle, 18 segments give 38
seconds of average aircraft delay, 36 segments 18 seconds. As the Endless Runway airport application is a hub airport
aiming to have a capacity similar to Paris Charles de Gaulle (115 movements per hour as declared capacity in 2011), 18
segments seems a fair value in terms of delays.

Figure 14 shows the defined segments from 00 to 17, numbered in a clockwise direction. The Airport Reference Point
(ARP) is chosen to be the centre of the circle. The 00 segment is centred on the clock point and represents headings
from 350 to 010 degrees. The length of the segment on the inner side of the runway (1,500 m radius) is 524 m (marked
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in red). With a 140 m wide runway the length of the outer side of a segment is 572 m (marked in green). The positioning
of entry and exit taxiways at each segment start and end correlates very well with the recommendations given by
runway design manuals.

00 01
17
02
16

15

03
ARP

14

04
13

05
12

06
11 524 m 07
10 08
09
572 m

Figure 14 Runway segments

For each of the 18 runway segments, arrival and departure routes have been defined. Departure routes start at the end
of the respective runway segment climbing straight out to a height of 5000 feet with an angle of 5. Arrival routes end
at the beginning of a runway segment with a straight path coming from a height of 3000 feet and a glide path angle
of 3. The starting point of the arrival routes and the end point of the departure routes are indicated by TMA (Terminal
Manoeuvring Area) entry and exit points.

A booking system for allocating flights to runway segments has been defined following a time based approach. With the
scheduled flight plans for the day of operation, a conflict free runway allocation for all expected flights will be set up
and taken as a basis. Knowing the take-off and landing distances, including additional length needed because of the
banked nature of the runway (as indicated before), a runway management system computes the number and ideal
position of the runway adjacent segments needed for the operation, including buffers for safety. In the high wind case,
the buffer will not be used; instead some runway segments will be closed. The concept for the use of the circular
runway as a number of segments is as follows:
A number of segments linked together form a temporary runway strip.
Each flight can claim a number of segments for a certain time for departure or arrival. The number of segments
is related to the required take-off or landing distance.
A safety distance of one or two segments between claimed segments is added by ATC.
Each segment is reserved to one flight at a specific time. It can be freed after a short safety period for the next
movement. This concept has to be defined in terms of safety and operational feasibility.

Next, the system takes as an input a list of desired runway segments and associated timeframe for all the flights
operating on the Endless Runway. To avoid overlap in assignment of segments, the following sequential strategy is
defined.
The first aircraft of the day gets the desired runway segments at the desired timeframe.
For following aircraft, if the requested runway segments are available, the runway segments will be allocated
to the flight.
In the low wind case, for following aircraft, if the required adjoining segments are not available within the
preferred timeframe, the runway management system looks for the closest available ones. If none is available,
it will delay the flight to a later slot.
In the high wind case, for following aircraft, if the runway is not available during the timeframe, the aircraft will
be delayed to the end of the previous aircraft timeslot.

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For each agreed flight allocation to runway segments, a contract between the airport and the aircraft will be put in
place.

A graphical view of the runway segments reservation over time can be set up. In Figure 15, the time in the middle of the
Endless Runway radar view is the start time. The blue boxes represent departure flights, the orange ones the arrivals,
with a green line as the boundary of the first booked segment and a red line as the end of the last booked segment.

Figure 15 Runway segments booked in a time representation

Procedures for TMA operations, ground operations and special procedures for missed approaches have been defined.

The TMA will cover a circular area around the centre of the airport with a radius of about 10NM. Like in current traffic,
arrivals will descent with an angle of 3, while departures use an average climb angle of 5; the ceiling of the TMA thus
will be 5000 ft.

The easiest way to construct routes within the TMA is to use straight flight-paths for arrival and departure routes
tangential to the segments they are connected to. Figure 16 shows the 18 segments (00-17) of the runway, the routes
and the start/end points at the borders of the segments. As the aircraft are taking-off and landing in a bank angle, they
will operate a curve at the moment of lift-off and touch down, leading to routes that are slightly offset of the direction
of the segments.

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Departure route
0 01
17
02
16
Arrival route

15

03
14 ARP

04
13 Start/Endpoints

05

03
Segment
12

06
07
11 ARP
10 09
08 Airport Reference Point

Figure 16 Arrival / departure route design (counter clockwise operation)

The high wind case, where the circle is divided into two parts, has a slightly different TMA concept, see Figure 17. The
two parts of the runway can be considered as two parallel runways. Today, parallel runways are considered
independent from the wake vortices perspective if their runway centrelines are separated from more than 760 meters.
Taking into account that wake vortices appear only in the airborne part of the aircraft trajectory, to have the most
efficient use of the Endless Runway in the high wind case, the new configuration should make certain that the aircraft
departure and final approach trajectories from both parts are never closer than 760 meters, this to ensure that aircraft
operations from both sides are independent.

00
17 01

02
16
Wind: 30 kts

Intermediate
departure points
15

03

Dep 16 Dep 02
Dep 15 Dep 03
Dep 14 Dep 04
Dep 13 Dep 05
14

04

0 01
17
02
16
48
15

03
14

04
13

05

ARP
12

06

07
11
10 08
09
13

05

Arr 14 Arr 04
Arr 13 Arr 06

Intermediate
12

06

approach points

07
11

10 08
09

Figure 17 Arrival and departure routes in strong wind conditions (> 20 kts)

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After landing, the aircraft will leave the runway as quickly as possible. The taxiway system consists of two parallel rings
that are used to coordinate the traffic to and from the runway. While the outer ring is operated in the same direction as
the runway, the inner taxiway ring is operated in the opposite direction. The connection to the apron is provided by a
number of taxiways, whereas four main entries to the inner part of the apron are available. All elements of the airport
layout, like taxiways and stands have been considered and the ground movement concept set up. Special attention has
been given to modelling of the turnaround. The turnaround (rotation) of an aircraft has a significant effect on the
capacity of the ground structure as stands may be blocked for longer times.

The missed approach procedure is defined as follows. The pilot continues the flight in the cone shaped TMA until
reaching a height of a 1000 ft. Then the aircraft will make an outward turn and continue within the cone to a height of
1000 ft. and then will take an outward radial and climb to a height of 4000 ft. Figure 18 provides an idea of this
procedure.

Figure 18 Representation of the missed approach procedure

With a fully flexible and dynamic definition of the threshold (touchdown point), a marking or light installation will need
to be significantly different from current navigation aids. Splitting the runway circle in a discrete number of segments
provides threshold markers and gives visual guidance to the pilot.

Conventional navigation aids as ILS are not suitable anymore as they cannot support curved approaches, but other
ground based or space based navigation systems, like Microwave Landing Systems (MLS) and Differential Global
Positioning Systems (D-GPS) can provide a high number of different approach paths. The highest flexibility is given by a
satellite based system.

ATM procedures will require a high level of automation. Air traffic controllers will need assistance for calculating the
optimum take-off and touchdown point for each aircraft, taking other traffic and meteorological conditions into
account. Augmented reality combines real and virtual elements to provide high situational awareness. As a basic form
of this technology are already available head-up displays (HUD) and can be used for additional on-board guidance to
present approach information to the pilot.

Finally, simultaneous aircraft movements for arrivals and departures, both in clockwise and counter-clockwise
directions may be possible, where more than one aircraft can occupy the runway at the same time. This further
optimisation of the use of the Endless Runway has not been evaluated in the project.

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1.3.6 Simulations

The concept of the Endless Runway has been evaluated by use of simulations. In a first step it had to be checked,
whether available simulations can be used and adapted to the Endless Runway idea. It turned out, that some tools can
be used and some have to be developed for the project. Three different areas have been identified to be evaluated, the
runway itself, the surrounding TMA and the ground movement area. For the runway a special tool was set up, the TMA
was simulated with the DLR in-house solution TrafficSim and the ground area was implemented in Simmod Pro!.
st
The base for the simulations is a real traffic data file for flights to and from Paris Charles de Gaulle on 1 of July 2011,
the busiest day of the year. By using the developed runway scheduler tool these data were processed to a get an
optimised and conflict free flight plan file for the Endless Runway airport. This flight plan was then taken by the other
simulation tools as an input. This approach leads to an optimized runway schedule but has the effect that TMA and
ground might not operate at the optimum. Figure 19 gives an overview of the simulation setup.

Performance
Aircraft Data (BADA, WP 3, )
Parameter

Movement Data (Eurocontrol sO6 files) Scenario

Route Structure Runway Layout Segment Taxiway/Stand Ground movement Concept


Separation
(Arrival/Departure) (Segments) reservation rules Layout concept Elements

Flight Plan Flight Plan


Runway Scheduler

Simulation
Tools
Integrated Simmod PRO!
Traffic Sim
Noise Model (INM) (Taxi Operations)

Data Recording and Analysis

Results
Extensible Workflow
Management for Simulations

Figure 19 ATM simulation set up

To evaluate the capacity of the Endless Runway different scenarios with different traffic demands have been setup. By
adding virtual flights to the original flight schedule from Charles de Gaulle, traffic scenarios of up to twice the demand
st
of July 1 , 2011, have been generated.

As described in the ATM procedure set up, the requested segments and timeslots will be known for all aircraft in the
simulation. Timeslots will be extended if wake turbulence separation applies, e.g. when an aircraft of a lighter category
takes-offs or lands behind an aircraft of a heavier category, the segments will booked for a longer period. ICAO wake
turbulence separation minima are used for this. As the algorithm focusses on runway scheduling, conflicts may appear
in the TMA and the following actions are taken to resolve those:
Each conflict is represented by two aircraft, the duration of the conflict and the position of the conflict.
Parameters that describe the conflict include altitude and the track of both flights.
Conflicts will be resolved through adding vertical separation, hence applying a steeper climb or descent
angle. A maximum angle is applied.

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Conflicts that occur shortly after departure cannot be resolved through a higher climb rate and a method
was used to solve the conflicts by deleting one of the conflict partners. As some flights are involved in
more than one conflict, an algorithm deletes that one of a conflicting pair that has more following conflicts
than the other one.

For the final scenario, the traffic was simulated conflict-free with a separation of 1.5 NM lateral or 500 ft vertical.

1.3.7 Analysis

The output of the runway scheduler is a flight plan, with a detailed description of the every single flight. With increasing
demand, the runway system is not able to handle the traffic anymore without delaying some of the flights. This delay is
recorded and can be used as a parameter to determine the runway capacity. Different traffic scenarios were used in the
simulation leading to the results as depicted in Table 2.

Table 2 Average and maximum delay for different density scenarios

Traffic Number of Max fligts Average delay with Max delay with
ratio flights per hour wake rule (h:min:s) wake rule (h:min:s)
100.0% 1570 110 00:00:21 00:04:16
110.0% 1727 121 00:00:33 00:07:18
120.0% 1887 127 00:01:16 00:09:23
130.0% 2042 131 00:03:41 00:20:11
140.0% 2198 146 00:12:53 00:41:58
150.0% 2365 150 00:27:31 01:04:09
200.0% 3140 179 02:37:43 05:11:33

From this table, it can be concluded that a 100% scenario compared to the traffic at Paris CdG can be operated at the
Endless Runway without problems, hence a capacity of 110 movements per hour can be regarded a realistic figure. Paris
CdG gives a declared capacity of 115 movements per hour in their current four-runway configuration (N.B. size of the
Endless Runway is comparable to three runways). Up to 140%, with movement rate of 146 movements per hour, can be
realised with an average delay below 15 minutes. This quarter of an hour is usually regarded the limit for indicating
delay in traffic any delay below 15 minutes can be absorbed through slack in the flight schedule.

The TMA simulation was run with three traffic scenarios. The 1.0 traffic demand, the 1.5 fold increase and the doubled
traffic scenario. The separation criteria have been set to 1.5NM lateral and 500ft vertical. Because of the complex
crossing route structure in the TMA a number of conflicts between flights occur. A straight forward method was used,
to eliminate the conflicts by deleting the flights of a conflicting pair. This leads to conflict free scenarios in TMA but
reduces the number of movements that can be handled. The maximum number of movements per hour in the TMA
was handled with the 2.0 traffic demand as an input reduced by the conflicting flights. A number of around 110
movements could be achieved also in the TMA under best circumstances. This is comparable to the runway limit.

The ground simulation has only been run with the traffic scenario 1.0 which is the original traffic file from Paris CdG. As
a first result the number of stands appeared to be a problem as the ground simulation shows blockings and deadlocks
for moving aircraft. Long aircraft turnaround times block the stands and limit the number of available stands for new
arrivals. One solution could be to include additional stands in the centre of the airport and move some facilities to the
outside. To actually obtain results from the ground simulation, the traffic scenario was modified and all heavy aircraft

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replaced with medium types so that the simulation ran successfully. As a result, taxi in and taxi out times could be
analysed, where it shows that all values are comparable to todays operations or even better, especially for the hub
operations.

All simulations together have given a first indication that the concept as proposed for the Endless Runway is feasible
and capacity compared to todays high traffic operation can be achieved. A few assumptions in terms of separation had
to be made, to allow the multiple use of the runway. The chosen traffic demand of Paris Charles de Gaulle with a
number of 1570 movements per day and a maximum of 110 movements per hour seems to be close to the limits of the
Endless Runway. A higher number of movements tend to not acceptable delays for flights and a high number of
conflicts in the TMA. Further study to optimise runway use and to integrate planning of the ground movements and
TMA movements into one planning system will need to be performed. A consistent simulation environment with
optimisation taking into account runway, TMA and ground, could lead to harmonized traffic picture and better results.

1.3.8 Aircraft optimised for use of the Endless Runway

Since the Endless Runway concept offers a real discontinuity with todays airport layout, the project also defines an
innovative aircraft that would be tailored to the circular runway and its specific procedures. For this Endless Runway
Aircraft Concept (ERAC), the 2050 concept of operation is assumed where the resulting vehicle configuration is the
result of both a concept exploration and an analysis of the specific constraints. Subsequently, ERAC is sized according to
the classical approach used in conceptual design. The last step in defining a tailored aircraft consists of performing
simulations within the same environment as has been done for the B747, to assess the ERAC from a performance point
of view.

From a mission point of view, based on the expected 2050 mission characteristics, the ERAC is capable to transport 450
passengers at Mach 0.8 over a distance of 8000 Nm.

The major constraints of operating the B747 on the Endless Runway concerned the limited engine clearance (mostly the
outer engines) of the under-the-wing engines. The concept exploration therefore has to consider a limited wing span,
and, where possible, different wing and engine positions related to the fuselage of the aircraft.

In addition, the ATM simulations have shown that the ground handling of the aircraft is one of the critical concerns,
because of the limited number of gates inside the circle, and ERAC must therefore provide possibilities for fast aircraft
turn around. Finally, because of the complex manoeuver at low speed, just after take-off and just before landing, ERAC
has to be designed for better control in this flight regime. After down selecting different options, the most promising
concept for ERAC is the one indicated in Figure 20, where its main features are summarised as follows:
A double bubble fuselage (as the D8 series proposed by MIT), enabling a larger landing gear track and
providing a certain lift.
A T-tail empennage.
Engines providing a thrust-to-weight ratio of 0.32 located in the rear part of the fuselage decreasing thus the
risk of contact with the runway.
Larger control surfaces to increase its maneuverability during low-speed phases.

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7 Configuration Classic
Fuselage Double Bubble Section
number 2
Engine
location Tail
Wing Low
Tail T
Landing Gear Multi-Bogey

Figure 20 Most promising concept for ERAC

ERAC is based on the innovative fuselage called Double Bubble proposed in [5]. Two fuselages are connected to each
other to from one (more or less) oval shape which become the outer hull of the airplane. The structural cross section of
the fuselage is thus composed of two bubbles. The conservative sizing resulted in a large aircraft of about 266.4 tons of
which higher ground clearance reduce in an important manner the risk of ground contact during take-offs and landings
with respect to a B747.

The complexity of such structure cannot be captured by existing flight performance models, however, the earlier study
give some indications on parameters to set for simulations. To take into account the evolutions to be made on this
engine in the next decades, designers decided to keep the geometry, mass and thrust level constant and to reduce the
Thrust Specific Fuel Consumption (TSFC) by 15%. The sizing process considers then an engine with the following
characteristics:
Maximum thrust at sea level : 416.5 kN.
Maximum diameter : 3.4 m.
Total length : 7.3 m.
Weight : 7550 Kg.
TSFC : 0.458 lb/h/lbf.

In the final iterations of the design process, the aerodynamics properties have been determined and a 3D model has
been drawn, so that simulations could be performed. The acquired additional information allows a refinement of the
concept that has been used in simulations. Figure 21 and Figure 22 illustrate the final sketch of the ERAC.

Figure 21 ERAC 3D model for Flight Gear (.ac format)

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Figure 22 ERAC 3D sketch

Results from simulations with the ERAC show that the take-off distance in the nominal case (all engines operative) on
the Endless Runway will reduce with about 21%, without generating critical accelerations for the passengers.
Furthermore, the ERAC needs as expected the same landing distance as the Boeing 747, however, it must be noted that
the landing speed at which the simulation have been performed is a conservative choice. The landing distance could
then be smaller. Also, improvements on the sustained accelerations must be noted. The tailored ERAC offers a level of
take-off performance on a circular runway that is better than the B747 on a classical runway. Such an improvement is a
key element in achieving a higher airport capacity as the ATM calculations have been performed with take-off and
landing performances of current-day aircraft.

Another observation is that the ERAC size according to given constraints leads to a higher thrust-to-weight ratio than
todays airplanes. This increase is required given the limitation on decreasing the wing load (aircraft span is limited
because of the ground clearance).

Ground clearance of the wingtips is good: the inner wing has a minimum distance of 2.48 meters; while the outer
wingtip has a minimum distance to the ground of 2.67 meters.

1.3.9 Impact of the Endless Runway

An assessment has been made concerning the impact that the Endless Runway would have on societal aspects as noise.
From the proposed arrival and departure routes, it is clear that the airport will generate noise in any possible direction.
A calculation has been made using the Integrated Noise Model (INM) software, where traffic on the busiest day Paris
Charles de Gaulle has been used to determine the noise impact over the year. The accumulated noise is corrected for
the total number of flights in 2013 (472,000 movements) as the busiest day multiplied with 365 would give about 20 %
more movements than actually realized in 2013. In this manner, a comparison between the noise contours of the
Endless Runway and the actual noise contours of Paris Charles de Gaulle in 2013 can be made, see Figure 23. Noise is
indicated in Lden (Level day-evening-night), the standard European noise metric for measuring noise around airports.

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Figure 23 Noise contour comparison between the Endless Runway and Paris CdG airports

For the comparison of the two airports (the Endless Runway vs. the 2013 Paris Charles de Gaulle scenario), precautions
must be taken as the location of the current Paris Charles de Gaulle airport and runways was decided in consideration
with the environment and surrounding communities. Therefore, highly populated areas appear affected by the Endless
Runway airport, which would normally be built further from the agglomeration.

Finally, regarding ground airport noise, the height of the banked runway should avoid it to spread outside of its
boundary.

A cost analysis was done based on a basic cost model, developed in Figure 24 which distinguishes several cost factors.
Estimations had to be made, like the cost of constructing the banked runway. Figure 24 compares the costs between a
standard airport and a minimum and a maximum estimate for the Endless Runway airport.

Figure 24 Relative airport development costs

It appears that an Endless Runway airport would be between 1.1 and 1.6 times more expensive than a conventional
one.

On the benefits side, smaller ground acquisition costs due to the compactness of the infrastructure (36 % of Paris
Charles de Gaulle), and shorter flying and taxi times leading to more efficient flights and less fuel consumption are in
favour of the Endless Runway concept.

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Finally, the overall sizing of the airfield will be considerably different from current-day airports, where the land
acquisition is mostly necessary for constructing long runways. Figure 25 gives an impression on the footprint of the
Endless Runway compared with some existing European airports.

Paris CDG Frankfurt Main

Madrid Barajas Amsterdam Schiphol

Figure 25 Comparison the Endless Runway to actual European airports.

The presented comparison concerns the runway and the inner area of the Endless Runway only. All external facilities
have to be placed around the circle, so additional space, compared to what is shown in the figure, will be needed. But
just as well for the images of the existing airports it is not obvious which space is really needed for the airport itself and
what area is used for support or as industrial area.

1.3.10 Transition from today to the future

Many aspects will have to be considered when constructing an airport with an Endless Runway. The motivation for a
location will be different, as aircraft will fly in any direction and more noise near the airport can be expected.

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The technological challenges that will have to be solved for operating an Endless Runway are actually mostly already
under way. Increased automation in the aircraft and on-ground will aid in planning the runway segments to be used and
in determining exactly what take-off or touch-down point will be optimal. To exactly follow the plan, automation will
also help. Research performed in the Endless Runway can benefit current developments in for example the application
of Adaptive Runway Aiming Points (A-RAP).

Regulations, standards and certification will need to be adapted to the Endless Runway. As far as possible, current
regulations and standards have been followed within the project, but the new runway shape will certainly require
changes. The main issues will be the circular shape and the bank angle of the runway and the complexity of the TMA
operations.

1.3.11 Final considerations

A concept for operating a circular runway has been evaluated from various perspectives: the aircraft, the airport and
the operations. The Endless Runway has proven to be a feasible concept at least in the nominal conditions studied in
the project timeframe. Several other considerations will be given in this section.

One important element of operating the Endless Runway is the need for guidance to ATC and to the pilot. As current
radio navigation aids (especially ILS), visual aids and runway markings are not applicable anymore, other technologies
and concepts will have to be implemented. Precision approaches will be necessary, which refer to cases where the
aircraft is guided in both the lateral and the vertical plane, with sufficient accuracy to meet requirement for up to CAT II
and CAT III approaches.

New navigation technologies, like satellite navigation, make it possible to carry out precision approaches. Together with
Ground Based Augmentation Systems (GBAS), these are one of the most promising technologies for pilot guidance
systems. GPS (Global Positioning System) only provides sufficient accuracy for non-precision approaches. GBAS, which
consists of a reference station located at or near the airport coupled with a monitor station that together measure GPS
errors and transmit corrective information to aircraft, allows augmenting the positioning accuracy of the GPS to meet
requirements for precision approaches.

A new method for determining a runway aiming point, called the Adaptive Runway Aiming Point (A-RAP), is proposed
recently where a (shifted) aiming point is determined which shifts the touch-down point along the runway in the
downstream direction and which can be used by different precision approach landing aids. A precise calculation of the
aiming point is carried out which is moreover adapted to the actual conditions encountered at the time of the landing,
regarding both the external environment (meteorological conditions) and the runway used (state, slope, . . . ).
Automatic calculation makes it possible to reduce the work load of the pilot. Current research towards Adaptive
Runway Aiming Points will enable curved approaches to every separate segment on the Endless Runway.

A way of assisting the pilot in the operation with the circular shape of the runway is to transfer the guidance to the
cockpit. Augmented reality systems are already available and with future developments, the technology could be used
as one of the main guidance systems. With the further development of this type of technology, the combination of all
kinds of navigational support like synthetic terrain data, navigational waypoints, approach information, markings, and
aircraft information will contribute to the required situational awareness of the pilot.

To schedule a full day of traffic, a multi-objective planning system will need to be designed that covers planning of
flights at the runway, the TMA and ground movements in one system. One of the current trends in use of complex
planning systems is the research towards cooperation between planning systems through optimisation techniques,
negotiation techniques and through cooperative distributed planning. The latter is an interesting technique that allows

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different planners to make their own plan and then through coordination align the overall plan, without the need for an
overall super planner. Figure 26 gives the overview of envisaged automation of the ATS system, according to ACARE.

Figure 26 Increasing automation towards 2050

It can be concluded that no show stoppers for a further evaluation of the Endless Runway have been identified while
setting up the airport design, aircraft concept and the ATM operational procedures, but some points of concern are
mentioned and several possible options need further study.

The efforts provided by the consortium to achieve these goals are valuable and the associated development of
competences will be used in future European projects. Moreover, this project demonstrated that a true revolutionary
solution for the future of air transport is viable only if solutions are achieved through a holistic development approach
from the perspective of the aircraft, the airport and air traffic management.

1.3.12 References

[1] Roosts for City Airplane : Would This Circular Track Solve the Landing Problem?, in Popular Science, June 1919
[2] Jet-age Runway Problem Solved?, FLIGHT, Dec 1957
[3] Landings on a Round Runway!, Naval Aviation News, March 1965
[4] Thinking ahead, FENTRESS ARCHITECTS, Airport World, April-May 2012
[5] The MIT, Aurora Flight Sciences, and Pratt&Whitney Team, Greitzer E. M., Slater H. N. , Volume 1: N+3 Aircraft
Concept Designs and Trade Studies, 2010
[6] Dupeyrat M., Aubry S., Schmollgruber P., Remiro A., Loth S., Vega Ramirez M., Hesselink H., Verbeek R.,
Nibourg J., D1.2 The Endless Runway State of the Art, runway and airport design, ATM procedures and aircraft,
version 2.0, November 2011
[7] Hesselink H., Verbeek R., Welman C., Dupeyrat M., Schmollgruber P., Aubry S., Loth S., Remiro A.,
Vega Ramirez M., D1.3 The Endless Runway concept description: High-level overview, version 2.0,
December 2012
[8] Remiro A, Welman C., D2.2 The Endless Runway Airport Infrastructure, version 1.0, September 2013
[9] Schmollgruber P., De Giuseppe A., and Dupeyrat M., D3.2 The Endless Runway Aircraft Aspects, version 1.0,
September 2013
[10] Loth S., Dupeyrat M., Hesselink H. and Verbeek R., D4.2 The Endless Runway ATM Operational Concept,
version 1.0, June 2013
[11] Loth S., Dupeyrat M., Hesselink H. and Verbeek R., D4.3 Simulation of the Endless Runway: Modeling and
Analyses, version 2.0, September 2013
[12] S. Loth, Hesselink, H. Dupeyrat, M. Welman, C. Verbeek, R. D5.2 Assessment of the Endless Runway,
version 1.0, April 2014
[13] Remiro, A, Hesselink, H., D5.3 Transition from Today to the Future, version 1.0, April 2014

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1.4 Potential impact and the main dissemination activities and exploitation of results
The project has evaluated the potential impact of the Endless Runway in a dedicated deliverable [12]. The impact has
been assessed with respect to capacity of the airport, the noise impact, the airport footprint, a technological
assessment and a cost benefit assessment has been performed. These will be summarised in this section.

1.4.1 Capacity

One of the main motivation items for the project has been to study the capacity impact of an airport that will operate
the Endless Runway:

The Endless Runway concept can generate a breakthrough in sustainable airport capacity by avoiding the physical
constraints of conventional runways through shifting the lift-off and touchdown points of individual aircraft.

Capacity has been mentioned as sustainable capacity, wherewith is meant that a certain operational capacity of the
airport can be maintained at high level, with every meteorological (mainly wind) condition.

The basic concept of operating the runway is to allow flexible lift-off and touchdown points that will enable every
aircraft to lift-off or touchdown at any point on the circle depending on

1. Current wind conditions the aircraft will take-off and land with headwind and minimum crosswind.
2. Direction of flight the aircraft will depart or arrive in the direction of their destination.
This leads to two operational scenarios: the low wind case and the high wind case. In the low wind case, cross- and
tailwind will be limited, allowing the aircraft to operate the runway at any point, from any direction. In the high wind
case, a dedicated operational mode has been developed where the runway is separated into two parts, each operating
st
as one runway with only headwind operations. Simulations have been performed using the 1 of July, 2011, at Paris
Charles de Gaulle (CdG) as reference scenario. It was the busiest day of that year.

In order to make an assessment of the capacity of the Endless Runway, a comparison to todays runways and todays
airports is necessary. Assuming a traffic mix in aircraft types, in general, the number of movements that can be
achieved on one runway will be around 35 (for segregated mode) to 40 (for mixed mode) movements per hour. A
capacity of 80 movements per hour can be realised on a two-runway configuration, where the capacity increases to
110-120 on three or four simultaneously used runways. Theoretical studies indicate that the maximum capacity that
can be achieved in a three runway configuration will be around 130 movements, although in practice the traffic mix will
not allow this number of movements. As the length of the runway proposed for the Endless Runway can be compared
to three conventional runways (about 10.000 meters), it seems realistic to set the target capacity at 110-120
movements.

Table 3 gives an overview of average and maximum delay that was found on operating the runway in a low wind case.
st
The table gives increasing traffic load, based on the baseline scenario of July 1 , 2011. Aircraft have been separated
based on time and wake turbulence separation and a safety distance is included between consecutive aircraft.

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Table 3 Capacity measures with different traffic density

Traffic ratio Number of Max flights Average delay Max delay


flights per hour (hh:mm:ss) (hh:mm:ss)
(1 July 2011)

100.0% 1570 110 00:00:21 00:04:16

110.0% 1727 121 00:00:33 00:07:18

120.0% 1887 127 00:01:16 00:09:23

130.0% 2042 131 00:03:41 00:20:11

140.0% 2198 146 00:12:53 00:41:58

150.0% 2365 150 00:27:31 01:04:09

200.0% 3140 179 02:37:43 05:11:33

From Table 3, a first conclusion is that the nominal number of operations, compared to a busy day at Paris CdG can be
accommodated without problems in the low wind case. More traffic can be considered; a doubling of traffic however,
will not be feasibly.

It can be noted that usually, delay is only considered as delay if the flight schedule cannot be realised with a fifteen
minutes margin; anything below this fifteen minutes can be absorbed through slack in this flight schedule. On an
average day, a realisation of 90% flights on time, which means a delay of fifteen minutes or less, is regarded normal and
figures as obtained from the simulations would allow operations until fifteen minutes delay on average as acceptable.
This would allow 146 movements per hour, with 12:53 minutes delay on average. Capacity of the Endless Runway can
be regarded similar to higher than today, i.e. in between 110 and 146 movements per hour.

Although the major European airports hardly ever close completely because of storms, in several occasions, airports
have to deal with limitations in operations because of the wind. At Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, strong winds limited
the operations during the winter season of 2013/2014 four times, where the airport was forced to operate a one-
runway configuration. In one of these occasions, the Royal Dutch Airlines, KLM, reported to have cancelled 20 flights.

In the high-wind case, therefore, we may assume the capacity of the Endless Runway to be consistent at the same
capacity as that of a conventional airport with two parallel independent runways, i.e. 80 movements per hour, although
the strong winds may limit the operation thus reducing capacity.

1.4.2 Noise impact

An assessment has been made concerning the impact that the Endless Runway would have on societal aspects as noise.
From the proposed arrival and departure routes, it is clear that the airport will generate noise in any possible direction.
A calculation has been made using the Integrated Noise Model (INM) software, where traffic on the busiest day Paris
Charles de Gaulle has been used to determine the noise impact over the year. The accumulated noise is corrected for
the total number of flights in 2013 (472,000 movements) as the busiest day multiplied with 365 would give about 20 %
more movements than actually realized in 2013. In this manner, a comparison between the noise contours of the
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Endless Runway, see Figure 27, and the actual noise contours of Paris Charles de Gaulle in 2013, see Figure 28, can be
made. Noise is indicated in Lden (Level day-evening-night), the standard European noise metric for measuring noise
around airports.

Figure 27 INM noise contours for the Endless Runway

Figure 28 Noise contours comparison between the Endless Runway and Paris Charles de Gaulle airport

For the comparison of the two airports (the Endless Runway vs. the 2013 Paris Charles de Gaulle scenario), precautions
must be taken as the location of the current Paris Charles de Gaulle airport and runways was decided in consideration
with the environment and surrounding communities. Therefore, highly populated areas appear affected by the Endless

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Runway airport, which would normally be built further from the agglomeration. The question behind those contours
maps is whether more people would accept to be impacted by the airport noise nuisances but with less frequency, or
whether they prefer to know exactly where the corridors are, with strong nuisances for the population below. Several
discussions with local residents lead to the conclusion that the second option is preferable in dense areas, but no hint is
given for remote airports. Finally, regarding ground airport noise, the height of the runway should avoid it to spread
outside of its boundary.

1.4.3 Airport footprint

Figure 29 gives an impression on the footprint of the Endless Runway compared with some other European airports.

Paris CDG Frankfurt Main

Madrid Barajas Amsterdam Schiphol

Figure 29 Comparison the Endless Runway to actual European airports.

The comparison includes the runway and the inner area of the Endless Runway only. All external facilities will have to be
placed around the circle, so additional space is needed. But just as well for the images of the existing airports, it is not
obvious which space is really needed for the airport itself and what area is used for support or as industrial area.

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1.4.4 Technological assessment

The ever more complex air transport system facing more and more ambitious goals is naturally evolving towards
1
automation . This automation of the air transport system will be built on three pillars: the automated air traffic
management, the automated aircraft and the connection between the both: the ATM contract.

Air Traffic Management will be assisted by a range of sensors that will enable operations under all weather conditions,
including high wind and low visibility to detect aircraft movements, movements of other vehicles and a view of all other
relevant objects, like birds and debris on the runway. Control towers will be replaced by remote towers. This transition
towards automated ATM has been ongoing for several years already: controllers are supported by conflict detection
systems and planning tools that allow increasing efficiency, predictability and throughput. This transition will lead to a
shift from a human decision maker supported by assistance systems towards advanced automated decision systems
managed by a human.

Aircraft operations will see the same shift in responsibility, where the pilot will monitor the aircraft instead of taking
active actions. The key aspect of aircraft automation is the complete implementation of the 4D contract concept.
Aircraft will be responsible for monitoring their commitment to the 4D contract that was signed with the ground ATM
centre. Aircraft will collect and manage information on other air traffic, weather, communications, navigation and
surveillance infrastructure status, airports, terrain and obstacles. Figure 30 gives the overview of envisaged automation
of the air transport system.

Figure 30 Air Transport System automation towards 2050

Due to the straight arrival segment of the TMA structure, instrument landing systems like ILS could theoretically be
used on all segments and for each direction. From practical and economic points of view this is not really an option and
therefore not considered as a solution. GPS (Global Positioning System) provides position information, be it with only
sufficient accuracy for non-precision approaches. Ground Based Augmentation Systems (GBAS), which consists of a
reference station located at or near the airport coupled with a monitor station that together measure GPS errors and
transmit corrective information to aircraft, allows augmenting the positioning accuracy of the GPS to meet
requirements for precision approaches (up to CAT II and CAT III). With GBAS, no separate installation for vertical and
lateral guidance (as with an Instrument Landing System (ILS) localizer and glide path antennas) will be necessary.

1
EREA ATS 2050 Phase 2, From Air Transport system 2050 Vision to Planning for Research and Innovation, published by the
Association of European Research Establishments in Aeronautics, May 2012.
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Independent from the final technical solution, the most important part is the definition of the required navigation
performance for arrival and take-off for the Endless Runway. Any technology that is capable of achieving these values
can be used.

1.4.5 Cost benefit assessment

A cost analysis was done based on a basic cost model, which distinguishes several cost factors. The analysis tries to
estimate only the cost and benefits of an Endless Runway airport relatively to a conventional hub airport with four
runways. No absolute Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) can be provided as there are too many uncertainties and unknowns in
respect to the airport concept, the needed technologies and the cost of materials, energy and workers for the 2050
context.

Estimations had to be made, like the cost of constructing the banked runway. Where no absolute figures would be
available, a low and a high estimate have been made. The following types of costs have been considered: development,
operational, recurring and non-recurring costs. This methodology is good enough to get a general feeling about the
costs of an Endless Runway airport compared to a conventional airport.

Figure 31 compares the costs between a standard airport and a minimum and a maximum estimate for the Endless
Runway airport. It appears that an Endless Runway airport would be between 1.1 and 1.6 times more expensive than a
conventional one.

Relative airport costs


180%
160% Other costs
140% (incl. surface)
120%
100%
80%
60%
40% Depreciation
20%
0% Others
Conventional Endless Endless (parking/ground
Runway low Runway high
estimate estimate access/etc.)

Figure 31 Relative airport development costs

On the benefits side, smaller ground acquisition costs due to the compactness of the infrastructure (36 % of Paris
Charles de Gaulle), and shorter flying and taxi times leading to more efficient flights and less fuel consumption are in
favour of the Endless Runway concept.

The expected total costs and revenues for a conventional airport is 1.87 Billion. The expected total cost for an Endless
Runway airport is therefore 1,87 Billion * [104%-148%]=[1,94 Billion - 2,76 Billion]. The difference is between 0.07
and 0.90 Billion per year of higher airport costs per airport when operating an Endless Runway airport. Return on
investment can therefore be expected in between two and forty years.

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The Endless Runway offers, even in strong wind conditions, two landing and take-off points, where nowadays airports
have to use fallback scenarios with operating one runway. The financial benefits of the operation will depend on the
airport and the type of operation of the airline; a hub airline will have more costs for cancelling flights than an airline
offering point-to-point connections. At major airports, costs for cancelling 50% of the flights of the main carrier can get
up to .5M per day. Here, the benefit of a sustainable capacity, which is offered by the Endless Runway, is significant.

1.4.6 New developments

Several recent developments can benefit from the work performed for the Endless Runway.

Adaptive Runway Aiming Point

New navigation technologies, like satellite navigation, make it possible to carry out satellite-guided precision
approaches. A new method for determining the runway aiming point is proposed recently where a (shifted) aiming
point is determined, called the Adaptive Runway Aiming Point (A-RAP), which shifts the touch-down point along the
runway in the downstream direction and which can be used by different precision approach landing aids. A precise
calculation of the aiming point is carried out which is moreover adapted to the actual conditions encountered at the
time of the landing, regarding both the external environment (meteorological conditions) and the runway used (state,
slope, . . . ). Automatic calculation makes it possible to reduce the work load of the pilot.

Current research towards Adaptive Runway Aiming Points will enable curved approaches to every separate segment on
the Endless Runway. The work performed for the Endless Runway on planning runway segments can be used for A-RAP.

Free Flight in the TMA

One interesting aspect for TMA operations of the Endless Runway is based on a full free flight concept as presented in
Figure 32. Every aircraft can book a number of segments at the runway at a given time and approach the airport from
the direction it wants without a pre-defined route. This approach requires a high degree on automation and high
performance in terms of navigation and communication capabilities. Separation is transferred completely to the aircraft
and a high load of communication between aircraft will be necessary to coordinate all movements within the TMA.

Figure 32 Free flight concept for the Endless Runway in the TMA

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For the Endless Runway an intermediate step was taken towards free flight operations, as each aircraft will fly a straight
line from TMA entry to the runway (and vice versa), close to the original idea of a highly flexible airspace and the
requirement of effective routing. The application of the free flight concept could also give room to a capacity increase
in the TMA. This development performed within the Endless Runway complements the current work in free flight,
which is currently solely dedicated to en-route traffic.

Table 4 summarises the pros and cons of the Endless Runway as has been evaluated in this document and in other parts
of the project.

Table 4 Overall assessment of the Endless Runway project

Description Assessment
Advantages
Capacity of the Endless Runway is similar or higher A three or four runway airport in Europe typically
than that of a conventional airport with three or operates at a capacity of 115 movements per hour;
four runways. the Endless Runway has demonstrated a capacity of
110 to 146 movements per hour, depending on
accepted (mean) delays and on available ground
infrastructure.
The Endless Runway has a sustainable capacity of 80 As the runway has two touchdown/take-off points
movements per hour in any wind direction, a capacity of 80 movements
per hour can be achieved.
Taxi times are significantly reduced A reduction of 40% to 95% of taxi times is
observed.
The average flight distance can be reduced by 1 % to Based on an average 700 NM flight, the total flight
2 % based on an average 700 NM flight thanks to the distance can be reduced by 1% to 2%.
TMA routes structure.
The Endless Runway airports land use is significantly The airports size for the Endless Runway has been
smaller for large airports. compared with several large airports in Europe,
where a reduction can be expected up to one third
in surface necessary for aircraft operations.
Noise footprint for an airport with an Endless The noise footprint is more dispersed in all
Runway is smaller. directions, but overall more compact.
New A-RAP procedure possible. Results of the project could be applied to research
towards the Adaptive Runway Aiming Point.
Full Free Flight procedures possible. Results of the project could lead to the application
of free flight in the TMA.
The Endless Runway can bring air services to places Small islands, remote sites (a.o. in less developed
that nowadays have no airport facilities areas and countries), and small communities may
benefit from a small Endless Runway.
The Endless Runway can be implemented as a feeder The four hour door-to-door ACARE goal may
airport benefit from the implementation of small feeder
Endless Runway airports.
Disadvantages
Cost of constructing an Endless Runway is higher. The cost benefit analysis shows that costs for
constructing an airport with an endless runway is
typically 110% to 160% of that for a conventional
airport.
Lack of flexibility in the inner infrastructure. All required airport facilities must be located within
the circle where only limited space is available. The
project has demonstrated that the main

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infrastructure will fit the circle size of 1500 meters


radius.
Extensions to the airport will be difficult Contrary to todays airports, the Endless Runway
cannot be extended to the outside. Also, contrary
to todays airports, the runway radius is fixed and
therefore the runway cannot be stretched out, and
the room available for the infrastructure within the
runway boundary remains limited.
Hub airport is very demanding The mix of traffic and the peaks in arrival and
departure operations makes the demand on the
operation of the Endless Runway very high. The
airport may show improved performance if it was
designed for a dedicated purpose only. More
research towards this will be necessary.
The only aircraft found that would not be able to Size and shape of the BWB may make it impossible
operate the banked runway is the Blended Wing to operate at the Endless Runway as the wingtips
Body (BWB). will touch the ground on the banked track.

1.5 The address of the project public website, if applicable as well as relevant contact
details
www.endlessrunway-project.eu

1.6 Project logo

Figure 33 Project logo

1.7 Diagrams or photographs illustrating and promoting the work of the project
Figure 34 to Figure 39 Experience driving a circular track shows some photos taken during the project. The project has
been promoted at several exhibitions, for which the latest poster is included in Figure 40.

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Figure 35 ACI Airport Exchange

Figure 34 SESAR Innovation Days

Figure 36 The team (1) Figure 37 The team (2)

Figure 38 View on a circular (car) track Figure 39 Experience driving a circular track

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Figure 40 Project poster (presented at SESAR Innovation Days, November 2013)

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1.8 List of all beneficiaries with the corresponding contact names


Consortium

The project is carried out in a consortium of NLR, DLR, ONERA, INTA, and ILOT. Contact person for the project is

Henk Hesselink
henk.hesselink@nlr.nl
+31.88.511.3445

Contacts for the beneficiaries are indicated in Table 5

Table 5 Points of contact

Project points of contact


NLR Mr. Henk Hesselink
Tel. +31.88.511.3445
henk.hesselink@nlr.nl
DLR Mr. Steffen Loth
Tel. +49.531.295.2811
steffen.loth@dlr.de
ONERA Mrs. Maud Dupeyrat
Tel. + 33 5 62 25 29 28
maud.dupeyrat@onera.fr
INTA Mr. Francisco Muoz Sanz
Tel: +34 915201056
mugnozsf@inta.es
ILOT Mr. Marin Jez
Tel: +48 22 609 704 603
marian.jez@ilot.edu.pl

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2 Use and dissemination of foreground


Section A (public)

This section includes two Tables

Table A1: List of all scientific (peer reviewed) publications relating to the foreground of the project.

Table A2: List of all dissemination activities (publications, conferences, workshops, web sites/applications, press releases, flyers, articles
published in the popular press, videos, media briefings, presentations, exhibitions, thesis, interviews, films, TV clips, posters).

These tables are cumulative, which means that they should always show all publications and activities from the beginning until after the end of
the project. Updates are possible at any time.

TABLE A1: LIST OF SCIENTIFIC (PEER REVIEWED) PUBLICATIONS, STARTING WITH THE MOST IMPORTANT ONES

Permanent Is/Will open


Title of
identifiers2 access3
the
Main Number, date or Place of Year of Relevant (if available) provided to
NO. Title periodical Publisher
author frequency publication publication pages this
or the
publication?
series

2
A permanent identifier should be a persistent link to the published version full text if open access or abstract if article is pay per view) or to the final manuscript accepted for publication (link
to article in repository).
3
Open Access is defined as free of charge access for anyone via Internet. Please answer "yes" if the open access to the publication is already established and also if the embargo period for
open access is not yet over but you intend to establish open access afterwards.

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TABLE A2: LIST OF DISSEMINATION ACTIVITIES

Type of Countries
NO. Type of activities4 Main leader Title Date/Period Place
audience5 Size of audience addressed

1 Conference presentation: ONERA ICAS 2014 (International Council of 7-12/09/2014 St. Petersburg Scientific Hundreds for the total worldwide
(M. Dupeyrat) the Aeronautical Sciences) (Russia) conference; 10 50 per
Evaluation of Operations at session
an Airport with a Circular
Runway
2 Conference presentation: NLR CEAS 2013 (Council of European 16-19/09 /2013 Linkping Scientific Hundreds for the total Europe
(H. Hesselink) Aerospace Societies): Innovative Europe, (Sweden) conference; 10 50 per
An Innovative Airport session
Concept (Operating an
Endless Runway)

3 Workshop presentation: ONERA Aerospace 2050, Scientific workshop to 19/12/2013 Toulouse (Retired) 50 France
(M. Dupeyrat) honor Professor Marc Plegrin, ISAE (France) scientists
A Vision for the Airport in (Institute Suprieur de lAronautique et de
2050: The Endless lEspace),
Runway

4
A drop down list allows choosing the dissemination activity: publications, conferences, workshops, web, press releases, flyers, articles published in the popular press, videos, media
briefings, presentations, exhibitions, thesis, interviews, films, TV clips, posters, Other.
5
A drop down list allows choosing the type of public: Scientific Community (higher education, Research), Industry, Civil Society, Policy makers, Medias, Other ('multiple choices' is
possible).
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4 Workshop presentation: ONERA CORAC Airport Flow group at Airbus 20/12/2013 Toulouse Managers 50 France
(M. Dupeyrat) (France)
The Endless Runway

5 Seminar presentation: ILOT Polish Agency for Air Navigation 2/2014 Warsaw Scientists 25 Poland
(M. Jez) (Poland)
The Endless Runway
6 Exhibition poster NLR ACI Airport Exchange 27-28 /11/2012 Amsterdam Scientists and 500 World-wide
(The managers
Netherlands)
7 Exhibition running ONERA ACI Airport Exchange 27-28 /11/2012 Amsterdam Scientists and 500 World-wide
presentation (The managers
Netherlands)
8 Exhibition poster NLR SESAR Innovation Days 26-28/11/2013 Stockholm Scientists 200 Europe
(Sweden)
9 Meeting with air traffic ONERA Blagnac Airport 02/04/2013 Toulouse End user 1 France
controller and Air France
pilot
10 Several meetings with ILOT Modlin and Radom airports 2013 Warsaw End user 4 Poland
Modlin and Radom
managers: civil airport
director, military airport
manager, sports airport
manager, Polis CAA

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Section B (Confidential6 or public: confidential information to be marked clearly)


Part B1

The applications for patents, trademarks, registered designs, etc. shall be listed according to the template B1 provided hereafter.

The list should, specify at least one unique identifier e.g. European Patent application reference. For patent applications, only if applicable,
contributions to standards should be specified. This table is cumulative, which means that it should always show all applications from the
beginning until after the end of the project.

TEMPLATE B1: LIST OF APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS, TRADEMARKS, REGISTERED DESIGNS, ETC.
Confidential Foreseen
Click on embargo date
YES/NO dd/mm/yyyy
Application
Type of IP Applicant (s) (as on the application)
reference(s) Subject or title of application
Rights7:
(e.g. EP123456)

6
Note to be confused with the "EU CONFIDENTIAL" classification for some security research projects.
7
A drop down list allows choosing the type of IP rights: Patents, Trademarks, Registered designs, Utility models, Others.

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Part B2
Please complete the table hereafter:

Description Confidential Foreseen Patents or


Type of Exploitable Timetable, Owner & Other
of Click on embargo Sector(s) of other IPR
Exploitable exploitable product(s) or 9 commercial or Beneficiary(s)
8 YES/NO date application exploitation
Foreground foreground measure(s) any other use involved
dd/mm/yyyy (licences)
Ex: New
supercond MRI equipment 1. Medical 2008 A materials Beneficiary X (owner)
uctive Nb- 2. Industrial 2010 patent is Beneficiary Y,
Ti alloy inspection planned for Beneficiary Z, Poss.
2006 licensing to equipment
manuf. ABC

In addition to the table, please provide a text to explain the exploitable foreground, in particular:

Its purpose
How the foreground might be exploited, when and by whom
IPR exploitable measures taken or intended
Further research necessary, if any
Potential/expected impact (quantify where possible)

19
A drop down list allows choosing the type of foreground: General advancement of knowledge, Commercial exploitation of R&D results, Exploitation of R&D results via standards,
exploitation of results through EU policies, exploitation of results through (social) innovation.
9
A drop down list allows choosing the type sector (NACE nomenclature) : http://ec.europa.eu/competition/mergers/cases/index/nace_all.html
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4.1 Report on societal implications

Replies to the following questions will assist the Commission to obtain statistics and
indicators on societal and socio-economic issues addressed by projects. The questions are
arranged in a number of key themes. As well as producing certain statistics, the replies will
also help identify those projects that have shown a real engagement with wider societal
issues, and thereby identify interesting approaches to these issues and best practices. The
replies for individual projects will not be made public.

A General Information (completed automatically when Grant Agreement number is


entered.
Grant Agreement Number:
ACP2-GA-2012-308292-ENDLESS RUNWAY
Title of Project:
The Endless Runway
Name and Title of Coordinator:
Drs. Ing. H.H. Hesselink
B Ethics

1. Did your project undergo an Ethics Review (and/or Screening)?

If Yes: have you described the progress of compliance with the relevant Ethics 0Yes No
Review/Screening Requirements in the frame of the periodic/final project reports?

Special Reminder: the progress of compliance with the Ethics Review/Screening Requirements should be
described in the Period/Final Project Reports under the Section 3.2.2 'Work Progress and Achievements'

2. Please indicate whether your project involved any of the following issues (tick NO
box) :
RESEARCH ON HUMANS
Did the project involve children?
Did the project involve patients?
Did the project involve persons not able to give consent?
Did the project involve adult healthy volunteers?
Did the project involve Human genetic material?
Did the project involve Human biological samples?
Did the project involve Human data collection?
RESEARCH ON HUMAN EMBRYO/FOETUS
Did the project involve Human Embryos?
Did the project involve Human Foetal Tissue / Cells?
Did the project involve Human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESCs)?
Did the project on human Embryonic Stem Cells involve cells in culture?
Did the project on human Embryonic Stem Cells involve the derivation of cells from Embryos?
PRIVACY
Did the project involve processing of genetic information or personal data (eg. health, sexual

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lifestyle, ethnicity, political opinion, religious or philosophical conviction)?



Did the project involve tracking the location or observation of people?
RESEARCH ON ANIMALS
Did the project involve research on animals?
Were those animals transgenic small laboratory animals?
Were those animals transgenic farm animals?
Were those animals cloned farm animals?
Were those animals non-human primates?
RESEARCH INVOLVING DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Did the project involve the use of local resources (genetic, animal, plant etc)?
Was the project of benefit to local community (capacity building, access to healthcare, education
etc)?
DUAL USE
Research having direct military use 0 Yes No
Research having the potential for terrorist abuse
C Workforce Statistics
3. Workforce statistics for the project: Please indicate in the table below the number of
people who worked on the project (on a headcount basis).
Type of Position Number of Women Number of Men
Scientific Coordinator 1
Work package leaders 2 2
Experienced researchers (i.e. PhD holders)
PhD Students
Other

4. How many additional researchers (in companies and universities) were


recruited specifically for this project?
Of which, indicate the number of men:

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D Gender Aspects
5. Did you carry out specific Gender Equality Actions under the project? Yes
No

6. Which of the following actions did you carry out and how effective were they?
Not at all Very
effective effective
Design and implement an equal opportunity policy
Set targets to achieve a gender balance in the workforce
Organise conferences and workshops on gender
Actions to improve work-life balance
Other:

7. Was there a gender dimension associated with the research content i.e. wherever people were
the focus of the research as, for example, consumers, users, patients or in trials, was the issue of gender
considered and addressed?
Yes- please specify
No
E Synergies with Science Education
8. Did your project involve working with students and/or school pupils (e.g. open days,
participation in science festivals and events, prizes/competitions or joint projects)?
Yes- please specify
No

9. Did the project generate any science education material (e.g. kits, websites, explanatory
booklets, DVDs)?
Yes- please specify
No
F Interdisciplinarity
10. Which disciplines (see list below) are involved in your project?
Main discipline10: 2.1 Civil engineering
Associated discipline :
10
Associated discipline10:

G Engaging with Civil society and policy makers


11a Did your project engage with societal actors beyond the research Yes
community? (if 'No', go to Question 14) No

10
Insert number from list below (Frascati Manual).

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11b If yes, did you engage with citizens (citizens' panels / juries) or organised civil society
(NGOs, patients' groups etc.)?
No
Yes- in determining what research should be performed
Yes - in implementing the research
Yes, in communicating /disseminating / using the results of the project
Yes
11c In doing so, did your project involve actors whose role is mainly to No
organise the dialogue with citizens and organised civil society (e.g.
professional mediator; communication company, science museums)?
12. Did you engage with government / public bodies or policy makers (including international
organisations)

No
Yes- in framing the research agenda
Yes - in implementing the research agenda
Yes, in communicating /disseminating / using the results of the project

13a Will the project generate outputs (expertise or scientific advice) which could be used by
policy makers?
Yes as a primary objective (please indicate areas below- multiple answers possible)
Yes as a secondary objective (please indicate areas below - multiple answer possible)
No
13b If Yes, in which fields?
Agriculture Energy Human rights
Audiovisual and Media Enlargement Information Society
Budget Enterprise Institutional affairs
Competition Environment Internal Market
Consumers External Relations Justice, freedom and security
Culture External Trade Public Health
Customs Fisheries and Maritime Affairs Regional Policy
Development Economic and Food Safety Research and Innovation
Monetary Affairs Foreign and Security Policy Space
Education, Training, Youth Fraud Taxation
Employment and Social Affairs Humanitarian aid Transport

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13c If Yes, at which level?


Local / regional levels
National level
European level
International level
H Use and dissemination
14. How many Articles were published/accepted for publication in -
peer-reviewed journals?
To how many of these is open access11 provided?
How many of these are published in open access journals?

How many of these are published in open repositories?

To how many of these is open access not provided?


Please check all applicable reasons for not providing open access:
publisher's licensing agreement would not permit publishing in a repository
no suitable repository available
no suitable open access journal available
no funds available to publish in an open access journal
lack of time and resources
lack of information on open access
other12:

15. How many new patent applications (priority filings) have been made? -
("Technologically unique": multiple applications for the same invention in different
jurisdictions should be counted as just one application of grant).

16. Indicate how many of the following Intellectual Trademark -


Property Rights were applied for (give number in
Registered design -
each box).
Other -
-
17. How many spin-off companies were created / are planned as a direct
result of the project?
Indicate the approximate number of additional jobs in these companies:

18. Please indicate whether your project has a potential impact on employment, in comparison
with the situation before your project:
Increase in employment, or In small & medium-sized enterprises
Safeguard employment, or In large companies
Decrease in employment, None of the above / not relevant to the project

11
Open Access is defined as free of charge access for anyone via Internet.
12
For instance: classification for security project.

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Difficult to estimate / not possible to quantify


19. For your project partnership please estimate the employment effect Indicate figure:
resulting directly from your participation in Full Time Equivalent (FTE =
one person working fulltime for a year) jobs:

Difficult to estimate / not possible to quantify

I Media and Communication to the general public


20. As part of the project, were any of the beneficiaries professionals in communication or
media relations?
Yes No

21. As part of the project, have any beneficiaries received professional media / communication
training / advice to improve communication with the general public?
Yes No

22 Which of the following have been used to communicate information about your project to
the general public, or have resulted from your project?
Press Release Coverage in specialist press
Media briefing Coverage in general (non-specialist) press
TV coverage / report Coverage in national press
Radio coverage / report Coverage in international press
Brochures /posters / flyers Website for the general public / internet
DVD /Film /Multimedia Event targeting general public (festival, conference,
exhibition, science caf)

23 In which languages are the information products for the general public produced?
Language of the coordinator English
Other language(s)

Question F-10: Classification of Scientific Disciplines according to the Frascati Manual 2002 (Proposed
Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental Development, OECD 2002):

FIELDS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

1. NATURAL SCIENCES
1.1 Mathematics and computer sciences [mathematics and other allied fields: computer sciences and other
allied subjects (software development only; hardware development should be classified in the
engineering fields)]
1.2 Physical sciences (astronomy and space sciences, physics and other allied subjects)
1.3 Chemical sciences (chemistry, other allied subjects)

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1.4 Earth and related environmental sciences (geology, geophysics, mineralogy, physical geography and
other geosciences, meteorology and other atmospheric sciences including climatic research,
oceanography, vulcanology, palaeoecology, other allied sciences)
1.5 Biological sciences (biology, botany, bacteriology, microbiology, zoology, entomology, genetics,
biochemistry, biophysics, other allied sciences, excluding clinical and veterinary sciences)

2 ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


2.1 Civil engineering (architecture engineering, building science and engineering, construction
engineering, municipal and structural engineering and other allied subjects)
2.2 Electrical engineering, electronics [electrical engineering, electronics, communication engineering and
systems, computer engineering (hardware only) and other allied subjects]
2.3. Other engineering sciences (such as chemical, aeronautical and space, mechanical, metallurgical and
materials engineering, and their specialised subdivisions; forest products; applied sciences such as
geodesy, industrial chemistry, etc.; the science and technology of food production; specialised
technologies of interdisciplinary fields, e.g. systems analysis, metallurgy, mining, textile technology
and other applied subjects)

3. MEDICAL SCIENCES
3.1 Basic medicine (anatomy, cytology, physiology, genetics, pharmacy, pharmacology, toxicology,
immunology and immunohaematology, clinical chemistry, clinical microbiology, pathology)
3.2 Clinical medicine (anaesthesiology, paediatrics, obstetrics and gynaecology, internal medicine, surgery,
dentistry, neurology, psychiatry, radiology, therapeutics, otorhinolaryngology, ophthalmology)
3.3 Health sciences (public health services, social medicine, hygiene, nursing, epidemiology)

4. AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
4.1 Agriculture, forestry, fisheries and allied sciences (agronomy, animal husbandry, fisheries, forestry,
horticulture, other allied subjects)
4.2 Veterinary medicine

5. SOCIAL SCIENCES
5.1 Psychology
5.2 Economics
5.3 Educational sciences (education and training and other allied subjects)
5.4 Other social sciences [anthropology (social and cultural) and ethnology, demography, geography
(human, economic and social), town and country planning, management, law, linguistics, political
sciences, sociology, organisation and methods, miscellaneous social sciences and interdisciplinary ,
methodological and historical S1T activities relating to subjects in this group. Physical anthropology,
physical geography and psychophysiology should normally be classified with the natural sciences].

6. HUMANITIES
6.1 History (history, prehistory and history, together with auxiliary historical disciplines such as
archaeology, numismatics, palaeography, genealogy, etc.)
6.2 Languages and literature (ancient and modern)
6.3 Other humanities [philosophy (including the history of science and technology) arts, history of art, art
criticism, painting, sculpture, musicology, dramatic art excluding artistic "research" of any kind,
religion, theology, other fields and subjects pertaining to the humanities, methodological, historical and
other S1T activities relating to the subjects in this group]

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3 FINAL REPORT ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE European Union FINANCIAL


CONTRIBUTION

This report shall be submitted to the Commission within 30 days after receipt of the final
payment of the European Union financial contribution.

Report on the distribution of the European Union financial contribution


between beneficiaries

Name of beneficiary Final amount of EU contribution per


beneficiary in Euros
1. NLR
2. DLR
3. ONERA
4. INTA
5. ILOT
Total 5 beneficiaries

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