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THE EFFECT OF GIBBERELLINS ON PLANT

GROWTH

Proponents

Deleon, Selina Angela

Dimaranan, Hanna Alyssa Grace

Endaya, Henze

Enriquez, Vergel Jigs

1B8

April 28, 2015


I. Introduction

In plants, certain hormones stimulates elongation and development by initiating cell

division. There are five major classes of plant hormones namely: Auxins, Cytokinins,

Gibberellins, Abscissic Acid and Ethylene.

In this study, the researchers will use the Gibberellic acid to test its effect on plant

growth. The plant that will be used for this experiment is the Phaseolus vulgaris.

This study aims to answer these questions:

1. Does GA stimulate/ inhibit plant growth?


2. In what way can other potential hormones affect plant physiology other than stimulate /

inhibit growth?
3. Is it possible for plant species to inhibit the growth of other plants through the release of

chemicals or hormones?
II. Review of Related Literature

Gibberellic acid (actually a group of related substances called gibberellins) was

discovered as a metabolic byproduct of the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi, which causes the stems

of growing rice to elongate so rapidly the plant collapsed. Synthetic forms of gibberellic acid are

available commercially.

Gibberellic acid (GA) is a very potent hormone whose natural occurrence in plants

controls their development. Since GA regulates growth, applications of very low concentrations

can have a profound effect. Timing is critical: too much GA may have an opposite effect from

that desired; too little may require the plant to be repeatedly treated to sustain desired levels of

GA (Retrieved from http://www.crfg.org/tidbits/gibberellic.html).


In the study of Bostrack and Struckmeyer (1967), the application of gibberellic

acid (GA) to plants, results in a variety of responses. The elongation of internodes has been

reported to be a result of cell division (Sachs, Bretz and Lang, 1959; Greulach and Haesloop,

1958), cell elongation (Kato, 1955; Brian, 1958) or both (Dure and Jensen, 1957; Cooper, 1958;

Bradley and Crane, 1957). Treated plants exhibited a change in leaf shape or size (Brian and

Grove, 1957; Soost, 1959; Gray, 1957) and a retardation of root growth (Kato, 1958). Plants of

Coleus bluniei (Coleus), Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon) and Sahia splendens (Salvia) exhibited

three common responses to foliar applications of 50 mg/1 aqueous solution of gibberellic acid

(GA); elongation of the internodes, hyponasty and chlorosis. Elongation of sub apical internodes

was a result primarily of cell division in both Antirrhinum majus and Sahia splendens.

Gibberellic acid at 500 mg/1 caused less elongation of the sub-apical region than at 50 mg/1 and

100 mg/1 in S. splendens. Treated plants had a smaller stem diameter and more xylem

parenchyma. Coleus bluniei cuttings showed reduced rooting when treated with 50 nig/l GA.

Moreover, these findings were further emphasized by Leite et al., (2003) which states

foliar application of GA3 o Soybeans led to an increase in plant height, first node height and

stem diameter. Leaf area and dry matter production also increased as a result of GA3 foliar

application. There was no effect of exogenous gibberellin and cytokinin on the number of

soybean leaves, number of stem branches and root dry matter. Joint application of gibberellin and

cytokinin tended to inhibit gibberellin effects.

Additional findings were also done Barani et al., (2009). They concluded that the

application of gibberellic acid increases the productivity of tubers of potato (Solanum

tuberosum L.). The tubers treated with GA3 sprouted earlier while non application of GA3

sprouted very late and slow. Further, it can also be concluded that one week after application of
GA3, the starch fraction started to hydrolyse and increased total sugar content causing the tubers

to sprout by breaking dormancy.

III. Materials and Method

This study is about the effect of GA on the growth of Phaseolus vulgaris.

In preparation of the chemical, dissolve the gibberellic acid in 70% ethyl alcohol. Stir

until completely dissolved then mix with 1 liter of distilled water. Refrigerate the mixture before

using.

On the other hand, in preparation of the set ups, soak all Phaseolus vulgaris overnight in

water which will hasten the germination. Prepare two pots filled with a mixture of sand and soil.

Pick 16 viable mongo seeds and scatter 8 seeds along the surface of the soil in each of the pots.

There will be two set ups in this study. The first is labeled with A which will serve as the

control variable. And the second id labeled with B which will serve as the experimental variable.

Place pots in a black bag and seal with twist tie. Store them in a warm dark place for four

days. After 4 days, open the black bags and place pots in a warm sunny place. Measure the

seedlings and pick 5 seedlings per pot. Every day, for the whole 1 week, moisten the soil with

water.

The researchers will apply water on set up A. On the other hand, the researchers will

apply the Gibberellic acid on the experimental variable. Measure the length of each seedling

every day for 7 days.


IV. Results and Discussion

POT PLANT Stem Length

NO. TREATMENT BO. Day1 Day2 Day3 Day4 Day5 Day6 Day7 AVE.

Apr21 Apr2 Apr23 Apr2 Apr25 Apr26 Apr2

2 4 7
1 10.7 11.1 11.3
2 10.7 10.9 11.1

1 Water
(CONTROL)
3
4
5
Ave
12.6
13.5
12.1
11.92
12.6
13.3
13.0
12.18
13.2
14.1
13.8
12.7

1 15.7 15.7 18.5


2 18 19 22
3 14.4 16 18

2 GA
4 13.5 12 15.5
5 12.6 13.1 15
Ave 14.84 15.16 17.8

Table 4.1 shows the daily measurement (cm) of the length of the Phaseolus vulgaris

\\

V. Conclusion and Recommendation


The researchers conclude that based from the findings, there is validity that Giberellic

acid promotes plant growth to a certain extent. Evaluation of data shows that there is a 3-5 cm

increase in stem length on plants administered with GA compared with plants administered with

water only. Moreover, researches done by other scientists prove the hormones effect. In

addition, it is notable that many of the plant hormones affect mainly growth, elongation and
enlargement of the plant itself. The researchers recommend further studies on this particular

hormone as well as other types so as to gain new data on their possible effect and functions.