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Test Module B Answers

AE1110X
Ir. Nando Timmer
Salomon Voorhoeve
Delft University of Technology

Aero Icarus - CC BY - NC - SA 3.0


AE1110x - Introduction to Aeronautical Engineering

Question 1
A) The temperature in the channel decreases. Using the energy equation: if the speed goes up,
the temperature must drop. Note that even for flows with friction the effect of the area increase
is big enough to counter the effect of friction.

Question 2
C) 5%, as has been treated in the lectures.

Question 3
C) Both 3 and 4 are true; see lecture 4 on flow separation.

Question 4
D) The pressure decreases and the temperature decreases. This can be seen from the graphs in
lecture 2, or calculated using the second form of the isentropic relations.

Question 5
D) Is difficult to establish without additional information. Due to the Mach number the lift curve
slope goes up. Due to the wing the lift curve slope goes down. As long as you do not have any
information of the aspect ratio of the wing and the span effectiveness factor you do not know how
much it goes down. (it may even very well remain constant).

Test Module B - Answers 1


AE1110x - Introduction to Aeronautical Engineering

Cessna Grand Caravan


A) The Mach number can be calculated by calculating the speed in m/s and the speed of sound,
and dividing the two. The speed of sound is given by :
p
a = RT = 1.4 287 268.67 = 328.56 m/s

The speed of the aircraft is:


245
V = = 68.1 m/s
3.6
Then:
V 68.1
M= = = 0.207
a 328.56
So M < 0.3 and the flow is incompressible.
B) For this question, we can use Bernoullis equation:
1 2 1
p + V = pB + VB2
2 2
Rearranging for pB gives:
1 2
VB2

pB = p + V
2
1
= 70121 + 0.90926 68.12 852

2
= 68942 Pa

C) The pressure coefficient is defined as:


p p0
Cp = 1 2
2 V0

Substituting values:
68000 70121
Cp = 1
2 0.90926 68.12
= -1.007

D) The critical Mach number can be found by taking the intersection of the airfoils-specific curve
(the Prandtl-Glauert correction) and the airfoil-independent curve (for the critical pressure coeffi-
cient, given the free-stream Mach number). We can solve this for the free-stream Mach number
using, for instance, a graphical calculator:
!
2
  1
2 2 + ( 1) M Cp,0
Cp,cr it = 2
1 = p
M +1 1 M2

For Cp,0 = 2, we find a critical Mach number of 0.4863.

2 Test Module B - Answers


AE1110x - Introduction to Aeronautical Engineering

Boeing 727

A) For the Mach number we first need the speed of sound, a = RT = 1.4 287 255.7 = 320.5
m/s. We also need to convert the speed of the aircraft: V = 810
3.6 = 225 m/s.
V 225
Then the Mach number is M = a = 320.5 =0.702.
Cl 0.60
B) The lift gradient of the profile is simply a0 = = 4(2) =0.10 /degree.
C) The airfoil is mounted on a aircraft, and then we start flying at a higher Mach number. It
is important to note this order: if you apply the corrections the other way around, you will get
incorrect results.
First, let us calculate the aspect ratio:

b2 34.52
A= = = 7.988
S 149
Then, we apply a correction for a finite wing:
a0
aw ing = 57.3a0
1+ Ae
0.11
= 0.11
1 + 57.3
7.988 0.82
= 0.0842

Then, we apply the Prandtl-Glauert correction for the Mach number:


aw ing
aw ing,M=0.6 =
1 M2
0.0842
=
1 0.62
= 0.10526

D) For the lift-to-drag ratio, we need the lift and the drag, or alternatively, the lift coefficient and
the drag coefficient. The lift coefficient at 3 degrees can be found, using the zero-lift angle of -2
degrees:
CL = a ( 0 ) = 0.1179 (3 (2)) = 0.5895
The drag coefficient is the sum of the profile drag and the induced drag:

CL2
CD = Cd +
Ae
0.58952
= 0.0062 +
7.988 0.82
= 0.023088

The lift-drag ratio is then:


L CL 0.5895
= =
D CD 0.023088
= 25.53

Test Module B - Answers 3


AE1110x - Introduction to Aeronautical Engineering

E) In the stagnation point, the velocity is zero. Since the flow is compressible we can use the
energy equation:
1 1
Cp T0 + V02 = Cp T1 + V12
2 2
If we take the free-stream conditions for the point 1, we get:

Cp T1 + 12 V12 V02

T0 =
Cp
1008 255.7 + 12 2252 02

=
1008
= 280.8 K

F) An equation to relate temperatures and densities for compressible flows is one of the isentropic
relations:
  1
2 T2 1
=
1 T1
  1
T2 1
2 = 1
T1
  1
250 1.41
= 0.736
255.7
= 0.6957

4 Test Module B - Answers