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Annotated Bibliography

Research Project: I Have It, I Shall Achieve It

November 30, 2015
Mabel Tang

Bogolin, L., Harris, L., & Norris, L. (2003, May). Improving student writing through
the use of goal setting. Retrieved from ERIC:

This document is a research showing how students lack the ability to set
appropriate goals for their own learning. Students who are unable to set
academic goals for themselves are not involved in keeping track of their
progress in writing ability. This research study proved that by setting their
own goals in writing, students were more motivated and take ownership in
their learning. Through progress tracking, students were more goal oriented
and were able to develop further goals through their ability to see success in
their writing process. Students in this study were from fifth grade middle
class communities in the Midwest and the results showed an increase in
student writing ability. The researchers opinion, based on results, are to
continually use goal setting strategies to help increase success in students
writing. This study supports the idea of having students set writing goals in
order to promote success in writing ability. It suggests for students to monitor
and track their progress in order to develop appropriate goals. The authors of
this document are from Saint Xavier University and Skylight Professional

Cabell, S., Tortorelli, L., & Gerde, H. (2013). How do I write...? Scaffolding
preschoolers' early writing skills. The Reading Teacher, 66(8), p.650-659.

This journal article provides a framework on early writing skills and provides
suggestions on how to appropriately support these young developing writers.
The authors explain the importance of understanding and determining where
each childs level of development is at by observing their writing. Then by
further examination of the childs knowledge of print, we determine the
appropriate goals and begin scaffolding their learning. Many children move
back and forth between levels of difficulty, particularly across writing tasks
(Cabell, Tortorelli, & Gerde, 2013). It is not necessary for their goals to be in
developmental order, and instead should be moved back and forth or
according to how they progress as theyre writing. According to Cabell,
Tortorelli, and Gerde (2013), individualizing writing instruction can provide
meaningful and approachable writing experiences for the children and set the
foundation for literacy success. This article supports the concept of
differentiating students writing instruction and providing appropriate goals to
help develop their writing skills. Sonia Cabell is a research scientist from the
University of Virginia, Laura Tortorelli is a graduate student from the
University of Virginia, and Hope Gerde is a professor from Michigan State

University. This article is published in The Reading Teacher focusing on early
literacy development and writing.

Cunningham, J., Krull, C., Land, N., & Russell, S. (2000, May). Motivating students to
be self-reflective learners through goal-setting and self-evaluation. Retrieved
from ERIC:

This document is an action research project implemented and evaluated to

improve students lack of effort and use of ineffective learning strategies.
Participants are from one kindergarten class, second grade class, fourth
grade class, and fifth grade class. Surveys indicated the need to reduce six
target behaviors and thus goal setting and self-evaluation techniques were
implemented to improve self-efficacy in students over a 12 week period.
Student surveys and teacher observation checklists were used to measure
improvement. The kindergarten and second grade classroom yield positive
results and substantial improvement while the upper grades showed only
some improvement. This research study provides support indicating the
positive impacts of goal setting with students in the primary grades and how
students can be motivated to become self-reflective learners. This study was
retrieved from the ERIC database written and published by authors from Saint
Xavier University and Skylight Professional Development.

Nielsen, K. (2014). Self-assessment methods in writing instruction. Journal of

Research in Reading, 37(1), p.1-16.

This journal article focuses on student writing achievement and how self-
assessment methods in writing instruction provide meaningful ways to
promote said achievement. It discusses the theoretical framework for self-
assessment, provides an overview of concepts and practices, and a list of
literature supported strategies. One of the strategies listed states teach
students the criteria for rating their own work and the evaluation of specific
aspects of writing (Nielsen, 2014). Students to need a clear understanding of
expectations and tools to help them self-evaluate their writing. Nielsen
(2014) also states self-assessment should be used for formative rather than
summative evaluation. Students are more critical and honest when the
purpose is for themselves rather than for a grade. This article supports the
idea of using self-assessment to improve writing instruction and to promote
achievement in student writing. The author, Kristen Nielsen, has conducted
research at Boston University and instructed courses in education and writing
in higher education and secondary education.

Perchemlides, N. & Coutant, C. (2004). Growing beyond grades. Educational

Leadership, 62(2), p.53-56.

In this journal article, Perchemlides and Coutant describes four practices that
teachers should use in order to teach students how to independently

evaluate their own writing: create a grade-free zone, let students set writing
goals, provide a common language, and provide models. We have found
goal setting the most effective practice to help students assess their writing
growth (Perchemlides & Coutant, 2004). The authors express how this
approach enhances students metacognition and holds them accountable for
their own work. Perchemlides and Coutant explains that students are the
ones most aware of their strengths and weaknesses and by setting goals for
themselves they are able to thoughtfully and honestly evaluate their own
learning. This article supports the idea of having students set writing goals in
order to enhance their learning and become better writers. It encourages
teachers to provide opportunities for students to self-assess and take
ownership of their learning. The authors, Natalia Perchemlides and Caryolyn
Coutant, are a lead instructor and specialist at the literacy academy in
Connecticut. This journal article is published under Educational Leadership as
a professional development article.

Spence, L. & Oglan, V. (2015). Exploration, inquiry, and inspiration for writing.
Language Arts, 92(5), p.366-369.

In this journal article, authors Spence and Oglan review three books as
resources for encouraging teachers to bring creativity into the classroom
through writing: Playful Writing by Rebecca Olien and Laura Woodside,
Science Notebooks: Writing about Inquiry by Lori Fulton and Brian Campbell,
Chart Sense by Rozlyn Linder. While reviewing Chart Sense, Spence and
Oglan explain how teachers have made use of anchor charts as an
instructional and learning strategy in their classrooms for many years
(Spence & Oglan, 2015). Charts provide students help in learning important
concepts and information by using images or visual representations. They are
created and used collaboratively so that students can have a sense of
ownership which can further interest and engage students. This article
provides support on how anchor charts or charts in general can engage
students learning and help students organize and make sense of information.
Students need a visual representation in order to help organize their thoughts
and ideas. The authors, Lucy Spence and Victoria Oglan, are professors at the
University of South Carolina and this journal article is published by NCTE
(National Council of Teachers of English).