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Gold Water

Supply in

. ls a combination of two chemical elements -
. lt appears in natural state as liquid, solid (ice) or gas
(water vapor or steam)
. ln its liquid form, water is 839 times heavier than air but
in its vapor form it is 133 times lighter than air.
. Water weighs 3.77 kg per US gallons or 1,000 kg per
cubic meter,
Sources of Water
. Rain water
Natura! surface water from streams and rivers
Underground water

Impurities in Water
. Enfained Gases
. Dissolved Minerals
. Suspended and colloidal materials
. Radioactive materials

Impurities in Water
Entrained gases - are carbon dioxide,
hydrogen sulfide,
methane, oxygen and nitrogenous and organic compounds

Dissolved minerals are calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron,

and rnanganese and other carbonates and silicates, alkyl
benzene, sulfate from detergents and synthetic organic from
insecticide and pesticides.

Suspended and colloidalmaterials such as bacteria, algae,

fungi, silt, protozoa and other colloidal matters making the
water colored and acidic.

Radioactive materials by entrainment of radioactive

zufetances from mining or processing ores, by wastes from
rrfl-$*d use of radioactive materials.
. Lead - is a mineral present in water through
artificial means.
. Lead pipe should not be used for distribution of
soft acid water, or for water having a high
concentration of dissolved oxygen or chlorides,
. Lead Poisoning - by-product of the reaction of
lead with soft acid or high Do or chlorides

Public Water Supply

Wells that are supplying water for public use should be located ata minimum
distance of 100 meters radius from residential areas.

All residents within this zone limit shall be strictly required to have sanitary sewage

There should be no concrete sanitary sewers existing within 15 meters radius of the

No outdoor privy, cesspool, septic tank, or drain field, shall be located within 45
meters radius from the well.

The area shall be well drained to divert surface water from the well, and to minimize
the possibility of flooding.

All abandoned wells near the site chosen for a new well, should be plugged and
properly sealed, to prevent possible contamination of the ground water formation.
ls nothing more than a very shallow well with water, taken kom a water stratum
composed of cervical limestone, sand or gravel, lying a few meters below the earth.

Conhary lo common belief, spring water is not always free from contamination.

Spring water for drinking and household purposes should be protected from:
- surfacebr run-off water
- dust
- insect
- wildlife
- stock

Different Types of lndividual Well Spring

- dug'vell
- bored well
- driven wells
- drilled wells

Bottled Water

. The source of water shall meet the prescribed Philippine National Drinking Standards

. Frequent bacteriological tests of water delivered, shall be conducted, and lhe results
must strictly comply with the health standards requirements at all times,

. A complete chemical analysis for each type of water sold, shall be made at least twice a

. The BFAD shall prescribe rules on:

a, Warhlng and dlolnfoctlng of the contelner
b. methods of handling and delivery of the water t
c. Sanitizing the building and other facilities
d. naintaining the cleanliness of the employees
e, Labelling the container as to the lype of waler either distlllod,
demineralized, spring water,
Manufacture of lce
. Waler used for the manufacture of ice must comply with the standards of the DOH fr
drinking water

. Conducl bacteriological tests of ice to determine defects in keezing and handling

. lce containing foreign matter should not be sold for human @nsumption.

. The ice plant must be free from entry of any foreign matter

r That only authorized attendants shall be allored lo enter and walk on the tank floors using
shoes eiclusively for that area only.

. lce storage should be kept clean, and no ice shall come in contact with meat, fish or any
food items.

. lce must be kept crvered during delivery. Delivery lrucks must be cleaned and kee from any
kind of contamination.

. Crushing or grinding of commercial ice for human mnsumption, should be done in a sanitary
manner and methods.

Cold Water Distribution to Buildings

The syitem must provkle adequate supply ofwatet wih adequate pressure up lo the exlremities of the

The salety and quallty ol water should not be lmpalred by delect ln the syslsm. ll should be provkJed
with suflicient valves and blow ofls, to allow repakworts wi0toul undue inienuptions of service to some
areas, to allow lhe flushing of the system.

Thcru rhould bc no u'rprotcc'tcd opcn rclcruolr, or crco connacllon wlh lnlcrlor water ryrlom h 6nl0l
he disfibu0on systenr. t

. The weler ryrtem should be tght agalnrl leakage. Ths main and bnandres connecton should not be
subne, ged ln sur{ace water, or rublec{od to any rcurce of contamlnallon.

The water system design, shall afford efiec{ive circulaton of waterwith minimum number ol dead end.

The system shall be guarded against contaminafon in any part of it resulting from repairworks,
replacement or extension of the mains.

When new mains are installed, or old mains repaired, ttey should be filled with strong chlorine solution of
40 to 00 rg per liter for at least 24 hours, and hen flushed wih water supplied normally from the main.

As mudr as possible, water main should be laid above he elevallon of mncrete sanitary seweni, or
crossover poinb, and at least 3 meters horizontally from such saniafy sewer when they are parallel.
Shoul J this be impossible for some reasons, he sewer main must be encased in concrete.
Classification of Public Water Distribution

Direct Pressure Diskibution

This type of water distribution, obtain its suooly of water throuoh a laroe intake
pipe, iristalled in the lake basin extended Obivn ttre water. Wa[er is driwn from
the lake, to a receivinq well bv force of oravity. oassino throuoh a filtration
plant. The water insid6 the re'servoir is iumo6d'bv a dntrifuo-alor oiston oumo
into the water main with sufficient presiure io serve specific ieeds.

lndirect pressure Distribution

Water is drawn from a drilled distribution done bv indirect Dressure. For this
type, a.turbine pqmp ts employed mounted on top of the siandpipe extended
down the well below the water table.

Household Water Supply

Water is a pirne rmcesst'f m atr $"m m m.seffi, I s

conveyed frorn ilre riram tr fe ho. x huredmgs t.* reans
of pipes dassfed m:

- Refers to &e ppe mrmed*m kcm fre ?.&]h nm:'Tffi: ff ar:'I
source of water s$pdy b ee kd'&q ser'E
- Ag,trrs b fE'*eritra si@t 3E fl,'#t JrMtmr-r :rre
fs-'E ilr8 rg# {ffir
Types of Cold Water Distribution

By normal water pressure from public main
By overhead feed system
By air pressure distribution system

The normal water pressure from the public water main
is normally inadequate to serve buildings. The
alternative solution is either by the Overhead Feed
System or by Air Pressure Distribution System

The Overhead Feed System

The water is pumped to a large tank on top of the building and distributed the water
to different fixtures by gravity.

. Water diskibution is not affected by peak load hour
. Power interruptions will not affect the water supply inside the building
. ln case fre pumping unit breaks down, the time required to replaced parts will not
affect tre regular supply of water.

. fte rvater inside the tank is exposed to the natural elements :f weather, subjecl to
ar.'.: mination.
tle r# s.rpply distribution unit has many working parts that require higher
-ar:Erare costs.
-r s.r:src u*i ryd he entire installation throughout the building occupies
rfl."m $ffis
I wlrm $:!t-qE br.,r,tation and oher structure to sustain the heavy load of the
&ft ffi u! {ffi rlrEr'i
Air Fressure Water Distribution
The air pressure water distribution is a new concept in water distribution where compressed
air is used as the delivery agent.

. lt has a compacl pumping unit that requires a limited space
. The water chamber being air-tight makes the system a sanitary one. !
. The oxygen in the compressed air passing lhrough the water line, seryes as punling agent,
makinr the water more palalable.
. lt offers economic advanalge by installing a smaller pipe diameter.
. lt has few working parts and therefore, less initial construction and maintenance cost.
. Air pressurized water distribution syslem is well accepted for small, medium and large
. Air pressured water distribution system seryes zones of about 10 storeys or floor interva s-
building of extreme height,

. The only.disadvantage of this system is the water interruption during power failure, Pr.: ris;on
for standby generator is an option.

4 Mechanical Devices Used in Air Pressurized Water

Supply System

1. A large storgae tank, with all tapping required

2, A single por duplex centrifugal pump
3. An air compressor
4. An automatic pressure control switch

r' Air is elastic or compressible, and water is inelastic or

non compressible"

(Ihus, when air is compressed into a c/osed compartment

under atmospheric pressure to the extent of one half its
volume content, the pressure will increase up to 15
po'tnds per square inch, This pressure inside the tank is
capable of elevating water up to 10.50 meters high )

)irect Feed Pumping System

This type of water distribution is used on tall buildings that

could not be served by adequately by the street main.

. This is a TRIPLEX PUMP installed to operate in sequence

according to the volume demand.
P1 - smallest capacity (Duty) (Stop) (Stop)
P2 - big capacity pump (Stop) (Duty) (Stop)
P3 - biggest capacity pump (Stop) (Stop) (Duty)
Advantages of the Direct Up Feed
Pumping System
. Eliminate the construction of large house water tank.
. Av lid cost of heavy structures to carry the house of
. Eliminate the periodic cost

The direct feed pumping system is depencjent on the
supply of electricity. A standby power generator will
operate in case of brown out or power failure,


FRICTI3N - refers to the resistance produced by the ffowing water with the fittings
and interior surface of the pipe.

Friction can be minimized under the following conditions:

1. All pipes should be installed skaight and direct as possible.

2. The use of turns, offsets, and traps, should be minimized if cannot avoided.
3. Pipes with plain and smooth surface should be used.
4. The use of fittings, stops, and other devices connected to the distribution
lines, should be minimized.
5. All fittings and joints must be connected propedy.

PRESSURE is the force required to move the water inside the

pipe. lt is the only means necessary to overcome friction.
Static Pressure is the pressure exerted by the water at rest,
Normal Pressure referes to the pressure range measured over a
period of 24 hours. Normal pressure from a residential house
ranges from 30 to 40 psi.
Pressure Reducing Valve is a valve that keeps the pressure
constant at 40 psi or can be reset to any pressure desired.
Critical pressure refers to the maximum and minimum pressure
at which proper function of the water supply system can be

Head Loss by Friction or Friction head Loss is the loss in
rate of flow, due to friction between the water and the
walls of the pipe.

Pressure Loss refers to the variation in pressure between

the water main and the outlet end of the water service,
Pressure loss is generally caused by friction.

,','iicr',,ibraiicn and hammering, can be checked by

-s:a *J a^ arr c1',r*O.r p,p-e at the back of the iaucet.
i-.^^^^, air rnsice the pipe chamber
-5 -;!r-l'3ss3l serves as
Maximum and Probable Demand

. Maximum Demand refers to the maximum water

discharge of fixtures in terms of fixture units,

( The maximum demand of water is equal to the

total ficture units in the plumbing system, r,.rhere
one unit is valued at 8 gallons of water discharge
per minute interval)

lllustrative Example

A residential house has 3 water closets, 3

lavatories, one kitchen sink and 3 shower baths.
Determine the maximum demand of water
considering the following :
-l'rater closet = 6 units
'"a".el:T =1Unit
- {.Ere. sink = 2 units t

- 1*##9",r :,ar = 2 units

Solve for the total fixture units:

6 units x 3 water closets = 18 units

1 unitx3lavatories =1 unit
2 units x 1 kitchen sink = 2 units
2 units x 3 shower bath = 6 units

The maximum water demand is:

29 units x 8 galtons per unit = 23lgallons

Probable Demand or Peak Load

. 'tle fewer the number of fixture installed, the higher the
percentage of probability of their simultaneous use, and
the greater the number of fixture installed, the lower the
gentage of probable simultaneous use" r

. 'trlkcan dbdrarge, only a given quantity of

=.. !!+kft he watei supply not'be ov6rtaxed

=, tt*ffit of rater without causing overflow of

tq kt the maximum demand of water
thre rrrits wtrerein each fixture
Probability of simultaneous use of
Number of Fixture Units Percentage of Simultaneous use

1to5 50 to 100%
6t050 25 to 50%
51 or more 10 to 25%


The Probable Demand is not likely to exceed 25% d tle larimum Dananl. espc*f
for average size residential building.

Determine the probable demand from

lllustrative Example 1 :
. Maximum Demand = 232 gal.

. The 232 gal of water maximum demand is likely to be

consumed in 1 minute. Thus, it may be reduced by 250/o
to 50% to get the probable dbmand.

. Assume 30% reduction of 232= 164 gal

. Sffrt frorn maximum demand of 232 gal
= ffi-t$tP233 gal Probable Demand

The minimum size of water service pipes from curb to the buildino shall be 38mm
diameter for the following fixtures: silt'cock, hol water boiler, launtrry tray, sink,
lavatories, bathtub, watei closet.

The size of water servica pipe is based on the maximum and minimum probable water
demand, bul in no case shall it be less than 20 mm diameter.

A 25mm diameter service pipe ould supply 2 branches at 20mm diameter, capable of
delivering up to 18 gal of water per minute lo serye up to 20 fixtures

Service pipe that is too small always result lo abrupt slactening d water flor speodly
during simultaneous opening of the faucets.

Smaller pipes is also subjec{ to nc$se, vikatir:ns ad hamrrerirq.

Water Pumps and Lifts

. Public water distribution system usually has an

average water pressure of 50psi that is only
adequate to serve building less than 5 storey
high. Taller building requires additional pump
equipment prepared by professional engineers
who compute the probable demand and the
pr3ssure loss due to head and friction
Types of Pumps

Piston Pump
ihis pump is used on small water distribution
system for elevating water in wells or other
Centrifugal Pump
This pump is associated with tall buitding water
distribution system

Water Service Fittings and Devices

. Gate valve is used to comoletelv close, or comoletelv ooen a

lirre but not necessarily to bontrol the flbw of water. l( is'
connected to the mai supply and pump line wherein operation
is infrequent.

Tvoos cf Gate Valve

Wedged Shape is used where the stem must be installed

:inting downward,
lc;b e Disc Tyoe, closes in the same manner as the wedqed
-.:. :':E::'-;al;ts parallele faces drop
in vertical position-, and
:f_= :tr-tE.l a:? I sc spreader
Globe Valve
is actuated by a stem screw, and hand wheel, suited on installation that calls for
throttling. Glove valve affords a greater resistance to flow than the gate valve
because of the change in flow directions.

Three Tyoes of Glcve Valves

1. Plug Type Disc valve has a wide bearing surface producing

good resistance to the cutting effects of scale, dirt and other
kind of foreign matter found inside the pipe.
2. Conventional Disc Type has a pressure tight bearing betrcen
the disc and the seat recommended for cold water and
temperature service.
Composition Disc Valve is used for various types of servirs
on oil, gasoline, steam, and hot or cold water.

Other Type of valves

Algle Valve operates in the same manner as the gffi vdrc.

I lt is available in similar range of disc and seat design. lt is
used in making 90 degrees turn in a line to reduce he number
of joints.
Foot Valve is located at the lower end of pump used to prerlent
bss of priming the pump. lt is also known as iRetention
Oreck Vdve is used to prevent the reversal of flow of gas or
h*l h fre lire
S#t Ydrp b rced on cold water system, heating system,
rysseO frcs wih excessive pressure.
Other Water Service Fittings and
Corporation Stop is inserted into the water main and
serve as a control of water service,
Curb Stop is installed between the curb and the
sidewalk line accessible to cast iron stop box equipped
with removable cover.
l,{eter Stop is a controlling stop of the entire water
s :l:.; ;n building.
,','aier l,4eter is a device used to measure the amount of
ivater that passes through the water service.

Water Quality Problems and their Corrections in private

Water System
Hardness Calcium ad magnesium Ooggirq o{ fiE ry scde, Lur E ,a,e!s
salts from un&rgro{rrd fumirp url kilea & Zxiue fruss
0ow dlsts larndry r|d hod
Conosion Acfulity, entrained 02 & Closirq o{ ion pipe by Rr,sillg fr6 *d.B
c02 rust des'oy hass prpe mnient

::i,-,9- Contznination by organic Disease Chknination by NaOo u

mdtor or ss*age chlodne ga

x ' jtu,r r( mallga,lse Dscobration olfixtures Precidtation by flt ation

ad larndry hru manganEso zedite
oxidizing filtsr

il}M :0 -@ :rF[ -*t UirpleaarUnss Fillntir:o hru divaed

carbon purifia filHiar