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CHAPTER - 7

Plant Siting and Safe Design


THEME
1. Indian Heritage 7.4 General Considerations of Layout
2. Statutory Requirements Planning and Design
2.1 Under the Factories Act & 7.5 Building Structures
Rules 7.6 Plant and Equipment Layout
2.2 Under other Statutes 7.7 Technical & Engineering Control
3. Indian Standards Measures
3.1 National Building Code 7.7.1 Some Design Factors
4. Siting Criteria 7.7.2 Fire Protection
4.1 General Guidelines 7.7.3 Chemical Plant
4.2 Environmental Guidelines 7.7.4 Emergency Shutdown
5. Separation Distances 7.7.5 Safe Operating Conditions
6. Need for Planning and Follow up 7.8 Standards and Codes of Practice
6.1 Need and Approach for Plant & Equipment
6.2 Follow up 8. Ergonomic Considerations
7. Plant Layout and Design 9. Improving Safety and Productivity
7.1 Travel Chart through Design
7.2 Components in Design Process 10. Maintenance for Safety & Health.
7.3 Concept of Plant and its Design
1 INDIAN HERITAGE to exist in Indias climates, under its often
vertical sunlight and its monsoon winds
W hen we look at the old Indian and rains. The essential of Indian
traditional architecture are : The stone
structures and architectures which still
exist, really we surprise. Without the aid plinth, the thick walls, the window
of modern engineering drawing, openings extending to the floor so that
techniques, lifting and testing machines, the air may circulate freely, the internal
our forefathers had designed and courtyard, the caves, the terraced roof.
constructed such an amazing architecture Above all, planning was employed to
which was unparallel not only in that time increase the health and amenities of the
but also in present era. community.
Various temples, forts, step-wells, According to
etc., on mountains and in towns, (Some 1000 years BC),
Tajmahal and leaning towers, varieties of -4 and page 20,
monuments and antiquities, sculptures, , -1,
incarnation, places and havelies of ,1928, Bharatiya Schools of
aesthetic and historical value are some of Engineering were as under :
the glorying examples of our cultural
heritage and archaeological wealth. List
of sites and details can be had from the
Department of Archaeology. We were
ahead in the world in safe design, layout
and construction of structures of those
days. A remark of Claude Batley,
A.R.I.B.A. F.I.I.A. describes as under: (Engineering)
The great heritage of Indian
architecture has been neglected and S
many modern buildings are exotics unfit (Exploitation (Distribution (Manufacture

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) ) ) p
S

Agriculture Marine Shelter & H
and Biology Housing

pp

Hydraulics Communica Protection,
tion, Roads Forts H
& Vehicles
This means :
Mining Town An engineer should be fully qualified
Balloons Planning, and capable of doing foundation work for
Civil and all structures. No body part of him should
Military be defective or excessively short or long.
Shelter He should be practitioner of Dharm,
benevolent, mathematician, historian,
Machines truthfully and self controlling. He should
be well conversant with drawing, design,
There were 75 sub-branches of above plan, layout, and meteorology. He should
main branches of engineering. be healthy, unmistaken, active, humble
As published by Rao Sahib K.V. Vaze, and tolerant toward others progress,
LCE, Bombay, PWD, in Vedic Magazine, protector of people and free from seven
Lahore, January 1924 main ten branches evils of greediness, intoxication, gambling
of Bharatiya Engineering were as follows : etc.

1. Propagation, agriculture, Indian agriculture is well described by


biology etc. late Pandit Shripad Damodar Satvalekar,
2. Hydraulics. Pardi (Gujarat), 1957. A good book Indian
3. Mines and minerals, stones, Sciences and Scientists by N.K. Jain,
metals etc. Delhi throws much light on our ancient
4. Navigation, boats, playing advancement in many faculties of
in rivers, tanks, sea etc. science, engineering, medicine, surgery
etc. Nalanda and Takshshila were the
5. Construction of roads,
world famous universities where even
vehicles, carts etc.
foreign students were also learning. Hu-
6. Aeronautics.
en-Chang of China was one of them.
7. S Building construction,
Now let us see the current provisions
houses etc. for constructing a factory.
8. Defensive works, fort,
trenches, protection etc.
9. Town planning.
2 STATUTORY
10. Machines, Mechanics REQUIREMENTS
etc.
2.1 Under the Factories Act
Qualities of an engineer (S) are & Rules :
described in -5
, -1, as under. Following are some useful points for
design, layout and construction of a
S SS factory and preparing plans for the
purposes of the Factories Act and
Rules. The plans are to be submitted to
p H the concerned Factory Inspection Office.

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Hereinbelow Sec means a section of and equipment should be shown on plans
the Factories Act 1948 and Rule means a at proper places. The requirements are as
rule of the Gujarat Factories Rules 1963 follows :
(GFR).
Plans are required under section 6 1. Plans in ammonia/blue/modern prints
and rule 3 & 3B. showing details of site (location), all
More details are given below with the buildings and machinery layout
intention that they must be considered at including lifting machines, pressure
the initial (design) stage of preparing plants, storage & process vessels,
plans. godowns, warehouses, stores,
furnaces, means of access, stairs, floor
2.1.1 Points at Drawing (Blue- openings, pits, reservoirs, sumps,
print) Stage : tanks, boiler house, coal yard,
generator room, effluent treatment
Rule 3B states that factory drawings plant, mess room, water facilities, etc.,
should be drawn to scale and should workshops, canteen, rest-lunch room,
include factory site, surrounding crche, cloak-room, first-aid or
buildings, roads, drainage etc., plan, ambulance room, drinking water
elevation and cross sections of the centres, latrines, urinals, washing
buildings showing lighting, ventilation, places, spittoons, fire protections,
means of escape, plant and machinery emergency control room, locations of
layout, aisles, passage ways etc. FEE & PEE, tools & transport
Rule 3C requires drawings for every equipment, means to remove heat,
work of engineering construction i.e. any dust, fume, vapour, smoke, gases,
building, tank, silo, scaffold, platform, airborne contaminants, radioactive
chimney, bridge, supporting structure, waste etc., adequate lighting,
retaining wall or any similar structure. ventilation, temperature and noise
After approval of such drawings, a control; necessary elevations, end-
Stability Certificate in Form No. 1A is to views, cross-sections showing roof
be obtained from a Competent Person design and other details and all safety
recognised u/r 2A by the Chief Inspector measures to be provided.
of Factories and should be submitted to 2. Certificate from local authority viz.
the Factory Inspection Office. Fresh Gram Panchayat, Nagar Palika,
certificate is required after each period of Municipality, Corporation, GIDC, Urban
5 years or after every extension, Development Authority, Collector etc.
alteration, repairs, or addition of regarding permission for the site of the
machinery, plants etc. Manufacturing factory.
process cannot be started if such 3. Form No. 1, GFR, duly filled in with
certificate is not obtained and sent to the necessary enclosures.
CIF. 4. Annexure-7 u/r 68J, GFR, and u/r 7(1),
Only applicable requirements should MSIHC Rules, in case of a hazardous
be furnished. All attachments should be in factory.
duplicate, signed and stamped by the 5. Annexures 8 to 10 u/r 10(1), 17 and
Occupier of the factory and in order. All 18(5) of the MSIHC Rules, 1989, in
drawings should have been to proper case of hazardous chemicals or/and
scale and with north direction shown. MAH factory.
Proposed construction / alteration / 6. Stability certificate from a Competent
arrangements should be shown in red and Person in Form 1A to be submitted
that to be removed in yellow. Factory before starting a factory.
boundary should be shown in green 7. List of raw materials with their storage
including all its premises and precincts quantities and parameters.
therein. All figures, dimensions, 8. List of products (including by-products)
specifications, distances and necessary with their production capacities.
schedules of doors, windows, machinery 9. Process flow chart and description of
manufacturing process in brief.

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10. List of machinery with their Horse sheets. Fragile AC sheets are unsafe as
Powers and other capacities. they have caused many fatal (fall)
11. MSDS and safety manual in case of accidents.
chemical factories, and information Minimum roof height for Canteen,
required by the Site Appraisal Shelter, Rest room, Lunch room and
Committee u/s 41A, if such Committee Crche - 12 or 3.7 M.
exists.
12. Details of safety fittings, equipment, 2.1.2.2 Other Dimensions
tools, devices and measures to be (minimum required):
adopted with the list of protective
wears and fire protection to be
provided. 1. Work Room area (Sq. M) =
13. Details of fire water reservoir, pumps, (No. of Workers in the room x 14.2) + Volume
suction, hydrants, fixed fire in cub m. of machineries in the room
installations, control valves etc. Height of roof in m. (Consider max. 4.2 m
14. Copy of the last site plan and plan- only)
approval letter from the Chief
Inspector of Factories, in case of plans 2. Sanitary Blocks (Sec. 19 & 42)
for extension / alteration of the factory. Latrines - 16 SF or 1.5 SM
15. Copy of approval from or application Urinals - 12 SF or 1.1 SM
to the State Pollution Control Board in Bathrooms - 24 SF or 2.2 SM
case of factories polluting No. of Latrines - As per Rule 41, GFR
land/water/air. For Females - 1 per 25 females
16. Copy of approval from or application For Males - 1 per 25 up to 100
to the Explosive Dept. in case of - 1 per 50 thereafter.
factories using/ manufacturing No. of Urinals - As per Rule 45
explosive substances. For Males - 1 per 50 up to 500
17. Copy of approval from or application - 1 per 100
to the Prohibition Dept. in case of thereafter.
factories using/ manufacturing No. of Bathrooms/Washing Places - As
prohibited substances. per Rule 68W, 69 and 102, GFR.
18. Load-bearing calculations for the No. of Taps - 1 per 15 workers or as
stability of the structure. per Schedule in the Rule. At least 27.3
19. A forwarding (covering) letter litres water per worker per day is
mentioning which items from the necessary.
above (1) to (18) is submitted
therewith. Note : Latrines and urinals should not
20. Any other information required by the open in work-room. Bath-rooms should
Factory Inspection Office. not be in the vicinity of latrines and
urinals. There should be separate
2.1.2 Minimum requirements: latrines and bathrooms for males and
females maintaining privacy and sign
2.1.2.1 Roof Heights (minimum boards. Requirements of Sec. 19 and
required): Rule 41 to 50 should be fulfilled.
3. Ventilating Openings in a workroom
For RCC - 12 or 3.7 M (Rule 18A) :
Slab/Tiles/False Ceiling = 15% of the floor area (min).
AC Sheet - 16 or 4.9 M 4. Quantity of fresh air by mechanical
GI Sheet - 18 or 5.5 M means (Rule 18A) :
= 6 x workroom volume (m3) per hour
To prevent fall accidents, it is highly 5. Thermometer height (Rule 18A) :
essential to use unbreakable metal sheet = 1.5 m. from the floor.
instead of a fragile AC sheet as roofing. 6. Spittoon Stand (bracket) height
Now a days, reinforced plastic sheets are (Rule 51)
available against the normal fragile AC = 0.914 m. or 3 ft from the floor.

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7. Cloak-rooms : Necessary for the escape from the building. Doors
factories in Schedule u/r 69-A and should open outward.
102. It is advisable to have separate 13. Cotton Textile, Ginning, Wood-
cloak rooms for males and females. working and Rubber Mills,
8. Ambulance room : (Applicable for Centrifugal m/c, Power press,
workers 500 or more) As per Sec 45 Shears, Slitters and Guillotine
and Rule 71. m/c. As per Rule 54.
Minimum Area necessary - 250 SF or 14. Hoists / Lifts / Lifting Machines.
24 SM As per Sec 28, 29 and Rules 59, 60 &
It should contain items mentioned in 60A.
Rule 71(3). 15. Pressure Plants.
9. Canteen (applicable for workers 250 As per Sec 31 and Rule 61.
or more) As per Sec 46 and Rule 72 & 16. Floors, Stairs and Means of
73. Access.
Minimum Area for dining hall = 1 SM As per Sec 32, 38 and Rule 66, 67.
or 11 SF per worker of 30% of Two separate stairs necessary as per
workers working at a time. (Area Rule 66 (d). Minimum width of exit 3
occupied by service counter and or 0.91 m. and minimum height 6.6
furniture except tables and chairs or 2 m. All means of access should be
should be excluded). shown clearly.
Canteen should be at least 50 ft or 17. Minimum Dimensions of
15.2 m. away from latrine, urinal, Manholes :
boiler house, coal stacks, ash dumps As per Rule 64.
etc. Size : 0.41 m x 0.31 m or 1.35 x 1.0
10. Shelter, Rest rooms & Lunch or 0.41 m or 1.35 diameter.
rooms (Applicable for workers 150 or 18. Machine Distances :
more) Sec 47 and Rule 79. Normally a distance of 3 or 1 m
Minimum Area = 1 SM or 11 SF per should be kept between a machine
worker. and the nearest machine or a fixed
11. Crche (Applicable for 30 female structure (e.g. wall).
workers or more) 19. Dimensions of Fire Exits (Rule
As per Sec 48 and Rule 80 & 81 66A)
Minimum area = 2 SM or 22 SF per An exit includes doorway, corridor
child. and passageway but does not include
12. Special provisions u/r 102, lifts, escalators and revolving doors.
Schedules for Dangerous Operations The exit should provide continuous
: (unobstructed) and safe egress
1. Air space per worker in a room > (departure) by fire resisting wall. See
14.2 m3 or 500 ft3 where height over item 9 (24 points) in Part 4.1 of
3.7 m. or 12 ft shall not be Chapter-13 for fire & exits
accounted. specifications.
2. Pasting distance and rack/shelf size 20. Storage of Material (Rule 66A) :
- as per Sch. 3 1. Passage width between two piles
3. Washing facilities : 61 to 120 cm > 90 cm.
between two workers or water 2. Clearance between ceiling and the
pipes, Pipe height = 2.1 m, dia = pile top > 2 m.
2.5 cm. 3. Safe distance in heaps of
4. Mess room size = 0.9 m 2 per flammable material. Open ground
worker, height 3.7 m or more storage at minimum distance of
5. Vessel fencing : Height 91.4 cm. or 10 m from process or storage
3 ft building.
6. Plank or gang-way width = 45.7 cm. 4. Gas cylinders should be away from
7. Toxic & flammable solvents : Two highly flammable substances,
exits in each room. Two means of furnaces and hot processes. Roof

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and adequate ventilation are Note : Details of 1 to 27 above should be
necessary. shown in the plans. It will highlight the
21. Location of Fire Extinguishers points of legally safe design.
(Rule 66A):
= 750 mm above the floor level. 2.1.3 Cleanliness and Good
22. Explosion Panels (Rule 68G) : Housekeeping :
Size = 2200 cm 2 per 1 m 3 volume of
the oven/drier. Sec. 11, 20 and Rules 16 to 17 A and
23. Ship ladders or sound Gangways 51 to 53 deal with this subject. Where a
(Rule 68H): floor is liable to become wet due to
Width > 55 cm, each side railing 90 manufacturing process, effective means
cm. ht. of drainage should be provided.
24. Wash tank of clean water in Effective means of keeping the
electrolytic Plating Works (Rule factory (including compound) clean by
102, Sch. 2) : washing, sweeping, brushing, dust or
Size = 1500 Litres. vacuum cleaning should be provided.
Washing space between two workers White washing, colour washing,
= 1.2 m. varnishing, painting etc., should be
25. Solvent Extraction Plant (Rule carried out as in Sec 11 (1)(d) except in
102, Sch. 21) factories exempted u/r 16.
1. Plant 30 m away from the nearest Spittoons should be provided in
locality. convenient places on a stand/bracket 3
2. 1.5 m high fencing at a distance of or 0.91 m high in a clean and hygienic
15 m from the plant. condition.
3. Boiler House etc., at a distance of Good housekeeping is a wider term
30 m or more from the plant. than cleanliness. It includes in its sphere
4. If any construction or process is orderly plant and machinery layout,
within 30 m from the plant, barrier storage, interior arrangements,
wall of non-combustible material equipment, floors, drains, pits and
and 1.5 m high at a distance of 15 manholes, stairs and platforms, sanitation
m from the plant. and ventilation, colour, illumination and
5. No solvent shall be stored in plant electric fittings, fire extinguishing system,
building. Space of 15 m within the yard areas and compound, safety and
plant shall be kept free from first-aid, display of notices and
combustible material. instructions, and identification and
26. Pottery Works (Rule 102 Sch removal of hazards. Good housekeeping
25) : helps in increasing productivity and in
1. Mess room size 0.93 m2. decreasing accidents and fatigue in
2. Water stand spacing 1.2 m. workers.
27. Foundry Works (Rule 102, Sch For details see Chapter-8.
26) :
1. Gangway width 2.1.4 Disposal of effluent and Air
If not used to carry molten metal - Emissions:
0.92 m.
If used to carry molten metal - 0.6 m
Sec. 12 & Rule 18 deal with this
to 1.8 m as prescribed.
subject.
2. Pouring aisle width - 0.46 m to
To connect drainage system of a
0.76 m as prescribed.
factory with public sewerage system,
3. Safety distance - 4 m from the
permission of local authority and for other
delivery spout, or 2.4 m from
mode of disposal, permission from Health
ladle.
Officer is required.
4. Wash stand spacing - 1.2 m.
Three Central Acts (1) Water
(Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act
1974 (2) Air (Prevention & Control of

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Pollution) Act 1981 and (3) Environment Types of ventilation are (1) Natural
(Protection) Act, 1986 are administered and (2) Mechanical. Natural ventilation is
by Central and State Boards. Therefore, the cheapest ventilation. Therefore, try to
their approval/consent is also necessary minimise the walls, and partitions.
for disposal of effluent and air emissions. Increase doors and windows. About 15%
For details see Part 2.23 to 2.37 of of floor area should be provided for
Chapter-28. natural ventilation. Select proper type of
Various Indian Standards are roof/false ceiling and cross ventilation.
prescribed for tolerance limits of many More open space should be provided in
characteristics of effluents and sewage to chemical and dangerous plants.
be disposed. For details see Part 2.29 of Up to a room of 60 or 18 m length or
Chapter-28 and Tables 11 to 15 of width sufficient natural ventilation should
Chapter-32. be provided but for an area greater than
Pre-treatment, storage or equalisation this mechanical or forced or local exhaust
plant, primary treatment, secondary or ventilation is necessary.
biological treatment and tertiary Exhaust fans, Man-cooler fans
treatment are the treatment methods (throwing air on man), Hood duct and
generally employed in sequence. An blower, Air cleaning device, Air cooling
incinerator is used to burn the waste. (passing air through water) devices, Air-
After testing the effluent sample, conditioners are used as means of
appropriate method should be selected. mechanical ventilation. This system may
See Table 16 of Chapter-32. be of Receptor type or Capture type or
Method for disposal of contaminated Low volume High Velocity (LVHV) type.
air/gas should also be selected. Proper design should be selected. Heat
Description of method for effluent insulations like aluminium screen near
disposal and tolerance limits to be furnace, lagging and cladding on pipes
achieved after treatment should be and valves etc. are also useful.
submitted along with the plans. Height, type and material of roof and
For details see Chapter-18. walls, separation of hot processes or
parts, exhaust appliance near the point of
2.1.5 Ventilation, Temperature, origin of dust, fume, impurity etc., Hood &
Dust, Fume etc. Chimney, Humidity control (S 15 & R 19
to 29), 500 cu. ft. or 14.2 cu. m. of space
Sec. 13 to 16, 36, 37, and Rules 18A, per worker (considering height upto 14 or
19 to 29, 64, 65 and 102 deal with this 4.2 m only), manhole of prescribed size,
subject. precautions against dangerous fumes (S
Ventilation is necessary to remove 36). Portable electric light (S 36A) and
excessive temperature, contaminants and inflammable dust, gas etc. (S 37 and
carbon dioxide exhausted and to supply exemption u/r 65) should be adopted as
oxygen or fresh air in work places. per statutory provisions.
Factors affecting are: (1) Temperature For details see Chapter-10.
of air in room (2) Air velocity (3)
Temperature difference between inside 2.1.6 Lighting and Colour:
and outside of rooms (4) Heat radiation
(5) Humidity and (6) Clothing of the Sec. 11, 17, 35 and Rule 16, 30 to 34 and
workers. 63 deal with this subject. Sec. 11 (1) (d)
Room temperature @30 0C (80 0F), Air requires that particular parts of a factory
velocity @30 mt/min and Temperature should be white washed, colour washed,
difference @2 0
C (3.6 0
F), are varnished or painted in prescribed
comfortable. Decrease or increase in periods. Rule 16 states exemption to this.
these limits may cause discomfort. Site Sec. 17 requires sufficient and
(place), season, surroundings etc. may suitable lighting, natural or artificial or
vary the limits. both and prevention of glare and
shadows.

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Rule 31 describes standards of as they may also cause glare. Furniture
lighting (illumination) over interior parts and equipment may have medium
of a factory in general and of a ginning colours.
factory in particular. Rule 32 describes Different colours are used for safety
measurements for prevention of glare. precautions and as accident prevention
Rule 30, 33 and 34 are exempting rules to signs, Colours on pipes are useful to
this lighting provisions. The schedule u/r distinguish them. Guards should be
34 gives a list of exempted factories. Sec. regarded as part of the machines and
35 (b) and Rule 63 (b) requires protection should be painted in the same colour as
of eyes from exposure to excessive light. that of the machine.
Effective screens should be provided for For Details see Chapter-9.
welding, cutting and melting process
creating excessive light. IS:6060 and 2.1.7 Drinking Water:
IS:6665 prescribe lighting standards.
Artificial light is costlier than natural Sec. 18 and Rule 35 to 40 deal with this
or day light. Their combination is known subject.
as Twilight which is frequently used in Drinking water centres (with such
offices. written boards) should be provided at
Lighting may be of four types - suitable points conveniently situated for
all workers. They should not be within 20
1. Direct or local lighting - on particular or 6 m from any washing place, urinal or
job or working. latrine.
2. Indirect lighting - through reflection. Quantity of drinking water should be
3. Combination of direct and indirect 4.5 litres per worker per day. Water
lighting, and should be clean and readily available
4. Diffused lighting through shade during working hours. Proper storage with
(fixture) surrounding lamp. cover is also necessary. It should be
cleaned and renewed every day. Report
Lamps near machines or job and from Health Officer is reuired.
portable lamps must have shades or In a factory employing 250 workers or
shields. Light should also go to ceiling. more, cooled drinking water should be
Indirect and diffused light is desirable supplied from March to November each
than direct light. Unwanted reflection year. Each floor should have one water
should be directed away from eyes. Work centre and one centre per 150 workers up
tables, chairs etc., should be so placed to 450 and one per 450 thereafter. Each
that light from windows comes from centre should have 3 or more taps
sides. (fountains) at least 2 or 0.6 m apart, and
Flameproof lighting should be shall have a trough to drain away the split
provided at flammable areas. water. A person with clean cloths to
Lamps are of three types - distribute water is necessary. For details
incandescent filament, tubular see Rule 40.
fluorescent and colour corrected mercury All water centres and their distances
vapour lamps. They have different light should be shown clearly in plans.
qualities. Lighting fittings are also of
various types. Proper selection is 2.1.8 Material Handling:
necessary.
Colour code is also important. White Sec. 28, 29, 34 and Rule 58 to 60A
and light colours give more reflections of and 62 deal with this subject. Material
light than that by dark colours. Ceilings handling means the techniques used to
should be white or near white. Walls move, transport, store or distribute
should have light colours like yellow, materials with or without the aid of
green etc. Floors may have dark colours, mechanical appliances.
but not white as it may create glare by As per one old study, about 40%
upward reflection of light. Shining accidents, 36% production cost and 66%
aluminium colours on walls are not good

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process time cycles are due to material Effective measures should be
handling. This shows the wide coverage provided to ensure that the safe working
of this subject. It is of two types (1) pressure is never exceeded.
Manual handling and (2) Mechanical For details see Part 9 of Chapter-18.
handling.
Manual handling is carried out by 2.1.10 Fire Protection
persons alone or in group (team) or/and
with the help of hooks, crow-bars, rollers, Sec. 38, Rule 66, 66A and 67 deal
hand trucks (carts), wheel barrows etc. with this subject.
Methods of lifting and habits play an Fire causes loss of or damage to
important role. person and property both. Therefore
Mechanical handling is carried out by preventive and controlling measures for
hoists, lifts and lifting machines like fire are most important. This should
overhead travelling crane, jib crane, crab include training and regular drill for fire
winch, teagel, pulley block, gin wheel, fighting also.
transporter including power trucks and When Heat, Fuel or Oxygen meet, a
conveyors or runway and with the use of fire occurs. Therefore try to segregate
lifting tackle like chain slings, rope chances of meeting of these three
slings, rings, hooks, shackles and swivels. factors. At the stage of design and
All rails, tracks and passage-ways for planning for a factory, this basic concept
all hoists, lifts and travelling cranes should not be ignored. Mark and maintain
should be shown in plans with their safety distances.
heights, distances, railing or guarding and Fire Loads should be calculated by
capacities. considering total fire danger in the
For details see Chapter-15. factory. For this, types of materials,
equipment, storage, pressure,
2.1.9 Pressure Plants: temperature, radioactivity, electrical
hazards, types of fire etc., are taken into
Sec. 31 and Rule 61 deal with this account. Generally Fire Insurance people
subject. do this. Then depending upon this fire-
Pressure plant means a plant, load, fire-fighting water quantity and
machinery, vessels, air receivers, equipment are decided. As per example,
digesters, petroleum stills, vulcanisers, if a fire-load is calculated as 40 cu.
sterilizers, kiers or equipment used in mt/min. This means, a water spraying
manufacturing process and operating at a capacity of 40 cu. mt/min is required at
pressure above atmospheric pressure and all fire points. Design for Emergency plan
includes water sealed gas holder having & Disaster plan, in case of heavy fire
a storage capacity of 5000 cu. ft. or 141.5 loads.
cu. m. but it does not include working IS:2190 suggests suitability of
cylinders of prime movers (i.e. engines), different types of portable fire
gas cylinders, other vessels exempted u/r extinguishers for different classes of fire.
61 and vessels under the Boilers Act, In addition to necessary fire
1923. extinguishers, automatic fire, flame or
All pressure vessels including reaction smoke detectors and alarms, fire
vessels and sizing cylinders with all hydrants, monitors, sprinklers, sprays,
fittings should be shown in plans hose-reels, risers, drenches etc., are also
indicating their heights, distance and useful. Provide and mark clearly fire-exits,
capacities. Means of safety and escape fire escape stairs, fire warning, fire
near such plant should also be shown. A buckets and no-smoking notices. Utmost
schedule indicating number and size/ care should be taken in chemical
capacity of safety valve, pressure gauge, factories.
stop valve, drain valve, pressure reducing Fire protection layout and schedule of
valve, rupture disc., temperature equipment should be shown in plans.
indicator, manhole, inspection window Stairway, hoist-way, lift-way and means
and other safety devices should be given. of access and escape should be of fire

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resisting materials. Angle of fire escape against inhalation, measures against skin
stair should not be more than 450 from contact, labelling etc. are described in
horizontal, and it should be available various schedules u/r 102. Necessary
within a distance of 150 or 46 m. along provision/arrangements should be shown
the line of travel for escape. In a ginning in plans at proper places.
factory, two suitable earthen ramps or Schedules No. 12, 19, 20 and some
flights or stairs made of brick work or fire others u/r 102 provide chemical details.
resisting material should be provided First, Second and Third schedules, and
(Rule 66 & 67). Chapter-IVA under the Act regarding
For details see Chapter-13. hazardous processes, permissible levels
of some chemicals in work environment
2.1.11 Dangerous Operations and notifiable diseases must be referred
and Processes : while planning.
Ordinary flooring tiles contain
Sec. 87 and Rule 102 deal with this carbonates which react with acid.
subject. Therefore acid-resistant flooring is
Provisions of 27 schedules for 27 required where acid or alkalis are
dangerous processes under this rule are handled. Alkalis on flooring create
most important from safety point of view. slippery surfaces. Water showers should
They should be strictly followed. These be provided to dilute the effects of acids
details should be submitted along with and alkalis. Storage and handling of solid,
the plans. liquid and gaseous chemicals should be
Special fencing of machines and done carefully. Sources of heat, ignition or
vessels, protective wears, exhaust draft, spark should be kept away. Dangerous
floor of work-rooms, cautionary notice, limits including threshold limit values
play-card, separation of process, air (TLV) should not be exceeded. Auto
space, ventilation, pasting room, work controls and recorders should be provided
benches, disposal of dust, gases and to control high pressure, temperature
fumes, container of dross and lead waste, etc., within their limits. Workers should be
drying room, mess room, cloak room, provided with necessary protective
washing and bathing facilities, storage equipment.
and transport, flame-traps, fire A material safety data sheet in
extinguishers, escape of petrol, flame respect of each dangerous chemical
proof electrical fittings, blasting should be supplied to study properties
enclosure, separating apparatus, first-aid and hazard potential of chemicals.
arrangements, mixing and filling with Preventive/Control measures should also
scoop, cocks and valves, manholes, be stated therein.
disposal of waste, means of escape, air Air is the breath of life, its absence or
analysis, medical facilities, housekeeping, contamination may cause death or
process hazards, instruments, protection disease. These contaminants could be
of reaction mixtures, site, isolation of dusts, fumes, gases, vapours, mists, fog,
buildings, fire resistant construction, smoke, grass etc. Dust may be of silica,
dangers of ignition, static electricity, coal, asbestos, cotton etc. Methods of
process heating, escape of materials, prevention are substitution, segregation,
leakage of flammable liquids, empty enclosures, exhaust ventilation including
containers, storage of combustible ducting, general ventilation including
materials, pipe lines for inflammable natural and mechanical, wet methods,
liquids, packing of reaction vessels, use of personal protective equipment,
vigorous or delayed reactions, personal cleanliness, warning and
examination, testing and repair of plant, publicity, education and training, medical
alarm system, effluents, staging, entry examination etc. Appropriate
into vessels, storage of acid-carboys, neutraliser/scrubber, column, condenser
buildings, drainage, covering of vessels, shall also be provided and shown in the
substitute, enclosed system, protection plans.

10
Use of low flash point solvents, Care taken at a planning stage of a
carcinogenic substances, benzene, factory will be more useful in avoiding
xylene, toluene and other aromatic occupational accidents and diseases.
hydrocarbons and their nitro With proper layout of structures,
compounds/halogenated derivatives, machinery and good housekeeping unsafe
caustic, chrome process, nitro or amino conditions should be removed to minimise
process, pesticides and insecticides, chances of accidents/diseases in
phosphine, phosgene, crude oil, bleaching factories. Laboratories and dispensaries
powder, aluminium powder, lead, mercury should be developed at various industrial
or arsenic compounds and all explosive or centres. Big factories should include such
toxic materials should be done very facilities.
carefully. Separate receivers should be For details see Chapter-24.
provided for them. Solvent extraction
plants using solvents like pentane, 2.2 Under other Statutes :
hexane, heptane etc., should be designed
carefully. Sufficient means for fire See Part 2.49 of Chapter-28 for safety
protection including alarms should be provisions under the Building and other
provided. Special rooms for processes and Construction Workers Act, 1996, and Part
workers should be constructed. 2.50 for rules (1998) thereunder.
Rule 5 of the Environment
Radiation Protection : (Protection) Rules 1986 gives some siting
criteria for restricting or prohibiting the
Radioactive operations are carried out in location of industries. See Part 4
very few factories. It poses two types of following.
hazards-health hazard and contamination See Part 1.26 of Chapter-19 for siting
hazard. Permissible limits or dose values criteria from environmental impact point
are prescribed for radionuclides. Safety of view.
measures should be provided for handling See Part 5 following for separation
/ disposal of radioactive materials / distances.
wastes by limiting their external exposure
and/or intake by ingestion, inhalation,
contact etc. Various types of personnel
3 INDIAN STANDARDS
and area monitoring should be carried
Various Indian Standards are available for
out. Precautions for work with sealed
considering safe design and layout of
or/and unsealed sources should be
industrial buildings, plants and
observed. Proper ventilation, surface
equipment. They are the good guidelines
finishes, plumbing (sinks), waste
for all safety people. Some are mentioned
collection, special equipment, good
below in Table 7.1 :
housekeeping, emergency procedures
and proper records are also necessary.
Table - 7.1 : Indian Standards
For details see Chapter -18, 24, and
Part 2.17 & 2.18 of Chapter-28. Title I. S.
No.
1 Sectional List of Indian -
2.1.12 Occupational Accidents
Standards on Safety
and Diseases :
2 Sectional List of Indian -
Standards on Civil
Sec. 88 and 91 and Rule 103 & 104 deal
Engineering
with this subject.
The Schedule u/r 89 gives a list of 3 Industrial plant layout 8091
notifiable diseases including noise 4 Code of safe practice for 8089
induced hearing loss (exposure to high layout of outside facilities in
noise levels). an industrial plant
5 Safety requirements for 4912
floor and wall openings,
railings and toe boards

11
6 Structural safety of 1905 structures
buildings : Masonry walls 2 Code of practice for 8062
7 Structural safety of 875 7 cathodic protection of steel
buildings : Loading structures
standards 2 Safety Code for scaffolds 3696
8 Structural safety of 1904 8 and ladders
buildings : Shallow 2 Safety Code for 1038
foundation 9 construction, operation and 6
9 Glossary of terms relating to 1042 maintenance of river valley
doors 8 projects
1 Selection of, installation and 4913 3 Standard colours for building 1650
0 maintenance of timber 0 and decorative finishes
doors and windows
1 Steel doors, windows and 1038 There are hundreds of such standards
1 ventilators which may be selected from Title No. 1 &
1 Steel windows for industrial 1361 2 above.
2 buildings
1 Industrial ventilation 3103 3.1 National Building Code :
3
1 Industrial lighting 6665 SP 7 - 1983 is a single code containing
4 various IS on building construction in one
1 Daylighting of factory 6060 volume. It contains regulations useful to
5 buildings various departments, municipal
1 Steel Tubular scaffolding 4014 administrations and public bodies. It lays
6 down provisions for public safety with
1 Fire safety of buildings 1642 regard to structural sufficiency, fire
7 (General) : Materials and hazards and health aspects of buildings.
details of construction Other subjects included are building
1 Fire safety of buildings 1646 requirements, materials, structural
8 (General): Electrical design, electrical installations, lighting,
installations ventilation, air conditioning, lifts,
1 Fire safety of industrial 3594 acoustics, plumbing services, gas supply,
9 buildings : General storage safety of workers and public during
and warehousing including construction and rules for erection of
cold storages signs and outdoor display structures. It is
2 Installation and internal fire 3844 also available in five groups as under :
0 hydrants in multi-story
buildings Group 1 For architects
2 Safety code for handling 7969 Group 2 For structural design engineers
1 and storage of building Group 3 For construction engineers
materials Group 4 For building services engineers
Group 5 For plumbing services
2 Fire resistance test of 3809
engineers
2 structures
2 Code of practice for noise 3483
Following special publications are also
3 reduction in industrial
relevant-
buildings
2 Industrial safety belts and 3521
SP 6 ISI Handbook for structural
4 harnesses
engineers (7 parts).
2 Glossary of terms relating to 3531
SP 10 Nomograms for thickness of
5 corrosion of metals
masonry walls.
2 Recommended design 9172 SP 16 Design aids for reinforced
6 practice for corrosion concrete,
prevention of steel SP 20 Handbook on masonry design

12
and construction. Siting of a nuclear plant poses
SP 21 Summaries of IS for building potential hazard to surrounding public.
materials. Considering the magnitude and
SP 22 Codes for earthquake consequence of the worst scenario, its
engineering. site should be selected.
SP 23 Handbook on concrete mixes. Rules of zoning and town planning
SP 24 Code for plain and reinforced should consider above factors.
concrete. Some of these factors are explained
SP 25 Causes and prevention of below in brief.
cracks in building. Location: Plants producing or using
SP 27 Method of measurement of highly explosive, inflammable or toxic
building works. substances in bulk should be located
SP 33 Handbook on timber away from dense population. As per
engineering. Section 41 A of the Factories Act, now, the
SP 36 IS on soil engineering (2 Parts) Site Appraisal Committee shall examine
for plumbing services the location of a hazardous factory.
engineers. From safety point of view increasing
SP 41 Handbook on functional distance from the public reduces the
requirements of buildings. effect of explosion, gas release and
SP 1650 Standard colours for building radiation on them. But real problem is
and decorative finishes. increasing population in vicinity after
(Revision of IS:1650). establishment of a factory. Govt. should
control them.
4 SITING CRITERIA Climate: Study of prevailing winds is
useful to decide location of offices and
their air-conditioning air intakes, storage
4.1 General Guidelines : tanks, warehouses, drainage and waste
disposal, direction of exhausted smoke,
At present industries are being located on fumes, dust, gas etc., with respect to
the basis of - surrounding locality. Data of rain, flood,
hurricane, temperature and other
1. Land availability and its cost. weather effects is also useful.
2. Raw material availability. Terrain : If bridges over streams,
3. Labour availability. ditches, etc., are necessary they should
4. Infrastructure availability. be fenced by handrails 1 m. high and
5. Access to market. intermediate rails. Natural structure like
6. Transport facilities. hills, mountains, sea or riverside, type of
7. Drinking and process water facilities. soil, mine, underground source etc. may
8. Sewage and Drainage. be useful for special purposes.
9. Place for solid and liquid waste Nature of Site : It should be large
disposal. enough for safe layout with sufficient
10. Interlinking with other plants. space for all buildings, roads, parking and
11. Surrounding population density or storing areas, effluent treatment plant
distance from the public. and future extensions. Minimum
12. Distance from highway and railway distances as per fire laws, explosive laws
and from transport centres. and other laws must be considered. Scale
13. Suitability of climate, environment relief models of the site in addition to
and factors related to ecology, maps are useful for pre-design and
geology, meteorology, micro & macro spotting potential safety problems. Soil
biology. testing should be carried out as per
14. Government policy advantages like engineering advice.
subsidies, incentives and zoning (area Accessibility: Rail, road, river, sea
reservation) if prescribed. and air facilities should be ensured. Post
15. Other techno-economic criteria. and telegraph, telephone, fax, E-mail,

13
internet etc. are useful for fast industries and setting up of new industrial
communications. undertakings within the limits of
Environment: If air impurities and metropolitan cities and the larger towns
interaction of emissions or sources of are restricted.
ignition etc. from adjacent sites are To prevent air, water and soil
harmful, they should be considered. Noise pollution arising out of industrial projects,
and vibration due to neighbouring the Industrial Licensing procedure
industries, transport vehicles, running requires that the entrepreneurs before
trains, low flying aircraft should be setting up the industry should obtain
considered. clearance from Central/State Air and
Special environmental guidelines are Water Pollution Control Board.
given in Part 4.2 below. In respect of certain industrial
General Provisions: Adequate development projects (see list in Part 6.5
water supply for drinking, process and fire of Chapter 4) it is not only necessary to
fighting, drainage of rain water, process install suitable pollution control
water, fire water etc., and water /air/ land equipment but also to identify appropriate
pollution problems must be considered. sites for their location. To give a concrete
shape to this requirement, a select group
4.2 Environmental of 20 industries has been notified by the
Guidelines : Department of Industrial Development. A
formalised procedure has been stipulated
for site selection from environmental
Rule 5 of the Environment (Protection)
angle with regard to these projects. These
Rules, 1986, gives following siting criteria
industries are :
to be considered by the Government
while prohibiting or restricting the location
of industries in different areas - 1 Primary 11 Storage
metallurgical Batteries
1. Standards for quality of environment. producing (lead acid
2. Maximum allowable limits of pollutants industries viz. type)
(including noise) for an area. zinc, lead, copper,
3. Likely emission from the proposed aluminium and
industry. steel
4. Topographic and climatic features of an 2 Paper, Pulp and 12 Basic
area. Newsprint drugs
5. Biological diversity of the area to be 3 Pesticides/ 13 Acids/
preserved. Insecticides Alkalis
6. Environmentally compatible land use. 4 Refineries 14 Foundry
7. Adverse environmental impact likely to 5 Fertilisers 15 Plastics
be caused by the industry (EIA is 6 Fermentation 16 Dyes
required). 7 Rubber - 17 Cement
8. Proximity to a legally protected area. Synthetic
9. Proximity to human settlements. 8 Leather Tanning 18 Asbestos
10. Any other relevant factor. 9 Electroplating 19 Paints
10 Sodium/ 20 Rayon
Site Appraisal Committee u/s 41A of Potassium
the Factories Act, while considering any Cyanide
site application, may go through above
criteria. According to this procedure for the
The Industrial Policy Statement of July select group of industries, the letters of
1980, recognised the need for preserving intent should be converted to industrial
ecological balance and improving living licenses only after the following
conditions in the urban centres of the conditions have been fulfilled :
country. On the basis of this Policy,
indiscriminate expansion of the existing 1. The State Director of Industries
confirms that the site of the project

14
has been approved from location to remain obscured from
environmental angle by the general sight.
competent State Authority. 4. Land acquired shall be sufficiently
2. The entrepreneur commits both to the large to provide space for appropriate
State Government and Central treatment of waste water still left for
Government that he will install the treatment after maximum possible
appropriate equipment, implement reuse and recycle. Reclaimed
and the prescribed measures for the (treated) wastewater shall be used to
prevention and control of pollution. raise green belt and to create water
3. The concerned State Pollution Control body for aesthetics, recreation and if
Board has certified that the proposal possible, for aquaculture. The green
meets with the environmental belt shall be km wide around the
requirements and that the equipment battery limit of the industry. For
installed or proposed to be installed industry having odour problem it shall
are adequate and appropriate to the be a kilometre wide.
requirement. 5. The green belt between two adjoining
large scale industries shall be one
The entrepreneur will be required to kilometre.
submit half-yearly progress report on 6. Enough space should be provided for
installation of pollution control devices to storage of solid wastes so that these
the respective State Pollution Control could be available for possible reuse.
Boards. 7. Layout and form of the industry, that
Depending on the nature and location may come up in the area must
of the project, the entrepreneur will be conform to the landscape of the area
required to submit comprehensive without affecting the scenic features
Environmental Impact Assessment of that place.
Report, and Environmental Management 8. Associated township of the industry
Plans. must be created at a space having
physiographic barrier between the
Siting Guidelines: industry and the township.
9. Each industry is required to maintain
Economic and social factors are three ambient air quality measuring
recognised and assessed while siting an stations within 120 degree angle
industry. Environmental factors must be between stations.
taken into consideration in industrial
siting. Proximity of water sources, 5 SEPARATION DISTANCES
highway, major settlements, markets for
products and raw material resources is Separation distances (safety
desired for economy of production, but all distances to be maintained) suggested by
the above listed systems must be away the Government guidelines are as under :
for environmental protection. Industries In siting industries, care should be
are, therefore required to be sited, taken to minimise the adverse impact of
striking a balance between economic and the industries on the immediate
environmental considerations. In such a neighbourhood as well as distant places.
selected site, the following factors must Some of the natural life sustaining
be recognised. systems and some specific land uses are
sensitive to industrial impacts because of
1. No forest land shall be converted into the nature and extent of fragility. With a
non-forest activity for the sustenance view to protecting such industrial sites,
of the industry (Ref. : Forest the following distances from the areas
Conservation Act, 1980). shall be maintained:
2. No prime agricultural land shall be
converted into industrial site. 1. Ecologically and/or otherwise
3. Within the acquired site the industry sensitive areas: at least 25 km;
must locate itself at the lowest

15
depending on the geo-climatic and 30 m from cooling towers, gas
conditions the requisite distance shall holders and flare stacks to adjacent
have to be increased by the process units, main roads or site
appropriate agency. boundary.
2. Coastal Areas: at least km from Some suggested distances are as
high tide line. under:
3. Flood Plane of the Riverine Systems:
at least km from the flood plane or Unit Separation
modified flood plane affected by dam Distance
in the upstream or by flood control (mt)
systems. 1 Flammable liquid, low 10-25
4. Transport/Communication System: at to medium pressures
least km from highway and 2 High flammability, 35-50
railway. high pressure
5. Major Settlements (3,00,000 3 Direct fired boilers and 35-50
population) : distance from furnaces
settlements is difficult to maintain 4 Blow down stack with 40-75
because of urban sprawl. At the time flare
of siting of the industry if any major 5 Loading facility 35
settlements notified limit is within 50
6 Public roads and 35
km, the spatial direction of growth of
railroads
the settlement for at least a decade
7 Cooling towers 35
must be assessed and the industry
shall be sited at least 25 km from the 8 Storage tanks 25-50
projected growth boundary of the
settlement. ILO guidelines (see reference No.7)
suggest following table of approximate
For separation distances see also Part separation distances for Major
13.1 of Chapter-18. Accidents Hazard works:
Separation distances are either
between two units or a single unit and a Table 7.2 : Separation Distances for MAH
source of ignition. It is normally between units:
the adjacent edges of the units and not
from centre to centre. Chemical Largest Separati
Various (foreign) codes and guidelines tank on
give different distances and make the size distance
situation confused. (tonne) (mt)
Factors to determine separation are LPG at >1.4 bar 25-40 300
(1) Explosion effect (2) Radiant heat from absolute 41-80 400
a burning material (3) Ignition of a vapour OR 81-120 500
escape and (4) Heavy concentration of a Flammable gas or 121-300 600
mixture at > >300 1000
toxic gas.
Boiling Point 25 or
Normally 15 m (50 ft) is suggested for
more
the storage of petroleum products
cylinders
excluding LPG. For LPG a smaller distance or tank 100
is allowable if radiation walls and/or water up to 5t
drench systems are provided. From an LPG, refrigerated, 50 or 1000
ignition source, for ethylene storage, 60 at 1.4 bar more
m is suggested for pressure storage and absolute
90 m for refrigerated storage. Risk of Flammable gas or 15 or 500
failure of a refrigerated storage is higher mixture more
than that of pressure storage. Flammable Gas or 50 or 1000
Mecklenburgh (1973) suggested 15 m Mixture having more
distance from process units, furnaces, BP<0 0C,
boilers, effluent plants and loading areas

16
refrigerated or the hazard range by using formulae for
cooled at 1.4 gas dispersion or fire/explosion effect. See
bar absolute Part 13 and 14 of Chapter-18 and Part 6.4
Liquid or mixture 10000 or 250 of Chapter-24.
of liquids having more See Table 1 & 2 of Licence Form XIII
Flash Point < 21 under the Petroleum Rules 1976 for
0
C petroleum tanks.
HF 10 or 1000 See Part 2.16 of Chapter-28 for
SO2 more 1000 calcium carbide.
SO3 20 or 1000 Because of the shortage of space, it
Acrylonitrile more 250 may not be possible to maintain an ideal
HCN 15 or 1000 separation and in that case, the decision
CS2 more 250 should be made with safety
Chlorine 20 or 1000 considerations.
more 1500
Diversion walls can be used to divert
Bromine 20 or 600
vapour flows to a safe area. Fire walls can
H2 more 500
Phosgene 20 or 1000
be used to protect from radiant heat and
Methyl isocynate more 1000 explosion (blast) wall to protect from the
EO, or 10-100 500 impact of explosion. Steam curtains or
Propylene oxide >100 1000 drenches are used to provide separation
(ambient 40 or from fire or ignition.
pressure) more 500
Liquid O2 2 or more 6 NEED FOR PLANNING
Ammonium 2 or more 600
nitrate 1
AND FOLLOW UP
- bagged in stacks 5-25
of >25 6.1 Need and Approach:

500 or Need of planning for safety and health


more and safety engineering approach in
300 t design, planning and construction of new
1 plant or new alteration or addition are
stack size (t) 3 basic and most essential, because:
600
- loose, distance 300
= 1. General efficiency and safety in
industrial activities can be greatly
In above separation distances no increased thereby.
restriction of category B development, 2. Accidents and occupational diseases
category C restricted and within about 2/3 can be prevented from the earliest
of the distance, category A is restricted. planning stages.
Categories are as under: 3. Cost saving factors can be considered
by effective use of floor area, providing
Cat A - Residential, houses, hotels, flats ample space for men, materials and
Cat B - Industrial, factories, warehouses machines, reducing the cost of
Cat C - Special, schools, hospitals, old material handling, reducing the time of
peoples homes. work or process and making efficient
use of resources, personnel and
These distances are tentative and equipment etc.
may be slightly modified under local 4. Efficient flow of work is maintained,
circumstances. If they are found and
unacceptably large, quantified risk 5. Safety and comfort of people are
assessment (QRA) should be carried out achieved by considering ergonomic
to assess distance. aspects.
Instead of using such fixed distance
criteria, another approach is to calculate

17
Therefore safety and layout engineer 3. Poor space utilisation.
must take into account : 4. Absence of easy access to machines,
tools and materials.
1. Products and product layout. 5. Excessive handling of materials.
2. Raw materials, processes and their 6. Irregular flow of process and materials.
layout. 7. Back tracking and zigzag movements.
3. Size and type of site and building. 8. Absence of necessary aisles and
4. Machinery, vessels and equipment routes.
required. 9. Unbalanced activities resulting in poor
5. Assessment of manpower required. utilisation of men, machines and
6. Relationship between departments. materials, and
7. Process flow chart. 10. Inflexibility of layout allowing no
8. String and flow diagrams. scope for expansion or alteration
9. Templates and scale models. needed with time.
10. Drawings and plot plans, and
11. Travel chart etc. The travel chart technique detects
above deficiencies to improve the plant
6.2 Follow up : layout and suggests follow-up action
necessary. It is a mathematical approach
As need for planning is important, follow which measures quantitatively the
up action according to that planning is movements of materials and in-process
equally important. Without follow up no work. The purposes of such measure are :
planning can be executed. Therefore
distinct responsibilities should be 1. To assess the quantities and the nature
assigned to different persons to of materials flowing from area to area
implement the follow up actions of every and from machine to machine.
stage or step decided in planning. It 2. To reduce movements to minimum.
should be reported to the higher officer, 3. To relocate contributing and user areas
feed back should be received for on the basis of percentage
correction or addition if any and the work contribution, and
should be completed within a stipulated 4. To arrange operations in each section
time. All points of safety, health, for self sufficiency.
environment and ergonomic factors
should be included from the built-in stage. Unit movement is noted by
If this follow-up is missed in the initial multiplying distance and frequency. From
stage, later follow-up may become the data of number of components, their
continuous and costly. weights, distances travelled, frequency of
trips etc., templates for the machines and
equipment and other details the travel
7 PLANT LAYOUT AND charts are prepared.
DESIGN The study of travel chart suggests
improvements in materials handling
7.1 Travel Chart: methods and machines in operation,
types of containers, aisles, travel routes
Travel chart is a simple and useful etc.
method to analyse deficiencies in the
layout of a factory and in planning a good 7.2 Components in Design
layout. Process:
The deficiencies in a poor layout If components of any structure,
are : vessel, equipment etc. are weak or not
properly designed, they may fail.
1. Congestion on the shop floor. Therefore a component should be
2. Excessive waiting time of machines designed to withstand (1) static loads (2)
and materials.

18
dynamic loads (3) internal and external A plant should be located after
pressure (4) corrosion & erosion (5) loads considering siting criteria mentioned in
due to large differences in temperature / Part-4, and be constructed by considering
pressure and (6) loads due to external statutory requirements mentioned in Part-
impacts (wind, settlement, earthquakes 2. Some design, layout and planning
etc.). considerations are given in Part 7.4 to
Selection of proper factor of safety 7.7, 8 & 9 following.
and proper material of construction (MOC) Some notable points for good
are important form design point of view. planning and design include : sound
These loads may be included in the foundations, stable construction and
design standards. It is of more importance loading, non-congested machinery layout
for pressure plant containing flammable, (safety distance 1 m), no overcrowding
explosive or toxic substances or liquids (otherwise claustrophobia is possible),
above their flash points or boiling points. minimum floor area per worker (1 to 2
Components of control systems m2), minimum alley width, safe roadways,
(manual or automatic) should be properly walkways, yards etc., prescribed
integrated with necessary safety devices, ventilation area (15% of floor area),
trips and alarms, interlocks, pressure sufficient natural and mechanical
reducing valve (PRV), non-return valve ventilation, humidity control, sufficient
(NRV), excess flow valve (EFV) and natural and artificial lighting, open plant
automatic process controllers etc. for chemical processes, dykes, boundaries
Reliability of components of main and and blast walls (to withstand 7 kgf/cm 2
sub-systems (parts) is important. See Part force), safe layout and erection of
2 of Chapter-19 for its details. chemical vessels and equipment,
Load and pressure testing of ergonomic considerations, segregation of
components i.e. testing of the assembled noisy and dusty processes, fencing and
systems, piping and joints, valves and covering of water-ways, reservoirs,
fittings is also necessary. ditches, floor openings, gutters etc.,
separate entrance and exit gates, parking
7.3 Concept of Plant and its plots, safe layout of control room,
Design: provision of fire prevention and protection
systems, safe storage of flammable,
explosive and toxic materials, waste
Plant or factory premises vary in sizes
disposal arrangements for solid, liquid
and manpower employment. There are
and gaseous wastes, effluent treatment
giant petrochemical and fertiliser plants
plant (ETP), scrubbers, incinerators, flare
on one end and small establishment in a
or exhaust as per requirement, safe
single room on the other end. Under the
discharge of smoke, fumes, dusts, gases
Factories Act, more welfare facilities are
etc., maintenance of separation distances
required from bigger factories depending
mentioned in Part-5, proper layout of
on number of workers and male-female
utilities (water, power, steam, air, oil,
employment. Stringent safety provisions
inert gas etc.) and ancillary services, safe
are applicable to chemical plants and
transportation and security arrangement,
major hazard installations. Before starting
hazards identification (by HAZOP and risk
a factory permission from local authority
assessment methods, see Chapter-19)
and other related government
and removal, safe pipe work, follow-up of
departments is also required. Where
standards, codes and reliability criteria,
pollution is possible, permission from
limitation of inventory, fail-safe design,
State/Central Pollution Control Board is
built-in safety devices etc.
also necessary. Definition of a factory is
Thus points of plant layout and design
given under the Factories Act 1948 and it
are numerous and selection of particular
is the main Act (together with State
point depends on process, technical and
Factories Rules) applicable to the design,
safety requirements.
construction and working of a factory.

19
7.4 General Considerations 15. Provide easy locations of fire alarms,
of Layout Planning and fire fighting equipment, personal
protective equipment, emergency
Design: assembly points, medical centre,
safety office etc.
Layout should be properly planned to 16. Provide and maintain good
allow smooth flow and efficient use of housekeeping.
men, materials, methods, processes, time
cycle etc. and should allow good and safe See also Part 7.6 and 8 for workstation
working conditions to prevent any design.
accident or risk.
List of items for good planning are:
Some general principles or
suggestions for good layout or 1. Siting criteria as mentioned in Part 4.
workstation design are: 2. Transportation facilities.
3. Handling and storage facilities.
1. Enough work space (2 m2 per person) 4. Personal and welfare facilities.
should be provided for workers to 5. Engineering, utility and safety
work without restriction. facilities.
2. Proper roads, pathways, tracks, alleys, 6. Walkway, stairs, platform, ramps etc.
catwalks etc. should be provided for 7. Good lighting and ventilation.
free passage of men and materials to 8. Elevators and lifting machines.
avoid delay and obstruction. 9. Boilers and pressure vessels.
3. Sufficient doors, windows, ventilators 10. Fixed and portable machinery and
and open space must be provided for equipment.
good ventilation and lighting. 11. Electrical installation.
4. Installation of machinery, floors, stairs, 12. Fire protection.
lifting machines, electric wiring etc. 13. Other provisions for health and safety,
must be done to ensure safety. Allow viz. effluent disposal, water, firs-aid,
at least 1 m space around each emergency power, equipment and
machine. emergency planning etc.
5. Keep the handling of materials to the
minimum. Use mechanical means. General Layout: Size, shape, location,
6. Provide safe means of access to all construction, buildings layout and other
work places. facilities should permit efficient utilisation
7. Provide safe transport facilities for men of machines, processes and materials.
and materials. Need and possibility of one storey or
8. Provide adequate emergency exits. multi-storey structure should be decided.
9. Purchase machines and equipment
with built-in safety. General principles of any workplace or
10. Isolate high noise, vibration, fire, workstation design are:
explosion and toxic hazards. Design a
work bench, table, booth, roof, leader, 1. Plan the ideal, then the practical.
platform, sheet, support etc. with 2. Plan the whole, then the detail.
safety standards to avoid such 3. Plan the work process and equipment
hazards. around the system requirements.
11. Provide for safety maintenance 4. Plan the workplace layout around the
personnel. process and equipment.
12. Allow space for future expansion. 5. Plan the final enclosure around the
13. Provide repair and maintenance workplace layout.
workshop, welfare facilities and 6. Use trials to evaluate alternatives and
education and training facilities. to check the final design.
14. Use appropriate colours, notices,
signs, labels, posters etc. for safety. Design aspects should include proper
buildings and roads layout, storage &

20
process layouts, proper heights, lights, layout consideratio consideratio
depths, spacing and dimensions Main layout ns ns
considering ergonomic requirements, Segregation Hazards Corrosive
loads and climatic factors and specific Separation Fire fighting materials
process hazards. distances Escape
Other factors of plant layout from Fire Operation
safety point of view are: containment Construction
Services/ &
1. Safe design and construction using Utilities Maintenanc
safety standards and good Effluents e
engineering practice. Transport of
2. Containment of leakage and accidents. materials
3. Segregation of different risks. Emergencie
4. Safe storage, process, utilities and s
waste disposal design. Security
5. Safe control room location & design.
6. Emergency control devices. Lees has also explained the following
7. Fire fighting and gas leak control factors of Process Design in details :
facilities. Ample water storage.
8. Auto controls, alarms, trips, interlocks 1. Design responsibility.
and necessary safety devices. 2. Design stages - R&D and process
9. Railings and guarding at chances of design.
fall, cross over and on moving 3. Design experience (of reactors,
machinery. processes, operations, equipment,
10. Roads of sufficient width and signs. utilities etc.).
11. Safe loading, unloading, transport and 4. Design information (regarding
piping facilities. properties, reactions, hazards,
12. Security round the clock. consequences etc.).
13. Wind direction and speed indicator 5. Design standards and codes.
with recorder. 6. Design communication and
14. First aid centre and ambulance van. documentation.
15. Statutory requirements for plant 7. Hazard identification.
layout and design. 8. Reliability assessment.
9. Design modification.
The site layout is prepared first, then 10. Computer-aided design (CAD).
the plot and equipment layouts. Site is 11. Over design.
subdivided into blocks or plots. Equipment 12. Error propagation and
layout includes P & I diagrams and fire 13. Taro-technology and loss prevention.
equipment layout.
Layout techniques include use of He has also explained the following
travel chart and flow sheets, critical design principles :
examination, correlation and compatibility
techniques and proximity and sequencing 1. Inherently safe process.
techniques. 2. Limitation of inventory.
F P Lees has explained in details (see 3. Process operability.
reference No. 8) the following factors of 4. Fail-safe design.
site, plot and equipment layouts. 5. Second chance design.
6. System size.
Plant layout
7.5 Building Structures:
Site layout Plot layout Equipment IS:875, 1904 and 1905 for structural
layout safety and IS:8089 and IS:8091 for layout
safety are important.
Preliminary General General

21
For approval of drawings under the Rail, Road and Footpaths: Good
Factories Act and Rules see foregoing Part design for railways sidings is necessary.
2. Provisions for piping, valves, pumps,
Location of Buildings : Segregation derails etc. to unload or load tank
of raw material storage, process building, wagons, guarding of side track and public
finished product storage and storage of thorough fares and clearance from main
hazardous materials, flame or ignition plant are necessary.
sources is necessary. Statutory Roads should be carefully laid out,
specifications for storing flammable substantially constructed, well surfaced,
liquids shall be followed. Fire resistant drained and kept in good condition. Road
wall is required between flameproof and should be at least 11 m. away from
non flame proof area. A detailed flow buildings. Heavy duty truck hauling
sheet shall be used for layout. The cross requires road up to 16 m. wide for two-
flow of materials and/or pedestrians way traffic with ample radii at curves.
should be minimised. Gradient up to 8% and slight crown for
All buildings and parking plots should drainage with ditches to carry off water
be located near periphery to limit internal are necessary. Traffic signs, markings,
traffic. The entire packing area should be speed breakers should be provided. Good
fenced. White lines 10 to 15 cm wide, footpaths with shortest distance should
standard stalls of 5 m x 6 m, driveway of be provided to discourage short cutting.
8 m, for two-way traffic and unobstructed Concrete is preferred for footpaths.
viewing are desirable. Separate entrances Floors, Platforms and Catwalks:
for incoming and outgoing vehicles and The floor area should be sufficient to
night light of about 100 lux m 2 at a height allow men, machines and materials
of 1m should be provided. Buildings without any obstruction and
having more people should be away from overcrowding. As per Section 16 of the
hazardous areas. Production building Factories Act, 14.2 m 3 breathing space
should have roads and access for fire per worker limited to a height of 4.2 m is
fighting, maintenance vehicles, lifting necessary. The minimum floor area per
machines. The flow of materials should be worker in power and non-power factories
such that its length of travel and should be 3.3 sq. m. (36 sq. ft.) and 2.3
frequency of handling are minimised. sq. m. (25 sq. ft.) respectively. Minimum
Cooling towers should be so located to roof height should be as mentioned in
minimise mist and ice hazards. Part 2.1.2. The floor should be non-skid
Ventilating, heating and air- type of sound construction, easily
conditioning are needed for personal cleanable, free from moisture retention
comfort and sometimes for process and well maintained. Other factors of
conditions. Extra ventilation should be floor viz. load bearing, durability, noise,
provided where heat or bad fumes are drainage, resilience, appearance, light
generated. Boilers, fans and air- reflection, dustiness, chemical
conditioning equipment should be located composition and reaction, heat and
in separate rooms for their fine electrical conductivity and maintenance
adjustment and confinement of noise. should be considered for proper selection.
Boilers should receive adequate air and Marble, slate, asphalt, tile, linoleum,
combustion by-products should be cement and wood are reasonably safe,
exhausted safely. Location of incinerator provided their surfaces are properly
should ensure that negative pressure maintained. Welding floor should be of
differential in a building does not cause non-combustible material. Spark-proof
an incinerator stack to serve as an air and conductive flooring such as
source. magnesium and conductive rubber are
Space for storing supplies, tools, good where flammable air mixture is
frequently used equipment racks, bins, likely to be ignited by a friction or static
shelves etc. should be provided. Waste charge.
storage and additional required facilities Floor openings and floor holes, wall
should also be considered. opening and wall holes, open-side floors,

22
platforms and catwalks shall be guarded a door and window are 200 x 120 cm and
with railings and guards as mentioned in 150 x 90 cm respectively. A sill level of a
IS:4912. General height of railing is 100 window from working floor is 1 m. For
cm maximum and 75 cm minimum with every 9.35 sq. m. (100 sq. ft.) wall area
minimum distance between its members one window of standard size should be
(posts) as 20 cm and capable of provided. Normal distance between two
withstanding a point load of at least 90 windows (centre to centre) should not
kg. in any one direction. Floor covers exceed 2.4 m. (8). The window shutters
should withstand a truck load of 9 to 15 should also open outwards. Ventilators
tonnes. should be provided for a height above 3.5
The gangway should be at least 1 m m.
wide and firm to withstand movement of Stores: Mechanical handling should
a trolley, hand truck. Catwalk is a be preferred. All bunds or dykes should
passage way for persons elevated above have good drainage. Local stores and
the ground or any floor level such as foot stocks should not cause obstruction.
walk along shafting or a walkway Inventory and siting of hazardous
between buildings. Every catwalk should materials should be limited. Stocks, racks,
be at least 42 cm wide and guarded by a shelves, stacks, electrical machinery etc.
tow guard (a vertical barrier erected should be protected from rain or water.
along exposed edges of a floor opening, Loading-unloading should be so
platform, catwalk, ramp etc., to prevent located to minimise disturbance to traffic.
falls) of 15 cm nominal height. Ramps Storage of explosive, reactive, unstable,
slope should not be more than 150. flammable and toxic materials should be
Stairs, ladders and Scaffolds: so designed to maintain sufficient
Stairs are safer than ladders. Circular distances within the storage area and
stairways should be avoided. Stairway between other areas. Maximum limit per
slope should be 300 to 350 from the unit area should be decided so that if
horizontal. The maximum height of a larger quantities are to be stored, new
staircase should be 3.7 m (12) with riser store area well separated from the first
height between 13 cm to 20 cm and tread may be provided.
width 23 cm (9) or more. The width of Safe storage of flammable, explosive,
the staircase should be 1.12 m (44) or toxic and radioactive materials should be
more and load bearing strength of 500 ensured. Flameproof electric fitting,
kg./sq. m. (100 lb./sq. ft.). Two distant fuming (low BP) chemical in AC room,
staircases are needed at hazardous work. closed (pipe) transfer, safe pumping, local
Scaffold and its supporting members exhaust etc. are necessary.
should be designed to support a given See also foregoing Part 2 and Rule
load with a factor of safety at least 4 . No 66(1), GFR, for storage safety of material.
plank less than 5 x 25 cm should be used See Chapter-16 for working at heights
for scaffold planks. Their overlap distance & depths.
should be at least 30 cm. Tubular steel Engineering workshop: Clear
scaffolds designed, tested and built by gangways around dangerous machines,
experts are more preferable over built-on- separate welding bays with shielding,
the job wood scaffolds. Their advantages ventilation and fume extraction, outside
are: safety of worker, lower cost, lowered racks and chains for gas cylinders,
fire hazard and good appearance. permanent lifting gear at correct place
IS:2750, 3696 and 4014 are on for all foreseeable loads, machine to
scaffolding. machine or machine to wall distance of at
Exit, Doors and Windows: least 1 m., clothing, tool cupboards, and
Maximum distance between two exits first-aid box etc., need good planning.
should be 20 m in high hazard factories Others: Laboratories with fume
and 30 to 50 m in low hazard factory. cupboards and selected flooring, offices
They should be as per requirement. Exit with proper layout, safe shelves, height
doors should be clearly visible and and designed furniture and canteen,
operable outwards. The standard size for lunchroom, rest room, cloak room, crche,

23
ambulance room etc., should be as per safety switches should not fail. Grounding
statutory requirements. ETP and waste system should be capable of conducting
disposal plant should be provided from the necessary return current. Battery
beginning. room should be isolated and well
All gutters, reservoirs, waterways, ventilated. Automatic CO2 injection
ditches in or near the factory should be system helps to extinguish electrical fire.
fenced to prevent drowning. There should be sufficient sections to
Underground rooms should have allow maintenance without shutting down
sufficient lighting, ventilation and proper the whole system. Metal enclosures
height ( 3 m). Fumes generating process should be grounded. Cable circuits should
is not allowed therein. be enclosed in rigid conduit or interlocked
armour cable. Metal enclosed plug-in-bus-
7.6 Plant and Equipment ways are desirable for machine tools.
Three wire systems with one ground wire
Layout:
for all electric equipment are necessary.
Electric shock guards are also desired.
Layout of equipment: Various
Other Factors: For good
methods are used to determine the safest
housekeeping, lighting & colour,
and efficient layout of production
ventilation & heat control, electrical
machines & equipment. Three-
safety, noise & vibration, fire & explosion,
dimensional models made to scale can be
machine guarding, material handling and
rearranged on a scaled floor plan to
working at heights and depths see
determine such layout. Congested area
Chapter-8 to 16 respectively.
should be anticipated and avoided. A
vertical distance of at least 2.2 m is
generally specified between passage 7.7 Technical and
stairways and overhead structures to Engineering Control
provide ample clearance (head room). Measures:
Overhead cranes and conveyors require
at least 60 cm of vertical and horizontal 7.7.1 Some Design Factors:
clearance. Aisles for two-way traffic
should not be less than 1 m wider than Over and above design specifications
twice the width of the widest vehicle. For stated so far, following factors should be
heavy traffic, aisles from 4 to 6 m wide considered:
are specified. Aisles should have a 2 m Technical safety of all equipment viz.
radius for truck turn and should have no stresses in centrifuge basket and shell of
blind corners. Where ramps are needed, a pressure vessel etc., water full load
1 m wide walk-way should be provided. capacity of foundations and supports of
All hot parts should be lagged to vessels to be hydraulically tested.
avoid burns. Operations of ignition Ergonomics, noise level, separation of
sources (welding-cutting etc.) should be plant items, passages and gangways,
located away from use or store of access to work places, elimination of
flammable materials. Toxic operations traps, access to overhead work places,
should be kept away from a populated bridges for cross over, rescue of injured
area. persons, machine guarding, electrical
Electrical Equipment: Complete safety and chemical safety need due
metal enclosed unit substations should be attention at the design stage. Good
installed and grounded. Oil-filled overhead conveyor design, troughs with
transformers may give off flammable wet conveyors, monitoring of flammable
gases which should be safely discharged. and toxic vapours and dust control
Non-flammable transformers are methods must also be considered.
desirable near flammable area. Short IS:7155 for conveyor safety, IS:4607,
circuit protective devices should be large IS:1446 and many others for chemical
enough to carry the maximum short safety, IS:1860 for electric lifts, IS:2148
circuit current. Circuit breakers, fuses and for flameproof electrical apparatus,

24
IS:4691 for enclosures for rotating substances, furnaces with separate
electrical machinery and IS:2122 for stacks, drainage, cooling tower, sewers,
power transmission may be referred for protected control rooms, pump -
detailed design. These are few examples compressors with weatherproof shield,
only as there exist many such standards. building of non-combustible materials, fire
proof structure, fire protection pumps and
7.7.2 Fire Protection: equipment of sufficient capacities, remote
control valves for isolation, dumping and
There are some fire prevention Act, venting, furnace and boilers with flame
Rules and Indian Standards which should failure devices, selected metal parts, tank
be considered at the planning stage for safety etc., are some of the points.
better safety. IS:1642, 3844, 3594 and Unnecessary walls, partitions etc. should
1946 are for fire safety of buildings, be avoided or minimised in chemical
IS:2175 for heat sensitive fire detectors, plants. See Chapter-18 & 19 on Chemical
IS:2189 for automatic fire alarm system, Safety.
IS:5896 for selection, operation and
maintenance of fire fighting appliances 7.7.4 Emergency Shutdown:
and IS:2190 for portable fire extinguishers
must be considered. See Part 17.9 of Chapter-18 for start-
Following fire safety requirements are up and shutdown procedures.
recommended by National Electrical Code Emergency shutdown procedure
: should be laid down in advance. In a
single plant it may be simple due to no
For area up to 750 - Automatic fire knock-on effects elsewhere on site. But in
m2 alarm system. a complex plant like petrochemical or
For area above 750 - As above and refinery, many plant operations are
m2 automatic interlinked and shut down of one plant
sprinkler. may cause effect on another plant.
Therefore, depending on type of event,
phase or stepwise shut down be decided
Factors of building design for fire and the workers should be trained for
protection should consider general that.
requirements, walls and openings, roofs, Emergency shutdown procedures
floors, basements, electrical installations, include (1) feed stop (2) content dilution
control of smoke and hot gases, access (3) killing catalyst (4) mixing or addition
for fire appliances, escape from buildings, stop (5) heat removal (6) deluge with
stores and other buildings and provision water (7) purging with inert gas (8)
of hydrants, appliances, detectors, emergency bypass or safe transfer of
sprinklers, alarms etc. contents etc.
For further details see item 19 of Selection of a method depends on the
foregoing Part 2.1.2.2 and Part 4.1 of particular case and it may differ with
Chapter-13. For fire retarding clothing see situation or type of emergency.
Chapter-25.
For laws on fire and explosion safety 7.7.5 Safe Operating Conditions:
see Parts 2.9 to 2.16 of Chapter-28.
See Part-8 & 9 of Chapter-18 for
7.7.3 Chemical Plant: operating conditions in chemical industry
and Part-5 of Chapter-19 for operating
Oil, chemical, petroleum refinery and conditions and deviations in major hazard
petrochemical plants need highest care in works.
design and planning. Various types of Safe operating conditions of
hazards should be considered. Minimum machines, equipment, instrument, safety
clearance, separated pipe racks, devices etc. should be defined, monitored
minimum quantity of hazardous and maintained. Similarly safety limits of

25
process operating conditions i.e. pressure, method of construction and testing.
temperature, flow, feed, mixing rate, Standards may be mandatory or
reaction rate, speed, noise, vibration, voluntary. Test standards are set and used
radiation etc. should also be well defined for testing and certification of products.
and never be exceeded otherwise it can Indian Standards on safety are available
lead to hazard or accident. on thousands of items.
Standard or safe operating procedure Codes of practice are generally
should be designed for each hazardous followed where no statutory provisions
activity. are available or where missing details are
required. On hundreds of items of
7.8 Standards and Codes of manufacturing there may not be any
Practice for Plant and legal standard. In that case code of
practice should be followed.
Equipment: In designing foundation work for any
building, in designing and construction of
See foregoing Part-3 and Table 7.1 for steel structure, vessels, piping, supports,
Indian Standards for plant construction. equipment etc., safety standards and
See also Part 9.4.2 of Chapter-18. codes should be followed. BIS (Bureau of
While referring to standards and Indian Standards) Handbook - 1996, gives
codes, it is useful to understand following 14357 standards of which some examples
definitions: are given in Part-3, Table 7.1. Many
Safety Code for .... are given in
1. A criterion is any rule or set of rules alphabetic index of this handbook. Some
that might be used for control, examples are given below in Table 7.3.
guidance or judgement.
2. A standard is a set of criteria, Table 7.3: Code of Practice & Safety
requirements of principles. Codes (IS)
3. A code is collection of laws, standards Code of Practice for ... IS
or criteria relating to a particular
Architectural and building 962
subject, such as the National Building drawings
Code, National Electric Code, National Day lighting of buildings 2440
Fire Code etc. Demolition of buildings 4130
4. A regulation is a set of orders issued Design & construction of floors 14215
to control the conduct of persons or & roofs
manufacture within the jurisdiction of Design & construction of steel 6533
the regulatory authority e.g. Indian chimney
Boiler Regulation (IBR). External hydrant system 13039
5. A specification is a detailed Fire safety in hotels 13716
description of requirements, usually Fire safety in iron & steel 13694
technical. industry
6. A practice is a series of Galleries and opening in dams 12966
recommended methods, rules or Laying mastic flooring in LPG 13074
designs, generally on a single subject. industries
Design handbooks, guides or manuals Manufacture of safety boots & 13295
contain non-mandatory practices, shoes
general concepts and examples to Measurement of civil 3385
assist a designer or operator. engineering works
Structural safety 13063
Standards are based on
Super capacity bucket elevator 12941
necessary tests and requirements. They
give assurance about soundness, quality,
Safety Code for ... IS
durability, reliability, safety etc. Design
Body Protection 8519
standards give sound criteria for safe
Chemical Laboratory 4209
design. Quality standards indicate proper
Colours and signs 9457
material or product. Codes and Standards
Concrete framed structures 8989
for pressure vessel design provide correct Conveyors 7155

26
Electro heat installation 519 Act prescribes 45 cm) of any fixed
Footwear for steel plants 10348 structure which is not part of the
Industrial radiography 2598 machine.
Working with construction 7293 5. Suitable platforms, safe means of
machinery access and lifting appliance
Handling and storage of building 7969 suspension points should be provided
materials to facilitate cleaning and maintenance
Hot bituminous construction 5916 work.
Layout of industrial plant 8089, 6. Height and position of seats, valves,
8091
gauges, indicators, displays, meters,
Plant railways 8218
knobs, controls, handles, switches,
Powered industrial trucks 6305
Conditions for woodworking 8964
push buttons, notices etc. suitable to
machines the operators. Safe manual lifting
Data processing equipment 10422 methods.
Devices for gas cylinder 5903
Equipment, eye, face, ear 8520, Types of ergonomic design are as under:
8940
Foot & Leg 10667 Type includes
Glove, industrial 6994 1 Work- - Seat, bench or console
Masonry walls 1905 space design, positions of
Nets, industrial 11057 design controls, displays &
Structural loading 875 materials, operator body,
Hand tools 8235 data and their working
Scaffolding, steel 4014 models including
Relief valves 3233 computer graphics.
Shallow foundations 1904 2 Environ- - Light, ventilation, heat,
mental noise, vibration etc.
International Standards Organisation design comfortable to the
(ISO) adopted as Indian Standards are operator.
also given. For example ISO 9000 = IS 3 Work - Working hours, intervals,
14000 is on guidelines for selection and situatio shift schedule and inter-
use of standards on quality systems. n personal aspects of work.
design
4 Interfac - Exchange of information
8 ERGONOMIC e design between man and
CONSIDERATIONS: machine or environment
e.g. display gives and
See Part 4 of Chapter-14, Part 10.8 of control receives
Chapter-22 and Part 10 of Chapter-24 for information. Proper design
ergonomic considerations. of such displays (pointers,
Important ergonomic factors to be letters, numbers, figure
considered in layout and design include : etc.) and controls (knobs,
brakes, switches, size,
shape, position, forces
1. Free space (80 to 100 cm) around each
etc.) most convenient to
machine for easy and safe movement.
the men.
2. No overcrowding. Breathing space of
5 System - Allocation of function/job
14.2 m3 per worker (max height 4.2
design between man and
m). machine and procedure.
3. Ventilation opening - 15% of the floor New techniques to
area minimum. Window bottom height understand limitations of
1 meter or less from the working floor each other and to fill the
for natural ventilation. gap by the best design.
4. A traversing part or materials carried
by machinery should not approach All these areas overlap and are
within 50 cm (Sec. 25 of the Factories interrelated. The main object of such

27
ergonomic design is to get long term gain 9 IMPROVING SAFETY AND
with no adverse effects on health and
safety and to minimise human errors,
PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH
efforts, stress & strain and ultimately DESIGN:
risks and accidents.
See Part-4.5 of Chapter-4 for initial
Workplace design calls for following discussion of safety and productivity.
ergonomic factors: Normal procedure to measure productivity
is to consider ratio of value of output to
1. Standing position offers more mobility, value of input (man-hours worked) and
more arm strength application, less the productivity is said to be increased
front-to-rear room, no seat and when output increases with the same
greater latitude in workstation design. inputs. Though the capital input and
2. Siting position offers forceful pedal managerial skill have some implications
operation, less fatigue, precise vision. on productivity, normally the labour
3. Work object or job position should be productivity is considered because it is
close to the front edge of the work easily measurable.
surface to avoid more bending or Productivity increases the standard of
leaning. living which normally people wants. It
4. Sufficient room for hands and feet also increases the wage standard which
movement with footrest and backrest all workers want. Higher productivity
to work while siting. increases the competitive strength of an
5. Visual displays should be in front of the establishment. Therefore a will for raising
body and below eye level so that the productivity is obvious.
line of sight is declined 10 to 40 Productivity can be increased by
degree below the horizontal level. physical capital (buildings, machinery,
6. Avoid holding time of work piece or equipment & tools), technological
hand tool to minimise muscle tension. innovation, better management and
7. Use lever mechanism to apply less better contribution by labour force. It is
force. Take advantage of mechanical hampered by rising costs of production,
design, appliance, equipment, poor economic growth rates, losses,
instrument etc. inflation, poor co-operation from workers
8. Foot controls for seated operator, soft and overprotection of trade and trade
floor (e.g. rubber mat) for standing unions.
operator, adjustable chairs to Safety is also believed a factor
maintain proper siting height, hampering productivity because most
permitting posture change to avoid management think it non-productive,
fatigue, allowing siting/standing delay-causing and obstruction to faster
alteration and enough space for production rate. However, they should
working are all to be considered in realise that occupational accidents and
ergonomic design. diseases lower productivity through
9. Computer operators have posture and damage to men, materials and
vision complaints, e.g. environment, interruption to production
musculoskeletal pain & discomfort, because of idle machine or non-
eye strain and fatigue. Studying the availability of a trained worker and rise in
position, furniture, equipment, lighting medical costs and compensation. See
etc. should be redesigned. Upright Part 4 of Chapter-5 for direct and indirect
trunk and neck position, forward- costs of accidents. Conversely,
declining set surface, properly shaped improvements in safety and health raise
backrest, and properly placed controls morale and productivity as workers can
and displays are necessary. fearlessly concentrate on their jobs.
Production with the loss of life, limb or
health is not justified as it goes against a
balanced socio-economic development
and against the well-being of the common

28
man who should be the main beneficiary 8. Safety education, training and
of development. Therefore his safety and supervision of safe work practices
health in the process of contributing to should be utilised to design a safety
that development should be properly programme for human resource
safeguarded. The final objective of development. This should include safe
development is a higher quality of life for working methods, proper use of
all (that include human resource) and personal protective equipment, safety
unsafe conditions detract from a higher manual etc.
quality of life. 9. Establishing or using research and
Therefore these unsafe conditions development department, laboratory
must be our target and through good or pilot plant to assess design basis
design, the unsafe conditions and health to find how the plant or process
hazards can be eliminated or minimised should be designed without specifying
from the beginning. This will certainly equipment details. At this stage, help
improve safety and productivity. Some of an industrial hygienist regarding
examples of such design are as under: health hazard control criteria is quite
useful. His suggestions on available
1. Good design safety factor provides options in hazard control technology,
stability to structures and avoids emerging advances and future
accidents due to structural failure, regulatory requirements should be
falls or struck by falling bodies. considered in the design, re-design or
2. Properly designed equipment, retrofit stages and ongoing operations
instruments, vessels, scrubbers, of industrial activity.
exhausts, flare, piping and fittings 10. Existing safety laws and Indian
work with more reliability and for a Standards on safe design, operation
longer life result in cost savings. and maintenance must be followed.
3. Adequately designed safety valves, Ergonomic factors must be considered
rupture discs, emergency vents, trips, in design.
alarms, interlocks, remote control
valves, gas/smoke/flame detectors, This will improve safety (by risk
auto-sprinklers and similar control reduction) and productivity.
devices minimise many chances of
accidents. 10 MAINTENANCE FOR
4. Well designed lighting, ventilation and
heat control systems go a long way in
SAFETY AND HEALTH
accident prevention.
5. Good design of floors, platforms, exits, Maintenance clearance space,
ramps, stairways, covering or fencing trained personnel and crews should be
of pits, gutters, floor-openings, considered from planning and design
platform and non-fragile metal roof at stages. Sufficient space for movement for
height etc. avoid fall accidents. repairs and maintenance, to pull tubes
6. Well designed guards and safety etc., should be provided. Maintenance
devices for dangerous machines, should include proper long term care of
rotating or moving parts and building and equipment, care to maintain
transmission machinery reduce service and appearance and all types of
accidents. repair works. Roofs, floors, walls,
7. Design of a chemical plant needs structural members, aisles, foundations,
special attention. Safe layout and platforms and loading docks, sidewalks
design of tank farm, godown and and drives, lifting systems, lighting
warehouses, process vessels and systems, electrical systems, canopies,
equipment, control room, pumps and stacks, tanks and towers, underground
machinery, ETP, internal roads, utilities, means of egress and ingress,
parking plots etc. help a lot in piping, machinery, lubrication, tools,
reducing hazards. personal protective equipment etc. need
good maintenance. Staff for maintenance

29
must be properly trained and repair shop machines, area of chemical exposure,
with tools and equipment must be safety guards, safety devices and
provided. equipment, PPE & FFE, tools and kits,
Maintenance is of many types: pipelines, valves etc., platforms &
Replacement and scrapping, selling of ladders, lighting & ventilation, vessels
worn items, breakdown maintenance, and instruments etc. Checking, repairing
preventive maintenance, corrective or replacing any part or item before it
maintenance, building and equipment breaks, reduces the failure rate and
maintenance, underground maintenance extends durability. Area monitoring helps
etc. Therefore proper layout, scheduling to remove health hazards and to maintain
and distribution of work is required for safety. Condition monitoring helps to
efficient and timely maintenance. reduce noise, vibration, heat, friction,
See Part 17.8 of Chapter-18 for spark, corrosion, wear & tear etc.
further details. Corrective maintenance includes
Preventive maintenance at scheduled repairs and replacement after breakdown
intervals is most desirable for health and and it becomes the urgent need to restart
safety. This includes regular the plant. Preventive maintenance is
housekeeping, cleaning, washing, preferred over corrective maintenance.
painting etc., testing pressure vessels,
hoists, lifts & lifting machines, dangerous

Exercise

1. Explain, State, Mention or 11. Difference between standard,


Discuss: code, regulation, specification
1. Important points to be and practice.
considered at drawing stage of a 12. Advantages of good plant layout
factory building. and machinery with reference to
2. Various dimensions regarding safety.
roof height, sanitary blocks, 2. Write short notes on.
ventilation, ambulance room, 1. Indian heritage of building and
canteen etc. under the Gujarat construction.
factories Rules, 1963. 2. Old Bhartiya schools or branches
3. Dangerous operations vis--vis of Engineering.
design of a factory building. 3. Statutory provisions for lighting,
4. General guidelines (criteria) for ventilation, temperature and
siting of an industrial plant. exhaust for a factory building.
5. What are separation distances? 4. National Building Code.
Give the examples. 5. Siting criteria for deciding
6. Factors to be considered for location of a factory.
good planning and design of a 6. Departmental (Government)
factory. guidelines for siting an industry.
7. General considerations for lay 7. Points to be considered by
out and planning of a safety and layout engineer.
workplace/work station. 8. Travel chart.
8. Safety factors for plant layout. 9. Items of good planning OR
OR Factors for process design. General principles for workplace
9. Design aspects of floors, design.
platforms and catwalks OR 10. Location of buildings in a factory.
those of rail, road and footpaths. 11. Improving safety and
10. Economic factors for layout and productivity through workplace
design of a factory building. design.
12. Maintenance for safety and
health.

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13. Benefits of standardization. useful to decide location of a
14. Preventive maintenance in hazardous factory.
safety. 3. Planning of a factory is
15. Safety by construction. dependent on size of land only,
no other factors are important.
4. Comment on following whether 4. Safety and productivity cannot be
it is true or not and why? improved by good design of a
1. Ancient Bharat was much plant.
advanced in architecture.
2. Environmental guidelines (e.g.
rule 5 of E(P) Rules) are not

Reference and Recommended Readings:


1. References mentioned in Part-1 of this 5. Industrial Hazard and Safety
Chapter for Indian heritage. Handbook, King and Magid,
2. The Factories Act 1948 and the Gujarat Butterworths.
Factories Rules 1963. 6. Process Equipment Design, M.V. Joshi,
3. Various Indian Standards mentioned in Macmillan India Ltd., Delhi.
Part-3 and elsewhere in this Chapter. 7. Major Hazard Control, A practical
4. Accident Prevention Manual for manual, ILO, Geneva.
Industrial Operations, National Safety 8. Loss Prevention in the Process
Council, Chicago. Industries, Frank P Lees, Butterworths.

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