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Hugh Dellor ond Andrew Wolkley
with Richord Moore

q course in nqfurql English

THOTVISON HEINLE

l l n t e . l K r g d o r r . U r i e d S t a t e !. A u l t r a i a . C a n a c i a l v l e rc o . S n ! l . o o . r . S D dI .

Contenls
Introduction

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Review: Units 5-8

Review: Units 9-12

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Review: Units l7-2O

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lnlroduction
lnnovotions, first published in 2000, was created to provide intermediate to high-intermediate students with interesting models of natural spoken Englishto motivate them beyond the intermediate plateau./nnovotions has now been updated and expanded into a new series (pre-inte rmediate, intermediote, upper-intermediote) f or classeslooking for a fresh approach.lt is based on a language-rich, lexical/grammatical syllabusthar starts with the l<indsof natural conversations that learners want to nave.

Organisation
" . i o t i o n s i n t e r m e d i a t es c , : : : - : 3 l w e n t y u n i t s .E a c h i - : t r s f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o : ^ - . 3 : r , 3 - D a g es e c t i o n s a l l o f , ' r ' n c h p r o v i d e s e l f - c o n t a i n e :: - : : . ^ e , - e n t l e s s o n so f 5 0 - 9 0 m i n u t e s ,a l t h o u g h o b ! 3 - s . , 3 J m a y w i s h t o a l t e r inese to suit your needs.A :-. _^ :s I lnnovotions ' t e r m e d i o t ec o n t a i n a t l e a s r o - e : / , : - f , 1 ! e sectionbased o n r e a d i n g r l i s t e n i n g .h e s e s : : : : ^ s . R e a d i n g o r o T L i s t e n i n g , t y p i c a l l yf o l l o w a D : : : : - - : j p r e - r e x t s p e a k i n ga c l e a r t a s l < o r s t u d e ^ : s : : : : w h e t h e y r e a d , f o r l i s t e n , n d s p e a l < i ntg s k s a n c : - : - : : e w o r k . S h o r t a a r e a d i n gt e x t s a n d l i s t e n i n gr a s ts - , . ' . , : - e r i m e s u s e d e l s e w h e r ei n t h e C o u r s e b o o k : : : ' : : : . : t a n g u a g e . The other two two-pagesecriors o' e:c^ lnit are Using vocabulary and Using grammar These s e c t i o n s o n t a i nf r e q u e n rs p e a f - = j : : , r e s a n d a i m t o c p r o v i d e l o t s o f e x a m p l e so f h o w , . : i t - : r y a n d g r a m m a r a r e a c t u a l l yu s e d .M a n y a i : - e e x e r c r s e s r e i n a the form of short dialogues na 3"e :- che audio a r e c o r d i n g s p r o v i d i n gf u r t h e r p r o . - - : 3 : c n D r a c r i c e n d , a d e v e l o p i n gl i s t e n i n gs l < i l t s . There is a Review after every fc-- -- :s . The Tapescript at the back ci :-: C:."sebool< f e a t u r e sa l l o f t h e d i a l o g u e s /. , : - : ^ : ^ - s s i n gw o r o s a n d p h r a s e s i g h l i g h t ei d c c : - , ' ' l - : : s h n er identification. The Grammar commentary l: :-e :ack of the C o u r s e b o o kp r o v i d e sn o r e s c - : - . i - 3 - m a r D r e s e n t e di n t h e c o u r s e . The Expression organiser :'- :^e :::k of the C o u r s e b o o k a l l o w s s t u d e n r si o - e : t - a a n d r r a n s r a t e s o m e o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n :e x : - . s s : ^ s n e a c h un i t .

What's so innovative about lnnovations?
lnnovotions intermediote, like the rest of the lnnovotrons s e r i e s ,s e t s o u t t o m a x i m i s es t u d e n t s 'a b i l i t y t o s p e a k E n g l i s h l u e n t l y a n d t o b e a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n dn a c u r a f s p o l < e n n g l i s hl.t d o e s t h i s n o t s i m p l y b y p r o v i d i n g E s t u d e n t sw i t h p l e n t y o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o u s e l a n g u a g e n r p e r s o n a l , r e a t i v ea n d c o m m u n i c a t i v ec o n t e x r s .b u t m o r e c i m p o r t a n t l y , y p r o v i d i n ga p r e d o m i n a n t l ys p o k e n m o d e l b o f E n g l i s hT h e E n g l i s hp r e s e n t e di n t h e w h o l e l n n o v o t i o n s . s e r i e s i s t h e E n g l i s h o m m o n l y u s e d i n e v e r y d a yI i f e b y c n a t i v e s p e a k e r sT h e s e r i e s s y l l a b u s s d e s i g n e dt o m e e t . i s t u d e n t s 'c o m m u n i c a t i v en e e d s .A r a l l l e v e l s t h e p r i m e , concern is what students will be able to soy afterwarcs. A s a r e s u l t ,t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r o u r s y l l a b u s s n o t t h e i usual list of tense-basedstructures, but rather the typical l<indsof conversations we believe students want to be a b l e t o h a v e i n E n g l i s hW h a t i s t h e n p r e s e n r e da n d . p r a c t i s e di s t h e l a n g u a g e b o t h v o c a b u l a r ya n d g r a m m a r ) ( that will enable them to have those conversations.

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How does lnnovations intermediate ftt in wi t h t h e r e s t o f th e se ri e s?
lnnovations intermediote aims to provide a large boost in l a n g u a g e c q u i s i t i o nw h i c h w e f e e l i s i m p o r t a n t a t t h e a , intermediate level.lt focuses on basic topic conversations and functions. Grammar tends to be presented qither as fixed chunl<sof lexis to be rearnt,or fairly short grammar sections which practise grammar in a fairly narrow context. Students are shown how to make the most of a limited vocabulary.lnnovotions intermediotepresents more sophisticatedversions of some basic conversations.lt does this by presencinga wider range of responses to rypical questions and by introducing some idiomatic language. also covers a lt wider range of issues than lnnovotions pre-intermediote both through the reading rexts and the choice of topics. Consequently,there is a greater vocabulary load. Grammar is now focused on more deeply througn examples showing how it is used in different ways and in wider contexts.Tensesare contrasted more, meaning is 'difficult' discussed, and more structures such as conditionals are introduced. ln lnnovotions upperintermediote, the languageis more idiomatic and focuses on more aspects of spol<engrammar that are often neglected.

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W r i t i n g i s n o t f o c u s e do n i n r h e C : - - s e : o c < H o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e t h o r o u g h w r i t i n g s e c rc - s - : : - e o d d u n i t s o f t h e W o r k b o o k . T h e s e p r o v i d e r . 3 . e s c i r y p r c a lt e x t s s t u d e n t sa r e e x p e c t e d t o w r i t e i n e x : ^ - s s - c h a s P E T a n d F C E .T h e y a r e o f t e n f o l l o w e d b y a s . o r l e x e r c i s eo n u s e f u l l a n g u a g eo r w r i t i n g , a n d a w r r r i l a s k . T h e f w r i t i n g t a s k o f t e n r e q u i r e s s t u d e n t sr o w r ! e a s i m i l a r text to the one in the model.

4

rtroduct on

O t h e r c o m po n e n ts
The Coursebool< complemented a set of two by is Audio CDs/AudioTapes, Worl<bool<, Teacher's this a Bool<, a separate, photocopiable Teacher's Resource and Book.There is also support in the form of a website programme with usefullinl<s, the test-crearing and ExamView@ Pro. . Audio CDs/AudioTapes r s T h e A u d i o C D s / A u d i o T a p e s n t a i n e c o r d i n go f a l l co the dialogues texts,pronunciation and reading where stress exercises those lexicalexercises and and intonationare the mainfocus. Workbook but The Workbool<is for self-study, any of the exercises it may be done either in classor as in homeworl<. addition, Workbool<contains In the are writing tasl<s. Someof the Worl<bookexercises directlyrelatedto activities the Coursebook, in while mal<ing them usefulfor settingas homeworl<, and are designed others are more looselyconnected l<nowledge the of to extend and expandstudents' language. you choosenot to usethe Workbook in lf it class, is a good ideato recommendit to students as additional Dractice. Teacher's Resource Book forty TheTeacher's Resource Book provides which closely photocopiable and games activities supportthe materialin the Coursebook.

Getting the most out of Innovations
ThisTeacher's Bool< provides plenty of detailed advice on how to get the most out of lnnovationsintermediote. However, there are some general points to mal<eabout the specialfeatures you will find in /nnovotions intermedioteCoursebook. These features are highlighted in the seccion that follows.

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Fecllures of lnnovcrlions
Us i n gv o c a b u la ry
E a c h u n i t h a s a t w o - p a g e s e c t i o n e x p l i c r t i y: e : - : r . i n v o c a b u l a r yT h e t a s l < s n t h e s e s e c t i o n sf o c u s : - : - e . i w o r d s , c o l l o c a t i o n sa n d e x p r e s s i o n s t u d e n : s - . . a s o r d e r t o h a v ec o m m o n c o n v e r s a u o n s n t n e : l - : : , o t h e u n i t . E x e r c i s e s f t e n e x D l o r e t h e v a r r e c yc , : , ; : : o r e s p o n s e st o c o m m o n q u e s t i o n sl i l < e ' W h a r ' s : < e , r o u n d t h e r e l ' o r ' H o w w a s y o u r j o u r n e y l ' .w i . . : : - e l e a d i n t o p e r s o n a l i s e d r a c t i c e .O t h e r e x e r c r s e s p e n c o u r a g es t u d e n t s t o h a v e l o n g e r c o n v e r s a to n s o p r o v i d e t h e k i n d o f l a n g u a g eh e y n e e d r o t a k e o . g e . t t u r n s . B e c a u s em o s t o f t h e v o c a b u l a r yi n t h e s e s e c r , o r s i s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f i t s t y p i c a l u s a g et h e e x e r c s e s o r : e , reveat common grammatical patterns, which yol c:rr^ draw students' attention to. As you go through che answers,you can also get students to repear the <ey e x p r e s s i o n sw h i c h p r o v i d e s t h e m w i t h p r a c t i c e r n , p r o n u n c i a t i o nM a n y o f t h e e x e r c i s e s r e o n r h e a u d i o . a r e c o r d i n g s . i n a l l yy, o u c a n a s k t h e l < i n d s f q u e s r i o n s F o m e n t i o n e d i n t h e s e c t i o n b e l o w ,N o t i c i n g surrounding language. The nores in the Teacher's B o o l <w i l l h e l p y o u w i t h t h i s . : mPortant as the language : ^ lf the exercise : l n o t m i s st h e o P P o r t u n t t y : :_ - . 1 _ : -. ' : : r r o u n d i n gc o m m o n phrases and e: : -= -'. - ' ". -. : : : : n e t i m e . O n e o f t h e m o s t i m p o | t : ' a : . . . ' . . ' . ' . ' . : ... rmprove on their '- -:ticing'into o w n i s i f r h e y- : : : - - : a major C l a S S r O O m a c t " :-. . : - . : : : ^ s ,y o u n e e d t o n o t o n l y e x p l a i n e i - : : - ' . r : " : : . l d e n t sq u e s t i o n s m such as: W h a t o t h e rt h r n g . - . - W h o t o t h e r t h i n g s: : Whot's the oppos:e .' .. '-

-. Whot'sthe posltlve ! :: .. l f y o ud o . . . , w h a i . ' . : , before? Wherewouldyou W h o td o y o uu s e.
W h o tw o u l d o L. . : . ' : , y )
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hnhheneA

','- .- -. :j : :: ::-:-::e useful

The aimof thes: :-::: :^:

U s i n gg r a m m a r
E a c h u n i t c o n t a i n sa t w o - p a g e s e c t i o n d e a l i n gw i t h p a r t i c u l a ra r e a so f g r a m m a r w h i c h s p r i n g n a t u r a l l yf r o m t h e t e x r s o r w h i c h a r e c e n t r a l t o t h e t o p i c .A l l t h e m a i n tense-basedstructures you would expect to cover at t h e i n t e r m e d i a t el e v e l a r e h e r e . S t u d e n t sc o n s o l i d a t e what they have learnt earlier in the lnnovotions series. F o r e x a m p l e ,w h e r e a s t h e U s i n g g r a m m a r s e c t i o n si n lnnovations pre-intermediate lool< at single uses of tenses and modals, in lnnovotions intermediote they look ar s e v e r a ld i f f e r e n t u s e s a n d f r e q u e n t l yc o n r r a s ! t h e n r w r r o t h e r s t r u c t u r e sa n d t h e w a y t h e y a r - eu s e d A g a t n ,r h e f o c u s o n t y p i c a l u s a g eo f t e n l e a d sr o p r a c t i c e w i t h a dialogue or role play. Apart from the traditional tenses,we lool< at some grammatical areas that are somerimes neglected,such as get used to, opinions with must,and verbs to tall<about t h e f u t u r e . I n a l l t h e U s i n g g r a m m a r s e c t i o n st h e r e a r e a l s o o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o f o c u s o n n e w v o c a b u l a r yb y g e t t r n gs t u d e n t st o n o r i c e t h e s u r r o u n d i n gl a n g u a g e . Attention is often drawn to typical vocabulary that goes with the grammar through the grammatical explanations and Real English nores. There are plenty of speal<ing tasl<slinked to the particular structure. Reference rs a l w a y sm a d e t o t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n gs e c t i o n i n r h e Grammar commentary at the bacl<of the Coursebool<.

exercise nda :: ': .:_:=-:: :: a o f c o l l o c a t i o - i: - - : : l a n g u a g e .s r - : : - : A s i m p l ye x p , : - - a t : - a - ' = a - = t : : - : : - s : r . : h e ya l l o w
yOUeXJ- -:: I S f U C e n :: s ' : : ::::' i-: : - -::"S1:OOO nat W ^-:-: : :-:. :': :-1:iing fOr Che -.-a :-=-- - :^: :e:Chng

= : : : =' : : - : : - : ' < n O W l e d g e

:-sr'e'::^: ,1- :lr:ren al'o!:e:-a:::_t ianguage by C l - - e : : - i l n / r l ] S t a k e s r r e - S : l :- i , . , - : : : h e y S a i di n O f i . r o r -n f , l u r - d r n g l i s h .b i s n e w 3 - i _ : i e : : n a i s o b e p u t € E T o n t h e b o a r d .i d e a i l y n t h e f o r ^ . . . . . . - 3 e e x p r e s s i o n a s i s you would userhem in speeclY o u m a y a l s o l i k e t o f o l l o w u p a s e c : c r c f r e a c h i n gl i l < e t h i s b y a s l < i n g t u d e n t sr o b r i e f l y p e r - s o n a i i sa n y n e w s e v o c a b u l a r yy o u p u t o n t h e b o a r d . F o r e x a m p l e ,y o u could asl<: D o y o u k n o w o r h a v ey o u h e o r do b o u t o t l , / a n e h o . . . ? w D o y o u k n o w o r h o v ey o u h e o r d o b o u t o n y o n ew h o h o s . . . ? When's the /ost time you ... ? Where?Whot hoppened? Con you use any ofthese wordslphrosesiexpressions to describe things in your life? Which is the most usefulwordlphroselexpressionT Which wordslphroseslexpresslons you ltke most? do

Not i c i n gs u r r o un d i n g a n g u a g e l
Although grammar exercises re provided primarilyto a focus on particular structures, we have presented all such languagein natural contexts. This means that the

Y o u c o u l d p u t s t u d e n t s i n t o p a i r s t o d o t h i s l < i n do f exercise for five or ten minutes.This is a good way of breal<ing the lesson and getting away from the up C o u r s e b o o l <f o r a m o m e n t . l t a l s o e n c o u r a g e ss t u d e n t s t o g e t r o k n o w e a c h o t h e r b e t t e r a n d ,u n l i l < e

6

Features f nnovattons o

s u p p l e m e n t a r ym a t e r i a l s r e q u i r e s l i t t l e p l a n n i n ga n d n o , fighting with the photocopier! The teachers' notes often suggestquestions you can asl< about languagein the texts and there are also good examples of these kinds of questions in the Vocabulary quizzes in the Review units. lt may take a little time to get used to this style of teaching,and students also may initially need to get used to it, but it is worth persisting with it, as it produces a dynamic and language-rich classroom.

Reading texts
Thirteen of the units in /nnovotions intermediotehave two-page reading sections.Thesetexts are derived from authentic articles,but have been re-written to include maximally useful vocabulary and collocations.The texts a r e a l l d e s i g n e dt o e l i c i t s o m e k i n d o f p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s e from students,whether it be laughter,disbelief,or shocl<! Encourage students to read the whole text through without worrying too much about any words they don't l<now.Tellthem to put their pens down for a minute and relax! One good way of ensuring they do this is to play the recording as they read it the first time or, if you want a slower pace,to read it out yourself. lmportant vocabulary is focused on later,and students need to gain confidence in their ability to understand most - if not all - of a text. Encourage students to focus on the many words they do know! Each reading text is followed by a speakingtask where students have the opportunity to react personally to the text and to extend the discussionon a related theme. These taskscan either be done in pairsor in small groups.You may want to add some of your own questions connected to the text which you thinl< will interest your particular class. There are also often comprehension and vocabulary tasks that encourage students to re-read the text and n o t i c e u s e f u le x p r e s s i o n s n d c o l l o c a t i o n sO n e q u e s t i o n a . that you can asl<is if anyone found an expression or collocation that was interesting or new to them. For example, in The day that changed my life on page 25, students might find I just did it on impulsean interesting new expression.Suggestthat students use a good English*English dictionary, not only to checl<the meaning of words but also to read the examples,which often contain useful collocations and phrases. With both the reading and the listening texts, you could obout the simply asl<students Do you have ony questions text? Note that this a different question to Are there ony words which you don't know?,because it allows students to asl<about anything.They can ask about words they do know, but which may appear in a new meaning or collocation; they can asl<about expressions;they can asl< about content; they can even asl<you what you thinl<l Encouragingstudents to asl<questions is a good way to lt encourage them to notice language. also helps to create a good relationship between students and teacner.

G r a m m a rco mme n ta ry
The Grammar commentary starts on page 160 of the Coursebool< after a two-page introduction outlining the basic approach to grammar tal<enin the book. Ask students to read these pages early on in the course and d i s c u s sa n y q u e s t i o n st h a t a r i s e f r o m i t . T h e g r a m m a r points that follow refer to the Using grammar sections within the units. Generally,you can asl<students as a way to to read the Grammar commentary review the languageafter they have looked at particular structures. However, in some casesyou might want s t u d e n t st o c o m e u p w i t h a g u i d e l i n eo r ' r u l e ' themselves and then compare it to the explanacionin before working on the the Grammar commentary e x e r c i s e s . T h eG r a m m a r c o m m e n t a r y i s a l s o good source of useful examples for students to :::j:;:

Dialogues
Almost without exception, the listeningtexts are conversations.Theycontain the topics people talk about every day,and contain many commonly-used phrases and expressions.Many of these common expressions are re-cycled in the Coursebool<. Listeningtexts often occur at the beginningof a unit. This is becausea lot of the languagein the text is focused on in the rest of the unit. When you do these listeningtaslcsin class,play the recording once so students can answer the gist questions in While you listen and then once more to allow them to identify t h e w o r d s a n d p h r a s e sw h i c h c o m p l e t e t h e g a p s .l f y o u r students find this hard, play the recording a third time and pause after each gap to give them more time to play the recording one last time as write. Finally, students read the dialogue.Listening to natural spoken E n g l i s h h i l s t a l s o r e a d i n gw h a t t h e y a r e h e a r i n gh e l p s w students get used to the way languageis'chunl<ed': pause,and more importantly, where where speal<ers t h e y d o n o t p a u s e .l t a l s o h e l p s t h e m n o t i c e o t h e r features of everyday speech,such as discourse marl<ers. You could follow up by getting students to read the d i a l o g u ea l o u d i n p a i r s - e i t h e r t h e w h o l e d i a l o g u eo r just part of it. The other listeningtexts in the book are treated like more traditional skills lessons.However, if you and your students lil<ethe gap-fillingactivities,you could copy the relevant tapescript at the bacl<of the y book and blankout the expressions ou would most like to focus on.Alternatively,picl<out some key nouns or verbs.

Extra texts
O c c a s i o n a l l y , e r e a r e s m a l l e r l i s t e n i n ga n d r e a d i n g th texts such as Two uses of the present continuous on page 30 and A good job? on page 38. These are warm-up exercisesthat function as tallcingpoints at the b e g i n n i n g f t h e l e s s o nT h e y p r o v i d e s h o r t , n a t u r a l . o contexts for the grammar that is focused on in the resson.

Unit overview
General topic Learning language introductions, the of asking questions, usefullanguage-learning tips. Reading Students and teachers givetips on language learning. Language input . 'Gettingto lcnowyou' questions: Whereare you ' What do you do whenyou'renotworking? from? etc. Expressions mal<ing for personal questions more tentative; expressions use when we do not we wish to answerthe questionasl<ed: How old ore you,if you don't mind me askingT rothernot soy, ld if you don't mind. etc. Someexpressions givingadvice:lt's importont for to ... , Don'tworrytoo muchobout.. . . erc. Collocations with common verbs: giveyou some odvice, mokeo mess, a lot of domoge,etc. do Pastsimpleand past continuous stories: wos in I stillpockingwhenmy taxi to the oirportturnedup!

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l n B r i t a i n ,p e o p l e o f i e ^ s : 1 l r n f r o m u p n o r t h t o m e a n t h a t t h e y a r e f r o m r a e : c r - r h e r np a r r o f E n g l a n dT h e . o p p o s i t e i s I ' m f r o n : : . . 1 ' s o , , r h .T h i s r e f l e c t st h e g e o g r a p h i c a ln d h i s c c - : : . v s i o n so f E n g l a n dn a i p a r t i c u l a r ( l n t h e U S ; e : : - I s c s , l y o r / t w e s ta n d .

bockeost.) ' Y o um i g h ts a yA r eo i , ,\ : - , . . : i " s < e y o u ?w h e n y o u f i n d t h e p e r s o ny o u a . . e : . - : : : : ; e a l i n g ,a n d s o :
i t ' s o f t e n u s e d a s a k - : : ' : - : : - - - l ^ e . ( H o w e v e r i, t could be usedwir^ : : 't= : -- -:r-:: oi-r hen you w d o n ' t f i n d c h ep e . s o - : : : : . R e m i n d s t u d e n t st o r e c s ' : they like in their noteboc. '--: :r:'esstons that

Lead in l f t h i s i s t h e f i r s tt i m e y o , . : - - : t
g r o u p st o b r a i n s t o r mq u e s :. - : : - : : : - : . . r c u l d l i l < e o t a s k y o u .G i v e t h e m s e v e r a ^ - - - : : : : t : : : . 3 b o u ra n o - 1 . : : - : ^ - : s l <y o u t , P r e P a r e h e q u e s t i o n sa n c : - : their q u e s t i o n s . T h iw i l l a l l o w r r e ^ ' : : - - : - _ : ^ . c r - e b o u t s a y o u , a n d i t w i l l a l s o g i v e y c L -: , : - : ' . : : : : : : s e s sr h e i r language eedsin this area n

' ' '

Language strip Use the languagestrip as a way to lead in to the unrt. A s l <s t u d e n t st o l o o l <q u i c l < l y h r o u g h t h e l i s t a n d t e l l t y o u i n w h a t s i t u a t i o n st h e s e e x p r e s s i o n sm i g h t b e u s e d (e.9.getting to know someone at a parry, in a class,over coffee, etc.). Ask if there are any expressions in the languagestrip that they've used in Englishbefore (Whot do you do? is one that they will probably suggest). Then ask students to find two expressions thar rney haven't usejdbefore, but might use in the furure. Explain that in this unit they will learn ways of asl<ing and answering'getting to l<now you' questions. Use the language trip later on in this unit for a small s group task. Asl< students to choose expressions that are questions (e.g.Are you single?) and come up with a possible response (e.g. Yes, why do you osk?).Thenasl< t h e m t o c h o o s e e x p r e s s i o n s h a t a r e r e s p o n s e s( e . g . t Reolly! you?) and come up with statements rhat Do might prompr them (e.g./ do o bit of pointingin my spore ume.) You might need to explain some of rhe following exDressrons: ' lf you say someone has a funny accenr,you find their accent strange or amusing.For example: I'm not sure where shet from. Shei got o funny occent.

Fact-inding f
T h e f i r s t t a s l < o c u s e so n r y D . : - i 3 : : ^ i : : k n o w y o u ' f q u e s t i o n s , a n y o f w h i c h s t u d e - : : . . . : = r a m i l i a rw i t h . m H o w e v e r ,t h e r e a r e q u e s t r o n s^ € . ' = : - r , i S l m . € s t u d e n t s m a y h a v e d i f f i c u l t yf o r m i n g c c r - : : : m o r r i e d ? ) r e x p r e s s i n gi n a n i : - - : o you do when you'renot workrn{, = . :.e you ,.,:, re 3 Whot do

H a v e s t u d e n t sw o r l < o n t h e t a s < ^ : , : - : l i y lsfers h a v i n gt h e m c h e c l < i t h a p a r r n e - C ^ c : : r e y h a v e w c o m p l e t e dt h e t a s l < n t h e i r o w a . : o " : e s i r d e n ! si n ! o p a i r s a n d h a v eo n e p e r s o n s a y e a c a c j r r e q u e s c i o n s l - 5 a n d t h e o t h e r g i v e t h e a p p r o p r - . r i e' - e s p o n s e - f . a T h e n s t u d e n t s s w a p r o l e s f o r q u e s r r o n s7 - i 2 . T h i s w i l l e n a b l ey o u t o m o n i t o r t h e i r p r o n u n c a c i o r W h e n g o i n g t h r o u g h t h e a n s w e r s ,m o d e l r h e a p p r . o p r i a r en l o n a c i o n a n d s t r e s so f r h e q u e s t i o n sa n d h a v e t h e c l a s sp r . a c r i s e a l o n gw i t h y o u .

Answers l . d o 2 .W h e r e 3 .W h e n 4 . n o t 5 . D o l . d . 2 .a . 3 .b . 4 . f . 5 .c . 6 .e . 6 .A r e

7 . H o w 8 . a r e 9 . l o n g 1 0 .m u c h I I . H a v e | 2 . b e e n 7 . h . 8 . g . 9 . j . 1 0 .l < . | | . l . 1 2 . . i

10

'I

G e t t i n qt o k n o w y o u

You might want to draw your students' attention to how several of the answers are not soecific.Have the class tell you which answers are not specific and write on the board the exoressions that mal<ethem so: we're thinking obout it nothing much thot kind of thing on ond off

Speaking
This will orovide students with the chance to use the questions from I Fact-finding to find out more about their classmates. Have them get into groups and start tall<ing each other. Ask questions l-7 in 4 Speaking to to wrap up at the end of the exercise.Students may have already asl<ed these questions when they were talking to each other during the first half of the exercise, s o i t m a y n o t b e n e c e s s a r y o d i s c u s st h e m a l l . t For the second tasl<. exolain that students should move around the classtall<ingto different people, getting to l < n o wt h e m . A f t e r a f e w m i n u t e s ,s h o u t o u t ' C h a n g e l ' a n d get them to talk to someone new. Tal<epart in this activity yourself.You could even give this more of a party atmosphere by playingsome music as scudents are m i n g l i n gT o w r a p u p , w r i t e t h e s e e x p r e s s i o n s n t h e . o b o a r d a n d e x o l a i nt h e m ' We've got o lot in common. I've got a lot in common with ... We don't hove much in common. Asl< a few students to tell you about some of the people they tall<edto, using these phrases.

Speaking
Get studentsinto smallgroupsand havethem go bacl< b t h r o u g ht h e q u e s t i o n s ,e c i d i n g h i c hq u e s t i o n s e l o n g d w to which situation. Answerswill vary,of course,but the for followingwould generally considered appropriate be eachsituation: Answers Possible answers: T h e f i r s tt i m e y o u m e e t :| , 2 , 9 , I l , 1 2 4 O n c e y o u l < n o w a c ho t h e r a l i t t l e b e t t e r : , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 e O n c e y o u k n o w e a c ho t h e r r e a l l y e l l :3 , l 0 w

After discussing havestudents talk about their answers, the lasttwo questions this exercise. a multilingual in In you mightwant to extendthis by gettingthem to class, s t a l l < b o u to t h e r q u e s t i o n t h a t a r e c u l t u r a l l y a
inrnnrnnrirta

Listening
Set the scene of the dialogue and asl<students what questions they thinl< would be asl<ed. Asl< if there are any questions that would not be asl<edby a man to a woman and vice versa.Then play the recording as students tick off the questions. Have them compare answers with a classmatebefore playingthe recording again.

Real English Go over the note on answering questions with the class. Then asl< to students go bacl< I Fact-finding to and notice how many responses were not full s e n t e n c e P.o i n to u t t h a t i n r e s p o n s e ' f I ,i s o m i t t e d . s ' T h i s i s a n e x a m p l e f e l l i p s i s , h i c h i s q u i t ec o m m o ni n w o spoken nglish. E Also draw students' attentionto the way we can politelyrefuseto answera question, and havestudents practisesaying expression rathernot soyifyou lA the don'tmind, response questions in lil<e How muchdo to you eorn? How old ore you? or

Answers What do you doi How long haveyou been here?(So, were you here last termi) Where are you from? (You're not from here originally, t h o u g ha r e y o u i ) ,

q 1M o r e p erso n a l u e sti o n s
l<inga personal question more tentative. Let students read the examples and then play the recording once all the way through, stopping after each example so that they can practise sayingit themselves.Ask them to thinl< of two or three other ouestions that can be made more tentative using this language. Have students go around the class asl<ing other members of the class the questions they've formulated. Remind them that they may politely refuse to answer questions with l'd rother not soy,if you don't mind.

Worl<ing with the same partner, students now try to recall what they know about Jacl< and Lisa.Youcould turn this tasl<into more of a role play,where they tell each other about a person (ack or Lisa) that they've just met. Write an opening on the board to get them started: Oh, by the woy,did I tell you thot I met this interesting person the other doy?Jock, his nome wos.

11

'1

Gett ng to knor,v ou y

R o l ep l a y
F o r t h i s r o l e p l a y h a v e s t u d e n t sc h c c s e c ^ e o f t h e p e o p l e i n t h e p h o t o s .G i v e t h e m f i v e . - - - i e s ! o t m a g i n e what that person's life is like (e.g.che . o : . m a r i t a l status,family,etc.).

rra' ' -^l l v u r a r r u orcv 6'-/ 'A <- ^ , '

rl L .'

- : --

the nirrr,""- t^ Lv ^^ 5v L-udL_

. ;rel, their hair is trning . : ' : h e s e c o l l o c a t i o n sr o : - I a l s o e n c o u r a g et h e m : : : x r , u n d e r l i n i n ga n y

c o l l o c a t i o - .: '

Answers
Before students start, have them qu ck y iook rnrougn t h e l a n g u a g e t r i p o n p a g e8 f o r m o r e c e a s o f q u e s r i o n s s t o a s l <H a v e t h e m s p e n d a b o u r f i v e m r n l r e s w i t h . a n o t h e r s t u d e n r b e f o r e s p e a k i n g o s o m e o n e e l s e .G o r a r o u n d t h e c l a s sy o u r s e l f ,m o n i r o r i n g a n d c o l l e c r i n g e x a m p l e so f d i f f i c u l t i e s o g o o v e r w h e n r h e y ' v ef i n i s h e d . t

l.give 2 ^ Picture .: A P i c t u r e :: : B PictureC. : . Picture . :D

). go

-- bomeworl< "
j

i'

:;

';,

: t . ] . f ' -: .

." . j 5 p e a K r n g I (The secretof success)
T h e p u r p o s e o f r h i s r e a d i n gr e x t i s f o r s t u d e n t s t o reflecton waysthacwill help them in their language l e a r n i n g . r i s a l s o a c h a n c ef o r t h e m t o h e a r a b o u t t h e l methodology behindthis Coursebook. Begin by having students complete the five sentence s t a r t e r s i n d i v i d u a l l y ,n d t h e n h a v e t h e m s h a r e t h e i r a ideas with a partner. Ask several students to tell the c l a s ss o m e o f t h e i r i d e a s .P o i n t o u t t h a t t h e s e s e n t e n c e starters are useful for giving advice. Encouragestudents to record the patterns and a few examples,either their own or those they see in the reading text, into their notebooks. E x p l a i nt h e r e a d i n gt a s k a n d t e l l s r u d e n c s o t r o w o r r y n a b o u t u n d e r s t a n d i n g v e r y r h i n gW h e n t h e y h a v e e . f i n i s h e dg e t t h e m i n s m a l lg r - o u p so d ; s c - s sr ^ e i , . , t r e a c t i o n s G i v e t h e m a f e w s e n t e n c es a a r - r e T s r h e . on board: I thought the odviceobout ... wos very usefui . . . I'm not sure I ogree with ...'s odviceabout . . . I don't reolly understond the advice obout ... I didn't understondwhot helshemeont by '...' A l l o w s t u d e n t st o s p e n d s o m e t i m e t a l l < i n gn g r o u p s i b e f o r e d i s c u s s i n gh e i r i d e a sa s a c l a s s T h i s i s y o u r t . chance to reinforce some of the advice in the reading text and to see their reaction ro these l<indsof ideas.lf s t u d e n t s a s k a b o u t c o l l o c a r i o n y o u c a n e x p l a i nr h a t t h e , next tasl< ill dealwith it in more detail. w

t

^

Once stude.:. - time tall<in:: : ,g r a n s u a g ee a - - - : l collocations - :' . s o m e t h i n gr - r - . - ^^i^r PvilrL +L^. LrtdL - .: _-:

s i n g l e w o r c : : .- : t r a n s l a t et l - e . : : moke o me::

. : . - : : a s k ,s p e n d a s h o r t - : -ow i t w i l l a f f e c tt h e i r '- :: :- rk of examples f o : -:: :: showthat it is not : ' : . ^ R e i n f o r c eh e t ' - .:s ,n u n i t s b i g g e rt h a n : '- . : r.:rld b e d i f f i c u l tt o - -' ::r :f tO translate

T e ls t u d e n : : : - , r " : - ' . - . - - : : ^ a t r s t e n f o r l c o l l o c a t , o - . '- - : : : .' : .:::.-f,om
. qUeStlOnS::-: :

W h o t o r e. r ' : , ' : Canyou,: : -' ' : g / st h l s ! ' : , - :- , . , i ' . c T e ls t u d e - : , : - . . , - : l : theirnore:::.,:-.j. collocata-: - - - :' t a l k a b o " : : : : : :- : findcon -: - : D e m o n s t r : : =: . . c o l l o c a t i o - .t : ' ' . -. . :::-:rywordin

: - _ : , : : : . t u n t t yt o : -' :, =-i howto : adlective - ::rearS in the i . : - S S Ua r e e

C l a s s r o o lm n g u a g e a
T-: t::-s ^e"a ! :- ---:
Stul3'-iS:l :: :-: :-:

-:: :' :- -.: ,::-=^

:e asl<ing

-=l:_":':

l:_::ntS Can

^ work r:;:,: , :- :-: --f,:c- i::.- -.:3..:.ecl<ing t h e a n s w e r sa c w a m e f o r t n e : : : : i t t : : " t : t J l l r d l t o . d i s c u s sh e s e i d e a s . t

l

Answers l.e. 2.a. 3.b. 4.f.5.c. 6d

i C o m m o nv e rb co l l o ca ti o n s
T h i s e x e r c i s eh e l p s s t u d e n t s u n d e r s t a n dt h e c o n c e p t o f c o l l o c a t i o na n d h o w i t s h o u l d p l a y a n i m p o r t a n t p a r r I n t h e i r l a n g u a g ee a r n i n g . l Have students work through the tasl<first, and checl< their answers.You may need to explain that if you asl< someone to giveyou o hond you are asking them to help

Y o u m i g h t w a n t t o p o i n t o u t t h e p a r r e r n sr o e x p r e s s reasons: do this so thot you (con) do thot do this to do thot

12

1 Gettlng know you to

Ask students to use these patterns to tall<about some of t h e t h i n g s t h e y d o i n l e a r n i n ga l a n g u a g eF o r e x a m p l e : . I alwoys write new vocabuloryon note cords ond carry them oround,so thot I con test myself when |m on the bus.

To helo students understand the use of the two tenses visually, draw a big empty square on the board. Tell them t h a t t h i s i s g o i n g t o b e t h e o p e n i n gs c e n eo f a m o v i e . Ask them to suggestthe time of year and day (e.9. spring, late afternoon), and the weather (e.g.sunny). Have them suggestsome background actions (e.g.birds singing, clouds drifting) and draw these. Then have students suggestsome everyday activities for a person (e.g.sitting on a parl<bench, reading a book). Draw a person doing this. Next, explain that you want something . u n u s u a lo r i m p o r t a n t t o h a p p e ns u d d e n l y H a v e s t u d e n t s make some suggestionsand choose one to draw on the board (e.g. a swarm of killer bees appeared).Now tell the story. For example: It wos o nice spring ofternoon in o quiet town. The sun wds shining, the birds were singing.A few clouds were slowly drifting ocrosso deep blue sky.Our hero wos sitting on o pork bench,reodingo book,when oll of o sudden, huge o sworm of killer bees oppeored.

A q u i c kq u i z
This tasl<focuses on some more important aspects of learning:pronunciation and grammar. lt's probably best to do each part step by step, allowing students to quicl<ly compare answers when appropriate. Again, at the end, spend some time talking about how each part relates to students' own languagelearning. For the first part, you may want to tall<about how stress is conveyed in English.For some languagegroups, a lot of practice is needed in lengtheningstressed syllablesand s h o r t e n i n g u n s t r e s s e d y l l a b l e s u s i n ga r u b b e r b a n d t o s stretch out on the stressed syllablescan help. For the last parc,you could asl<students to tall<about the differencesin oairs.

M atching
T h i s e x e r c i s eh e l p s s t u d e n t s d e v e l o p a g r a m m a r r u l e o r g u i d e l i n eb a s e do n t h e e x a m p l e si n t h e t a s l <H a v e . . s t u d e n t sw o r l < i n d i v i d u a l l y n t h e m a t c h i n gt a s l <W h i l e o going through the answers,asl<a few questions focusing . o n t h e l a n g u a g e s e d i n t h e s e n t e n c e sF o r e x a m p l e : u on Whot or who elsecon'turn up'? (,myex-husbondlwife, old friendl Aport from noodles ond coffee,whot e/se con you (or the cot) knock over? (o vose,my wine) 'do' Con you think of some more householdtosks that we use do with? (e.g.do the loundry,do the hoovering, the gordening) What would you do if youA missedyour girllboyfriend's birthdov? Has onyone ever found somethinginterestingdown the bock of the sofo? Then get pairs of students to practise the examples,with one person sayingthe first half of the sentence and the other person sayingthe second half of the sentence.You may want to tall<about the unstressed pronunciation of wos in the Dast continuous before students do this.

Answers m s l . c o l l o c a t i o ne m b a r r a s s e d i s t a l < e u r n a m e 2. accent, desiSn, whereabouts coast, t: 3 . c h o c o l a t e w o s y l l a b l e s ;y l l a b l eh r e e s y l l a b l e s ; t: s five vocabulary: syllables vegetable: three syllables; hereZ refersto the future 5. a.How longore you stoying (from this time forward),while How longhoveyou been here? connects the Dastto now (from when you first arrivedhere to now). b. /'vebeenstudying English sixyeorsindicatesan for uninterrupted actionor stateand tells us that E t h e p e r s o nh a sb e e ns t u d y i n g n g l i s h studying years, while I'vebeen continuously six for yeorson and ofl indicatesan English six for interruptedactionor stateand tells us that the tool<a breal< here and there. Derson what usedto asl< c.Whot do you do?is usually while Whot ore you someonedoes for a living, someoneto explain is usedto asl< doing? usually .their actionsat the moment of speal<ing.

Answers
l r f

|. c.

2 .d .

3 .a . 4 . b .

5 .g .

6 .h .

7 .e .

8 .f .

'. : '.1 -rl ^ Past simple and pastcontinuous
cwo tenses are used in the context of storytelling.The past continuous is typically used to show the background of a story, while the past simple is used for the main action. Let students read through the first sentence and underline examples of the two tenses.Checl<that they can see how the past continuous is formed (woslwere+ -ing form) and that they l<now told is the past simple form of tel/.Then go over the explanation and the two examples together. Have students identifv the two tenses here too.

S t u d e n t sc a n t h e n c o m p l e t e t h e t h r e e ' g r a m m a r r u l e s ' . Go over these as a class.Youmay want to draw a t i m e l i n e o n t h e b o a r d t o v i s u a l l yr e p r e s e n t t h e interruption concept in the third'rule'. Encourage students to transfer a few examples from this page c.rf the Coursebool< into their notebool<s.Youcould point out a few other examples of useful languagehere, too: knock ... all over ... , knock ... the other doy,accidentolly
OII.

't3

I Gett ng to I now you

Answers l. (past) onrinuous c 2. (past) imple s 3. (past) ontinuouspast) imple c (, s

practice
O n e w a y r o e t : . c o r h i s t a s l <i s t o t e l l t h e c l a s sa f. p e r s o n a ls t c , ' : ' ! 3 . r 1 ' s e l U s e o n e o f t h e p r o n t o t s a n d h a v et h e c l a s s s : e ^ a n d a s l < o u q u e s r i o n s . f p o s s i b l e , y l r e c o r d y o u r s : . - " s : r h a t y o u c a n g e r t h e c l a s sr o l i s t e n a g a i nf o r ? r / u S - i - l . l g u a g ey o u u s e d . W r i t e a n y e x p r e s s i o n s r : - e : : : r d . G i v e s t u d e n t st i m e c o p l a n o h o w t h e y a r e i : - : : 3 : e t h e i r s t o r i e s .D r a w t h e i r attention to hcy, :^: s:lr es start in 3 Practice. Write a possible tarte'':- :^: board: s '. One of the strons'e-.: - - is: ulost frighteningthlngs thot hos e v e rh o p p e n e d o . ' ' : - : : : : ^ , e d w h i l eI w o s . . . t O n c e s t u d e n t sa r e - e : : . . : e : r h e m t o m o v e a r o u n d t h e c l a s s t, e l l i n g t h e i r s t c - : : : : e r c h o t h e r .T h e y s h o u l d t e l l t h e i r s t o r y t w o o r r i - . : : ^ - € s r o d i f f e r e n tp e o p l e . E x p l a i nt h a t t h e y w i l e - - : - : , r g t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e e a c ht i m e . W r a p u p b / : : : _ : : ^ . w b o h a d t h e b e s t s t o r y ,a n d d e a l i n g i r h : - . . - : _ : : e d r f f i c u l t i e s . w Follow-up You could use the photogr::-: :: :-: borlom of page | 3 t o d e v e l o pa r o l e p l a y H a u e s : . - : : - : : : - c o s e o n e o f t h e . p e o p l ei n t h e p i c t u r e sa n d : . . . : : I s : : . - y b a s e do n o n e of the prompts in the 4 Free pracrice. A rernatively, y o u c o u l d h a v ec h e m w r i c e : - c r : : . . ]

H e r e s t u d e n t sc a n a p p l y t h e ' r u l e s ' t h e y f o r m e d i n 2 Matching to the following tasl<. Have students worl< in p a i r s o r i n d i v i d u a l l y e f o r e c h e c l < i n gh e i r a n s w e r s .D o b t this by reading the completed version of each text to the class. Then have students practise telling the stories co each other. You may need to tall<about the phrasal verb end up and how it is often useo to express a resurc.

Answers l. Skiing a.went b. brol<e c. was going d. realised e . T r i e d f . e n d e du p g . b r o l < e h . e n d e du p

2. Going home on the bus
a.was going b.got c. sat d. started e.Tried f. got g. gaveup h. changed i. started j. was

3 . A stupid thing to do
a .h a p p e n e d b .w a s l i v i n g c . w a s w a r c h i n g
I d. was enjoying e. decided f. wanted g.Turned h. asked i. stared j. realised k. felt

Real English Tall< about this beforestudentsdo 4 Free practice. Draw students'attention the Datternand havetnem to mal<e senrences basedon the picturesat the bottom of p a g e| 3 .Y o u c o u l dh a v e h e m c o m e u p w i t h o t h e r t e n d i n g s s w e l l .F o r e x a m p l e : a I wosin the middleof changing boby's the noppywhenmy wife onnounced she wos pregnont thot ogoin. E n c o u r a gs t u d e n t so r e c o r da c o u p l eo f e x a m p l e sn e t i their notebool<s.

14

Unit overview
General topic Free-time activities and strangehobbies Reading A G e r m a nw o m a nc o l l e c t s h i n ae l e p h a n t s . c Language input . activities: Expressions tall<ing for about evening I juststoyed and wotchedTV.went out for in I dinner. etc. join o club, Collocationswith club:o bridgeclub, etc. a member the locoltennis of c/ub, I Vocabulary tall<ing for about interests: like onything ... . I'm a big boseball I try to go to by fan. I the gym whenever con. etc. l've per{ectcontinuous Present and pastsimple: How long beenploying tennisnow for oboutfiveyears. did you do that for? Time expressions: quitea whilenow,forages for now,etc. about recent Present oerfectcontinuous tall< to activities: I've beenlooking ofter the kids the lastfew months. Language strip Use the language strip as a way to leadin to the unit. Asl<students lool<quicl<ly to throughthe list and find a n ye x p r e s s i o n s a t t h e y c o u l du s et h e m s e l v e E.x p l a i n th s that in this unit they will learnwaysof asl<ing tall<ing and about free-timeactivities. Encourage them to choose i g s o m ee x p r e s s i o nis t h e s t r i pt h a t l o o l < n t e r e s t i na n d n to find out more about them. U s e t h e l a n g u a gs t r i p l a t e ro n i n t . h i s n i t f o r a s m a l l u e group tasl<. Ask students imagine that they are at a to party and are talkingto someonethey find really t i n t e r e s t i n g .n t h e i r o w n ,t h e y s h o u l dt h e n c h o o s e h e O e x p r e s s i o n s e y t h i n l < i g h tb e u s e di n s u c ha th m w c o n v e r s a t i o n . T h c a nt h e n s h a r et h e i r i d e a s i t h o t h e r ey m SrouP emDers. You might needto explainsome of the following exoressions: . You might say/ suppose o bit boring, reollyto say I'm y e . t h a t y o u d o n ' t t h i n l < o u d o a n y t h i n g x c i t i n gF o r work. example: don'thaveonysPore I I work, time. work, I'm o bit boring, reolly ' You asl< you beenup to?to find out what Whot've F s o m e o n e a sb e e nd o i n gr e c e n t l y . o r e x a m p l eI: h you hoven't seenyou for ages.Whot've beenup to? . usually lf you workout,you do some physical exercise, in a gym.

that Remindstudents record any of the expressions to they lil<e their notebool<s. in Lead in Leadin to the first tasl< aslcing classa few by the qu e s t i o n s : What do you do in your free time? Do.you hoveonyfreetime? Whot wouldyou do if you hod more free time? you do lf youhod o couple hoursto sPare, whatwould of with them?

Eveningactivities
Use the pictures to find out whether anyone does or would lil<eto do any of the activities shown. Tell the class a liccle bout yourself, oo. a t This exercise gives students ways of tall<ingabout what they did in the evening.Introduce the first tasl<by asl<ing t h e m t o g u e s sw h a t y o u d i d l a s t n i g h t .T h e n a s k t h e m Then go over the three patterns about their evenings. b e f o r e h a v i n gt h e m c o m p l e t e t h e s e n t e n c e s l - 1 5 . Before you checl<their answers,model some of the patterns so that students can hear where you pause and which words you stress.Have them follow your p r o n u n c i a t i o nw h e n g i v i n gt h e i r a n s w e r s T h e n a l l o w . t h e m a c o u p l e o f m i n u t e st o d e c i d ew h i c h o f t h e a c t i v i t i e sa r e ' n o t h i n g m u c h ' . P o i n t o u t t h e e x p r e s s i o n s hove on early nightand toke it eosy. Ask students what, for them, constitutes an early night and tal<ingit easy.You might also want to asl<them to find any verb * noun c o l l o c a t i o n st h e y f i n d i n t e r e s t i n ga n d r e c o r d t h e s e i n their notebool<s.

Answers l.b. 2.a. 3.b. 4.c. 5.a. 6.b. 7.c. 8.a 9.b. 10.c. I l.a. 12.c. 13.a.l,4.a. 15.c. 'Nothing l m u c h 'a c t i v i t i e s,:2 , 5 , 8 , I l , | 3 , l 4

For the next tasl<, model the example conversation with one student.Then tal<ethe other part and repeat the conversation with another student. Students can then p r a c t i s et h e i r o w n c o n v e r s a t i o n s n p a i r s .H a v e t h e m d o i a few examples before getting two pairs together to oerform their conversations for each other.

15

:. ,1 _ ,..'.1 Freepractrce

For this activity,get students to stand up and wander around, aslcing each orher about what they did last night. Write some examples of questions that they can asl<on the board before they start. For example: Did you do onything interesting lost night? Did you do onything speciol lost nightT Did you do onything much lost night? Wrap up by getting students to tell you about the most popular, most interesting and most unusual activity. I
. i _:

A n u n u s u ah o b b y l ( An inter viewwith Fr itzi)
L e a d i n t o t h e r e a d r n gt e x r b y t a l k i n ga b o u t h o b b i e s i n g e n e r a l , n d t h e n a s k n g i f a n y o n e h a d a n u n u s u a lh o b b y a w h e n t h e y w e r e a c h i d , a n d w h e t h e r t h e y s t i l l l < e e pi t u p . Rememberto talk a litrle bit about yourself, oo. Go t t h r o u g h t h e i n t r o d u c r i o n t o r h e r e a d i n gt e x t a n d s e t t h e interview task. Have a few students tell you what they've c o m e u p w i t h b e f o r e l e r t i n gt h e c l a s sr e a d t h e t e x t . Before moving on to che nexr rask, play the recording of the interview so scudenrs an hear how the language c s o u n d sa s t h e y r e a d a l o n g .

i F o l l o w-u pq u e sti o n s
. r

It's important to point out that dialogues on't usually d c o m p r i s e j u s t a q u e s t i o na n d r e s p o n s e . t i s a g o o d i d e a l to generally encourage students to use follow-up questions to keep conversationsgoing.Also, when you a s k y o u r c l a s sq u e s t i o n so r g i v e t h e m e x a m p l e conversations,try to add follow-up questions,too. Here students see some ways to follow up the conversations they had in 2 Free practice. Play the recording as students fill in the gaps.Replay the recording and stop after each question so students can practise sayingthem with the same stress and intonation pattern. Then have them work in pairs, matching the responses to the questions.Point out that there are two responsesfor each question. After students have checked their answers,say all the responses for the class and have students practise them, especiallythe way o// 'd.'and rightin q u i t eo b i t i n ' e . ' a r e s a i d t o g i v e t h e appropriate meaning.Finish off by getting pairs of s t u d e n t st o p r a c t i s ea s k i n ga n d a n s w e r i n gt h e q u e s r i o n s .

Speaking
Have the original pairs of students confirm how many of their questions were answered before getting them to talk to another parrner about how Fritzi answered their questions. emindthem to use their own words ratner R than l<eepreferring to the text.

Speaking
Here srudents tall< about differentl<inds clubsand of what they might be interested joining. in Beforehaving students worl<on this task,you may needto explain some of the clubsin the box.A bridge c/ubis a club where peoplego to playthe card gamebridge. o In deboting c/ub, peoplearguein a formal way for one of two sides f an issue. o One way to do thesecasks to havestudents is worK on the first two individually beforegettingthem to share their answers with a partner. Then givethem a few m i n u t e s o t h i n k a b o u tt h e t h i r d t a s k . r i t e s o m e t W examplesenrence starterson the board to help them exPress their reasons: It'so greotploce ... to You'll reollyenjoythe ... It'sa fun woyto ... It'll be goodfor your... S t u d e n t s a nr h e nw a l k a r o u n dt h e c l a s st,a l k i n g o o u t c a t h e i r c l u b . Y o u o u l ds u g g e stth a r t h e y s t a r t b y t a l k i n g c a b o u tw h a t t h e y d i d l a s tn i g h t F o r e x a m p l e : . A: What did you do lostnight? B: Oh,I went to my web design club. A: Oh,yeoh. How often youdo thot,then? do B: Everyweek. o greot club. Youshouldjoin. ,. /ti

Answers | . often 2. long 3. that 4. very 5. any 6. any |. e. 2 .a . 3 .f . 4.6. 5 .c . 6 .d .

You could also asl< students discuss to what the conversations about.For example, b. might be a are 4. c o n v e r s a t i oa b o u ta c l u o . n

Freepractice
Here students have the opportunity to practise some of the languagefrom the previous exercises. After they have m a d e t h e i r l i s t ,g i v e t h e m a m i n u t e t o l o o k t h r o u g h t h e examples of follow-up questions. Remind students to invent some fun activities if they just stayed in last night. Again,get students to have conversations with several people.You might wanr ro join in yourself. Before movrng on to the next task, give students a few minutes to add any expressions that they like to their notebool<s.

vocabutary focus i(lil1
In this tasl<, students are introduced to several useful expressions to talk about what they do in their free t i m e . H a v e t h e m w o r k i n d i v i d u a l l y r i n p a i r s ,u s r n g o dictionaries where necessary, before going through the answers.

1, 16

2 Free me t Doesonyone hereknowhow to do web design? Doesonyone do korote? Whot otheroctiyities we use'do'with? chi, (toi con origomi) Whot otherexpressions l'm off' ore commonly with' usedto (l'm soywe ore leoving go sonrewhere? off to work,I'm off to nome) ls onyone herequiteo goodrunner? How obouto good ployer? basketboll football or
Answers Then have students go bacl<and find sentences to say about themselves or that they can adapt.Ask several students to tell you what they have come up with and write their sentences on the board.You may want to draw students' attention to the expressions reodllike onythingbylonloboutand thot kind ofthing. l. H o w l o n g h a v ey o u b e e n d o i n g t h a t , t h e n ?

Answers L a.get given b. fairs c. album d. spare e. swap 2. a. novels b. anything c. anything by on d. browsing 3. a. pool b. fifty lengths c. front crawl d. sauna 4 . a .a n y t h i n g y b . t r a c l <c . a l b u m d . g i g s e . b a n d b 5. a.fan b. support c. games d. stadium 6 . a .f i t b .g y m c . r u n n i n g a c h i n ed . w e i g h t s e . c l a s s m

2 . H o w l o n g h a v ey o u b e e n d o i n g t h a t , t h e n ? 3. How long did you do that for,thenl 4 . H o w l o n g d i d y o u d o t h a t f o r ,t h e n l 5. How long have you been doing that, chenl 5. How long did you do that for, then?

f I , : " ' - " " " . : J

" : f i : : " * '

f ' l ' t f r -

-

.

Presentperfect continuous
The focus in this section is on how the present perfect c o n t i n u o u si s u s e d t o t a l l <a b o u t o n g o i n g a c t i o n s t h a t started in the past,while the past simple is used to tall< about completed past actions.The use of the present perfect continuous to tall<about recent activities is also c o v e r e d .W h i l e w o r l c i n gt h r o u g h t h i s s e c t i o n ,r e m i n d s t u d e n t st o r e c o r d w h o l e e x p r e s s i o n s s e x a m p l e so f a t h e t w o t e n s e si n t h e i r n o t e b o o l < s . Lead in to the first tasl<by tall<ingabout something you u s e d t o d o a n d s o m e t h i n gy o u d o n o w . F o r e x a m p l e : / used to be reolly into rock climbing.I did it for obout three yeors before I fell ond broke my leg.I gove it uP ond storted sci/rnglnsteod.l've been doing it pretty regulorly sincethen. Then have students look at the two examoles and checl< t h a t t h e y u n d e r s t a n dt h a t a i s p a s t s i m p l e a n d b i s present perfect continuous before lool<ingat the two example conversations.Youmay want to tall<a little a b o u t h o w t h e p r e s e n t p e r f e c t c o n t i n u o u si s f o r m e d a n d C r a w a t i m e l i n e o n t h e b o a r d t o v i s u a l l yr e D r e s e n tt h e examples.

,l Pr onunciation: soundinginteres ted
I

A lot of the meaning is conveyed by the way we say something.Say the first example with different intonation patterns and pitch levels and asl<students to tell you what emotion they convey (boredom, impatience, s u r p r i s e a n d s u s p i c i o na r e p o s s i b l ee x a m p l e s )T h e n p l a y . the recording and have students practise the intonation and pitch level for sounding interested before gerring them to Dractisethe conversations in 2 Practice in o a ir s .

t-.

I I rme expreSSrons
. *t" .t't., for andsinceare usedwith the presentperfect continuous. lthough A these two words are frequently used with the present perfect, they are used with other tenses too'.for is used t o d e s c r i b ea l e n g t h o f t i m e a n d i s c o m m o n w i t h o t h e r tenses (e.9. I worked for obout three yeors, I'll be here three more months); since means starting from a point in the p a s t a n d c o n t i n u i n gu n t i l n o w o r a n o t h e r p o i n t i n t h e past and is usually used in perfect tenses (e.g./ wos feelingexhousted becouseI'd been working non-stop since the stdrt of the month\. Another rule that students may have learnt is that floris u s e d w i t h p e r i o d s o f t i m e a n d s i n c ew i t h p o i n t s o f t i m e . T h i s i s c e r t a i n l yo n e w a y o f l e a r n i n gt h e d i f f e r e n c e b u c , e n c o u r a g es t u d e n t st o a l s o l e a r n t h e s e w o r d s i n l a r g e r phrases.Suggestthat they have a page in their notebool< where they collect for and sinceexpressions.After having s t u d e n t sc o m p l e t e t h e t a s l <a n d c h e c l < i n gh e i r a n s w e r s , t t e l l t h e m t o g o b a c l < n d u n d e r l i n et h e c o m p l e t e t i m e a e x o r e s so n s . i

C o n v e r s a t i o n I i s l i l < eb ( p r e s e n t p e r f e c t c o n t i n u o u s ) . C o n v e r s a t i o n2 i s l i l < e ( p a s t s i m p l e ) . a

j Practice
i

- lhis exercisestudents , can applywhat they noticed in I Present perfect continuous and past simple to : ^ e d i a l o g u e sS t u d e n t sc a n w o r k b y t h e m s e l v e s i r s t . f ::fore comparing their answers with a partner. Asl< : - e s t i o n s f o c u s i n go n s o m e o f t h e o t h e r l a n g u a g e s y o u a : - e c k t h e i r a n s w e r s .F o r e x a m o l e :

17

2 F f e et m e

Answers The wrong time expressions are: l . w h e n I w a s a t h i g hs c h o o l 2. two yearsago 3. when I wasin Canaoa 4 . w h e n I w a sa k i d 5. last month 6. beforemy computerdied 7. agesago 8. two years ago The two words associated with the presentperfect are for and since.

Answers l. I've been working a lot of overtime recently.

2. I've been revising for my exams for the last few weeks. 3. I've been doing my flat up for the last month. 4 . I ' v e b e e n s o r t i n g o u t m y s u m m e r h o l i d a yf o r t h e last few days. 5. I've been lool<ingafter the l<idsfor the last few months. 6. I've been trying to find a new job recently.

This exercise givesstudents the chance personalise to the language from the previous exercises. Beforethey start completing the sentences, for a few examples ask of thingsthat we ploy, and go (to) andwrite them on the do board: play + football, piono bridge,the do + korote,webdesign,folk doncing go + to doncec/osses, seef/ms, running to For the secondtask,givean exampleof the kindsof questions students could ask.Do the first one as an examDle with a student: A: I've beenleorningEnglish and off for thirteenyeors. on B: Thirteen yeors.Thot'so long time.How old wereyou whenyou started? A: Eleven, think. I B: ls it commonto stort leorning thot oge? ot A: /t usedto be.Now o lot of childrenstortleorningEnglish of six or seyen. .,,1

Refer students to rhe Real English note on l've been busy -ing. Ask them to reformulate the answers in 6 Talking about recent activities using this srructure. You could also teach them the expression long time,no see,which would also be appropriate in this context. Then have pairs of students practise the conversarrons, encouraging them to keep each conversation going with follow-up questions.

Follow-up A s a f o l l o w - u p t o t h i s u n i t , a s l < t u d e n t st o t h i n k o f a s strange hobby and to write it on a slip of paper.Collect a l l t h e s l i p s ,m i x t h e m u p a n d h a n d o u t a s l i p t o e a c h student. Tell them that they have this strange hobby and that they are going to be interviewed about it. Get the students in pairs to role-play interviews with each other, l i l < e h e o n e w i t h F r i t z i o n p a g e 1 6 .I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e t questions used in the text, write some other ideas on the board: What mode you stort collecting ? ... Whot's so interestingobout . .. ? Hove you been doing it long? Don't people find it odd? What do your friends say obout it? O n c e s t u d e n t s h a v e p r a c t i s e dt h i s i n p a i r s ,g e t t h e m r o perform their interviews in bigger groups.

.:,.. Talkineabout recentactivities r " ."",1 . 1
The presentperfectcontinuous also usedto talk is about recentactionsthat havebeen happening over an extendedperiod of time. lt is thereforecommon to use it in answers the questionWhot hoveyou beenup to7 to Go throughthe exampleand havestudents pracrise saying with you,reminding it them to usethe contracted form /'ye. you go throughthe answers, As point out the usefulverb * noun collocations: workovertime, revise for my exoms,do flot up, lookofter the kids,tryto frndo my newjob.Ask students what doing o flot might involve up (e.9.fixingthings, pointing wol/s). the

18

Unit overview
General topic Holidays and places visit. to Dialogue Roseand Stevetalk about their holidayplans. Language input . Vocabulary describe and holiday holidays to went wolking activities: had o weekin Poris.We We etc. quiteo lot.lt was reolly goodvoluefor money. Thingsyou can rent and hire: rent o cor,rent o flot, hire o bike.etc. Expressions with ploce: a greotploceto go skiing. /t's I couldn'tfind a placeto park. etc. Hoveyou ever Present perfectand past simple: wontedto.The beento lbizo?No,but l've olwoys scenery wosfontostic. etc. Positionof adverbs: We'vejustheordthe news. I We'veolwoysbeengood friends. reollydon't likeit. but Contrastivestress:No, neve4 I hovebeento Hong Kang.Yes, I have,octuolly.

You say/t'stime we had o breokwhen you want to go We've awaysomewhere relax.For example: to been lot recently. think it'stime we hod a breok. I workingo Lett go owoyfor the weekend. the exampleabove, In noticethat after we saylt'stime,we use a pasttense to tall< about the present/future. you lf a holidayis selfcotering, do the cool<ing yourself. meansyour You're littlered on the shoulders o y s h o u l d e r a r e s l i g h t l y u n b u r n- m a y b e o u d i d n ' t s s t u s ee n o u g h u n c r e a m ! s
Remind students to record any of the expressions that they lil<ein their noteboolcs. Lead in T o l e a d i n t o t h i s u n i t , t e l l s t u d e n t sa b o u t o n e o f t h e b e s t holidays you have ever had or one of the worst. Encouragethem to asl<you questions.Then asl<them to recall any interesting expressions you used and wrice if them on the board. Follow up by asl<ing a few students w o u l d l i k e t o t e l l t h e c l a s sa b o u t a h o l i d a ye x p e r i e n c e .

. . .

. .

Language strip Use the language strip as a way to lead in to the unit. Ask students lool<quicl<ly throughthe list and find to any expressions that they might haveusedabout a h o l i d a yh e y h a v eb e e no n . E x p l a i nh a t i n t h i s u n i t t h e y t t will learnwaysof asl<ing talkingabout holidays. and n E n c o u r a gte e m t o c h o o s es o m eo t h e r e x p r e s s i o nis h the strip that look interesting and to find out more a b o u tt h e m . U s e t h e l a n g u a gs t r i p l a t e ro n i n t h i s u n i t f o r a s m a l l e into group task.Ask students sort the expressions to those that refer to the past (e.g.It roinedthe wholetime) Where and those that refer to the presentor future (e.g. ore you going thisyeor?). You might needto explainsome of the following expressions: . Everbeencomping? anotherexampleof ellipsis; hove is y o uh a sb e e nd r o p p e dT h i sf o r m i s c o m m o ni n . E spoken nglish. . You sayjust tokemy word for it to tell someoneto to acceptwhat you're saying without your having go into a lot of detailto explainwhy what you are saying not out is true. For example: You'll regret toking heolth just insuronce, tokemy word for it.

Speaking
f I n t h i s s e c t i o n ,s t u d e n t sf o c u s o n e x p r e s s i o n s o r them to different holiday activities.Start off by asl<ing match the sentences l-8 to the photographs A-H on page 20 as a way of checking their understanding.You may need to explain that o fortnightis short for fourteen nrghts, two weel<s. Point out the patterns here: we so went on... , we went -ing, and we hod (o fortnightin the sun). H a v e s t u d e n t sd i s c u s st h e q u e s t i o n si n p a i r s .G o o v e r the stuctures used for guessingand model their pronunciation. Explain that I reckon is an informal way of saying/ think.Then ask which of the structures shows less certaintv. (lt looks like it could be ... or somewherelike ffiot.)

Answers l.d 2 .e 3.c 4.g 5.h 6.f 7.a 8 .b

Holidayactivities til,iiii
To lead into this tasl<, divide the class into groups. Assign e a c h g r o u p o n e o f t h e h o l i d a y ss h o w n i n t h e p i c t u r e s . Ask them to brainstorm the l<indof activities someone might do on such a holiday.

19

Have students individuallymarl<the activities.You may need to explain that the locolsmeans the locol people. (You could also tell them that the locolmeans the /ocol pub in British English.)Point out rhat go clubbingrefers to dance clubs. Before students comDare answers.tall< a b o u t a n d p r a c t i s et h e s h o r t d i a l o g u e . a l < e u r e M s students hear how / is stressed in So/neither I and I'm do o f r o i dl d o n ' t . Y o u c o u l d a l s o p o i n t o u t t h a t l V e t o o c a n b e used instead of So do l. As an extension, have students form new pairs and i m a g i n et h a t t h e y h a v e j u s t b e e n o n h o l i d a yw i t h t h e i r previous partner. Tell them to role-play a conversation with a friend about their time together. Write a few expressions on rhe board to help: We hod o greot time. We got on reolly well together. We liked doing the sdme rhings. We both did our own thing. We could never ogree on whot to do. We ended up doing nothing. It wos o nightmore.

Speaking
T h e q u e s t i o n n a i r ei n t h e C o u r s e b o o l <i s m e a n t t o prepare students for the listeningtasl<. You could have the class asl<you the questions first, before they asl<each other The reporting-bacl<tasl<gives you a chance to a s s e s s o u r s t u d e n t s 'a b i l i t i e si n f o r m i n g t h e p r e s e n t y oerfect.

Vocabularypractice
The six texts here are full of useful expressions for t a l k i n ga b o u t h o l i d a y sA f t e r s r u d e n t sh a v ef i n i s h e df i l l i n g . i n t h e g a p s , g e tt h e m t o u n d e r l i n ea n y e x p r e s s i o n s h a t t they feel they could use in the future. Demonstrate what i s m e a n t b y ' t h e c o m p l e t e e x p r e s s i o n 'w i t h a n e x a m p l e from the first text: we went out on shoppingtrips (to the n t o r k e l . R e m i n d t h e m t o r e c o r d t h e s e e x o r e s s i o n si n their notebool<s. One way to help reinforce the languageis in a pair worl< activity.One person reads the text aloud, stopping at the blanl<s hile the other person tries to remember the w m i s s i n gw o r d w i t h o u t l o o l < i n g r t h e C o u r s e b o o k . H a v e a pairs of students tal<eturns reading and remembering.

Readthe instructions this tasl< for aloud (page22) to help studentspreparefor the listening activity. Ask them to listenfor the answers the two questions to that follow.Then playthe recording, mal<ing sure rhat they cover the text. Asl<them to discuss answers oairs. in mal<ing sure that studentsl<eep text coveredas they the do this.Next, let them readthe conversation you pray as the recordingagain. Students may worl<in pairsto fill in as manygapsas they can from memory.Playthe r e c o r d i n gh r o u g ho n e m o r e t i m e ,w i t h s t u d e n t s t followingrhe text, this time with pauses, thar rney can so c h e c l < n df i l l i n t h e m i s s i n s o r d s . a w lf you want students read the conversation, parts to or o f i t , i n p a i r su s et h e t a p e s c r i po n p a g el 4 8 . T h e m i s s i n g , t w o r d sa r e i n c o l o u r .
Answers l. Steve is going camping in Portugal.Rose hasn't decided yet. She may go to lbiza or Cornwall.

2. Steve hasn't been before. Rose went to Cornwall last year.She hasn't been to lbiza,but a friend has. W o r d s i n g a p si n r h e c o n v e r s a r i o n : L Whereabouts 2. rent a car

Answers l. a. stayed b. trips c. out d. wenr 2 . a .c a m p i n gb . c a m p s i t ec . w e n t d . t e n t 3. a.went b. round c. tool< d. rucl<sack 4. a. self-catering cottage c. fire d. cool<ing b. 5. a. pacl<age value c. flight d. sitting b. 5 . a .c r u i s e b . s c e n e r yc . b o r e d d . a g a i n

3 . s u p p o s e dt o b e 4. give it a try 5. cheap offers 5. a cottage 7. to be honest 8. get some sun 9. pacl<age holidays 10. worth a try

As a model for the second tasl<, tell the class about the last holiday you went on. Then give students time ro prepare to talk about their holiday.Have them praccise telling two other students.

D e p e n d i n go n y o u r c l a s s y o u m a y n e e d t o e x p l a i n a l i t t l e , a b o u t t h e p l a c e sm e n t i o n e d .l b i z a i s a n i s l a n do f f t h e c o a s t o f S p a i na n d i s a v e r y p o p u l a r t o u r i s t d e s r i n a t i o n , particularly for young British people. lt's one of the party capitals of Europe and is famous for its nightlife. Cornwall is in the southwest of England.lt is very rurar and has a lot of beaches and spectacularcoastar scenery. It often gets the warmest weather in summer.

20

3 Ho davs

Vo c a b u la ry
This exercise that focuses some of the expressions on appeared the conversation in Summer holidays. As you go throughthe answers, to ask a few more try o u e s t i o n t o h e l oe x t e n dt h e s t u d e n t s ' v o c a b u l a r i e s . s For examole: Do you prefer going or in abroodon holiday stoying your own country? Conyou think of someotherwoysto complete expression the 'l'm not exoctly here, how to onswer sure...'? (whyyou're this question, whot thisrneons) (,o Aport from o flight, o whot else con you'book'? ticket, sedt, o room) Conyou mokesomeothersentences usingthe structure 'Whot do you think the ... islore going be like?'totolk to oboutthings o holidoy? locols,the (the hotel) on food,the Havestudentsrecord the expressions that they like in their notebool<s.You needto explainthe following may expression. you giveo ploceo try or sayo plocemight lf be wortho try,you are thinkingabout visiting place a you'veneverbeento before.For example: Why don'twe givethot newThoirestouront try? l've heardit'ssupposed o to be good. Answers l . g o i n g 2 . s u r e 3 .g o i n g 4. boolced 5. rent 5 . s u p p o s e d 7 . g i v e 8 . l i k e 9. pacl<age 10.worth

I wos on holidoy Bolio few yeorsago ond my friendond I in decided hire o coupleof bikes to ond ride oroundo bit. We rodequiteo distonce from our hotelond it wosgettinglote, so we decided headhome.Whilewe wereridingfost down to thissteephill,I suddenly o cot in the roodond swerved sow to ovoidit. I endedup in o ditchwith the front wheelof the bikebroken. were milesfrom onywhere and hodn't seen We anyone the roodfor hours.We on didn'tknowwhotto do. ThenI noticed smollhouseneorthe rood.I knocked the on o doorto oskfor help.lt turnedout thot the personlivingthere wos o bicycle repoirman! He fixedmy bikeond I wos bock on the rood in no time! Explain house, that we use o villoto describe large-ish a especially southernEurope, in while o cottoge smaller is a n d f o u n d i n t h e c o u n t r y( Y o uc o u l da l s om e n t i o nw o o d . cobins the mountains cholets sl<iresorts.) in in or To follow up you could havestudents thinl< about how they would go about rentingone of thesethingsin English. Form them into pairsto write a dialogue and then role-play conversation. the

Odd one out
This is a fun activitythat not only tests students' for l<nowledge geography, introduces vocabulary of but differentolaces.You alsotall<a little about which can namesuse the.lf studentscome uo with different answers, them to explainwhy.They may be right! asl<
Answers

F i n i s h p b y a s k i n g a i r so f s t u d e n t so d i s c u s t h e l a s t p s u t three questions the exercise. they haven't beento in lf any of the places mentionedin the conversation, f b r a i n s t o r m l i s t o f o t h e r p o p u l a r o u r i s td e s t i n a t i o nls . a t they haveheardabout a placefrom a friend,they can use / t s s u p p o s etd b e . . . . W r i t e s o m ee x p r e s s i o nts o o describe laces n the board: o o it s (supposed be)o greotplacetolfor. .. to it's (supposed be)quite... to / t s / s u p p o s e d b e )v e r y. . . to /ts o bit too ... for my liking. There too monv. .. ore There oren'tenough ... You might alsowant to tell students about the negative adjective touristy describe placewith a lot of to a courists. Ask them to tell you some examples places of chathavebecometoo touristy.

a. Mexico: lt isn't a US state. (An alternative answer is NewYorl<: lt was never owned by the Spanish.) b. Shanghai: isn't a capital city. (An alternative lt a n s w e r i s B u e n o sA r i e s : l t i s n ' t i n t h e n o r t h e r n hemisphere,) c . E d i n b u r g h l: t i s n ' t i n E n g l a n dl.t ' s i n S c o t l a n d , d. The Nile: lt isn't a lal<e. a river. lt's e . K i l i m a n j a r o l: t i s n ' t a m o u n t a i n r a n g e .l t ' s a mountatn.

In the next tasl<, students worl< on how these places are p r o n o u n c e d i n E n g l i s hP l a yt h e r e c o r d i n g t w i c e , w h i l e . students marl<the stress.Then checl<their answers by having students say the names.Follow up with the q u e s t i o n s e i t h e r a s a w h o l e c l a s so r i n s m a l l g r o u p s . ,

Answers The Himal4yasThe Pyrenees Michigan Edinburgh Victoria Kilimanjaro Geneva Copenhagen SloveniaBuenos ires Chile Brussels A

Refer students to the Real English note on rent and hire before completing the speakingtask. Share a personal story about a time you rented any of these things.(This is a good opportunity to review the use of t h e p a s t c o n t i n u o u s a n d p a s t s i m p l e . )H e r e i s a n e x a m p l e story if you don't have one yourself:

21

E x p r e s si o nw i th p l a ce s
The noun p/oce occursin manydifferentexpresstons. Encourage students devotea singlepagein their to notebool<s those expressions for they find here and any others they may encounter. Havestudents worl<in pairs beforeyou checl< their answers. Ask them further q u e s t i o n a s y o u d o s o .F o r e x a m p l e : s Do you know of o goodFrenchploceneorhere? Wouldyou everinvite overto yourploce? me Where's greotploceto go surfinglcompinglscubo o diving? How longwouldyou soyesorneone's plocein a crowded coffeeshop? Wherei the bestploceto pork oroundhere? Do you leovethings overthe ploce? oll
Answers a i Possible nswers: l. a restaurant 2. Nicl<'shome 3. any sl<iresort; r S w i s sA l p s , A u s t r i a , o l o r a d o , e t c . 4 . a s e a t / p l a c e n a C i queue 5. a locl<eddrawer/a safety deposit box 6. a cottage 7. a parl<ingspace 8. a flat/house 9. the 10.a gardeniyard I floor

Answers Explanation b is true for all three examples.Both a a n d c c o u l d e x p l a i nt h e f i r s t a n d t h i r d s e n t e n c e s , respectively.

nsking r,i:ll.,rii:{ questions
Some traditional grammar bool<shave students praccise answering questions in the present perfect with just Yes, I hove or No, /'ve never beento ... .The examoles nere are more realistic.After students lool< through the examples, have them worl< individuallyadding no or yes.Then play the recording, stopping after each one to allow students to repeat the answer,following the same stress and intonation Datterns.

Answers l. No 2.No 7.Yes 8. No 3.Yes 4.Yes 5.Yes 5.No 9 . Y e s 1 0 .N o

After students have finished discussingthe second tasl<, have a few students tell their ideas to the whole class. Point out the two patterns: o (odjective)ploce to (vero1 o (odjective)ploce for o (noun) Encouragehem to record a couple of their exampies t for eachone in their notebooks.

Before moving on to the next task, have students sort t h e a n s w e r s i n t o p o s i t i v e ( 1, 2 , 4 , 6 ) , n e u t r a l ( 5 , l 0 ) a n d negative (3, 7, 8, 9). Demonstrare the speakingtasl<, with a student asl<ing you questions first. Reply using some of t h e s t r u c t u r e si n l - 1 0 . Then have students work in pairs,asl<ing each other if they've visited the places on the list. Encouragethem to tall<a little about places they've been to. Alternarively,or during a review later,write the names of the countnes o n s l i p so f p a p e r a n d h a n d o u t o n e t o e a c h s t u o e n r . Have each student find someone to asl<about the olace o n t h e i r s l i p . W h e n s t u d e n t s h a v ef i n i s h e dt a l l < i n g , e y th c a n e x c h a n g et h e i r s l i p sa n d f i n d a n o t h e r p e r s o n t o a s k a b o u t t h e p l a c eo n t h e i r n e w s l i p .

.-; -; ., l

Presentperfect:the best rule Freepractice
S t u d e n t sw i l l r e m e m b e r f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s u n i t t h a t t h e present perfect continuous is used to tall<about ongoing actions that started in the past and also.to tall<aoour recent activities.Here the basic concept of the presenr perfect as a presenr tense looking back into che pasc is rei nforced. H a v e s t u d e n t s l o o l <t h r o u g h t h e e x a m p l e si n d i v i d u a l l y a n d t h e n c h o o s e t h e b e s t e x p l a n a t i o nT h e y c a n t h e n . compare their answers with a partner before thinl<ingof other examples of the present perfect. This tasl< therefore helps students draw their own conclusron to explain the basic function of the present perfect. Finish b y d i s c u s s i n gh e i r c o n c l u s i o n s n d e x a m p l e sa s a w h o l e t a class. You may want to represent the basic idea of the present perfect visuallyon the board, along with a few of the class's xamoles. e The present perfect is often used to asl<about general experience. lf we have an experience and want to give d e t a i l s w e t y p i c a l l ys w i t c h t o t h e p a s r s i m p l e ,a s o u r , focus has shifted away from the general period of time up to now to a specific time in the pasr. G o t h r o u g h t h e e x a m p l e w i t h t h e c l a s s , e r h a p sa s k i n gi f p a n y o n e h a s b e e n o n a c r u i s e .l f s o m e o n e h a s ,a s k t h e m to give you details about it. You may need to explain that if someone goes bockpocking they are travelling independently, usually staying in cheap places and carrying everything in a backpack,while if someone goes on o pockogehotidoy, everything lil<ethe flight and accommodation is arranged by a company beforehand.You could develop this into a discussionon cruises,bacl<packing, pacl<age holidays and c a m p i n gi n g e n e r a l . Y o um a y a s k q u e s t i o n ss u c h a s t h e s e t o p r o m p t c l a s sp a r t i c i p a t i o n :

22

3 H o ld a y s

good thingslbod Whot ore some thingsobout theseholidoys? What things couldgo wrong? Whot sortof people toketheseholidays? You could also dividethe classup into four groupswith should eachgroup assigned one of these holidays.They would makethe ideal come up with reasons why theirs holiday. Finally, form smallgroupsof four made up of one personfrom eachof the originalgroupsand havethem try to convince eachother that their holidayis best.

....,.'.-,'",.1 ',,i.'l';l Pronunciation: contrastivestress
! -ir "l

This exercise givesstudents anotherexampleof how p nl t s t r e s s s u s e di n E n g l i s h r o n u n c i a t i o P. a y h e r e c o r d i n g i so students before having can hear how hoveis stressed, Then havepairsof them practiseas a classand in pairs. i s t u d e n t sa l k a b o u tt h e p l a c e sn t h e l i s t .R e m i n o t (as students providemore detailsin their responses to to in the recording), to usefollow-upquestions l<eep and going. You maywant to do the first one the conversation as an examole: A: Have vou everbeento Borcelono? B: No, never, I havebeento Modrid. but A: Oh,reolly? Whot wosit like? werereolly B: Brilliont!The weotherwosgreot,thepeople ntce. Follow-up Ask studentspreparea talk on one of the following toDtcs: The longest l've evertoken trip fhe bestholidoy everhod l've The worstholidoy everhod l've The most fun l've everhod on holidoy The bestholidov hod whenI wos o kid I what they want Havethem spendsome time preparing to say, and then get them to tell their story a few times Alternatively, bring in some travel to differentpeople. holidays and for brochures advertisements pacl<age or they adventure trips and havepairsof studentsimagine talkingabout what havegone on this holiday together, they did.They then go aroundtalkingto other people, them to join them on the same trying to convince holidaynext year.

Answers The past simplewas usedin the answer.

:.iiil Position adverbs of
The adverbs in this list are commonly, though, of course, not exclusively, used with the present perfect. Have students worl< through sentences l-6 and then check t h e i r a n s w e r s . T h e nf i n d o u t h o w m a n y p e o p l e c a n s a y they've never been to Canada or eaten squid and always liked the British or have always wanted to go to India. Asl< students what the opposite of these four sentences would be. (l've been to Conodo.I've eoten squid.l've never /iked the British.l've never wanted to go to lndia.)

Answers |. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. I've neverbeento the south of ltalv. We've just heardthe news. We've always beengood friends. l've already seenthat film twice. Haveyou seentheir new babyyet? Has she ever been marriedl

For the next activity, studentsshouldspenda few minutes tell to preparing Beforethey tall< their partner, their lists. list your personal so them about some of the thingsin they can listento the way you talk about it. Real English Draw students' attentionto how the positionof reolly First,modelthe two changes meanings sentences. of questions suchas the examples the class. for Then asl< the expressions ones below and havestudentspractise w h e n t h e y r e s p o n dF o r e x a m p l e : . Whot do you think of the weotherhere? Whot do you think of my shirt? ploy footboll? Whot do you thinkof the woy Liverpool Answers I reollydon't like it is stronger.

23

Unit overview
General topic Tall<ing about how you are feeling and what you are doing. Reading Andreafindslove when she seessomeoneshe rnew from schoolon a TV show about homeless people. Language input ' . . Talkingabout how you feel: Actuolty, feeting bit I'm o ill. To be honest, o bit fed uD.etc. I'm Expressions with get:get socked, evicted, get get pregnont,etc. Adjectiveswith two differentforms: o bit annoyed, an onnoying habit,reollystressed-out,stressfu/ job, o etc. Turningdown suggestions: notreallyin the /'m mood.I'd rother juststoyin. erc. U s i n g h e p r e s e n t o n t i n u o ut o t a l k a b o u t t c s unfinished actionsin the presentand future arrangements: looking something now. l'm e/se for Whot ore you doingloter?

'

lf someoneis not yourcup of teo,they aren'tthe l<ind of personyou find appealing. example: For Het quite nice, hei not reollymy cup of teo.I'm tooking but for someone bit more outgoing. o lf you are irritoted, are angryor annoyed. you For example:I'm reollyirritotedwith him at the moment. I lenthim my screwdriver he'sgone ond ond lost it.

'

Remindstudents record any of the expressions to that they lil<e their notebool<s. in Lead in To leadin to this unit,ask the class rhinl< different to of greetings that they'veheardin English. example: For How'sit going? How ore you? Whot'sup? Allright? How hoveyou beendoing? How haveyou been? Whot'shoppening? List them on rhe board and asl< srudents different for waysto answerthem.Asl<if they use or would use any of the greetings themselves.

' '

Language strip Use the languagestrip as a way to lead in to the unit. A s l <s t u d e n t st o q u i c l < l yo o k t h r o u g h t h e l i s t a n d f i n d l any expressions that they have or could have actually u s e d t h e m s e l v e sT h e n e x p l a i nt h a t i n t h i s u n i t t h e y w i l l . learn ways of tall<ingabout feelings.Encourage them to c h o o s e s o m e o t h e r e x p r e s s i o n si n t h e s t r i p t h a t l o o k i n t e r e s t i n ga n d t o f i n d o u t m o r e a b o u t t h e m . Use the language trip later on in this unit for a small s group task. Asl< students to sort the exDressionsinto two categories:those that might be used in a bad situation (e.g./'m reallysorry to heor thot) and rhose tnat might be used in a good situation (e.g.Whot o surprisel). Alternatively,asl<students to choose several of the expressions that are quesrions (e.g.Whott the motter?) and come up with a possible response (e.g./ii rother not tolk obout it, if you don't mind).Then asl<them to cnoose several of the expressions that are responses (e.g./,m reollysorry to heor thot) and come up with statements that might prompt them (e.g.l've just hod somebod news, My fothers been token into hosDitol.\ You might need to explain some of the following expressions: ' l f y o u a r e f e d u p , y o u a r e u n n a p p yb e c a u s es o m e r h i n g bad has been going on for a long time - or has h a p p e n e da g a i na n d a g a i na n d a g a i n . For example: l'm really fed up with this roin.

I How' s it going? I ( Theday that changedm y tife)
In this exercise,students focus on ways to answer the common greeting How's it going?Often we answer this question with OK, Not bod, or Good.However, if we feel different from this standard response and we want to tall<about it, we sometimes use octuollyor to be honest in our answer and then explain why we feel that way. Have students do the matching tasl<and checl<their answers before worl<ing with a partner on other p o s s i b l ee n d i n g s G e t t h e m t o t e l l y o u a f e w o f t h e i r . suggestions. Point out the use of octuollyand to be honest and then have pairs of students practise asking How's lt going?and answering with l-4. Model the conversarions and have the classfollow your stress and intonacion. You may wanr to practise the way How's it golng? is said lil<eone word. They can then worl< on their own conversarionsfollowing the model in the Coursebool<. Remind them that they can l<eepthe conversation going if they wish. Explain that How come ... ? is anotner way of asl<ing hy ... ? W

24

4 ree ngs . . t t ' i

Answers l.b. 2.c. 3.d. 4.a.

with I Expressions get

You could tall<about the use of sick and ill. ln the followup comment'd.', sick of means that you are extremely unhappy with something that's been going on for a long time, whereas in number l, i/l means not feelingwell. Ask students to look ar the tirle of the reading text and to suggestexamples of events that could change someone's life. Ask if anyone would lil<eto tell the class about a day that changed their life.Then explain that they will read an article about how a couple met. They s h o u l d r e a d t h e a r t i c l e a n d t h e n s h a r et h e i r r e a c t i o n s with a partner. Tell them not to worry about understanding everything.Write a few sentence starters on the board to helo: I think this is o ... story becouse... I felt reollv ... when I reod this becouse... I think they'll stoy together becouse ... I don't think the relotionshiD will lost becouse . .. After students have discussedtheir reactions,play the recording and let them listen and read at the same time. They can underline any expressions they find interesting, either while or after they listen.You might want to poinc out that there are several expressions dealing with emotions and feelings.Have students compare the expressions they chose with a partner. Encourage them to record these in their notebool<s.

Refer students to the Real English note on get and become before doing the matching task. In this exercise, students focus on several expressions with get, many of which are negative (e.g.get killed,get evicted).lfstudents haven't done so already,encourage them to record the expressions with get on a separate page in their notebool<s.Explain that if you get evicted, you are forced to move out from the home you are renting, and that if you get socked, you are fired from your job. Ask students to give some reasons why a manager might sack someone.

Answers |.f. 2 .d . 3 .c . 4.b. 5 .a . 6 .e . 7 . h . 8 .g .

Speaking
Introduce the tasl<by telling students about the last w e d d i n g y o u w e n t t o . H a v e t h e m d i s c u s st h e q u e s t i o n s with a partner, and then ask if they would lil<eto share their thoughts with the rest of the class.

True or false?
This exercise focuses on some of the exoressions in the text. Have students worl< individuallyfirst and then c o m p a r e a n d e x p l a i n t h e i r a n s w e r s i n p a i r s .E n c o u r a g e them to use expressions in the text to support their ooinions.

H a v e s t u d e n t s s p e n d s o m e t i m e p r e p a r i n gt h e i r s t o r y before sharing it with their partner. Encourage them to add extra details that were not included in the reading text.You may want to suggestthat the person listening take an active part in the conversation by responding with comments like / see.Reo/ly? Oh,how owful as well as questions lil<eWhy wos thot?When was thot? How come? They shouldthen retell their storiesto another pair of stuoents.

Answers | . False. They met when they were at schooltogether. 2 . F a l s e . h ej u s t d i d i t o n i m p u l s e . S 3 . F a l s e . J i ma sf o u g h th a r dt o o v e r c o m e i s h h addictions. 4. False. parents Andrea's wanted her to marry someonewith money. 5 . F a l s e . J i mo e s n ' t e ei t t h i s w a y , u t e v e nn o w i t d b s still mal<es Andreaangrythe way the papersand t h e T V p r o d u c e r sr e a t p e o p l e . t

Adjectives with two different forms i::.]
Students often have problems with the -ing and -ed forms o f a d j e c t i v e sA l t h o u g h t h e y a r e h e l p e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g . a 'guidelines', set of remind them that they should learn examples of the two forms in larger phrases and Datterns. Draw students' attention to the two examoles from the t e x t a n d a s k i f a n y o n ec a n r e m e m b e r w h y A n d r e a s a i d t h e m ( s h e w a s s u r p r i s e d b e c a u s es h e b u r s t o u t c r y i n g ; the hostel was depressing).Have students discussthe questions about rules with a partner before they complete the pairs of sentences l-8.You might want to point out that we can use the -ing form interesting to describe people, too (e.g.I thoughthe wos o reolly interesting guy).

Speaking
Use thesequestions follow on from the reading tasl<. to You may needto explainthat exp/oiting someonemeans u s i n g h e m f o r s o m ep u r p o s e n d n o t g i v i n g h e m m u c h t t a in return.Ask students giveyou some more examples to o f e x p l o i t a t i o n . Y o u i g h ta l s on e e dt o e x p l a i n h a t i f m t someonefindsreligion they becomereligious.

25

As you go throughthe answers, students to tell u n d e r l i n e h o l e e x p r e s s i o nF . r e x a m p l e : m s t i l o b i t w I' l so confused got this reollyonnoying hobit.I'm obout it.He's obsolutely terrified heights. of Answers l. 2. 3. 4. 5. 5. 7. 8. a .c o n f u s e d a .a n n o y i n g a .d e p r e s s i n g a.Terrifying a .w o r r y i n g a .s u r p r i s e d a.frustrated a .b o r i n g b .c o n f u s i n g b .a n n o y e d b .d e p r e s s e d b.Terrified b .w o r r i e d b .s u r p r i s i n g b. frustrating b .b o r e d

You may needto explainthat the plot of a novelor a film plot or o simple is the story.We can tall< about o complex plot and about how o plot develops. Answers l.c. 2.a. 3.d. 4.6. 5.f. 6.h. 7.e. 8.g.

I

other .it,,'.,,'lril kindsof teelings
In this exercise,students practise ways of turning down sugSestions. Lead in by asl<ing the class to imagine they have a friend who is depressed,upset or stressed-out. T h e y s h o u l d c o m e u p w i t h s u g g e s t i o n so c h e e r t h e i r t friend up. Elicit different structures for making suggestionsand write them on the board. For example: Whv don'twe ... ? H o w o b o u t. . . ? T h e n e l i c i t d i f f e r e n tw a y s i n w h i c h t h e i r f r i e n d c o u l d politely turn down the suggestions. Explain that this exercise will present another way of making suggestions co do something together, as well as several ways to turn a suggestiondown. Have students complete the matching tasl<and then play the recording so they can checl<their answers.Play the recording again and stop after each line so students can reDeat the sentence. After students have underlined the expressions,they can practise the conversations in pairs.To help students say the phrases fluently,use this method: one person lool<s at the first suggestionand memorises it. Then they lool< up and sayit to their partner without lool<ing t the a C o u r s e b o o l <T h e i r p a r t n e r d o e s t h e s a m e w i t h t h e . r e s p o n s e . W h e n s t u d e n t s h a v ef i n i s h e d t h e y c a n s w a p , r o l e s .T h i s a l s o h e l p s t h e m p r e p a r e f o r t h e n e x t e x e r c i s e .

Students can then write their own examples for the five other adjective pairs.As they are working on this, go a r o u n d t h e c l a s sc h e c l < i n g n d h e l p i n g A s l <s e v e r a l a . students to share some of their sentences.Here are some possible answers if students asl<for them: I wos terribly disoppointedto leorn thot I hodn't got the job. I found'The Motrix Relooded'o bit disoppointing. I'm tremendouslyexcited obout working in the city. It reolly is on excitingtime to be living in London. I wos scored to deoth he would find out thot I'd /ost the brocelet he'd given me. Hong-glidingcon be o bit scary ot frrst,but you'll get used to it. He gets o/l stressed-outwhen there is a deodline to meet. Thisjob con be reolly stressful but the poy is good. I wos pretty upset by the te/evisionimogesof the wor. I found those imoges too upsetting,so I don't wotch the news. You could also tall<about some of the adverb collocations for these adjectives,lil<etremendous/y excitedin the e x a m o l ea b o v e .

Sp e a k i n g
T h e s eq u e s t i o n w i l l h e l p r e i n f o r c eh e l a n g u a gle a r n e d s t e in I Adjectives with two different forms. First,divide studentsinto pairsor smallgroups. Beforethey beginthe exercise, them some thingsthat worry or terrify you. tell You could alsotall< about habitsthat you find annoying. Teachstudents the phraseI hoteldon't it whenpeople like (spiton the street/put gum on choirslput theirfeet up on seots). smallgroupsor pairsto report backsome of Ask their ideas.

Answers l.b. 2.a. 3.d. 4.c

The expressions re: a I ' m n o t r e a l l yi n t h e m o o d I'd rather just stay in I've been on my feet all day I can't be bothered It'll tal<eages to get there

C o l l o c a ti o n s
Here the focus is explicitly on adjective + noun collocations,some of which have appeared in the p r e v i o u s e x e r c i s e sR e m i n d s t u d e n t s t h a t t h e y s h o u l d . choose the list in which all of the nouns correctly collocate with the adjectives.Once you have checked their answers,have them discussgood examples of those collocations that are new to them. As always,encourage students to record these collocations in their notebool<s,

You may need to explain a few of these expressions: ' lf you are not in the mood for something, you don't feel lil<e oing it. d ' lf you say you've been on your feet oll doy,you have been very busy and haven't had a chance to sit down and relax. lf you con't be bothered (to do something),you don't want to mal<ethe effort to do it. Refer students to the Real English note.

.

Also, point out the pattern Do you foncy + -ipgt

26

4 F e en g s l

Practice
similar conversations Students can now practisehaving them to those in 4 Other kinds of feelings. Encourage to continuethe conversation little more. Give an a examplebeforethey start: A: Do you foncy getting to something eot? B: I don't feel likeit.I'm not hungry. A: Well,how obouto drink? B: I con't be bothered. Con'twe iust stoyin ond watchTV? their go Followup by having students around mal<ing own suggestions differentmembersof the class. to
In this exercise,students apply the rules from the previous exercise to determine which function of the present continuous is being expressed.After they have finished,have them explain their answers with a Partner. T h e y s h o u l d c o m e t o t h e c o n c l u s i o nt h a t t h e e x a m p l e s referring to the future have a time phrase (loter,in the summer,tonight,ot nine o'clock tomorrow morning). Asl< them to go back and underline these phrases.Then have them practise telling each other about their plans for the weel<. You could also teach them the exDression I'm not doing onything specio/after they've finished.

Answers I . b . 2 . a . 3 .b . 9.b. 10.a. 4.a. 5 .b . 6.b. 7 .a . 8.a.

fwo usesof the presentcontinuous ;1||
Students may have learned that the present continuous is used to describe actions that are happening now Although the tense can be used in this way, it does not always hold true. When it refers to the present, it is perhaps better to think of the present continuous as d e s c r i b i n ga n u n f i n i s h e d c t i o n . a Explain the situation and talk about how the expression bump into is used to say that the two people met by chance. Play the recording and asl<students to listen for the answers to the two questions.Then find che e x a m p l e so f t h e p r e s e n t c o n t i n u o u s i n t h e t a p e s c r i p to n page | 49. Let students read the explanations of the two uses and decide which examoles from the conversation fit which category.They can then compare their answers with a partner before checl<ing with you.You might need to explain that if you pick up a friend, you meet them somewhere and then drive them in your car, and that if something happens out of the blue,it happens unexpectedly.

You may needto explainthe followingexpressions: . lf you do overtime, worl<and are paidfor hours you that exceedyour regularworl<schedule. . A shiftis a set period that employees worl<before do by beingreplaced anothergroup.For example: on extro shift,work the night shift,I hote working shifts. . lf you cover someone, do their job for them you for because they aren't at work. . lf its pouringwith roin,the rain is heavy.

and answers l:ilJ:iii Questions
l S t u d e n t s h o u l dm a t c ht h e q u e s t i o n s* 7 t o t h e appropriate answers a-g.While goingthroughthe of answers, model the pronunciation the questions, Havestudents focusing the intonationand stress. on saying the repeatafter you until they feel comforcable the can then practise Pairsof students expressions. questions You themselves. may need to and answers e e x p l a i nh e f o l l o w i n g x p r e s s i o n s : t . lf you go window you shopping, iust lool<at the goods in displayed the shop windowsfrom the street and Ask you don't go into the shopsto buy anything. s it e q u i v a l e n n t h e i r l a n g u a gie . students hatthe w . up, lf you give something you stop doing it. For I to example:l'vedecided giveup smoking. goveup woitingond went withouthim. you lf you do temping, don't worl<as a full-time work You permanent for employee a company. usually for a tempingagency and work for a short time in one placebeforemovingon to anotherplace. Answers l.c. 2 . b . 3 .e . 4 .a . 5 .g . 6 .d . 7 . f.

Answers l. They'reon holiday, are stuck inside but it's mall,because perhaps shopping somewhere, a raining. 2. Laurenis fed up with all the rain.Sheis frustrated she because wantedto get some sun.Ben feelsthe sameway. c E x a m p l eo f t h e p r e s e n t o n ! i n u o u s : s l . H o w ' si t g o i n g ? 2. So,what'reyou doing herel o 3 . A r e y o u d o i n gs o m es h o p p i n g r s o m e t h i n g ? a 4 . I ' m j u s t h a v i n g w a n d e ra r o u n d . 5. My wife'swaitingfor me. now. goingto the marl<et 6. We're actually

.

27

4 F e e ln g s

i

I F u r t h e rp ra cti ce
Get students to work in pairs with these conversations Encourage them to add a follow-up commenr like the examPre.

As students are worl<ing,go around and checl<how they are doing, helping when necessary. When they have finished,have them practise asl<ing and answering their questions with their partner. Then they should move around the class asl<ing their questions to different Peopre.

Answers Referstudents the photographs. to Checl< that tney l<nowwhat the places are and then practise the example with a student.You could use this to recyclesome of the language from the previousexercises addingmore to by the conversation. examDte: For A: Hr,Nick.How'sit goingT B: Not bod.l'm o littletired.I didn't getmuch s/eep/ost night. A: So, whot ore you doinghere?Areyou goingsomewhere? B: No, I'm just meeting friendwho'scomingto visit. o How oboutvou? A: I'm offto spendo few doysot my porents'. B: Well,thot'll nice. be A: Tobe honest, be o bit boring.Theylivein o smoll it'll villoge and there's much to do oroundthere. not Explain that if you are seeing someone, are you dating/going with them.You could also askAre you out seeing onyone the moment? at Follow-up Havepairsof students write a television interviewwith . b J i ma n dA n d r e aT h e y s h o u l di n c l u d e o t h t h e q u e s t i o n s a n dt h e c o u p l e ' s n s w e r s .h e o n l y r u l e t h a t y o u s h o u l d a T give is that they must includear leasteightadiective + noun collocations phrases or from Using vocabulary on page28.This activitywould work best in groupsof three,as students can then role-play the interviewto the classor to other groups. Possible answers: 2. Can you fix the toiletl 3. Do you fancycomingout for a drink with us after worl<? 4. Haveyou printed out those documents yeti 5. I was wonderingif you wantedto go out for dinner with me tonight? 5. Do you fancycominground ro my placefor a romantic inner? d 7. Can I see if the news is onl L Can I turn that down?

S p e a ki n g
U s e t h e q u e s t i o n sn s m a l g r o u p st o r e i n f o r c e o m eo f i l s the language from 3 Questions and answers on page 30.Also,talce this opportunityto tell studenrs story a a b o u tw h e n y o u b u m p e di n t o s o m e o n e r a b o u ta n y o experiences you'vehad doingtemp work. Let them listen to you and encourage questions. This is usefulinput for when they do the tasl< themselves.

.t " i Negative responses
In this exercise studentssee how the oresentcontinuous can be usedto explainwhy you can'tdo something. Theseexamples includeboth presentand future mean.ings. help students, To write some differentquestion starterson the board.For examole: Do you foncy...-ing7 Youcouldn't by any chonce? ... Wouldyoumind ... ? D o y o um i n di f I . . . ? I woswondering you wanted ... if to H o v ey o u. . . y e t ?

28

The reviewexercises be usedas a test.However, can 4 Look back and check and I What can you in remember? are better done as a discussion pairs

VerU i:i:,,,.:ilj collocations
. : . i

Answers l.j. 2.h. 3.a. 4.d. 5.b. 6.i. 7.c. 8.p. 9 . f. 1 0 e . . Answers 'm l. a. 'm doing b. reallyenjoying c. started d . m i s s e d e . ' v e o n l y b e e nd o i n g 2. a. Haveyou ever been b. went c. was d .w a s t r a v e l l i n g e . m e t f . A r e y o u t h i n l < i n g
'm a. are you doing b. meeting c.'re having d.'m really lool<ingforward to 've e. been planning f. haven't had

Adjectives
Answers l. 2. 3. 4. pregnant boring strong great 5. 5. 7. 8. annoying scary interesting stressful 9. awful 1 0 .s u n b u r n t

I
I

t -

. ' ."1 and answer s Ouestions
.1 _

I G r a m m a rre vi e w
Answers Answers l . f . 2 . b . 3 .h . 9 .c . 1 0 . . i 4 .d . 5 .e . 6 . a . 7 . j . 8 .g .

t. 7. 3. 4.

when boring going for

5. 5.
6.

have you been I'm using I was living did you do

'ili,,,,liiil can you remember? what
Answerswill vary.

Answers I I I I i i A: Haveyou ever beento Brazil? B: No, I've never beenanywhere SouthAmerica. in No, I haven't finished writing this yet. Yeah, just seenher in the coffeebar. I've No, I'vealready seenit, I'm afraid. I can'tbelieve you'venever beenabroad! I don't l<now. always I've been into it, I suppose.

Commonexpressions iri,,,i:.i.l
I

Answers L g i v e n 2 . m a l < e s3 . m o o d 4 . f a n c y 5 . w o u l d n ' t 6. give 7. tool< 8. grew 9. exactly 10.fan Answersor I l-14 will vary. f

L o o k b a c ka n d ch e ck
-s'vers will vary.

29

Answers Possible answers: How old are you?How much do you earnl Are you married? Do you haveany brothersor sisters?

3 . Words that are commonlyusedtogether. 4. T i d y i t u p . 5 . Possible answers: tool<it easy, reada book,did my
homeworl<. 6 . P o s s i b la n s w e r s h e c i n e m ac h u r c ha c l u b . e t: , , P o s s i b la n s w e r s : b r i d g ec l u b , t e n n i sc l u b , e a a a chess lub. c
d.

Possible answers: bool<a flight,rent a cortage, hrre a car. In a tent. Because they includeeverything a low price. for It'sgreotmeansyou know that it's wonderful. ltt supposed be greotmeansthat you'veheardfrom to someoneelsethat it's wonderful. In a rucksack/backpacl<. Possible answers: didn't get much sleep, worl<ed I I
la t e .

Possible answers: been raining weel<, it's all worl<

t 5 . Possible answers: EostEnders Coronotion and Streer. t 5 . You haven'tpaidyour rent for a while. t 7 . You take them somewherein your car. 1 8 .I n a s w i m m i n g o o l o r i n t h e o c e a n . p 1 9 .P o s s i b la n s w e r s :t a m p sc o i n s p h o n en u m b e r s . e s , , 20. Possible answer: sometimes lt's difficultto
rememberthe grammarrulesand vocabulary.

30

Unit overview
General topic Talking about worl<. Dialogue Mariaand Ken tall< about what their jobs involve Language input Expressions tall< to about work: I workpart-time. / usedto work for o dotcomcompony. work os o I soles ossistont. etc. Usinghoveto, don't hoveto and con'. hoveto travel I o lot.I don't haveto work at weekends I don't wont if to. I con weor what I liketo work. Expressions with get usedto and be usedto: I'll never usedto it. I'm so usedto gettingup eorly. get etc. Expressions with get to: / get to travelo lot. etc. Expressions with must:Youmust geto bit depressed. Thot must be good.etc.

lf you say!'m in computers, your job involves computers. you are intocomputers, lf computingis your hobby.Youcan also say l'm in reol estatel business/bonking, etc. lf you are socked, loseyour job because you your work or behaviour good.For example: has not been He'solwoys on he follingosleep thejob. I'm surprised hosn'tbeensocked yet. lf you get o rise,youget an increase your pay. in For example: just heordwe'renot getting risethisyeor. /'ve o lf you go freelonce, start to worl< independently you and get paidby differentcompanies who buy your wo rl<.For exampIe: freel nce photogrophr, freelo o e nce wnter.
Remind students to record any of the expressions that they lil<ein their notebool<s. Lead in Have the classtell you how one could asl<about s o m e o n e ' sj o b i n E n g l i s hF o r e x a m p l e : . Whot do vou do? Whot do you do for o living? Where do vou work? etc. Write the expressions on the board and then asl<each student to thinl< of five ways of answering these l<indsof questions with jobs that they wished they had. Then get students into pairs and ask them to tall<about the jobs they chose and why they chose them.

Language strip Use the language strip as a way to leadin to the unit. Ask students quicl<ly to lool<throughthe list and find any expressions that would be true for them now (e.g. I'm in computers) any expressions that they would and like to be true for them in the future (e.g. /'vejustgoto rlse). Explain that in this unit they will learnwaysto tall< a b o u tj o b s .E n c o u r a gte e m t o c h o o s e o m eo t h e r h s expressions the strip that lool<interesting in and to find o u t m o r e a b o u tt h e m . Use the language strip later on in this unit for a small group tasl<. Asl<students find those expressions that to use the presentperfect(e.g. How longhoveyou beenout (l'm of work?) and those that use the presentcontinuous thinking leoving job).You of my could alsothinl<about how to answerthe expressions For that are questions. examDte: A: What'sthe poy like? 8: Not bod. You might needto explainsome of the following exDressrons: . lf you are out of work, you don't havea job. For example: beenout of worksince left schoo/. l've I . ' A trofltc on warden someonewho controlsparlcing is the streetsand issues parkingticl<ets. lf you work on on ossembly you worl< in a factory line, job in the manufacturinS process. doinga particular You do your work on the product before it continues down the line to the next person. on Cars are built. ly n e s . i assembl
P l a yt h e r e c o r d i n g a s e c o n d t i m e w h i l e s t u d e n t sf i l l i n the gaps.After checking the answers,write these Datterns on the board: l w o r ko s o . . . I work forlin o ... I w o r k f o r l i no . . . o s o . . .

^-t ,t.,

: '

{

r
-:u,

^ i . .1 . - ; . i

! r , { . ) : ' t , r l l : . r :
"J *] , : ,. - . | -J

. t I What do vou do?
Draw students' attention to the Dictures and have them worl< in pairs mal<ing guessesabout the people's jobs. You might have to explain that I reckon is an informal way of saying/ think. Encouragethem to explain their choices. Point out the expression or something(like thot), w h i c h i s a d d e d t o e m o h a s i s e h a t w e a r e n ' t s u r e .T h e n t play the recording so students can listen and checl<if they were right. Write these expressions on the board so students can tell you where their guesseswere d iffere nt: I thought helshewos o ... but helshe'soctuollyo ... I thought helshewas o ... but it turns out helshet o ...

31

r

A s k s t u d e n t st o m a k e s o m e m o r e s e n t e n c e su s i n gt h e s e patterns.You might need to explain that you work in a place/town/city,but you worl< for a company/an organisation.Point out other useful phrases to tall<about your job: l'm self-employed, once I groduote, work port-time. Explain that a dotcom company is a company that does m o s t o f i t s b u s i n e s s n t h e I n t e r n e t .A l o t o f d o t c o m s o went banl<ruDtin 2000.

example, the person in number 3 might worl< in a fast food restaurant.

Answers t T h e s e n t e n c e sw h e r e t h e p e r s o n l i l < e sh e i r j o b a r e :

2 , 4 , 5 , 7 , ,| | a n d1 4 . |0
The sentences here the person doesn't like their job w a r e : l , 3 . 6 , 8 , 9 . l 2 a n d 13 .

Answers |. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. a painterand decorator a g r a p h i cd e s i g n e r a designer in a banl< worl< part-time a waitress a localschool a computer programmer R e m i n d s t u d e n t st o u n d e r l i n ec o m p l e t e e x p r e s s i o n s when they go bacl<and find uses of hove to,don't hove to and con (e.g. / often hove to work lote).Ask students if they notice any pattern, and then complete the rules a. and b. that follow in the next tasl<for them. Go over the explanation in the Coursebool< and answer any questrons.

Answers a. haveto b. don't haveto, can

Introduce this tasl<by tall<ingabout yourself, what you used to do, and any members of your family.Try to use some of the structures from I What do you do? and encourage students to asl<you questions.Note that s o m e s t u d e n t sm i g h t n o t w a n t t o t a l k a b o u t w h a t t h e i r parents do for a living or might not l<now exactly how to d e s c r i b et h e i r j o b . G i v e t h e m g e n e r a le x p r e s s i o n sl i l < e the following. She works in business. She runs her own business.

Students Again, can then applythe rule to the lasttasl<. as you checl< their answers, what l<ind job the asl< of personis tall<ing about.

lAnswers l , -

2 3 . d o n ' t h a v et o 1 5 . h a v er o 1 9 . h a v et o lA rlon'r h:ve tn )0 can 24. can | 7 . h a v et o 2 l . d o n ' t h a v et o r I 8. have to 22. can

Sp e a ki n g
H a v e s t u d e n t sw o r l < i n s m a l l g r o u p s t o d i s c u s st h e s e questions,and then have them report bacl<their ideas to t h e w h o l e c l a s sT h i s i s a g o o d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s t u d e n t s . t o t a l l <a b o u t h o w t h e l n t e r n e t h a s a n d h a s n ' t revolutionised the way we live and worl<, the problems of unemployment, and the issue of worl<ing parents.You may want to add further questions on any of these topics if your students seem interested in tall<ingmore about them.

Point out the following patterns and encourage students to record them in their notebool<s longwith a couple a of examples: I don't hove to ... if I don't want to. I con ... if I wont to. I don't hove to ... . /t dependsif I feel like it or not. I con ... whotlwherelwhen like. I This exercise contains many useful expressions for tall<ingabout worl<. Give students a few minutes to go b a c l < n d u n d e r l i n et h o s e t h e y f i n d i n t e r e s t i n ga n d t o a record them in their notebool<s.

Real English This tasl<introduces the verbs have to, don't hove to and con in the context of talking about work. The examples w i l l h e l p s t u d e n t st o f o r m a r u l e t o h e l p t h e m u s e t h e s e verbs. A s a l e a d - i n g e t s t u d e n t si n p a i r s t o l i s t t h e g o o d t h i n g s , a n d b a d t h i n g s a b o u t s o m e o f t h e j o b s i n t h e p i c t u r e so n page 36. For example, a waitress can get free food but she probably doesn't mal<ea lot; a teacher has to do a lot of worl< in the evenings, but it's probably very rewarding. Have students worl< individuallybefore comparing their ideas with a partner. As you go through the answers,asl< them to suggestwhat job they thinl<the person has,for Refer students to the Real English note. Asl< them to t h i n l <o f i n s t a n c e s h e n t h e y m i g h t u s e t h e e x p r e s s i o n w Thonk goodness. Has anything happened to them recently that made them happyl Do they remember a time when they were greatly relieved?

Freepractice
L e t s t u d e n t ss p e n d a m i n u t e t h i n l < i n g b o u t w h a t t h e j o b a they have chosen involves. Then model and practise the p h r a s e s n o t i n g h o w h o v et o i s p r o n o u n c e d / h c v t a / . l f , students guess quicl<ly, they can repeat the exercise,but with different jobs.

32

5 \A/ork

A good job
Discuss what accounting involves before asl<ing students if it sounds lil<ean interesting job. Have them tall<about what an accountant has to do, what the pay and hours are lil<e. Then have them read the text and share their reaccions ith a oartner. w You might want to tall<about the expression push you into.Ask students whether their parents ever pushed j them into something. lso,point out the expressionob A security. Asl< what other l<indsof jobs provide good job security.You may need to explain that if something drives you mod, it annoys you and that if a report is dry ic is not i nteresting. This exercise further helps to reinforce the get used to and be used to expressions.Have students first worl< i n d i v i d u a l l y ,n d t h e n h a v e t h e m p r a c t i s e r e a d i n gt h e a conversations in pairs. Draw attention to the two patternsin the followingquestions: How ore you finding... ? How do you find ... ? Explain that the present continuous form is often used when a situation is new or temporary whereas the p r e s e n t s i m p l e i s t y p i c a l l yu s e d w h e n t h e s i t u a t i o n i s more established.

Speaking
H e r e , s t u d e n t su s e t h e e x p r e s s i o n s r o m 3 M a t c h i n g t o f tall<about how comfortable they feel about different aspects of English. Remind them that if any of the sentences re not true for them,they shouldchoose a another expression that will mal<eit true (e.g.I'm still trying to get used to the different sounds of English). This is a chance for you to review some of these aspects and reinforce some of the learning advice from the first unit.

Get used to/be used to
T h i s s e c t i o n f o c u s e so n t h e e x p r e s s i o n s e t u s e dt o a n d g be used to. Go over the explanation in the Coursebool< with the class,pointing out that I'm used to and /'ve got used to both mean that you now see a sicuation as normal, while /'rn gettingused to or I'm trying to get used to both mean you don't feel totally comfortable about a situation yet. Point out that these expressions are followed by a noun or quite often an -ing form. You may also need to discussthe difference between these expressions and used to, as in / used to do korote when I wos younger. Before students tell their partners what they could get used tolneverget used to, complete two examples for the I could never get used to working nine to five becouse /'ve worked os o teocher for so long. I think I could get used to being self-employed becouselA fike to be my own boss. Ask a few students to share some of their sentences with the class.

Answers |. 2. 3. 4. still haven't got used to slowly getting used to just get usedto it d o n ' t t h i n l <l ' l l e v e r g e t u s e d t o 5. tool< me a long time to get used to 6. sure I'll get used to

Real English Referstudents the Real English note.Ask if they to would lil<e worl<behinda desl< day. to all Tellstudents about times when you were stucl<: a job, in traffic,etc. at Ask them if they'veever felt this way and what they did a b o u ti t .

M a t c h i ng
This exercise provides students with several typical patterns with get/be used to. After students have finished the matching tasl<, tell them to go bacl<and underline the complete expressions.Encourage the students to record t h e s e i n t h e i r n o t e b o o l < sM o d e l a n d p r a c t i s et h e . p r o n u n c i a t i o no f t h e e x p r e s s i o n s n t h e C o u r s e b o o l <a s i you go through the answers.You also might want to ask s o m e f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n st o p r a c t i s eu s i n g s o m e o f t h e o t h e r e x p r e s s i o n s e r e .F o r e x a m p l e : h Does onyone here find it difftcult to get up eorly? How long would it toke you to get used to working nights? Would you find it difficult to work from home? Do you know onyonewho works o six-doyweek?

Roleplay
Before students do this role play,tall<about a time when you, or someone you l<now went abroad.Tell them how you found the things listed here and how quicl<lyyou got used to or didn't get used to them. You might want to have students do the role play twice with different partners so that they can improve their performance.

33

.

l

you rrsten I beTore
.

-

you lf you try not to mokejudgements, try not to y l e x p r e s s o u r p e r s o n ao p i n i o na b o u tw h e t h e r t i s o m e t h i n gs r i g h to r w r o n g .F o r e x a m p l el : ' s not importontfor sociolworkers to mokejudgements oboutthe peopletheyore workingwith. about a positiveaspect to You use but thenogain tall< of something after you havementioneda negative lbizois very For example: aspect, vice versa. or it's but touristy, thenogoin, cheop.

Explain the situation of the dialogue and have students w w o r k i n p a i r s d i s c u s s i n g h a t M a r i a ' sa n d K e n ' sj o b s might be. Remind them of the structures work f o r l o s l i n . . ..

. . ] W f r l t eyo u l i ste n I ( S o ,w h a t d o yo u d o ? )
Tell students to listen for the answers to the two questions. Play the recording, mal<ingsure that students cover the text. Get them to discusstheir answers in pairs. Remind students to l<eepthe text covered as they do this.

I

Real English Referstudents the Real English note on get to and to havethem usethis structureto tall< about themselves. 36 You could usethe picturesof differentjobs on pages for and 37 to asl< students further examples: A postman getsto be outside lot. o A nursegetsto rneet lotsof people. etc.

Answers |. 7. Maria is a drugs worl<er and Ken works for BarclaysBanl<. M a r i a ' sj o b i n v o l v e sg o i n g o u t i n a v a n , d i s t r i b u t i n g S f o o d a n d c l e a n n e e d l e st o d r u g a d d i c t s . h e a l s o h e l p st h e m f i n d a d o c t o r o r g e t s t h e m i n t o a Ken's job involves rehabilitation centre if necessary. buying and selling currency. He gets to travel quite often to NewYorl<. W o r d s i n g a p si n t h e c o n v e r s a c i o n : | . involve
) ,1rrrc aAAicr<

Speaking
S t u d e n t sc a n e i t h e r d i s c u s st h e q u e s t i o n si n t h i s e x e r c i s e i n s m a l l g r o u p s ,o r t h e c l a s sc o u l d d e b a t e .D i v i d e t h e c l a s si n t o t w o g r o u p s :o n e i n f a v o u r o f M a r i a ' sa p p r o a c h , the other against. Give students five to ten minutes to b r a i n s t o r m r e a s o n st o s u p p o r t t h e i r p o i n t o f v i e w , a n d then get them into small groups of four, two from each s i d e ,t o a r g u e i n s u p p o r t o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n . Y o uc o u l d a l s o d o t h i s w i t h t h e q u e s t i o na b o u t m o n e y b e i n gt h e m o s t important thing about a job.
',..,.'.'.'.'.1 ' t ^

3. healthy 4 . f i n da p l a c e 5. Not at all 6. spread iseases d 7. very rewarding 8. don't haveto 9. Doing what? 10. haveto work I l. get to travel

-*,

{ Opinionswith m ust

* n " n * e i m a g i n ew h a t a s i t u a t r o nr s ,, or*n ,* l i l < eb a s e d o n w h a t s o m e o n e h a J l r s t s a i d . W h e n u s e d i n this way, it often serves as a means of empathisingwith the other soeal<er. Let students read the two extracts from the conversation and underline the two examples of must, and then go over the explanation.

as Next, let studentsread the dialogue you playthe r e c o r d i n g g a i n . h e n a s kt h e m ,i n p a i r st,o f i l l i n t h e f i r s t a T two or three gapsfrom memory beforeyou playthe recording so again, time with pauses that they can this w c h e c l < n d f i l l i n t h e m i s s i n g o r d s .D o t h i s t w o o r t h r e e a gapsat a time until the end.Playthe recordingthrough one more time with students followingthe text. lf you want students readthe conversation, parts of it, in or to w p a i r su s et h e t a p e s c r i po n p a g e1 5 0 ( T h e m i s s i n g o r d s , . t are in colour.) Students might ask you about the followingexpressions: . lf you saysomeone they don't doesn't wontto knowyou, want to be in contactor haveany kind of relationship with you.For example: Eversince hod thot little we disogreement the coffeemoney, hosn'twontedto he over knowme.

Answers The two expressions with mustare: Youmust geto bit depressed Thotmustbe good

Encourage to students write the patternsthot mustbe + in adjective and you mustget + adjective their notebool<s. You could also point out that you mustget can be followedby -edforms of adjectives while thot mustbe can be followedby -ingforms.For example: Youmust get depressed ustrotedbored,etc. Ifr I Thot mustbe depressing restigIfr ustr ngI worrying, etc. Ii nte n oti ly L e t s t u d e n t s o r l <i n d i v i d u a l o r i n p a i r st o c o m p l e t e w t h e d i a l o g u e R.e m i n d h e m t o a d d a n a p p r o p r i a t e s t response well.Playthe recordingso that they can as c h e c l <h e i r a n s w e r s .h e n d i s c u s w h a t l o b s t h e p e o p l e t T s are tall<ing about.

34

5 Work

Answers | . That must be Possible response:Yeah,is/canbe. it o P o s s i b lje b :a n yj o b t h a t i n v o l v e c o m m u t i n g s

practice rurttrer $ilid
Ask students get into pairsand haveshort to conversations basedon theseopenings. they As converse, encourage them to l<eep conversa[ion the going.You may makesuggestions you monitor as students'progress. Alternatively, can write the sentences the you in Coursebookon slipsof paperand give one to each student. They shouldthen find another student, the say sentence their slio and continuethe conversation. on Then the other Dersondoesthe same. When students havefinished, they exchange slipsand find another repeating procedurewith the sentence the on Person, their former partner's slip. Follow-up As an extension this unit,put studentsinto pairsto of design recruitmentcampaign a particular a for lob. Remindthem of the followingusefulpatterns. You'll to ... get You con ... if youwont to. Youdon'thoveto ... if youdon'twont to. You'll quickly usedto ... get Give students time to go bacl< throughthe unit to find additional expressions this prolect.Once groupsare for finished, that they presenttheir campaign the asl< to c l a s s . Y oc a nf i n i s h p b y h a v i n gh e c l a s s o t e o n w h i c h u u t v group had the most appealing Alternatively, job. you could set this as a writing task.

2 . You must get
Possible response:Yeah, (sometimes). I do Possible a securityguard .job: That must be Possible response:Yeah,is/canbe. it job: Possible a trafficwarden That must be Possible response:Yeah,is/canbe. it o P o s s i b lje b :a n E n g l i s t e a c h e r h You must get Possible response:Yeah, (sometimes). I do o P o s s i b lje b :a n u r s e You must get P o s s i b lr e s p o n s e : Y e a h , ( s o m e t i m e s ) . e I do P o s s i b lle b :a n a c c o u n t a n t o

Pronunciation: sentencestress
Playthe recording once all the way through with students listening.Ask them to pay attention to how the stressed words sound. Then play the recording again, pausingafter each sentence to allow students to repeat. Practisethese sentences until students can say them naturally. Finally, get them to practise the conversations in 4 O p i n i o n s w i t h m u s t i n p a i r s ,w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a c e stress.You may want to point out that when quite is stressed (qu49 tired),it means not too (tired),but when the adjective following guite is stressed (quite tired,), means it very (tired).

35

Unit overview
General topic Places buy things. to Reading Why car-bootsales are better than globalchains. Language input . . . . Expressions with thing: I've gotto pock my things tonight.Thot wos o stuPidthing to dol etc. Collocations thingsyou buy:o greotpoir of for jeons, lovely o bunchof flowers, etc. Vocabulary differentkindsof shop: for o newsogentt, chemistt,etc. o Asl<ing and givingdirections: thereo garage for ls neorhere? Therei one fiveminutes' drivedownthe road.etc. Agreeing: do /. Neitherdo L 5o Collocations with money:I earnfour hundred poundso week plusovertime. wos left ten thousond I pounds whenmy aunt died.etc. Expressions with must, mustn't,have and don't to hoveto'. mustremember,mustn'tforget,We hoveto I I be ot the hotelby 9:30,l'm glad I don't hdveto, etc.

lf you describe something cheopand cheerful,you as all meanit is not expensive still lool<s right.For but /ij example: Whenit comes dishes, ratherhovecheoP to ond cheerful thon exDensye. you lf you sayI wouldn'tbe seendeoddoingsornething, meanyou would neverdo it because you dislil<e so it much.For example: wouldn't seendeodweoring I o be Gop skirt. A cashiermight sayHoveyou gotthe /5p? if the total c a m et o f 8 . 1 5 , o r e x a m p l es o t h a t y o u d o n ' t e n d u p f , with a lot of change. you,it doesn'treallysuit you. lf something not reolly is For example: A: My mother sentrne thisjocket.Whot you think? do B: Well,it'snot reollvvou. B e n e t t oa n dG o pa r e c l o t h i n g h a i n s ; A m e s n ix c Americon fupress. R e m i n d t u d e n t so r e c o r da n yo f t h e e x p r e s s i o nts a t s t h t h e y l i k ei n t h e i r n o t e b o o l < s . Lead in A s l < t u d e n t s h e t h e rt h e y l i l < e h o p p i n g ,o w m u c ht i m e h s w s they spendshopping, where they go shopping. and D i s c u s s h e t h e rt h e y s e es h o p p i n g s a p a s t i m e r a s a w a o necessity, explainthe difference and betweenI did the shopping I went shopping. and

. .

.

Language strip Use the languagestrip as a way to lead in to the unit. A s l <s t u d e n t s t o l o o l <q u i c l < l yh r o u g h t h e I i s t a n d f i n d t a n y e x p r e s s i o n s h a t t h e y h a v e u s e d t h e m s e l v e sw h i l e t s h o p p i n g . x p l a i nt h a t i n t h i s u n i t t h e y w i l l l e a r n o t h e r E ways to tall<about places to shop and about using money. Encourage them to choose some other expressions in the strip that lool< interesting and to find out more about them. Use the language trip later on in this unit for a small s group tasl<. Asl< students to find expressions in the list ( t h a t m i g h t b e s a i d t o a s h o p a s s i s t a n t e . g . C o nl t r y i t o n ? ) and those that might be said to a friend (e.g.Where did y o u g e t i t ? ) . Y o uc o u l d a l s o a s k t h e m t o u n d e r l i n ea l l t h e expressions that use get. You might need to explain some of the following exoressions: . . I think I'm a smoll,Hove you got it in medium? and I'm o nine all refer to sizes in clothing. Shop till you drop is an expression suggesting that you are going to do a lot of shopping.For example: Let's go into town ond shop till we drop!
i -.^ r-

Speaking
This tasl<focuses on different places to shop and helps lead in to the reading tasl<. Draw students' attention to the pictures. Have them match the places to the pictures and briefly answer any questions.The topic of the reading text is car-boot sales,so you don't need to go i n t o m u c h d e t a i l i f s t u d e n t sa s l < b o u t t h i s . a

Answers l.d 7.6 3.e 4.a 5.f 6.c

After checl<ing their answers,put students in pairs and get them to tall<about each place using the sentence starters. Note that it is also oossible to omit the words the foct: One good thing obout shopping ... is thot ... . in W h e n s t u d e n t s d i s c u s so u e s t i o n s7 a n d 8 . w r i t e t h e s e o h r a s e so n t h e b o a r d : I ' d n e v e rg o t o . . . b e c o u s e . . . I wouldn't be seen deod in o Dlace like thot!

36

6 Shoppinql

You may need to explain the difference between I'd never go and I've neverbeen.Asl< which one is indirectly expressingan opinion (l'd never go).

Thing - an impor tantwor d in Engl i s h
Although Englishspeakers use this word frequently,you c a n o o i n t o u t t h a t i t i s a l s o u s e f u lw h e n l e a r n e r so f Englishdon't l<now the words for something. Introduce s o m e e x a m p l e st h e y c o u l d u s e : Whot's thot thing you use to get ice creom out of o corton? Whot do you coll thot thing you stond on ond weigh yourself with? Whot's the nome of the thing over there? You could even turn this into a little game with students testing each other on the names of objects in English. When students have finished tall<ingabout unusual or interesting things,get them to do the matching task and checl<their answers with a partner. Point out that they are choosing something that thing(s)might be referring to, not what it always refers to when it is used lil<ethis. Explain that trunks are what men wear when they swim. Encourage students to record these expressions in their notebooks, perhaps on a page just for thing expressions.

',1W h i l e y o u re a d (l 'm a ca r-b o o tsale . I a d d i c t a n d p ro u d o f i t!)
Go over the ouestions in the Coursebool< with students before they read the article. Then ask them to read the a r t i c l e a n d d i s c u s s h e i r a n s w e r sa n d t h e i r o v e r a l l t reactions with a partner. Encouragethem to use exoressions from the text.

. l

Answers you can because l. The author enjoyscar-bootsales thingsthere and find differentand unusual picl< amazing bargains. sometimes up there is 2. The author hatesglobalchainsbecause a n o t h i n g u r p r i s i n a b o u tt h e m . T h e y r e d u l l a n d s g p r e d i c t a b l e . T h e i c e s r e a l s oh i g h . pr a

Playthe recording of the article as students follow along i n t h e i r C o u r s e b o o k s .A s l <t h e m t o u n d e r l i n ea n y expressions or collocations that interest them. Offer to explain any words or expressions that they are unsure of. Here are some expressions to do with shopping or business hat you might want to poincout: t corner the morket
-^ tu ^,,+ ^f uul ul L-,,-;^^-uu),rrsJJ

Answers |. b. 2 .c . 3 .a . 4 . h . 5 .f . 6 .d . 7 .g . 8 .e .

of Followup by discussing other examples what thing could refer to in numbers3-8 and explainthat thing doesn'tonly refer to objects. The next tasl< presents anothercommon English usingthe word thingin an abstractsense. expression thingsyou haveever done Shareone of the stupidest worl<on their own with the classbeforestudents s t o r i e sH e r e i s a m o d e l . . old Well,whot hoppened wos I wosoverot my grandfother's sort out house he hod died o few weeksbefore- helping I someof his old things. was onlyaboutfifteenond most of it just lookedlike junkto me. Anyway,there o knockot the wos to door, ond it wossomemon osking donotions a jumble for he I sole. invitedhim in ond soidhe couldtokewhotever wonted. endedup tokingquiteo bit of stuff.lt wosonly He dntiques the whenmy porents cameoverto collect priceless whot I'd done thot I reolised my grandfother collected hod ond thot I needed leovethe countryos soonos possiblel to lil<e You could alsogivestudents alternatives the thing brovestlfunniest/strongest if they are havingproblems asl< When they havefinished, them to thinl<ing ideas. of Finish with up tell the samestory to a differentpartner. t h e d i s c u s s i oo u e s t i o n s . n

go bonkrupt old junk mokeup prices the spot on pickup omozingborgoins haggle overprices
hit< nnd hierc<

being ripped-off big business they lil<e their to Tellstudents add the expressions to notebooks. Real English Referstudents the Real English note. Do they ever to receivejunkmoillWhat do they do with itl Do they have some old junl< to they'dlil<e get rid of?

Speaking
S t u d e n t sc a n d i s c u s st h e s e q u e s t i o n si n s m a l l g r o u P s . Before they start, give them some sentence starters to help them tall<about what they agree and disagreewith in the article: One thing I ogreeldisogree with is ... I don't reollyogree when the outhor sdys ... Personolly,thinkldon't think ... I The outhor hos o point when she soys ... I don't think thot'stotollvtrue ...

37

f:
a havepairsof studentsrole-play As an extension, some expressions Introduce at dralogue a car-bootsale. for haggling. example: For How much do you want for this? Thot'so bit expensive, it? isn't I'll giveyou fivepounds it. for Fivepounds?You must be joking! It'sworth o lot more thon thot. Youcon hoveit for o pound. Alternatively, the picruresto pracrise use usingthingfor unl<nown oblects. Ask pairsof students talk about to what they think the oblectsare.This is alsoa good opportunityto tall< about spatial position. For example: Whot do you think thot thingoverthereis? Thisthing? The thing next to it. Whot do you use thisthingfor? Wheredid you getthot thing? fhot's the strongestl most weirdestlmost unusu I ugliestl ol beoutiful thingl've everseen. ot is it? Wh
-f ._/ * \." .;
| {' f * a '

-. " "-.... ,/'

1

|

oitterent strops liiiiiilH
Lead in to this task by asking students what they would say to someone in the street if they wanted to find a place to buy a newspaper in Britain. Some suggestions might include: Where con I buy o newspaper? Where is the newsPoPershop? Then refer students to the photos on page 44 and have them comolete the first conversation.Point out that we often explain what we need and then asl<if the place where we can get it is nearby.This is more typical than more direct where ouestions. After checlcing their answers,students can practise the conversation in pairs.You might need to explain noppies i f y o u r s t u d e n t sa r e u n f a m i l i a rw i t h t h i s t e r m .

Answers l. newsagent's 2. garage 3. chemist's 4. post office 5. post box 5. banl< 7. restaurant

M a t c hi n g
This exercise focuses on several useful collocations connected with things we buy. Once students have matched the parts together to make sentences,go over the oronunciation and have them memorise the expressions.Pairs of students can then test each other, with one student reading the first part aloud and the other student completing the sentence without lool<ing at the Coursebook. They can then swap roles.

Speaking
Beforestudents the with different Dractise conversations d i r e c t i o n se l l t h e m t o g o b a c l < n d u n d e r l i n eh e t, a t directionexpressions I Different shops.Spenda few in m i n u t e s o i n go v e r t h e i r p r o n u n c i a t i oT h e d i r e c t i o n g n. e x D r e s s t o n se : ar a coupleof hundredmetres downthe rood pork opposite schoollporklcor the drivedown the rood five minutes' just postthe stctlon on the motnrood lustdawnthere justroundthe corner o u t s l dt h en e w s o g e n t s e F o r t h e n e x t t a s k , i s c u s s- 1 0 a s a c l a s si r s t ,s u p p l y i n g d l f any necessary vocabulary the places (e.g. photobooth, for off-licence, borbeis,beoutysalon).Then teach the expression theresomewhere /s neor herewhereI con (send photocopying)? of students o foxldosome Pairs can then haveconversations similarto those in I Different s h o p s , l - 7 . P o i n to u t t h e u s e f uv e r b + n o u n l collocationshere (sendo fox,do somephotocopying, pick up o prescription). Finish with the discussion quesrions off at the end.

Answers l. h. 2.d. 3 .f . 4 .g . 5 .e . 6 .a . 7 .c . 8.b.

After students finishpractising sentences, about the talk w h a t y o u b o u g h to n y o u r l a s ts h o p p i n gr i p .H a v et h e m t l i s t e n n d a s l < o u q u e s t i o n s . T h e n kt h e m t o r e c a l a n y a y as l c o l l o c a t i o ny o u u s e d F o r e x a m p r e : s . o coupleof bott/es cheopred wine of o second-hond of 'Wor ond Peoce'. copy etc.

38

6 Shopping

Matching
This exercise gives students practice with expressions for agreeing:5o do I and Neither do l. Make sure students notice that So do / agrees with an affirmative statement and Neither do I agrees with a negativeone. Note that in t h e e x a m p l e sh e r e a l l t h e v e r b s a r e i n t h e p r e s e n t s i m p l e .F o r s t a t e m e n t si n a t e n s e t h a t u s e s a n a u x i l i a r y , for example the perfect and continuous aspects (e.g.l've n e v e rs e e n . . . , l ' m l o o k i n g o t . . . ) , o r t h o s e w i t h a m o d a l f a u x i l i a r yo r b e ( e . g .I c o n ' t s e e . . . , I ' m n o t s u r e ) , t h e auxiliary is used instead of do (e.g.Neither hove l, So om l, Neither con l, Neither om l). However, you can use Me too or Me neitherwith all torms. You may need to explain that lescoi is a British supermarl<etchain.

Answers l . b . i v .( l e a r nf o u r h u n d r e d o u n d s w e e k p l u s p a overtime.) 2 . f . v . ( l w o n a m i l l i o np o u n d s n t h e l o t t e r y . ) o p 3 . c . i i . ( l w a s l e f tt e n t h o u s a n d o u n d s h e n m y a u n t w
{. a. iii.(l found a ten-pound note in the street.) i. d. vi. (l tool< thirty pounds out of my account this morning and I've spent it all alreadyl) 6. e. i. (l save five pounds a day by taking a packed lunch to work.

can come up with any Justfor fun,see if students on ridiculous (e.g. wonseventy I threepence the sentences the at lottery). Followup by discussing questions the end o f t h e s e c t i o n n g r o u p so r a s a c l a s s . i

Answers 2 .c . 3 .d . t0.h.

;::

i,;

j i , . f" l , : , . f ! i:,

Must/mustn't
Remind students of expressions with must to tall<about how we imagine a situation to be (e.g.That must be good).In this exercise,students praccisetwo more uses of must:to say what we thinl< is important for us to do, and to recommend something.Some students may think that must is often used to tell someone what to do. Draw their attention to the fact that rnust is frequently used with I and is very much what we personally see as important or necessary. The other use of must, as a way of recommending something, (e.g. Youmust come ond visit)might not be familiar to some students. Encourage them to record several of the expressions they see in the following exercises in their notebool<s. Go over the examples and explanations with students and answer any questions.Then have 1[s61 69;nnlete

Speaking
Write some usefulexpressions the board before on i s t u d e n t sa l l < b o u tt h e o u e s t i o n sn t h e C o u r s e b o o k . t a Forexample: They've o goodlbod got reputotion. Theirproducts highllow quality. ore There's bovcott ... o on They'reenvi onmentolly fr ien r dly. some more You could extend the discussion tall<ing by a b o u tb r a n dn a m e s n d d e s i g n elra b e l sH a v es t u d e n t s . a list the top brand namesin their country for different productsand discuss questionof whether you are the Alternatively, paying extra for qualityor for just the label. in ask if there are any boycottsof companies their c o u n t r ya n d i f s o w h y t h e c o m p a n i ea r e b e i n g s boycotted.
I

t-t0.
Answers |. 2. 3. 4. 5. must mustn't must must must 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. mustn't mustn't must must must

: l M o n e y co l l o ca ti o n s
Before doing this exercise,write money on the board and elicit some verbs that can orecedeit.Then do the exercise,adding to the list any verbs that students didn't come up with. While going through the answers,practise the pronunciation of these sentences,paying attention to the stress and intonation. Then ask students to mal<e s i m i l a rs e n t e n c e s h a t a r e t r u e f o r t h e m . t

point out When you havegone throughthe answers, musttry,I I these phrases: mustgo,l mustn'tbe lote,You to, rnustjust go to,I mustremember I mustn'tforgetto,You reollymust,You must comeond visit(us)whenyou come(to of Munich). Then practisethe pronunciation mustand mustn't these ohrases. in Students can then readthe conversations oairs. in

39

F
: Alternativesto must and mustn't
Here students focus on polite alternativesto you must. Again, remind students that must is often found with /. As you go through the answers,asl<further questions f o c u s i n go n s e v e r a lo f t h e o t h e r e x p r e s s i o n sF o r .
examDte:

i A f t e r g o i n g t h r o u g h t h e e x p l a n a t i o n sn 5 F o c u s o n t m u s t a n d h o v e t o , s t u d e n t sc a n a p p l y t h e g u i d e l i n e s o c o m p l e t i n gs e n t e n c e s l - l 0 . Y o u m a y n e e d t o e x p l a i n t h a t i n n u m b e r l , o f u n n yn o i s ei s a s c r a n g en o i s e . Answers f. 2. 3. 4. 5. must mustn't don't have to have to must 6. mustn't 7. have to 8. must 9. don't have to 1 0 . h a v et o

What ore sornep/oces thot don't ollowsmoking? Aport from gettingtickets, whot else con you do in odvance? (poyrent,booko hotel) Whot con you do whenyou returnhomeond you hoveo lot of foreign currency left?(chonge bock) it When ore you expected poy in cash?When to wouldit be unusual? Answers l. c. 2 .e . 3 .a . 4 . d . 5 .f . 6 .b .

T h e p o l i c e r l e s sd i r e c re x p r e s s i o na r e : o s I'd... if I wereyou I ' m s o r r y ,. . . - i n gi s n o t a l l o w e d Y o uh a v e o . . . , I ' m a f r a i d t Y o u ' r e o cs u p p o s e do . . . n t

T h e p e r s o n i n n u m b e r 2 i s p r o b a b l y t h e b o s s .T h e y d o n ' t s o u n d r u d e b e c a u s eb o s s e sc a n t a l l <d o w n t o t h e i r e m p l o y e e si f t h e y w a n t t o . T h e b o s s i s n ' t j u s t r e p o r t i n g r u l e s .T h e b o s s i s s a y i n gw h a t t h e y t h i n k i s v e r y i m p o r t a n r .l r ' s a t h r e a t h e r e l

Speaking
H a v e s t u d e n t sd i s c u s st h e q u e s t i o n si n t h e C o u r s e b o o l < with a partner. Ask them if they would lil<eto share their a n s w e r sw i t h t h e c l a s s .

W h e n s t u d e n t s h a v e u n d e r l i n e dt h e p o l i t e e x p r e s s i o n s , have them practise the sentences a-f until they feel comfortable sayingthem.

Practice
Encourage students to record this pattern along with Thonk goodness don't have to from 6 Practice in their / n o t e b o o l < sa l o n g w i t h s o m e o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l i s e d , sentences from this activity.Share some things you're g l a d y o u d o n ' t h a v e t o d o w i t h t h e c l a s sT h e n u s e t n e . questions to reinforce some of the other languagefrom 5 P r a c t i c e . A s k t h e c l a s sr o t e l l y o u s o m e o r h e r t h i n g s you can go oround (e.g.the shops,o/d buildings). Follow-up

Speaking
Tell students about your week before asl<ing them to talk a b o u t t h e i r l i s t . Y o u c o u l d t e a c h t h e m t h e e x p r e s s i o nm y to-do /ist.Again, if you have a srory abour a time when you forgot something important, tell that to them too.

Speaking
Checl< that students l<now whar is happening in the pictures before they tall<to their partners. Get a few people to share their suggestionswith the whole class. Y o u c o u l d a l s o b r a i n s t o r m o t h e r s i t u a t i o n so r a n n o y i n g jumping o queue,smoking the bothroom) and habits (e.g. in c o m e u p w i t h p o l i t e r e s p o n s e sF o r t h e s e c o n d t a s l < , . r e m i n d s t u d e n t st h a t t h e y c a n u s e m u s t i n e x p r e s s i o n s lil<e You must come ond visit or You must try the squid. Have students worl< in pairs,writing a dialogue set in a c l o t h i n g s t o r e . T h e i r d i a l o g u es h o u l d i n c l u d e s e v e r a lo f the expressions from the languagestrip. Once they have w r i t t e n t h e i r d i a l o g u e h a v e t h e m p r a c t i s ei t i n p a i r s , before they perform it for another group.

Students may wonder about the difference between hoye to and rnust,as many coursebool<streat them as e q u i v a l e n t sR e m i n d s t u d e n t s t h a t m u s t i m p l i e s m o r e o f a . p e r s o n a lo b l i g a t i o nw h i l e h o v e t o i m p l i e s m o r e o f a n external one.The difference between don't hove to and mustn't,however,will probably be easier for students to see.

40

U n i t o v e r v i ew
General topic C o m p l a i n i na b o u tp o o r s e r v i c e n d a n n o y i n g e o p l e . g a p Reading People thingsoff their chestsat Shout_at_us.com. get Language input Expressions mal<ing for complaints about service and mal<ing requests: sorry, this coffeeisn't l'm but very strong. you thinkyou couldbringme o Do stronger one,pleose? etc. Expressions with hod to: I had to borrowsomefrom o friendot work.Wedidn'thoveto stoy till the end. Other ways to expressobligation: strictdress code, compulsory all students until the ageof sixteen, for agoinstthe low, etc. Expressions complaining for about people: I con'tstondpeople who ... ,lt drives mod when me . D e o D l.e. , e t c .

A : How wasyourtrip? 8: Don't eyenosk,l lf you sayl wouldn't feedthisto my dog,youmeanthat the food is very bad.For example: Do vou call this steok? I wouldn'tfeedthis to my dog! lf something sto/e, is not fresh, is it and tasresor s m e l l s a d . e u s u a l l y s ei t t o d e s c r i b e r e a d c a r e b W u b , or air.lt can also be usedfiguratively with ideo.
Remind students to record any of the expressions that they lilcein their noreboors.

Lead in Brainstorm a list of things that students find annoying, a n d a s k w h e t h e r t h e y c o m p l a i na b o u t a n y o f t h e m i n their own language. Then asl<whether they would a c t u a l l yc o m p l a i n d i r e c t l y t o t h e p e r s o n i n v o l v e d . A s l < h o w t h e y w o u l d c o m p l a i n p o l i t e l y i n E n g l i s ha n d , then asl<what they would say if they were really angry.
. I P . . ? / .

*"r -" - *.1 ..

Language strip ,se the language trip as a way to lead in to the unit. s : s < s l u d e n t st o l o o k q u i c l < l y h r o u g h t h e l i s t a n d f i n d t . - v e x p r e s s i o n s h a t t h e y h a v e u s e d t h e m s e l v e so r t h a t t : - e y h a v e h e a r d o t h e r p e o p l e u s e . E x p l a i nt h a t i n t h i s -^ t they will learn ways ro mal<ecomplaints in English. ! - c o u r a g e t h e m t o c h o o s e s o m e o r n e r e x p r e s s i o n si n :-e strip that lool< interesting and to find out more ::cut them. -se che language trip later on in this unit for a small s .'oup tasl<. Asl< students to choose the expressions that -- qht be s a i d i n a r e s t a u r a n t O f t h e s e ,a s l < h i c h s e e m . w :: ce polite (e.g.Excuseme, I ordered the chicken, the not --:-). a n d w h i c h s e e m t o b e q u i t e s t r o n g ( e . g .l w o u l d n ' t '=:c thrs to my dog!).You can also asl<them to suggest '^at is being referred to by it or this in several of the : r.rressions. For example, in l'm ofroid it! cold,it might be ':'e rring to the soup that someone ordered. - m i g h t n e e d t o e x p l a i ns o m e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g . rI ressions: We often use con't stond to say we hate something. i con't stond peoplewho comploinmeans peop/ewho :omploin o lot reolly annoy me. f s o m e o n e a s k s y o u h o w s o m e t h i n gw a s , a n d y o u 'eply Don't eyen osk,you are implying that ir was so :ad you don't want to tall<about it, although you may :ctually go on to explain why it was bad. For examole: ':

Speaking
Introduce the tasl<by tall<ingabout hotels with students. You could also tell them a hotel story yourself. Have t h e m l i s t e n a n d a s l < o u q u e s t i o n sA s k t h e m t o r e c a l l y . a n y u s e f u l e x p r e s s i o n s r i n t e r e s t i n gc o l l o c a t i o n sa n d o write them on the board. They can then tell a partner their own hotel story. After pairs of students have drawn u p t h e i r l i s t o f p r o b l e m s ,h a v et h e m s h a r e t h e i r i d e a s with the class. This is a good way to worl< on collocations lil<ebod seryice, dirty sheets, rude woiters,etc.
I

while you listen ;.ll,iiil
E x p l a i nt h e s i t u a t i o no f t h e l i s t e n i n g e x t a n d p l a y t h e t r e c o r d i n g .S t u d e n t sc a n t h e n w o r k i n p a i r s ,d i s c u s s i n gh e t questions. Keep them in pairs for the second tasl<. Help with difficultieswith meaning when necessary. Then play the recording again so that they can checl<their answers. You may want to play the recording a third time while students follow the tapescript on page | 50. Encourage them to record some of the adjective * noun c o l l o c a t i o n si n t h e i r n o t e b o o l < s .

Answers l.h. 2.b. 3.e. 4.a. 5.d. 6.c. 7.g. 8.f.

41

I Speaking
S t u d e n t sc a n d i s c u s st h e s e q u e s t i o n si n p a i r s .D r a w t h e i r attention to the pattern used to tall<about a hypothetical situation in the past: hove ... I would'velwouldn't Have students practise sayingthese phrases,paying attention to the contracted form would've.Youcould also u s e t h e l i s t o f p r o b l e m s i n I S p e a k i n g t o i m a g i n eo t h e r problems and have students tall<about what they hove done if these had happened to would'velwouldn't tnem too. For some extra vocabulary worl<, asl<students to go g b a c k a n d u n d e r l i n e e x a m p l e so f p h r a s a lv e r b s ( e . g . o down to,send bock) and verbs followed by prepositions (e.g. woit for, speok to, comploin obout).

r c o n v e r s a t i o n s ' p a i r s .B e f o r e t h e y c h a n g er o l e s ,d o a n e x a m o l e ,w i t h o n e o f t h e s t u d e n t sa s A a n d y o u a s B : A: I'm sorry,the coffee isn't very strong.Do You think you could bring me o strongerone? B: Let me see. /t tostes fine to me. A: Well, I'd like onother one. B: I'm afroid we con't moke it ony stronger,You con buy onother one if you like with on extro shot of espresso. Use the pictures of hotels on pages48 and 49 and get students to discussin pairs whether they would stay in any of them and explain why/why not. To extend this, have them role-play a conversation between a polite g u e s t c o m p l a i n i n g b o u t t h e s e r v i c ea n d a n a p o l o g e t i c a Then they can do it again but this time as hotel manager. a very angry guest and a very rude hotel manager.

l _ I So f t e n i n gco mp l a i n ts
This exercise focuses on how we typically soften our complaints so that we don't offend the person we are complaining o. This might be a good opportunity co t b d i s c u s st h e b e s t w a y t o g e t p r o b l e m s r e s o l v e d : y b e i n g calm, polite but firm, or getting really angry.Go over the e x a m p l e sa n d e x p l a i n t h a t s t r u c t u r e b . i s m o r e p o l i t e a n d t h a t u s i n ga p o s i t i v e a d i e c t i v es o f t e n st h e c o m p l a i n t t h e most. As you go throuSh the answers,ask students how to m a k e t h e c o m o l a i n tw i t h t h e s t r u c t u r e a . o r b .

..J

J;

.,

,

.---.,

:

R e m i n d s t u d e n t st h a t m u s t i m p l i e sa p e r s o n a lf e e l i n go f o b l i g a t i o nw h i l e h o v et o i m p l i e sa n e x t e r n a l o b l i g a t i o n . Review the difference between don't hove to and mustn't. Asl< students to recall some expressions using these verbs (e.g. I reolly must remember to, I mustn't forget to, l'm glod I don't hove to) and then go over the explanation and c examples.You ould also point out the way hod is t i e m p h a s i s e d n t h e e x a m p l ef r o m t h e l i s t e n i n g e x t i n 2While you listen and write this pattern on the board: . . . w o s l w e r e o . . . I j u s th o d t o . . . s Give some examples: The food wos so bod, I just hod to leove. My feet were so tired, I just hod to sit down ond rest. Have students come up with other suggestionsand p r a c t i s es a y i n gt h e m .

Answers I'm sorry,but this coffeeisn't very strong. I'm sorry,but my room is rather cold. l ' m s o r r y , u t m y r o o m i s n ' tv e r y c l e a n . b I ' m s o r r y , u t i t ' s r a t h e rn o i s yo u t s i d em y r o o m . b I ' m s o r r y , u t m y r o o m i s n ' tv e r y c o o l . b I'm sorry,but I've beenwaitingfor rather a long trme. s I ' m s o r r y , u t t h i s c h i c l < ein n ' tv e r y w e l l - d o n e . b l ' m s o r r y , u t c h i sw i n e i s n ' tv e r y n i c e . b I'm sorry,but the servicehasbeen rather poor. 4.b 5 . c . 7 . i . 8 .g . 9 .e

L.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Answers G i l l w a s t a l k i n ga b o u t t h e r e s t a u r a n ta t t h e h o t e l a n d h o w a w f u l t h e s e r v i c e w a s .T h e y h a d t o ' g e t o u t o f there and escaDe'after the chef came out and made G i l I ' sf r i e n d , V e r o n i c ac, r y .

1.d.2.a.

Practice
in at Let studentslool<bacl< the complaints 4 Softening c o m p l a i n t s .T h e n h a v et h e m c l o s et h e i r C o u r s e b o o l < s . ... ... coffee strong bringand get Testthem by saying isn'tverystrong. coffee them to respondwith l'm sorry,the one?Check that Do you thinkyou couldbringme o stronger stressand intonacion they are followingthe appropriate some key words. this by saying patterns. Continuelil<e You maywant to write thesewords on the board to the Then havethem practise help studentsremember.
In this exercise,draw students' attention to the way so I hod to is used to give the result of something. Encourage them to record this pattern and several examples in As their notebool<s. you go through the answers,Point out and tall<about some of the other expressions: . We often use on mylourlthe woy to when giving the background information of where we were gorng when we are telling a story.

42

7 Compa nts

'

lf you are shortof money, you don't haveenough moneyon a particular For occasion. example: Conyou lend me o few pounds? o bit shortof moneythis I'm week. Ask students what they do if they find themselves little short of money. a lf o computer croshes, some programcauses error an and the computershutsdown. For example: Thatemoil ottachment you sentkeptcousing computer my to crosh, I hod to oDenit ot work. so Answers 5.e. 6.h 7.c. 8.b

Answers l. 2. 3. 4. 5. 5. 7. 8. h a dt o b e a t t h e s t a t i o nb y 6 : 3 0 didn't haveto be home early had to havea word with my boss had to get our passports renewed had to get a taxi had to e-mailthe report didn't haveto staytill the end h a dt o p a ym y p h o n eb i l l

'

More obligation 'riii,.,,1!ltlways of expressing
This exercise focuses on several exoressions that can oe used to tall<about obligation,or lack of it.When students have finished the matching tasl<, have them u n d e r l i n et h e s e e x p r e s s i o n s .

To practise the difference between/endand borrow,write some typicalexpressions the board with lendor on borrowgapped out. Get students supplythe to appropriate verb.For example: Could ... yourdictionory o minute? I for Why don'tyou ... it from the library? Thonks ... me your cor lost night. for Never. .. onything Bob.You'll to nevergetit bock. The memorisation tasl< the end helosreinforcerne at patternsas well as several (poyo bill,stort collocations get the beginning, o toxi,go in to work,spendthe from afternoon).

Answers l.g. 2.d. 3.a
The expressions re: a a. have military service b. compulsory (for ... until the age of) d. conscripted into the army e. againstthe law f. an optional subject
o srrirt dre<< cnlo

Sp e a k i n g
I n t r o d u c eh i s t a s l < y t e l l i n g h e c l a s s b o u ta p e r s o n a l t a b t experience first.lf you can'tthinl< one,you could use of t h i sa s a n e x a m o l e : Well,I didn'thoveto s/eepin o cor exoctly, more on o moin rood.I wos hitch-hiking throughVietnom, I'd just got ond picked by a cor heodingsouth. wosneorlyten o'clock up lt whenwe suddenly cometo o stop. Allthe othercorshod stopped too,ond I noticedpeople hod set up toblesselling the foodond drink beside rood.The drivertold me I should get something eot,get out my sleeping ond s/eep to bog on the rood.Apporently,the moin north-south rood closes the for night, we both hod to sleep so wherewe stoppedl Alternatively, eachstudenta slip of paperand asl< give them to chooseone of the questions here - or mal<e up anotherone - and write it on the paper. Havethem all standup and go aroundasking their questionto different people. . , 1

Speaking
This exercise helpsreinforcesome of the vocabulary from .5 More ways of expressing obligation. Give students few minutesto look throughthe quescions a b e f o r eh a v i n gh e m d i s c u s sn s m a l lg r o u p sF i n i s h p b y t i . u having students closetheir Coursebool<s try to and remembersome of the questions asl< to you.

Here students can see a functional use of hod to. Explain the task and point out the pictures if students need some ideas.Make sure they l<now expressions like the following: tokeldrop off the kids tolot school bobysit the kids the bobysitter didn't show up hove o dentist'soppointment Get pairs of students to complete the sentences and then have them share their excuses with the whole class Pairs can then practise reading the conversations.

I H a d t o / di d n 't h a ve to

T h i s i s a t r a n s f o r m a t i o ne x e r c i s e . u t o o i n t o u t t h e b typical phrases and collocations here too. Ask students if they can thinl< of at least one more collocation for these: hove o word with my boss (tolk, drink) get our pdssports renewed (licence,viso) e-moil the report (photos,proposol) stay till the end (the breok, speeches) poy my bill (toxes,bobysitter)

43

r
Answers P o s s i b la n s w e r s : e I . (Sorry, but I had to) tal<e l<ids school. my to 2. (Well,I had to) havedinnerwith my boss. 3. (Sorry, but I had to) take an importantbusiness call. 4. (Well,I had to) spendall evening fixingmy car.
. .

a l s cs a v ^ ' : : - : ' a : ' a a a ' s o n r e t h l n g e ny o u a r e wh feduc *, :- : i..'.- ::-:e-.s to the RealEnglish
t r u L g _ : - . _ : -

odour. ^ ' ^ c t h e i ro w n b u s i n e s s , u lf you rel sc-e:^: :: yo rudely teli ther-' ioi :o ask or ralk about something y o u t h i n k i s p r r v a r e F o r -e r 1 6 p 1 " / d o n ' t s e e t h o t i t ' s onythingto do with yot;. Youshouldmind your own business.

8 . 0 r sa r : : : ' e .

j:.':.-::dy

Give students time to preparetheir story.Encourage them to use some of the exoressions from this or previousunits.ln particular, may want to reviewthe you use of the pastcontinuous set the bacl<ground to from U n i t l . Y o u c o u l da l s og i v et h e m s e n t e n c e t a r t e r s i k e s l the following: Did I evertellvouoboutthe time I ... ? One of the mostemborrossinglsilliest /'veeverdone things hoppened whileI wos ... Youthoughtthot wos emborrossinglonnoying?Woit you until h e o ro b o u t h o th a D D e n e dh e n. . . w w Point out that saying how we felt,as in number 3, is a fairlytypicalway of endinga story like this.Have students aroundtellingtheir story a few times before go asl<ing who had the best story. for

.' . . 1
:.:ll

. l S' p e a k i rn o

G o o v e r t h e s e n t e n c es t a r t e r s ,p r a c r i s i n g h e t p r o n u n c i a t i o nb e f o r e h a v i n gs t u d e n r sw o r l < i n p a i r s . lf they are havingtrouble, give them a model: I can't stond people who throw litter on the street. P o i n t o u t a n o t h e r s t r u c t u r e f o r c o m p l a i n i n gi n t h e reading text: I hote the woy ... You could also teach the expression I hote it when . People.. . You might need to explain the difference between I con't s t o n d p e o p l ew h o . . . ( w h i c h m e a n s / h a t e p e o p l e h o . . . ) w and I don't understondpeoplewho... (which means I fnd peoplewho ... very strange). As an extension, have pairs of students come up with responses to some of the complaints in the reading text that they disagreewith. For Shane'scomplaint, for example, they could come up with responses like A4ost occidentsore coused by young people,older drivers ore just driving carefully,etc.

l::i-!
While you read (Shout us.com at Thewebitethat helps you get things
Point out the title of the reading text and asl< anyone if l<nows expression things yourchest. no one the get off lf knows,wait until studentshavefinished reading the complaints and asl< they can guess if the meaning. you (lf get something yourchest, off you talk about something thar has beenworrying or annoying you, in order to helpyou feel better.) Ask students whether they tend to get things their off chest bottlethlngs Havethem discuss or up. their r e a c t i o n sn p a i r sA s a c l a s s , n d o u t w h i c h c o m p l a i n t s i . fi most peopleagreeor disagree with.Then playthe recordingwhile students follow alongin their Coursebool<s. Havethem underline any expressions they find interesting. Pointour the expressions with mustin the first complaint(We musthovelunchsometime,We get !?US! togethel.You may need to explain some of theseexDressions: ' lf you saysomeoneor something weird, you thinl< is he/she/it strange. is For example: Don'tyou thinkit's weirdhow shealways knowswhot you'rethinking? ' lf you saysomething someoneis sick, you think or he/she/it disgusting morallywrong.For example: is or Itt sick the woy they experiment onimols. on You can

One way to do this exercise is to have students listen to t h e r e c o r d i n gf i r s t w i t h t h e i r C o u r s e b o o l < s l o s e d . c Ask them to tell you where they thinl< each situacion is tal<ingplace.Then play the recording a second time as they fill in the gaps. Pairs of students can then practise the conversations. Ask if anyone has experienced any of these situations in an English-speaking country. Asl< if they complained and if they can remember what they said. Tell students to go bacl<and underline the expressions for apologisingand tallcingabout the problem. Have them record these in their notebool<s along with an appropriate translation.

Answers l . l . I ' m a f r a i d 2 . b r i n gm e s o m e m o r e 3 . w i t h o u t 2 . l . I t h i n k I g a v e o u 2 . I ' m s o r r y ,b u t y 3 . l . D i d y o u s a y 2 . m u s tb e

44
; a
,lr

7 Compatnts

Speaking
Once students have practised these conversations,have them change partners and do the exercise again,but this time change one aspect of the problem, a chicl<eninstead of an egg salad sandwich,for example.Then discussas a class the auestion at the end.You could teach the verb short-chonge. You might want to introduce other questions that i n v o l v em o r a l d e c i s i o n sF o r e x a m o l e : . lf you found {5,would you keep it? How obout {10? {100? Would you soy onything if you discovered thot your poy check hod been depositedtwice into your occount?

Follow-up One way to round off this unit is to go bacl<to the languagestrip and have groups of three students write a dialogue between two diners and the waiter/manager. T h e y s h o u l d t r y t o u s e s e v e r a lo f t h e e x p r e s s i o n si n t h e languagestrip. They can then rehearse it a few times until they feel comfortable. Finally, have them perform their skit in front of the class.

Explain the two situations.Then give students a few minutes to go bacl<and look over the languagein the unit.As they are writing the dialogues,go round helping a when necessary. Once they've practised sayingthe dialogues,have pairs of students perform them to another oair or to the rest of the class.

45

.

Unit overview
General topic Talking about where you liveand who you livewith. Reading still sharea room Two brothersin their mid-thirties in their parents'house. Language input . . . Vocabulary describe to differentkindsof homes: etc. house, studio cottoge the county,detoched in flot, /tt Ways to describecities and areas: deod.lt's o quiterough.etc. verysafeareo.lt's with and never with the presentcontinuous Alwoys using He'salwoys the presentsimpleto complain: the phone. nevertidiesup ofter herself. She How do you geton with Talkingabout relationships: Not verywell. yourmum?OK,I suppose. Reolly we//. etc. Usingmokeand /et to talk about what you'retold to do and allowed to do: fhey let you havethe off. usedto mokeme eot my weekends My porents greens.

Doubleglozing is used to describe windows that have the house nicer to live in, two layers of glass,mal<ing b y k e e p i n gt h e h e a t i n , a n d w i n d a n d n o i s e o u t .

Remind students to record any of the expressions that they lil<ein their notebool<s. Lead in As an introduction to this unit, have students brainstorm a list of places to live.These can range from the obvious (e.9.house,flot) to the not so obvious (e.g.Tepee, monsion, stotelyhome).Then discusswhat coravon, students see in living in the advantagesand disadvantages . m o r e u n u s u a lp l a c e s F o r e x a m p l e : You'vegot o lot of room in o monsion,but it's Probobly very expensiveto heot. T h i s l e a d s i n n i c e l yt o t h e f i r s t e x e r c i s e .

.

.

i Differ entkinds of homes
Focus students' attention on the oictures A-H and have t h e m m a t c h t h e m t o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n sl * 8 . T h i s s h o u l d t h e l p e x p l a i n t h e m e a n i n go f t h e e x p r e s s i o n sb u t a s l < h e , following questions to checl<, too: How mony moin rooms ore there in o studio flat? to would there hove to be for somewhere How mony storeys be calleda big block of flots? Do you find cottogesin the city? How mony floors ore there in o bungalow? Can you think of some exomples of slum oreas? Why is it colled o detoched house? t H a v e s t u d e n t s u n d e r l i n et h e c o m p l e t e e x p r e s s i o n s h a t describe places to live in and add t.hose that they want to remember to their notebool<s.

Language strip Use the language strip as a way to lead in to the unit. Asl<students look quicl<ly throughthe list and find to any expressions that are true for them and any questions that in this Explain that they could answeraffirmatively. where they live about unit they will learnwaysof tall<ing them to choosesome and who they livewith. Encourage and other expressions the strip that lool<interesting in to find out more about them. Use the language strip later on in this unit for a small and followgroup tasl<. Ask students think of answers to i u p c o m m e n t so s o m eo f t h e q u e s t i o n sn t h e s t r i p .F o r t examPre: A: Areyou renting? B: Yes, l'm thinking looking o ploceto buy. of but for You might needto explainsome of the following expressions: . Thegroundfloor in Bricainis the first floor in many lt other countries. is on the samelevelas the street. . I n m a n yc i t i e so l d w a r e h o u s eis f o r m e r i n d u s t r i a l n , These flats. into expensive areasare beingchanged flacs are often calledconverted worehouses. . You might asl< if Hoveyou gotmice? you thinl< s o m e b o d y a sa p r o b l e mi n t h e i r h o u s ew i t h r a t so r h mice.

Answers l.h 2.c 3.a 4.9 5.e 6.d 7.6 8.f

Speaking
This exercise gives students a chance to use some of the expressions in I Different kinds of homes. Have them work in pairs for the first task and then compare their answers with another group. Remind them that there are often several possible answers.They can then tall<about the personal reflection questions at the end of the e x e r c i s ei n s m a l l g r o u p s .

46

8 H o u s ea n d h o m e

Point out the expression not very mobile and asl<students t o t h i n l <o f s i t u a t i o n sa p a r t f r o m b e i n g o l d , i n w h i c h w e , could use it about someone (e.g.not having any transportation, havinga broken leg).You might also want to talk about how elderlyis a more polite way of d e s c r i b i n gs o m e o n e o l d .

Answers | . Steve is still living at home because he suffers from depression and hasn't been able to l<eepa steady job. Dave got divorced and left the house to his exwife. Neither of them can afford to rent or buy a olacein London. 2. They like the fact that they get looked after: get their meals cool<ed and clothes washed.They also lil<ebeing with their family.The disadvantages are that they don't have much privacy and Dave finds some of Steve'shabits annoying.

Answers e L P o s s i b la n s w e r s : , l. best-a ground-floor flat;worst-a hugedetached I house 2. best-a hugedetached house; worst-a tiny little studio 3. best-a run-downplaceor the tenth floor of a block of flats; worst-a nice cottagein the country 4. best-a studioflat in the city centre, worst-a cottagein the country

Speaking
Introduce this speal<ing tasl<by tall<ingabout some of these things yourself. Have students listen and asl<you questions.Then ask them if they can recall any useful expressions that you used.Write the expressions on the b o a r d t o h e l p s t u d e n t sw h i l e t h e y a r e d i s c u s s i n gh e s e t q u e s t i o n st h e m s e l v e s . For the writing tasl<, have the class suggestsome e x p r e s s i o n s h a t m i g h t b e u s e f u la n d w r i t e t h e m o n t h e t board, making changesto them when necessary. Here are some examDtes: fhe housejust felt so empty without them. They help oround the house. They'll be here to look ofter us in o few yeors. They reolly need to stond on their own two feet. I love them, but I wish they'd leove.

Sp e a k i n g
You could start off this task by tall<ing about the first questionif your country or generation differentfrom is t h a t o f y o u r s t u d e n t s F o r t h e t h i r d q u e s t i o n ,o u c o u l d y '. dividethe classinto two groupsand haveone list the advantages the other the disadvantages. over the and Go pronunciation the structuresbeforegettingstudents of in pairs, one from eachgroup,to tall< about their lists.

].rl,iliil you read(Home- but not alone) While
I n t r o d u c eh e a r t i c l ea n d t e l l s t u d e n t so r e a di t a n d t r y t t and find the answers the two questions. When they to havefinished, they can discuss answers and their the overallreactionin pairs.Write some sentence starters on the boardto help: I don'tunderstond he ... why I think it'sreollybad thot .. . lf I wereDovelSteve, ... /U T h e n p l a yt h e r e c o r d i n g f t h e a r t i c l ew h i l es t u d e n t s o follow in the Coursebool<. Havethem underline any expressions collocations or they find interesting.You might want to point out and explaina few yourself. Forexamole: o growing numberof l've beenin ond out of work hovemy privocy droDin ond seethe kids prices hoverocketed a roughpart of town

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Cities iiiii;.iiii1il and areas
Beginby checl<ing studentsl<nowthe expression that Whereobouts exoctly Pointout that the present ...? continuous implies that you are tall<ing about a placeyou don't see as beinga permanentresidence. can You change to the presentsimpleif it's more appropriate it for your students' situation. Practice the pronunciation and intonationand then havestudentsstanduo and asl< several people.Remindthem to respondor ask a followup questiontoo. For example: A: Whereabouts exoctly you living? ore B: ln o smollflot justdownthe rood. A: Oh,it mustbe nice,being to walkto school. oble B: Yeoh, don't hoveto worry obout getting so eorly. I up So, whereabouts exoctly you living? ore A f t e r d i s c u s s i n gh i c h s t u d e n t si v ei n t h e n i c e s t r e a s , w l a g e t t h e m i n p a i r st o d i s c u s s e n t e n c e s- 1 0 , u s i n g l dictionaries necessary. if They can then use these sentences describe to the pictureson page56.The matching tasl< reinforces meaning the vocabulary. the of

47

Answers a d The positive escriptions re:3,5,5,9 and 10. T h e n e g a t i v ed e s c r i p t i o n sa r e : l , 2 , 4 , a n d 8 . 7 could be positive or negative.Poshis often used as a s l i g h tc r i f i c i s m . l. e. 9.b. 2.c. 3.i. t 0 .d . 4 . f. 5.a. 6.h. 7.j. 8.g.

Answers a l . H e n e v e rd o e sa n y t h i n g r o u n dt h e h o u s e leaving thingslyingaround her 2. She's always
everywnere.

3. 4. 5. 6.

He's always using the phone. He's always leavingthe lights on. She never tidies up after herself. She'salways leavingher hairs in the bath after she's had a shower. They never let me watch what I want to watch on TV.

You may need to point out and explain some of the expressions in a*j: . You can say o moin rood runs through somewhereto say that there is a road in the middle of the area. A river can also be said to run througha place. For example: TheThomes runs right through the villoge. . lf there is o lot of prostitution an area, it usually in means there are women on the street lool<ingfor customers to have sex with in exchange for money. Asl< if there are laws in the students' countries about cleoringup ofter your dog. Explain that in Britain a dog's owner is supposed to clear up their dog's excrement from the pavement or street.

L 9.

He's always tal<ingthings from my bedroom without asl<ing. He's always interrupting me when I'm tall<ing.

.

For the next activity,mal<esure students l<now the a d j e c t i v e s i s t e d i n t h e C o u r s e b o o l <P o i n t o u t t h a t l . disgusting fairly strong. Then have pairs of students is d i s c u s st h e i r a n s w e r s T h e r e a r e n o a b s o l u t ea n s w e r s . . a l t h o u g h s o m e a d j e c t i v e s i k e r u d e o b v i o u s l yd e s c r i b e l number 9. Point out the expressions idyup ofteryourself t and toke thlngswithout osking.

For the last task, give students a few minutes to try and r e m e m b e r t h e e x p r e s s i o n s - j . P r a c r i s et h e a p r o n u n c i a t i o no f t h e e x a m p l e a n d t h e n h a v e s t u d e n t s read the dialogues in pairs.You might want to sugSest that they follow up with a comment lil<eThot must be reolly nicelterrible, etc. , , 1

Answers Possible answers: s e l f i s h :, 7 3 m e s s y2 , 5 , ( 5 ) : d i s g u s t i n6 : g l a z y :l , ( 2 ) ,( 5 ) r u d e :8 , 9 t h o u g h t l e s s :( 8 ) 4

rther Fu .:ti::,,,':iil Practice
For this tasl<, remind students that the cities listed here are just suggestions. Give some other examples that might be more appropriate for your students if t n e c e s s a r y . h e n t h e y h a v ef i n i s h e dd i s c u s s i n gh e s e W y q u e s t i o n si n g r o u p s ,h a v e t h e m a s l < o u q u e s t i o n sa b o u t some places that you l<now

Pr onunciation: sentence e s s str
P l a yr h e r e c o l d i n g o n c e a l l t h e w a y t h r o u g h w i t h s c u d e n t sl i s c e n r n g .h e n p l a y i t a g a i n , a u s i n ga f t e r e a c h p T s e n t e n c es o s t u d e n t sc a n r e p e a t ,f o l l o w i n g t h e s a m e s t r e s sa n d i n t o n a t i o n D a t t e r n . They can then practise the complaints in 3 Always doing/never does in pairs. Encourage them to read the s e n t e n c et o t h e m s e l v e sa n d t h e n l o o l <u p a n d s a y i t c o t h e i r p a r t n e r .T h i s t e c h n i q u e r e a l l y h e l p s s t u d e n t sw i t h the rhythm of English.

Al w a y s d o i n g /n e ve rd o e s
The use of the present continuous with olwoysmight be strange to some students who may have learned that g o l w o y s o e s w i t h t h e p r e s e n t s i m p l e . Y o us h o u l d e x p l a i n a that it is a fairlycommon way of complaining bout s o m e t h i n ga n n o y i n g e s p e c i a l l y h a b i t .W h e n s t u d e n t s a , have finished the rewriting task, go through the answers and asl<further questions.For example: Whot do you think he shoulddo oround the house? Whot does'things'refer to in number 2? What things shou/d she tidy up?

Speaking
This exercise gives students an opport.unity to use some of the expressions in 3 Always doing/never does. W r i t e t h i s q u e s t i o no n t h e b o a r d : 5o, whot's it like living ot homelshoring o house? Then have students go around asking others this question and tall<ingabout any annoying habits the people they live with may have.

48

8 H o u s ea n d h o m e
I

How do you get on with them? 'riilll
This exercise focuses on the expression get on with and ways to describe how you get on with someone. Students can comolete the conversations l-4 and checl< their answers with you. They can then do the same with 5-8. Point out the responses Reollywell,Not very well,OK, I suppose. Practise the pronunciation of these phrases with students before getcing pairs co pracrise reading the c o n v e r s a t i o n sT h e y s h o u l d t h e n f o l l o w u p b y a s l < i n g a c h . e other how they get along with their mother, father, brothers, sisters,flatmates,classmates, people from work, etc. You may need to explain the following expressions: ' lf you say we get on likeo house on fire,you mean you have a really good relationship with a person. For example: We only met yesterdoyand olreody we get on /ike o house on fire. ' lf you are c/oseto someone, you lil<ethem a lot and l<now them very well. For example: I'm very c/oseto my younger stster. ' lf you say we've got nothing in common, you mean you don't have the same interests or ideas as the person you are referring to. For example: lt's omozing how little we hove in common. You wouldn't believe were slsters. ' lf you hove o lough with someone, you find them fun to be with becauseyou mal<eeach other laugh.For example: /tt nice to hove o bit of o lough with your office rnotes.

Speaking
T h i s s h o r t r e a d i n gt e x t l e a d si n t o t h e l i s t e n i n g a s l <i n t 2 W h i l e y o u l i s t e n . I n t r o d u c et h e t o p i c o f a u p a i r s . t h e n a s l < f a n y o n eh a s b e e n o n e o r h a s h a d o n e i n t h e i r i family.Then have students read the text and share their reaction in oairs.Write some sentence starters on the board: It soundslike it'd be ... It'sprobably... but ot leostyou ... I don't think I could ever ... You may need to explain that Exeter is a city in the southwest of Eneland.

W hile you listen
To prepare for the listening tasl<, get students in pairs to p r e d i c t e x p r e s s i o n s n d c o l l o c a t i o n sc o n t a i n i n gt h e a words in the box. Have some groups tell you what they h a v ec o m e u p w i t h a n d w r i t e t h e m o n t h e b o a r d . Y o u can add to or modify them afterwards. Go over the questions and explain that the personwho weors the trousersis an expression meaning the person who tends to moke decisionsfor the fomily.Tell students to listen first for the answers to these questions.You may want to have them cover up sentences l-9. Students can t h e n d i s c u s st h e i r a n s w e r s i n o a i r s . For the next tasl<, see if students can fill in any of the gaps from memory before you play the recording for them again.Have them record any collocations that are new to them in their notebool<s.

Answers your brother,OK your flatmate, Really well 3 . y o u r m u m ,N o t v e r y w e l l 4 y o u r m u m ,R e a l l y e l l w your flatmate, Not very well your brother,Not very well the peopleyou worl<with, OK the peopleyou worl<with, Really well
a
L.

Answers l. 2. 3. 4. Tired. No. Tomorrow morningat seven thirty. Angela. Sheseemsto be the one who mal<es the d e ci s i o n s .

Real English Refer students to the Real English note on we olwoys have o reol /ough.Have them discussthe questions with a partner. Asl< them to tell the class about someone they l<now who is o reol lough.

5. bags 6. coat 7. eat 8. journey 9. show 1 0 .b e d I l . a l a r mc l o c l < 1 2 .b r e a l < f a s t1 3 . h o w s

Speaking
Ask the first question to the class as a whole before dividing students up into two groups. After they have f i n i s h e dd i s c u s s i n gh e p r o b l e m s e a c h s i d e f a c e ,h a v e t pairs of students role-play a dialogue between the au pair and a friend back home after she's been there for a c o u p l e o f m o n t h s .T h e n h a v e t h e m r o l e - p l a y A n g e l a n d a P a u l d i s c u s s i n g h e t h e r h a v i n ga n a u p a i r i s a g o o d i d e a w or not. After students have practised,get pairs to perform one of their dialogues o another group. r

49

and I rwat<e /et
ln this exercise students are introduced to structures with moke and /et to tall<about things that you are told to do and that you are allowed to do. Let students read the conversation between Katrin and Anna first, and then play the recording as they read and underline the six e x p r e s s i o n sR e m i n d t h e m t o u n d e r l i n et h e c o m p l e t e . e x o r e s s i o n G i v e s t u d e n t s a m i n u t e t o t h i n l <a b o u t h o w . these expressions are used and what they mean before h a v i n gt h e m c o m p l e t e s e n t e n c e s l - 1 0 .

After going through the answers,have students read ticking those that through the sentences individually, were true for them, and thinl<ingabout other things their Darents used to let or mal<ethem do. They can then tall< about this with a partner. You may want to tell them about yourself beforehand or afterwards. Finish up by encouraging students to go bacl<and underline any useful expressions and record them in their noteboolcs.You may want to point out the following expressions: stoy over ot my friend's house spend the night go off comping keep my bedroom neat ond tidy stoy up os /ote os I wonted

Answers The expressions are: let you take the morningoff Mine makeme worl<a twelve-hourday let you havethe weel<ends off make me tal<e to the l<ids their balletclasses let me havefriendsround for coffee let me havea litde birthdayparty L make 2. let 3. make 4. mal<e 5. let 5. mal<e 7 . l e t 8 . l e t 9 . m a l < e 1 0 .l e t

Role play iil.liii{
This gives students an opportunity to re-use some of the l a n g u a g er o m t h i s u n i t , a s w e l l a s s o m e o f t h e f exoressions with hove to and don't hove to from the t p r e v i o u su n i t , s o g i v e t h e m t i m e t o l o o k b a c l < h r o u g h t h e C o u r s e b o o k . E x p l a i nt h e s i t u a t i o na n d g i v e t h e m t i m e t o p r e p a r e . Y o uc o u l d e i t h e r h a v e t h e m p r e p a r e i n d i v i d u a l l y ,r d i v i d e t h e c l a s si n t o t w o g r o u p s ,A a n d B , o and have pairs in each group help each other. Before students start the role play,write a possible opener on the board: A: I understond thot vou hove o room to rent. B: Thot's right. Are you interested? A: Well,l might be. Have them do the role play a couple of times with different people. Explain that they will improve their oerformance each time.

Once you've gone over the answers elicit the two Datterns: (used to) let me + verb (used to) moke me + verb Point out that the verb is in the base form with no to and that used to is used to talk about something that is no longer true. Encourage students to record these patterns in their notebooks along with some examples from this exercise or the personalisedones in the next. tasl<. Also, point out the expression tokelhovethe morninglweekends Ask students if they have ever had off. any days/time off work or off school.

Speaking
In this tasl<, students get the chance to be creative. Elicit f r o m t h e m w h a t a s p e c t st h e y s h o u l d c o n s i d e r a n d l i s t t h e m o n t h e b o a r d ,f o r e x a m p l e ,l o c a t i o n ,s i z e ,t y p e o f e b u i l d i n g , u m b e r o f r o o m s , s p e c i a lf e a t u r e s , t c . Y o u n c o u l d t u r n t h i s i n t o a ' r e a l e s t a t e a c t i v i t y 'b y h a v i n gt h e m d r a w a p i c t u r e ,s e t a p r i c e a n d t h e n g o a r o u n d s h o w i n g i t t o o t h e r s t u d e n t s , r y i n g t o c o n v i n c et h e m t o b u y t h e i r t dream house.

Speaking
Here the meaning of the two structures is reinforced. Explain that outhoritorionis a negativeadjective to describe a person who tries to control other people. stote or Point out that it can also be used with regime, policy.For the adjectives in b., explain that they describe someone who is not so strict and allows people more freedom to do things.Ask students if they have ever had any days/time off worl< or off school.

Follow-up As a follow-up, tell students to imagine that they have gone to a city abroad to study,and that they've been there for a weel<. They should write a postcard to one of their friends explainingwhere they are living,what the Encourage city is like and what their flatmates are lil<e. them to use expressions from this unit. Once they've finished,have them exchange postcards with a partner. They then read each other's postcards before getting together to ask questions about what they read.

Answers l . 1 ,2 , 3 , 4 , 6a n d9 2 . 5 , 7 , 8 ,t 0

50

The exercises here can be usedas a test.However, 4 Look back and check and 8 What can you remember? are better done as a discussion oairs in

look and iiffijifii1 back check
Answerswill vary.

"{ grammar revrew
Answers l. 2. 3. 4. 5. 5. 7. 8. 9. | 0. lmust I mustn't I wouldn't read it if I were you I had to clean make l s i t O K i fI You must be He'salways interrupting get

:d ^

I

verb ffi$$ collocatlons
Answers l.a. 2.i. 3.e. 4.j. 5.b. 6.h. 7.c. 8.d. 9 . f . |0 . s .

Adjectives
Answers | . i g n o r a n t 2 .w i d e 3 .d e a d 4 . f l e x i b l e 5 . o p t i o n a l 6. strict 7. rewarding 8. latest 9. bright 10.posh

comments ff Follow-up
Answers l .d . 7 . f

and Questions answers *jffiil
Answers l.c. 9 .g . 2.f. 3,i. 4.a. 5.h. 10.. i 6.b. 7.d. 8.e.

'.!frJ to, don't haveto, can Have what t'$iiji'# canyou rememberz
Answers t. 2. 3. 4. 5. can don't have to, have to has to don't have to

Answerswill vary.

LOffi :1,...';.1 InOh €XPl'€SSlOhS Answers l . u s e d 2 . s o m e t h i n g 3 .j o u r n e y 4 . w o n d e r 5. common 6. can 7. don't haveto 8. mustn't 9.run out of |0.drives A n s w e r so r l l - 1 3 w i l l v a r y . f

..' .'.1

can 6. have to 7. don't have to can aren't allowed to smol<e You're not supposed to leave before six. lf I were you, I'd phone first to see if they still have tickets left.

8. 9. 10. | |.

lf I were you, I'd talk to him and seewhat he says. You aren'tallowedin that part of the building.

51

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: l-a

I R e v i s i o nq u i z
Answers l. Working shifts meansyou work for a certain period of time and then someoneelsetal<es over t h e j o b .T h e r e i s n o s p e c i f i e t i m e o f d a yi n t h i s d case. some jobs - nurses, ln firefighters where you work shifts, you work 9-3 one weel<, l2-9 the next,and so on. Working meansyou nights start work in the evening and finishin the (early) morning. lt doesn'tfit you. l f y o u r c a r i s u n r e l i a b l et, k e e p s r e a l < i n g w n .l f i b do y o u r f r i e n di s u n r e l i a b l et, m e a n s o u c a n ' tt r u s t y i or depend n them. o Possible answers: bringa packedlunchto worl<, makeyour own coffeein the morning, at eat home instead goingro a restaurant. of You are reallybored. Possible answers: makeyou come home by a certaintime, makeyou do lots of chores, mal<e you helpwith the cooking. Possible answers: you stayup late at night,let let you come home wheneveryou lil<e, you listen let to whateverkind of musicyou want. You haveto do a compulsory You sub.lect. can c h o o s e h e t h e rt o d o a n o p t i o n a s u b j e c t w l N o . l t m e a n s h a t t h e a r e ai s o u i e ta n d t h e t n o t h i n g s g o i n go n . i Au oairslive with families and tal<e care of the children. One. You do all the repairsand you redecorateir. Not necessarily. means lt that the worl<givesyou satisfaction. P o s s i b la n s w e r s :c h o o lt,h e h o s p i t aw o r r . e s l, P o s s i b la n s w e r s : h o n eb i l l , a sb i l l ,e l e c t r i c i t y e p g b i l l c r e d i tc a r db i l l , You are. You're supposed meansit isn'tallowed. not to You don'thoveto meansthat it is not compulsory but you can do it if you want to. An.lnternet ompany. c P o s s i b la n s w e r M a r k sa n d S p e n c e r / S o g o . e : Possible answer:Yes. is. Yes. can be it it someumes.

2. 3.

4.

5. 6.

7.

8. 9. 10. I l. 12. | 3. 14. 15. | 6. 17.

18. 19. 70.

52

Unit overview
General topic Talking about computersand the Internet. Dialogue Simonand Petetalk about buyingthingsonline. Reading Classic comDutermistakes. Language input . . . . . to connected the Computer-relatedvocabulary: etc. my lnternet,checke-mail, computercroshed, the Time expressions: a few weeks'time, other in doy,oll my life,threeyeorsogo,etc. Saying e-mailand websiteaddresses: pete_smith@ otmoil.com, etc. sh Presentperfect and past simple:I boughtsome gropesthis morning. I've eotenthem oll olreody. I've and never: olwoys Presentperfect with olwoys l've likedmy coffeeblock. neverbeento South America. Why don'tyou ty ... ? for Expressions givingadvice: Hoveyou tried... ? lf I wereyou,l'd ... Talking thingswith keep+ -ipg; about annoying I I keephovingtrouble, keepgettingcut off,etc.

and refers to PCstandsfor personol computer Windows operating computersusingthe Microsoft operating while Mocsusethe Macintosh systems, systems. Mioosoft Offce is a software suite containingword and processing, spreadsheet other software. lf you say/ deleted lot,youare probablyreferring the o f, t o a l l o f t h e e - m a i l s i l e so r p r o g r a m s n y o u r comDuter. an Express OutlookExpress, e-mail software is Prosram. Online, lnternetservice an AOLstandsfor America orovider. up, lf you bocksomething you savea copy of your files, Fortunotely, For example: usually a differentlocation. in I bockeduP o copyof my work justbeforethe computer croshed. to lf you logon,you enter a nameor password get . a c c e s so a c o m p u t e ro r c o m p u t e rs e r v i c eF o r t e x a m p l ey o u c a n l o g o n c o t h e I n t e r n e c / y o u r . workstacion every morning. A chot roomis a websitewhere peoplecan log on and 'talk' to eachother by sending from their messages nome comDuter. that Remindstudents record any of the expressions to they like in their notebool<s. Lead in

. '

Language strip Use the language strip as a way to lead in to the unit. Ask students look quicl{y throughthe list and find to any expressions that are true for them and any questions that in Explain that they could answerin the affirmative. this unit they will learn more waysof talkingabout them to choose Encourage computersand the Internet. in some other expressions the strip that look interescing and to find out more about them. e U s e t h e l a n g u a gs t r i p l a t e ro n i n t h i s u n i t f o r a s m a l l and followgroup task.Ask students think of answers to i t u p c o m m e n t s o s o m eo f t h e q u e s t i o n sn t h e s t r i p .F o r examPre: A: Knowonygoodsites2 but is B: Yes, of my fovourites one with o/l thesestrange one true stofles. h f t O t h e r t a s k sc o u l di n c l u d e i n d i n g h e e x p r e s s i o nts a t and contain the verbs use (l useExpress) get (l getobout containing a or fifty e-moils day), findingexpressions don't phrasalverbs (Pictures up so much memory, use might needto explainsome of the following they?).You exoressions:

about You can leadin with manykindsof questions For example: computers. Do you usecomputers much? them? Do you like using Do you own one? Whot'sthe /otestsoftwore? on How much time do you spend the web? Alternatively, havegroupsof studentsbrainstormthe and, areasof life that computershaverevolutionised they havemademore more interestingly, areas the We complicated.You teachthe expressions couldn't can before. do withoutthernand Lifewosso much eosier

Vocabular y
You on This exercise focuses computervocabulary. could on leadin by writing the word comPuter the board and for asl<ing students some verbsthat go beforethe noun and some that go after.For example: log offlbootuplshutdownlrun+ computer informotion s/owlylstores computer+ croshes/runs

53

T e l l s t u d e n t st h a t t h e y w i l l s e e m o r e c o l l o c a t i o n si n t h e e x e r c i s e a n d t h a t t h e y s h o u l d u n d e r l i n ea n d r e c o r d t h e , c o m p l e t e p h r a s e s n o t j u s t s i n g l ew o r d s , i n t h e i r , noteboolcs.After they have completed and asl<ed each other the questions.have them close their Coursebooks and see if they can remember the questions to asl<you.

first to try students For the next task (page55),asl< remembering time expressions the without referringto the tapescript. They can then look bacl< checl< they to if were right.Ask the class further questions. example: For ls onyone goingowoyfor the weekend? Did it roin the otherdoy? Sholl hoveo test in o few doys'time? we Tell students record the completeexpressions their to in notebooks.You maywanr to point out the following exDressrons: ' lf you've occess the lnterne(, can connect to got you to the lnternet.You can also use occess a verb.For as example:We'reolwoys hovingproblems occessing the lnternet. ' lf you get o lost-minute deal,you buy a ticket,for example, short time beforeyou use it. The price is a lower than you would normallypay. lf a site is not user-friendly, peoplefind it hard to use because is difficultro navigate it throughor the i n s t r u c t i o na r e c o n f u s i n g . s B u d g eo i r l i n ea r e a i r l i n e o m p a n i ets a t a r e a b l et o t s c h offer cheaper flightsby not providing lot of the a extra services that the regularairlines We can do. also saybudgettravel and budget-priced and hote/s. CDs Answers a . T i m e b .f o r c . o t h e r d . l n

Answers l. PC 2. laptop 3. connected, server 4. software 5 . d e l e t e d 5 .v i r u s 7 . c h e c l < 8 . c r a s h

Speaking
This exercise helpslead in to the listening task that follows.Havestudents tall<in smallgroups. You can feed i n o t h e r q u e s t i o n s .o r e x a m p l e : F What ore somegoodsitesfor buyingthesekindsof things? Do you everworryobout securityT Whot ore the odvantogesldisodvontoges of buyingonline? Tellthe class about any personal experiences before too moving n to the nextexercise. o

.

.

W h i l e y o u l i ste n ( R e c o m me n d i a website)
Introduce the listeningtask and go over the two questions.Tell students to listen for the answers to the questions. Play the recording, making sure that students have covered the text. Get them to discussthe answers in pairs.Tell them to keep the texr covered as they do this.

. . 1

and website addresses .ii.... I E-mails
Play the recording once all the way through while students just listen,concentrating on how the characters that aren't numbers or letters are said.Then play it again, asl<ing them to listen for the intonation patterns. Finally, play it a third time, stopping after each one so students can repeat.They can then practise in pairs before talking about the Internet suffixes.Play the recording with the f o u r a d d i t i o n a le - m a i l a d d r e s s e s n o u g h t i m e s f o r e students to write them down. Have them read tne answers bacl<to you.

Answers | . They tall< about buyinga flightand a CD. 2. Petewantsto bool<a flightto take Karenawayfor her birthday. alsowants to buy her a CD with He the songthat was playing the bar when they first in met as a Dresent.

Next, let students read the conversation as you play the recording again.Then ask students, in pairs,to fill in the first two or three gaps from memory before you play the recording again,this time with pausesso that they can checl<and fill in the missing words. Do this two or three gaps at a time until the end. Play the recording through one more time, with students following the text. lf you want students to read the conversation,or parts o f i t , i n p a i r s ,u s e t h e t a p e s c r i p to n p a g e l 5 l . T h e m i s s i n g words are highlighted in colour.

Answers 7. 8. 9. 10. lemongrass22T2@shotmail.com nsgo789l@shotmail.com www.jazzmanlCDs.co.uk dellerh@wmin.ac.ul<

Answers l. 2. 3. 4. w h y d o n ' ty o u Haveyou tried if I were you c o u l dt r y 5 . w h y d o n ' ty o u 5. could try lool<ing at 7. if I were you

F i n i s h p b y d i s c u s s i n g e q u e s t i o na t t h e e n d a sa c l a s s u s th o r i n s m a l g r o u p sE x t e n d h i s b y f e e d i n gn o t h e r l . t i c o n n e c t e d u e s t i o n s .o r e x a m p l e : q F Do you ever o?enattochments? Do you geta lot of spomljunk e-mail? Do you like usinge-moil? Whot are somedisodvontoges using to e-mail?

54

9 Comouters

Sp e a k i n g
Use theseouestions follow on from 4 E-mails and to about something website addresses.Tellstudents Explain romanticyou'vedone or about a special song. Ask obsessed comPuters necessary. for other things if with peoplecan becomeobsessed cars,another with (movies, person, oneself). Get studentsin smallgroupsfor this examples task.Youcan go around monitoring, collecting of language givefeedback when they'vefinished. to on You could usethe photographs romanticthingsas a of basis a role play. work in pairswriting for Havestudents a d i a l o g u e e t w e e n c o u p l eO n e o f t h e m i s s u r p r i s i n g b a . in the other with one of the romanticactivities the res. Prctu

perfectand pastsimple Present liii;iil
Students are again led towards developing rules based on the examples they have seen. Have pairs of students discussthe four examples.As a class have them suggesta 'rule' and write it on the board. They can then read the explanations nd modify their rule if necessary a When checl<ing the answers to l-3, asl<students to W e x o l a i nt h e i r c h o i c e s . h e n s t u d e n t s u n d e r l i n e t h e examples of the two tenses,point out that the examples of the past simple contain several useful computer exDresstons.

. . 1

Answers The la. (l did history university) ot soundsmore natural. f o c u si s o n a p a r t i c u l atri m e p e r i o di n t h e p a s t . 2b. (Hello, think we'vemet before, I hoven'twe?)sounds more natural. The speal<er recognises other the person NOW (present This must be because result). point in the past. they met at some unspecified The 3a.(Oh,you've o hoircut!) hod soundsmore natural. focus is on the fact that your hair is shorter - a presentresult- but the actionof having your hair i a c u t o b v i o u s l y c c u r r e d t s o m e u n s p e c i f i etdm e i n o tne Dast. The examples the presentperfectin the text are: of ln part l: I'vemodethemoll ln part 2:withoutfirstchecking hossentit to you and who yourself if - likeme - you've mode oll thesemistokes T h e e x a m p l e o f t h e p a s ts i m p l e r e : a s ln part l: the frst wosto load,llooded everything, I downlooded of free softwore, hord drivewosfull My lots my down, of stuff I neverused,Thisslowed mochine I wontedto throwit out the window ln part 2:Thesecond mlstoke wosnot to,I losto clossic wholemorning's work,I goto viruswhichwipedmy hord drivecleon

Speaking
Mal<e sure studentsknow what o chotroomand o seorch engine are. Then havethem asl< eachother for o r e c o m m e n d a t i o n si.v et h e m s o m ee x p r e s s i o nts u s e : G Do you know onygood seorch engines/sites jokes? for Whot'sthe address? Is it free? engine you'll and find it. lusttype'...'in a seorch with Finishup by having students sharetheir suggestions the whole class.

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rt( i,f f-i :.-.:?r,f
d ] ; ; - , - l J

rnree classic mistakes ,'$;i
The reading task is used to contextualise the use of the present perfect and the past simple. Lead in by asl<ing students if they have any computer horror stories and then tell them to read about the first classicmistal<e. When they've finished,asl<them to share their reactions rn pairs and predict the next two mistakes. You can either have students read the rest of the text ( p a g e 1 7 5 ) i n c l a s so r a t h o m e . A l t e r n a t i v e l yj,u s t t e l l them the other mistal<es: not baclcingup your worl< r e g u l a r l ya n d o p e n i n g a n a t t a c h m e n tw i t h o u t f i r s t checl<ing with the person who sent it. Point out the collocations for mistoke: c/ossic mistoke, ovoid mistokes, moke mistokes. Encourage students to find other collocations in the text. Also, draw their attention to the word stufl This is another useful word lil<ething, which we often use when we don't l<now or don't want to say the specific noun. Give students some other examples: / need some stuff for my hoir. Con I leove some of my stuff in your goroge until I find o Dloceto live? I wonder whot thot red stuff is on the chicken.

Practice
Students can worl< on this exercise in pairs,alternately s a y i n g h e s e n t e n c e sa n d t h e n g o i n g b a c k a n d d o i n g t h e t ones they didn't do before. Write the present perfect exoressions on the board: I've olmost finished it. I've eoten them oll olreodv.ll'veolreodv eoten them. l'vejust hod .. . I've forgotten most of it olreody. I've just heord thot ... Ask students to think of other examples that are true for them, and where they can respond with these expressions.Draw their attention to the position of the adverbs (olmost,olreody ond just).

55

Answers I started reading the new Harry Potter bool< last w e e k . I ' v e a l m o s t f i n i s h e di t ' 2. I bought some SraPesthis morning. I've eaten them already eaten them. already./l've got my new car yesterday.I've iust had an | :. t accident. 4. I studiea Englishat school. l've forgotten most of it | already forgotten most of it. already./l've I 5. t tut my exams in May.I've iust heard that I've I L I oassed!

Time exPresslons
This is a review of some of the time exPressionstnat students met in Unit 2.This exercise reinforces the difference between those that refer to a specifictime in the past (e.g./ost Christmos)and those that refer to a period that extends from a time (specificor not) in the past to the present (e.g.for oges)'After checking the students' answers,have them make examples about their o b e s t f r i e n d s ,o t h e r c l a s s m a t e s ,r o t h e r P e o P l e .

Answers l l a E x p r e s s i o n is < e : l , 3 , 5 , 7 a n d 8 . l l b E x p r e s s i o n is < e : 2 , 4 , 6 , 9 a n d 1 0 .

'

i L i n k e dq'ue sti o n s t

This exercise shows how we use the present perfect to asl<about an exDerience,and then switch to the Past s i m p l e w h e n w e w a n t t o f o c u s o n t h e d e t a i l s 'R e m i n d I students that hove is stressed in Yeoh, hove octuolly. Model the example with a student and then get rhe class to do l-7 in pairs. Point out that if you didn't get round to you didn't have time to do it, and that if you something, you throw it away or, in the case of a get rid of something, virus, remove it. Students can then asl<each other questions starring with H o v e y o u e v e r. . . ? R e m i n d t h e m t h a t t h e y c a n a l s o , r e s p o n d N o ,n e v e r b u t I h o v e. . . . F o r e x a m p l e : A: Hove you ever been to o footbollmotch? but I hovg been to o rugby motch. B: No, never, A: Did you enjoy it? B: Yeoh,it wos good. Students can do this task in pairs or move around the class,asking each other.

Always/never
these adverbs refer to a general time. Along with ever, C h e c l <t h a t s t u d e n t s u n d e r s t a n dt h e m e a n i n go f e a c h example before doing the exercise.Yet is sometimes difficult;explain that it refers to an action that has not h a p p e n e ds o f a r u p t o t h e p r e s e n t b u t w i l l p r o b a b l y happen in the future. Point out that yet is used this way in questions and negative statements. When going through the answers,asl<students to explain their choices.lf they haven't noticed, point out occur with never.Also' in many of that ony and onrV.hing the verb or adiective is the sentences with o/woys, stronger than normal: /ove(instead of /ike),quite good (instead of lust good) and terrible (instead of bod)' Have students tall<about any of the sentences chat are true f o r t h e m , a n d t h e n c o m p l e t e t h e s e n t e n c es t a r t e r s w i t h p e r s o n a l i s e d x a m p l e s . n c o u r a g es t u d e n t st o r e c o r d E e these in their notebooks.

Answers | . Haveyou ever beento Rome?Did you see the C Sistine hapel? Did you go to you ever beento Greece? 2. Have Delphil 3. Haveyou ever beento Americaf Did you go to NewYorl<? 4 . Haveyou ever beento Asia?Did you go to T h a i l a n? d 5 . Haveyou ever loadedon too much softwareiDid to you manage removemost of it? 6 . Haveyou ever forgottento saveyour work? Did y o u l o s ea l l o f i t i to Haveyou ever got a virus?Did you manage ger rid of iti

Answers | . never 2. always 3. never 4. always 5. never 6. always 7. never 8. always

H o w l o n g ?W h e n ?
This exercise reminds students that how /ong refers to a period of time and can often be used with the Present perfect, when that period extends to the present, while when refers to a specific time, and when it refers to the past, it is often used with the Past simple.The exercise also focuses on those verbs that can refer to actions that happen or states that exist over an extended period of a t i m e ( e . g .b e , k n o w , w o r k , h o v e )n d t h o s e t h a t u s u a l l y happen or exist over extended periods of time don't buy). decide,leove. (e.g.meet, get (morried). Practise the example conversation with students before having pairs asl<each other. Remind them that they can Extend the exercise by respond in any way they lil<e. having them asl<each other similar questions that are

56

9 Corp-Ler'

a p p l i c a b lte t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . o r e x a m p l e : o F How longhoveyouhod red hoir? Whendid youleove schoolluniversity? Answers l. How long haveyou known your girlfriendl When did you meetherl

have them practise reading the dialogues in pairs.Write these patterns on the board to reinforce the structures that follow: Why don't you try + nounl-ing form Hove you tried + nounl-ing form? You could try + nounl-ing form lf I were you,l'd (just) + vey$ Also draw students' attention to some typical responses when peoplegiveadvice: Thonks.I hodn't thought of that. Moybe l'll give themlit o try. Yeoh, youie probobly right. Answers l. 2. 3. 4. doing a search the petrol station down the road nicotine patches wait and improve your Englisha bit more, tal<ingit next year 5. pressingAlt, Control, Delete, turn it off and switch it back on again

z
3

How long have you been married?When did you get marriedi How long have you been a vegetarianlWhen did you decide to stop eating meat? H o w l o n g h a v ey o u w o r k e d f o r I B M ? W h e n d i d y o u leave Compugraphics?

5. How long haveyou had this lobl When did you get it? 5. How long haveyou had a carf When did you buy it?

This exercise reinforces conceptsin the previous the exercises.You havestudents can work individually throughthe exercise in their answers beforecomparing pairs. an alternative, As readthe completedstory to the c l a s sw h i l et h e y l i s t e n i t h t h e i r C o u r s e b o o k c l o s e d . , w s T h e n r e a di t a g a i nb u t t h i s t i m e i n c l u d e h e w o r d s i n t h e , t gapsand don't tell them the verb:Even I though like Englond, ELANKo/woys / 8[ANK to work abrood, .... Students can then shout out the completedexpression (e.g. olwoys l've wonted workobrood). to Continuelike this for eachgap. Students in can then completethe exercise their bool<s.
Answers l. always wanted 2. never thought 3. saw 4. looked 5. filledin 5. sent 7. didn't hear 8. e-mailed 9. spent 've

The sentences giving advice are: l. Have you tried doing a search? 2. I guess you could try the petrol station down the roao. 3. Have you tried nicotine patches? 4. lf I were you, I'd wait and improve your Englisha bit more.You could try caking it next year. 5. Have you tried pressingAlt, Control Deletel I'd just turn it off and switch it back on.

' ' ' t Givinqcom puteradvice
This exercise givesstudents the opportunityto use the language from I General advice. Havethem work in pairs, alternately for Ask if asking and givingadvice. anyonehasever had these problems, what they did and whether it worl<ed. You maywant to ask if studentshave other computer problemsand get the class givethem to s o m ea d v i c e .

Real English Refer students to the Real English note on o reol Ponic Tell them about a time you were in o reol ponic or o reol hurry. Asl<them if they have ever felt this way. What did they do?

Keep+ - ing
Referstudents 2 Giving computer advice to find to the two examples this structure, of and go over the explanation.You could compareit to the use of o/woys with the presentcontinuous from the previousunit.The matching tasl< practises structureand also reinforces the several collocations. studentsif they can think of Ask other things that can crosh,freeze breokdown. and Forexamole: d screen (pipes,woter) freeze con (the market, stock morket) o comPuter the con crosh o cor (a mochine,talks) breokdown con Answers l.d. 2 . 6 . 3 .c . 4 .a .

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Go over the four examples. the recordingof the Play four examples once all the way through. Then playit again, pausing after eachexampleso that studentscan repeat. Payattentionto the intonationin eachcase. Students canthen completethe dialogues. the Play recordingso studentscan checl< their answers, then and

57

T h e s e c o n d t a s k a l s o i n c l u d e ss e v e r a lc o l l o c a t i o n s H a v e . s t u d e n t s u n d e r l i n et h o s e t h a t a r e n e w t o t h e m a n d record them in their notebool<s.Youcan follow up by having students change any of the sentences to mal<e them true for them. For example: My dod keeps soying I should become o doctor. They can then tall<about them with a partner.

Answers l. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. m i s s e d u t ( t h en u m b e rl ) o c o n n e c t e d p ( t h e s o u n dc a r d ) u put in (a CD) (felt) great forgot (to switch it off) (forgot to) switch it off (As he) was putting(the case)bacl< on professional (reputation).

Answers 5 . c r a s h i n g 6 .g i v i n g 7 .g e t t i n g 8 . p h o n i n g 9 . s a y i n g 1 0 . e t t i n g | | . f o r g e t t i n g 1 2 .l o s i n g g

nOvantages and disadvantages ,, ' ,1
Explain task and then let studentslook bacl< the through the unit or throughtheir notebool<s usefullanguage. for T h e y c a nt h e n w o r l <i n p a i r sc o m i n gu p w i t h t h e i r l i s t s . , Alternatively, dividestudentsinto two groups: one thinkingof advantages, other of disadvantages. the Then makegroupsof four,two from eachside,to debatethe issue. either case, ln write some usefullanguage the on board. or examole: F Theytokeup too much time. It'smuch more convenient. They've simplified Icomplicoted things. RememberY2K? Theyieonti-sociol. Follow-up

jti:;f*l rurttrerpractice
This exercise provides a chance for recycling the languagefor giving advice. Encourage students co give each other advice when they tall<about the last two q u e s t i o n s . i n i s hu p b y t e l l i n gt h e c l a s so f a n y p e r s o n a l F experiences.Youcould extend this by asl<ing pairs of students to role-play a dialogue between Simon and Pete's (from the conversation on page 64) partners, d i s c u s s i n gh e i r a n n o y i n gh a b i t sa n d o f f e r i n ge a c h o t h e r t a d v i c e .F o r e x a m o l e : You know,he's reolly nice but he keeps on spendingoll our money on surprise weekend trips.

Speaking
Playthe recordingof the three storieswhile students j u s t l i s t e na n dt h e n p l a yt h e r e c o r d i n g g a i n h i l e , a w s t u d e n t so l l o w a l o n gi n t h e i r C o u r s e b o o k s .h e n h a v e f T t h e m d e c i d e h i c hs t o r y w a s t h e m o s t e m b a r r a s s i n g . w B e f o r eh a v i n gh e m d i s c u s t h e q u e s t i o n sn t h e n e x t t s i t a s k i n p a i r st,e l l t h e m a b o u ta n y p e r s o n ae x p e r i e n c e l you have, alternatively this one: or use I hovethisfriendwho wos workingon someEnglish teoching moteriolfor the school website.Aftershefinished, did o she spellcheckto mokesureeverything OK. Therewereno wos problems, shepostedthe moteriol.A few weeksloter,o ond student osked teocher his what'gerbils'were. teocher The exploined, the studentstil//ooked but confused. wontedto He know obout the grommoticol structure'gerbils' the not animols. Now the teocherwosconfused. student The exploined thot he hod reod oll oboutthem on the website. /t turnedout thot the studenthod beenlooking o section ot colled' Gerbils ond Infinitives'.he spell-ch T hod ecker n't liked the word'gerunds' hod chonged ond them oll to'gerbils'.

To recyclesome of the language from this unit,nave studentsrole-play job interviewfor a computer a . s u p p o r tp e r s o nA s a c l a s sb r a i n s t o r m l i s t o f , a r e q u i r e m e n t(s o t h p e r s o n aa n d t e c h n i c a lT.h e n h a v e b l ) students worl< in pairswriting the dialogue betweenthe b o s so f a s m a l lc o m p a n y n d t h e a p p l i c a nW r i t e s o m e a t. s e n c e n cs t a r t e r s o h e l pg e t t h e m s t a r t e d : e t Hoveyouhod much experience ... ? with H o v ey o ue v e r. . . ? H o w l o n gh o v e o u . . . ? y Whenlwhy youleove... ? did Whot wouldyoudo if ... ? Students can then practisereading beforeperforming it it to anothergroup.

Opposites
I n t h i s e x e r c i s e ,t u d e n t s a nw o r k i n d i v i d u a l oy i n s c l r pairs. Tellthem that the words they are lool<ing for occur in the sameorder in the text. Remindthem to record completeexpressions they want to transferany if to their notebool<s.

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to
Unit overview
General topic Makingplansand arranging times and places. Dialogue Martin and Rachel discuss plansfor celebrating Jamie, Rachel's birthday. Language input . Prepositional phrases location: for otthe stotion, just in front of the by the moin exit, the busstop, at post offce,etc. Suggesting alternativetimes to meet: Con we moke it o bit loter? etc. Expressions show you don't mind:/'m eosy. to lt's up to you.l'm not bothered. Verbalexpressions followed by the -ingform or infinitive: you foncy going ?Wouldyou liketo Do ... g o . . . ? l ' dr o t h e g o . . . r Choice questions: you wantto do it now or sholl Do we do it tomorrow? lf you pick someone you collectthem from one up, placeto take them somewhere in else- usually your car.For example: pickyou up oroundseven, l'll OK? Y o u s a yC a nw e m o k ei t . . . ? w i t h a t i m e w h e n someonesuggests time to do something a and you want to do it at anothertime. For example: A: How oboutif I pickyou up ot eight? B: Con we makeit nine?I don't finishwork until eight. A foyeris the entrancehall of a hotel,cinemaor theatre.In AmericanEnglish, is calledo lobby. this A mobile a mobile phone.For example: havemy is I'll mobilewith me,so giveo ring if there's ony problem. Remindstudents record any of the expressions to that they like in their notebooks. Lead in You can use I Speaking to leadin to this unit.

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Speaking
Language strip Use the language strip as a way to lead in to the unit. Ask students lool<quicklythroughthe list and find to any expressions that they haveusedor could haveused before.Explain that in this unit they will learnwaysto talk about makingplansto meet people. Encourage them to choosesome other expressions the strip that look in interesting and to find out more about them. Use the language strip later on in this unit for a small group task.Ask students choosefour statements to and come up with what was saidto prompt eachone. For examole: A: Whereis he?He shouldhove beenherefortv minutes ogo. B; Ringhim on hismobile. You could alsoasl< them to find all the exoressions that containa modalauxiliary (e.g. Sholl meetafterwork? we Can we mokeit nine?I'll be underthe clock). You might needto explainsome of the following expressions: ' lf you sayl'm eosy when someonegivesyou a choice o f t h i n g s o d o ,y o u d o n ' t m i n d w h i c ho n e y o u d o , t and are asking the other personto makethe choice for you. For example: A: Do you want to sit hereor outside? B: I'm eosv.Youdecide. First,havestudents guesshow old eachpersonis. They can use the structure HelShe looks oboutto beginthe activity.Then the class brainstormall the different asl< to peopleeachpersonmight meet.In pairs, they can then d i s c u s w h e r et h e y t h i n l < a c hp e r s o nw o u l d u s u a l l y s e meet the differentpeoplethey know.You could finishby asking students discuss to which of the four peoplethey think would havethe best sociallife and why.

waiting lfiiiilii#l ror agesl
Use the questions to lead in to the reading tasl<, either in s m a l l g r o u p s o r a s a w h o l e c l a s s . x p l a i nt h a t i f y o u E arrive just on time, you get there exactly at the cime you p l a n n e d . i v e s t u d e n t ss o m e o t h e r e x a m p l e so f G expressions with just connected with meetings.For examPre: I wos just leoving when you rong. I just mode it. It might be interesting to divide the class into two g r o u p s ,m a l e a n d f e m a l e ,t o d i s c u s s h e s e q u e s t i o n s . t When students have finished,have them get into mixed gender groups of three or four to see if men and women answer differently.

59

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:la:il E

Explain the situation of the reading text and have srudents read it to themselves.Theycan then share their reactions in pairs.Ask them if they remember what o rough oreo means and to explain why they thinl< the writer described Moss Side as o rough areo (there is a lot of drug dealing and prostitution there). Play the recording of the text as students follow in their Coursebook. Encourage students to underline any expressions or collocations they are interested in. You may want to point out these expressions connected with meetingpeople: slt somewhere by myself she is o/woys worried about being left on her own in o bor she finolly turned up I wos beginningto worry sorry,I'm lote So thot I didn't hove to woit oround for vou spoi/ the evening Remind students to add the expressions to their notebool<s.
I

Speaking
U s e t h e p i c t u r e s o n p a g e 7 l t o p r a c t i s et h e s e prepositional phrases.Students can take it in turns describing where people are and then turn it inro a m e m o r y g a m e .O n e s t u d e n t c l o s e st h e C o u r s e b o o l < while the other tries to remember where each Derson was. For examole: I think the people in the picture on the right were in o pub. You could also use the pictures to revise the past simple and past continuous tenses in storytelling.Asl< students to use sentences starters like: Lost week I wos ot the oirport,when suddenly... While I wos woiting for my friend in the pub the other doy, ..

. . I P r o n u n c i a t i o n :e a k f o r m s w
Explain to students that the schwa,/e/, is common in prepositional phrases because it allows us to say them quicl<lyand smoothly. As you play the recording, asr< s t u d e n t st o l i s t e n f o r t h e s o u n d a n d t h e n p l a y i c a g a r n , w h i l e s t u d e n t s l i s t e nf o r t h e w o r d t h a t h a s t h e m o s t s t r e s s .P l a yr h e r e c o r d i n g a t h i r d t i m e , p a u s i n ga f t e r e a c h sentence,so students can reDeat. After students have put the dialogues in order and checked their answers from the recording, point out how then is often used at the end of questions as a way o f c h e c k i n go r i n v i t i n gt h e o t h e r p e r s o n t o c o m m e n t . Have pairs of students practise these dialoguesand then tell them to worl< with a new partner having similar conversations about places in the town/city where they a r e s t u d y i n go r t h e a r e a a r o u n d t h e s c h o o l .G o a r o u n d mal<ingsure they are using the weak forms.

. . 1

:iii speating
Leadin to this task by tellingthe class who you are most lil<e, then tell them a waitingstory of your own. and Encourage class asl< the to you questions and then to r e c a l a n y e x p r e s s i o nts a t y o u u s e dW r i t e t h e s eo n t h e l h . b o a r dt o h e l ps t u d e n t s h e n t h e y t e l l t h e i r o w n s r o r i e s w in smalgroups. l

Prepositions useearners f Englisa lot of problems. ca l o h Remindstudents that they are best learnt in phrases, as is the casehere.Beforedoingthe tasl<, elicita list of potentialmeetingplaces (e.g. bors, coffee shops, cinemos) and then asl< Whereobouts exactly theseploces you in con meetT Listento students' suggestions without correcting t h e m .T h i s g i v e s o u a c h a n c e o t o n l y t o h e a rh o w w e l l y n they use prepositional phrases, alsowhere they are but lacking specific in vocabulary describe to differentparts of a olace. Havestudentsdo this exercise oairsand then in compareanswers with a partner. After you'veclarified any problems, students can test eachother in pairs: one p e r s o nr e a d s h e b e g i n n i n gls 7 w h i l et h e o t h e r p e r s o n t t r i e s t o r e m e m b e r s m a n yo f t h e t h r e e p o s s i b l e n d i n g s a as they can.You shouldexplainthat bit in f. meansport. Tell students record any prepositional to phrases or collocations their notebool<s. in Answers l.c. 2 .g . 3 .a . 4 . b . 5 . d . 6 .e . 7 . f.

Answers
| . c . , a . ,D . 2. c., a., b., d. 3 . b . , e . , f . , d . , a . ,c .

Speaking
Tell students about the places where you meet peopre b e f o r e h a v i n gt h e m d i s c u s st h e s e q u e s t i o n si n g r o u p s . Write some useful phrases on the board. For exampre: It's reallv convenient. A lot of young people hong out there. It's o greot spot for ...

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1 0 M e e t i n oD e o D l e

Speaking
This tasl< leadsin to the listening Start off by asl<ing tasl<. students the questions. Ask if there are any particular traditionsthat they havenow or rememberwhen they were younger. Talkabout yourselftoo. Then get students to individually ranl< the activ;ties. Pointout the collocations haveo quietmeo/and c/ose and fomily. friends Give students some more exDressions with hove o quiet... (night drink, in, Write some wordwithsomeone). expressions the boardfor when they compare on ranl<ings: That'swhat I'd reollvliketo do. fhot's not reolly kindof thing. my / usedto likedoingthat,but I'm getting old for it now. too Thot'snot very exciting, it? is

You may needto explaina coupleof expressions: . lf a placelike a caf6or restaurant doessomething, they offer it. For example Theydo o curry nightevery Mondoy.Theydo o mixtureof old soulond R &B on Sundoys. . lf you chill out,you relax,often after you havedone something tiring.For example: Thonks the for invitation, I think I'm just going go home ond chill but to out.Referstudents the Real English note on chill to out. Encourage students go bacl< to throughthe conversation and add any expressions that they find interesting to their notebool<s.

Speaking
. S t u d e n t sc a n d i s c u s st h e s e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h f o l l o w o n from the conversation,in small groups. Explain that if someone is fussy, they aren't easy to please,or they are worried about smalldetails. or example: F We con never decide on the best ploce to meet ofter work. Everyone's fussy.ltt either too noisy,too smoky or too so expenslve. Also, explain that if you go olong with someone's suggestion, you agree with it. When students have finished,tell them to close their Coursebool<sand asl<you the quesrions.

Exolain the situation and ask students to listen for what R a c h e l , J a m i e n d M a r t i n d e c i d et o d o a n d n o t t o d o f o r a Rachel'sbirthday.Play the recording, mal<ingsure that students cover the text. Get them to discussthe answers in pairs.Tell them to keep the text covered as they do this.

Answer They end up deciding go bowling.They'regoingto to meet at eight in the foyer of the bowlingalleynear the station. Martin is goingto tell Stella so and Mil<e they can join them.(They decideagainst goingto a musical and Ben's caf6to hear iazz.)

Roleplay
Before students worl< on the role play,brainstorm a list of useful exDressionsfor each situation and write them on the board. You might also want to give them the openinglines: A: Hello? B: Hi. Mortin here.I just wonted to let you know ... A: Hello. Moortown Bowling. B: Hello.I wos wonderingif I could ... G o a r o u n d h e l p i n gw i t h l a n g u a g e i f f i c u l t i e s n d t h e n d a have students practise a few times together before acting it out to another Dair.

Next, let studentsread the conversation you playthe as recordingagain. Then asl< students, pairs, fill in the in to first two or three gapsfrom memory beforeyou play the recordingagain, time with pauses that they this so can checl< and fill in the missing words.Do this two or three gapsat a time until the end.Playthe recording throughone more time with students followingthe text. lf you want students readthe conversation, parts to or o f i t , i n p a i r su s et h e t a p e s c r i po n p a g el 5 l . T h e m i s s i n g , t words are highlighted colour. in Answers Words in gapsin the conversation: l. They'relovely 9. Can we make ir 2 . f a n c yd o i n g 1 0 . g i v et h e m a r i n g 3. I'm easy | | . d o n ' ty o u 4. making 12. actually 5 . s u p p o s e do b e t 1 3 . m i d d l eo f t h e w e e l < 5. Ben's 7. somewhere lse e 8. do you fancygoing

Tim e expr essions
This exercise focuses on time expressions following Con w e m o k ei t . . . ? G o o v e r t h e e x a m p l e s , o d e l l i n gt h e m p r o n u n c i a t i o na n d t h e n e x p l a i nt h e t a s l < . Y o u i g h t w a n t m to do the first one as an example.Asl<students to pay attention to the sentence(s)following the question. Explain that the clue to completing the exercise can be found there. As you go through the answers,ask q u e s t i o n s f o c u s i n go n s o m e o f t h e o t h e r l a n g u a g e s e d . , u For example: 'for How long is oges',a relotivelyshort or long time? What time would you need to leave home to get to schoolon time?

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What ore sorne progrommes you don't wont to missT TV that home,my desk) Whot places you be'awoyfrom'7(work, can Why mightyou needto tokeo doy off work?How obouton houror o yeor?
Answers | . eight 2. later 3. earlier 4. six 5. next weel< some time 6. some other time

Have pairs of students practise the conversation and then mal<esimilar conversations.(Note that if you wanted to be annoying,the conversation could go on for a long time.)

i, i

The ii]t$ii -rngform andthe infinitive
This areaof grammarcan cause lot of frustrationfor a students.There no practical are rulesfor determining whether a gerundor infinitive used, is and although s t u d e n t s r o b a b l y ' l < n otw e r u l e 't h a t m o d a la u x i l i a r i e s p h are followedby the verb without to,they often still make mistakes. always, As remindthem that recordinq rhese v e r b p h r a s e sn e x p r e s s i o nw i l l h e l p . i s After goingthroughthe explanations, students can test eachother in pairs. One personsaysDo you foncy... Z and the other,without lool<ing the Courseboor, ar responds ith going.. 2 w .

Have students go back and underline the examples where the time expression is not specific (o bit loterleorlier,next week some time, some other time). . : . . . i-

. '1 Freepractrce
lf you want to make the first task a little easier,write a couple of key words on the board to help students remember. For example: I . work ... seven 2. meeting. .. fve ... oges etc. After pairs of students compare their answers for the second task, asl<them to practise the conversations using their different reasons.

Go over the examples with the class and practisethe pronunciation, particularly srresspattern in /t'sup to the you. When students find theseexpressions the in dialogue, remindthem to look at words aroundthem too. For examole: Whotever. eosy. up to you,reolly. l'm lt's Brieflydiscuss questions a classbeforehaving the as students ompletehe dialogues. c t

S t u d e n t sc a n w o r l < i n d i v i d u a l l y n d t h e n c h e c l < h e i r a t answers from the recording.Then have them practise the c o n v e r s a t i o n s n p a i r s .P o i n t o u t a n d e x p l a i n , i if necessary, some of the other expressions used here: thot new Moroccon ploce It might be o lough. It might be nice to get out of town. o friend of mine H a v e s t u d e n t sg o b a c k a n d u n d e r l i n et h e c o m p l e t e e x Dr e s s t o n s .

Answers |. going, stay 2. going, try 3.Togo,to do 4.To go, invite 5.To go,stay 6. go,to go

Answers l. 2. 3. 4. 5. 5. easy don't ,p easy bothered to

rurtt''"r. ii,,Lifi{ pr".ti."
Beforegettingsrudents do the tasl<, to model the first item as an examplewith a student: A: Do you fancy going swimming later? 8: Io be honest, rother justgo for o run. I'd Encourage students use differentexpressions to for makingsuggestions.Then them work with anotner have partner for the secondpart.

Point out the expression Wheneversuits you. Practise the pronunciation with the class and then ask a few questions and have students respond with wheneyersuits you or whoteversuitsyou.For example: When shall we hoye o test7 Do you wontto do this exercise now or woittill tomorrow? Sholl I ploy the recording first or do you wont to reod it fust?

62

1O Meetnq people

Answers Possible answers: l . A : D o y o u f a n c y o i n gs w i m m i n ga t e r i g l B: To be honest, rather just go for a run. lt's a I'd bit too cold. 2. A: Do you want to go to visicmy parenrschis weel<end?

Answers l.c. 2.a. 3.e. 4.b. 5.h. 6.d. 7.f. 8.g.

F o r t h e s e c o n d t a s k g o o v e r t h e e x a m p l e ,p o i n c i n go u c the use ofjust and asl<the tag question sho/l we? that follows sentences starting with Let's.Encourage students to follow a similar pattern. When the pairs of students have finished,have a few of them share their answers with the whole class.

B:

To be honest, l'd rather stay home and catch up with worl<. I've got an important deadline to meet. Would you lilceto go ro a concert next Friday? Yeah,that'd be great. Shall I phone now and bool< ticl<etsfThey might sell out. Do you fancy going to that new club tonight? I'd rather go to Rock City instead.lt's cheaper. Do you fancy eating Chinese for dinner tonight? I'd rather eat Mexican instead.I had some egg rolls for lunch. Shallwe go to a caf6 for lunch? Yeah,that'd be great. Do you wanr to go to that new place round the cornerf I hear it's really good.

3. A: B: 4. A: B: 5. A: B: 6. A: B:

. .. ' 1 F r € € p r a c t r c e
Allow students a few minutes to look bacl<through the u n i t , i n c l u d i n gt h e l a n g u a g e t r i p ,a n d t h e n t o t h i n k a b o u t s the denils of their plan.To make this easieqyou might want to give each student a weekly or monthly calendar so they can note down the dates and times. Go over some expressions for turning down invitations.For examPre: I'm ofroid I'm busy thot doy. Could we moke it onother time? l'm sorry I won't be able to make it. l'm ... er ... woshing y hoir then. m Follow-up

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Referstudents the Real English nore on thot new to club.

The -ing form, infinitive with to or i n f i n i t i v ewi th o u t to ?
This exercise also revises expressions with get usedto, mokeand /et from previousunits. When you have checked students' answers, they can asl< eachother in pairs. Alternatively, eachstudenta numberfrom I to give 8 a n d a s l <h e m t o m e m o r i s e h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t t q u e s t i o n . T h e y e n g o a r o u n da s k i n gh e i r q u e s r i o n o th t r other students. Havestudentsrecord the complete expressions their notebool<s. in Answers l . u s i n g 2 . s t a y 3 . l e a r n 4 . d o i n g 5 . T od o 5 . d o i n g 7 . d o 8 .g o i n g

Have pairs of students imagine that they are a company that sets up dates between young people by organising an activity illustrated in one of the pictures on page 75. They should worl< out the details of how it actually worl<s:what the couple do, the price, etc. Have students t h e n e x p l a i n t h e i r i d e a st o t h e r e s t o f t h e c l a s s . Y o u a n c then get them to vote on the most interesting or unusual ideas.Then ask students to imagine that they have just come bacl<from one of these events and have them write about their exoeriences.

Do we ifi:;,$ you want to ...or shall ...z
Somestudentsmay be curiousabout the use of sho//. Thesedaysit is common in conversational BritishEnglish for makingoffersand suggestions. AmericanEnglish In it i s l e s sc o m m o n W h e n c h e c l < i n h e a n s w e r s , o d e lt h e . tg m pronunciation, particular in the intonationpattern of c h o i c eq u e s t i o n w i t h j u s t t w o o p r i o n s( r i s i n g n t h e s o first choice, falling the second). on Then students can p r a c t i s en p a i r s . i

63

Unit overview
General topic Talking about differentmeansof transportand journeys. Reading Stereotypes peoplewho drive certainvehicles. of Language input ' Number adjectives: two-hour o drive, fifteen-minute o
woll etc.

You might sayWe had to stondoll the woywhen By For example: the time tall<ing about a train journey. I get the troin,there no seotsleft ond I hoveto stond ore oll the woy. you meanthere lf you describe flightas o bit bumpy, a was some turbulence. example: For Why doesit olwoysgetbumpywhentheybringroundthe coffee? An occident block spotis one part of a road where lots of accidents happen often,there is a sharp c o r n e rt n e r e .
Remind students to record any of the exoressions that chey like in their noteboot<s. Lead in O n e w a y t o l e a d i n r o c h i su n i t i s t o w r i t e c o 4 t r o i n , p l o n e and coach on the board and to have groups of students brainstorm the advantagesand disadvantages of travelling by each. Elicit some adjectives lil<eexpensrve, convenient, fast, comfortoble,etc. so that they can mal<e c o m p a r i s o n sT h i s w i l l g i v e y o u a c h a n c e t o a s s e s s o w . h w e l l s t u d e n t s u s e c o m p a r a t i v ea n d s u p e r l a t i v e structures, an area covered later on in the unit.

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Driving vocabulary: looks hismirror,goes in through red /rghts, etc. Comparatives superlatives: sooner,the and The ltt better. much cheoper it usedto be. lt'sone of thon the best places eot in town. to Transport collocations: got delayed Rome. in /t's We a very fast line.Webrokedownjust outside Durhom. fhe seo wos a bit rough.etc.

.

Language strip Use the languagestrip as a way to lead in to the unit. Ask students to look quicldy through the list and find any expressions that are true about themselves (e.g.I con't drive).Explain that in this unit they will learn ways to talk about different kinds of transport and journeys. E n c o u r a g e h e m t o c h o o s e s o m e o t h e r e x p r e s s i o n si n t the strip that look interesting and to find out more about them. Use the language trip later on in this unit for a small s group task. Asl< students to find those expressions that are connected with planes (e.g.The flight took eleven hours),cars (e.g.I drive oVolvo), trains (e.g.We hod to stond oll the woy) and ships (e.g. / get seosick just thinking obout ferries).Thereis another exercise lil<ethis later on i n t h e u n i t . Y o u c o u l d a l s o a s l < t u d e n t st o f i n d t h o s e s expressions containing a verbal expression followed by an infinitive without to (Shollwe get o cob?)and those followed by an -ing form (l don't mind goingby cooch, octuollv\. You might need to explain some of the following exDressrons: . ' There is a stereotype that someone who drives o Volvois safe,sensibleand boring. lf you stop over somewhere a flight, your plane lands on and remains at the airDort for a time before c o n t i n u i n go n t o t h e f i n a l d e s t i n a t i o n D u b o i i s p a r t o f . the United Arab Emrrates.

Speaking
Use these questions to lead in to the reading tasl<. Start off by asking students to guess what l<indof car you have ( o r w o u l d h a v e i f y o u d o n ' t h a v eo n e ) . E n c o u r a g e h e m t o t e x p l a i nc h e i r r e a s o n i n gF o r e x a m p l e : . You'vegot kids, so you've probobly got o big cor. You look iike the kind of person who drives one of those new minis. Y o u c a n t h e n g e t s t u d e n t s i n s m a l lg r o u p s t o d o t h e s a m e . lf most of your students don't have cars,tell them to d i s c u s sw h a t c a r t h e y t h i n k e a c h o t h e r w o u l d h a v e . You can then tall<about the two patterns. Explain that we often use the expression tend to to avoid making too big an overgeneralisation. Give them an example for each Dattern: Peoplewho drive red cors tend to speed. Peoplewho drive block cors use them to pretend they ore tmportont. You could extend this activity by asl<ing what characteristicsstudents associatewith different colours. T h i s c a n b e q u i t e i n t e r e s t i n gi n m u l t i c u l t u r a lc l a s s e s .

64

T r a n s p o ra n d t [ a v e t

H a v e s t u d e n t s d i s c u s st h e p i c t u r e s o f v e h i c l e si n p a i r s . Write some sentence starters on the board. For examole: A driver of o vehicle/ike this is probobly o ... A driver of o vehicle/ike this probobly uses it for ... Before going on to the reading,asl<if anyone actually owns one of the cars in the oictures.

before asl<ing the question and going over the e x p l a n a t i o nS t u d e n t sc a n w o r l < i n d i v i d u a l l y n t h e t a s l < . o a n d t h e n c h e c l < h e i r a n s w e r si n p a i r s .M a k e s u r e t h e y t are hyphenatingthe two parts of the adjective.For exrra practice, they can test each other: one person reads the first part while the other reformulates it into a number adjective without lool<ingat the Coursebool<.

Answers

wtriteyou reao riitliril
Explain that the article students are going to read is a list of stereotypes from Britain. After they have read through t h e t e x t , t h e y s h o u l d d i s c u s st h e a n s w e r sa n d t h e i r reactions with the same partner they worl<ed with in I Speaking.

2. 3. 4. 5. 5. 7.

l t ' sa t h r e e - h u n d r e d - p o u s u i t . nd I h a da f i f t e e n - m i n u r ea i c . w She's got a five-year-old son. I d i d a f o u r - m i l eo g / r u n . j lt's a fifteen-minute ride by bus/bus ride. lt's a two-week cruise.

Answers l.D 2.F 3 .E 4.C s .B 6.A

S t u d e n t sc a n t h e n t a l l <a b o u t t h e q u e s t i o n si n p a i r s .

Dr ivingvocabular y
Playthe recordingof the texr as srudents follow in their C o u r s e b o o l <E n c o u r a gte e m t o u n d e r l i n e n y s. h a interesting expressions collocations. maywant to or You p o i n to u t o r e x p l a i n h e f o l l o w i n g : t . lf you sweor so/neone, use bad language ot you to abusethem verbally. example: For How monyof you onlysweorwhenyouTe driving? ' lf someonecutsin frontof you,theymove quicl<ly into t h e s a m el a n ew i t h o u t l e a v i n gh e m s e l v eo r y o u t s mucn room to manoeuvre. Hippies were part of a big yourh movementin the late 1960s. They grew their hair long,rool<lots of d r u g sa n d b e l i e v e dn p e a c e n d l o v e . i a lf you don't getroundto dotngsomething, don't do you what you were planning do because to you haven't got the time. For example: sorryI hoven't round I'm got to finishing homework. beenreollybusy. the I've lf something customised,hasbeenchanged is it to mal<e more personal unusual. tall< it or We aoour customised or customised cors computers.
To lead in to this task, write the word driyer on the b o a r d .A s k s t u d e n t st o s u g g e s to r u s e t h e i r d i c t i o n a r i e s to find adjective collocations.Here are some examples: o dongerousl recklesslbodlcorefull + sofelexperienced driver A s k s t u d e n t st o d e c i d e w h i c h a r e n e g a t i v ea n d w h i c h p o s i t i v e Y o u c a n t h e n h a v e t h e m d i s c u s st h e q u e s t i o n sa s . a c l a s so r i n s m a l lg r o u p s .A s y o u c h e c k t h e a n s w e r s , s K a q u e s t i o n st o c h e c l < h e y u n d e r s t a n dt h e m e a n i n ga n d t o t extend their l<nowledgeof these expressions.Here are some suggestions: Whot should you do if your indicotorsaren't working, then? /s it /ego/ to tolk on your mobile while you're driving?And to text on it? Do you think lt's true thot men just check the mop rother thon osk for directions? Whot do you do when someone cuts in front of you? Why do you think they're colled'blind corners'?How would you soy it in your own longuoge?

'

'

'

Tellstudents record the expressions to rhey find in their notebool<s.

Answers l. c. 2 .d . 3 .a . 4 . e . 5 .b . 5 .h . 7.i.

e .j . 1 0s . .

8 .f .

Sp e a k i n g
T h e s eq u e s t i o n c a n b e d i s c u s s eid s m a l g r o u p sl.f s n l p o s s i b l e a v ea l l - m a l e n d a l l - f e m a lg r o u p sT h e n a f t e r h a e . studentshavefinished tall<ing, the whole class get togetherto compareideasto see if there are any gender differences. I
H a v e s t u d e n t s d i s c u s st h e q u e s t i o n si n p a i r s a n d t e l l e a c h o t h e r a b o u t a n y e x p e r i e n c e st h e y h a v e h a d .T e l l t h e c l a s s an example so they can see how the sentence trames worl<. For example: I wos in the cor with my best friend once and we olmost hod on accident becousehe overtook this bus on a blind corner. Fortunately, the cor coming in the oppositedirection swerved out of the wov. This is a good way to review the past tense of irregurar verDs.

i ;

N u m b e ra d . e cti ve s i

Students are often confused about this aspect of English. Have them read the two examples from the article. Checl<that they l<now what the expressions mean

65

Speaking
J C o m p a r a t i v e sa n d s u p e r l a t i v e s
T h i s e x e r c i s ei n t r o d u c e ss o m e c o m m o n e x p r e s s l o n s Explain the containing comparatives and superlatives. situation and play the recording. Mal<esure students cover the dialogue.Then have them quicl<lychecl<their answer in pairs before playingthe recording a second time while they complete the gaps.Once they have finished,they can checl<their answers with you. Play the recording one more time before having students practise the conversation in oairs. Use these questions to follow on from I Comparatives and superlatives. You could add a m o r e q u e s t i o n sc o P r a c t i s es o m e m o r e c o m P a r a r i v e n d superlative forms. For example: Hove you ever ordered the rnost expensivething on the menu? ls it true the more expensivethe restouront,the smoller the portions? Do you think it's sofer on the rood these doys? Which is the cleonestlfastest/most comfortable underground systern/bussystemyou've ever been on?

Answers l. (The sooner,) the better.

: " l ^ Com ,,,- ..,1 par ingnow with the past

.)

2. (lt's one of) the best places (to eat in town), 3. (so) the cheaper,(the better) 4. (lt's) much better (than it used to be).

You may want to point out the followingexpressions: . lf you sayyou'restorving, are very hungry.For you example:Whot'sfor dinner? storving. l'm . Ask studentsif they rememberthe expression bit o shortof money. . go lf you go o reolly roundoboutwoy,you to a placeby an indirectroute.For example: if youcomeout of No, woy exit 9,you hoveto go o reollyroundobout to getto my ploce.ltt betterto useexit 12. lf you sayto someoneWe'rell'm off,you are saying you nextweek. you'releaving. examplel'm off.See For

tt* extualised examples of comparative structures. Lead in by asl<ing students what changesthey have noticed in their towns, the last ten years. countries, society,or the world in, say, i d e a sa n d t h e n h a v e t h e m c o m p l e t e t h e L i s t e nt o t h e i r s e n t e n c e s . W h e nc h e c l < i n gh e i r a n s w e r s , s k w h a t t h e y t a t h i n k t h e p e r s o n i s a l k i n g a b o u t . F o r e x a m p l e ,n u m b e r I could be about a new comDuterand number 8 about a c l u b .S t u d e n t sc a n t h e n u s e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t o a s l <e a c h o t h e r o u e s t i o n si n t h e s e c o n d t a s l < .

Answers l . l a s t 2 . b e f o r e 3 .b i g g e r 4 . u s e d 5 . m u c h 5 . b i t 7 . T i m e 8 . g o o d 9 . r e m e m b e r 1 0 .b e

.

Referstudents the Real English note on be ofl to Y o u c o u l da l s oc h e c l <h a t s t u d e n t s< n o w h e g u i d e l i n e s l t t forms.Write for making the comparative and superlative some typicalphrases the board with the adjeccives on gapped out. Ask students completethem with the to correct form. Here are some examples: (sofe- sofest) Theysoy flyingis the . . . way to trovel. There's olwoys someone much... offthon yourself. (bad- worse) Whot'sthe ... flightto NewYorkot the moment?
/ehenrl rhcahect\

P o i n t o u t t h e m o d i f i e r s m u c h .o b i t .a n d t h e o s . . . o s s t r u c t u r e s i n n u m b e r s 8 - l 0 . T h e n h a v e s t u d e n t sg o b a c k a n d u n d e r l i n et h e c o m p l e t e e x p r e s s i o n sF o r e x a m p l e : . Itt better thon my /ost one. S t u d e n t sc a n t h e n t e s c e a c h o t h e r i n p a i r s :o n e p e r s o n r e a d s t h e i n c o m p l e t e s e n t e n c ea n d t h e o t h e r s a y st h e c o m p l e t e p h r a s ew i t h o u t l o o k i n g a t t h e C o u r s e b o o l < . H a v e t h e c l a s sd o t h e f o l l o w - u p t a s k i n p a i r s ,d e c i d i n g w h a t t h e q u e s t i o n sw o u l d b e . E n c o u r a g e h e m t o u s e t some of the structures they have learned.

.

": | -

phr I Compar ative ases

{100?Thot's much... thon l thought wouldbe. it (expensive more expensive)

Theseare fairlycommon fixed expressions. you are As checl<ing practise of students' answers, the pronunciation u t h e s ep h r a s e s . Y oc o u l da l s oa s l < t u d e n t sf t h e y c a n s i thinl< other situations You of when they might be used. by could reviewthis later on in the classor the next day, writing eachhalfon a separate of paper, slip making enoughslipsfor eachstudent(andone for yourselfif you havean odd number). Tellstudents memorise to their halfand then go aroundsaying until they find it their matching alf. h

66

Transport travel and

Answers l.d. 2 . f . 3 .e . 4 . a . 5 .c . 6 .b .

F o l l o wu p w i t h t h e p e r s o n a l i s e d n t e n c e G.o a r o u n c se s helping when necessary. Beforehaving students tall< to their partner, model the two examples with a student. Encourage them to add follow-upcommentstoo. For the lasttask,you may needto explainthat if you hoveo lie-in, you sleeplater than usualbecause you don't haveto get up.For example: I think I'll haveo bit of a lie-in tomorrow sinceit! Sundov. Beforestudentstry 7-l2, you might needto explainthat As for os ... islore concerned meanslf we ore tolking obout . . . a n d i s a w a y o f g i v i n g n o p i n i o na b o u tt h e t h i n g a beingdiscussed. mightwant to help the classoy You givingyour own examplefor 7. For example: As for os computers concerned,personolly ore I think the smoller,the better. Tellstudents that they just needto add nounsto 7-12. They will also needto chooseis or ore./s shouldbe usedfor uncountable nounslike coffee food, or while ore will be usedfor pluralnounslike computers desserts. or As they are writing,checktheir ideasto ensurerney makesenseand to checkthey havechosenis/ore correcuy. Draw students' attentionto the two model conversations the top of the right-hand at column and t h e n e n c o u r a g t h e m t o h a v es i m i l a r o n v e r s a t i o n n e c is p a i r su s i n g h e i r o w n i d e a s r o m 7 - l 2 . f h e y c o u l dt h e n , t f change partnersand havesimilarconversations about the other topics suggested. Alternatively, they could worl<with a partner and write conversations about thesetoDics.

Finishup by writing the patternson rhe board and encouraging students copy them with a few of their to p e r s o n a l i s e d a m p l e sn t h e i r n o t e b o o k s . ex i / t ' so n eo f t h e . . . p l o c ets . . . o / t t o n eo f t h e . . . ( p l o c e sn . . . i) / t s o n eo f t h e . . . b i t so f . . . ' '
:

J

'

" : .

; "" - i

Speaking
Leadin to the tasl< tellingstudents by about a Journey you havetal<en. Here is an example: Oneof the mostuncomfortoble journeys evertokenwos l've in southern Chino. wossupposed be o ten-hour ride, lt to bus but it turnedout to be more liketwenty-four hours.The bus wos reollysmollond woscrowded with people ond boskets of onimols. Luckily, had a seot,but I couldn't I actuolly movemy legsmuch becouse therewos no room with oll the stuffthat waspiledon the bus ... Havestudentslistenand then asl< you questions. Repeat the story and havethem listenfor expressions and c o l l o c a t i o n s . r i t e t h e o n e st h e y r e m e m b e r n r n e W o b o a r d . e f o r ea s l < i ntg e m t o d i s c u s t h e q u e s c i o nis B h s n smallgroups, over the suggested go structures. Ask for a few volunteers tell their storiesto the class. to

, :.i How was your jour ney?
; $ r l ,

...,,,]__

To lead in to the tasl<, divide students into four groups. A s k e a c h g r o u p t o b r a i n s t o r m c o l l o c a t i o n sa n c expressions connected with each form of transport in t h e p i c t u r e s o n p a g e s8 0 a n d 8 1 . Y o u c o u l d h a v e students write on big sheets of paper,put them up rouno the classroom and have students wander around lool<ing at the other groups' work. Then do the exercise,asking students to see if any of their phrases turn up. When s t u d e n t sc o m p a r e t h e i r a n s w e r s t e l l t h e m t o u n d e r l i n e , t h e e x p r e s s i o n s h a t h e l p e dt h e m . t

Su p e r l a t i ve s
T h i s e x e r c i s eo c u s e s n a c o m m o np a t t e r nu s i n g f o superlatives. over the examples, Go explaining that if you givesomewherelsomething you decideagainst o miss, going there or doing it. You shouldalso explain, necessary, if that o tourist trop is a placethat attractsa lot of tourists and overcharges them;and that if something o rip-off, is you pay more for something than it is worth.As you checl< answers, students the tell examples places of you know.For the lasttask,you could havestudents choose places the town/city they are studying or their in in hometown,if this is different. Answers | . biggest 2. best 3. most beautiful 4. most expensive 5. worst 6. oldest 7. nicest 8. most interesting

Answers 2 .t r a i n 3 . c a r 4 . c a r 5 .t r a i n 6 . p l a n e T . f e r r y 8. ferry 9. plane | 0. ferry I l. car | 2. train

.',_,;,i expressions Trip
This exercise helpsreinforcethe expressions from 2 How was your iourney? Once studentshave completedas manygapsas they can rememberand looked bacl< check, to havethem test eachother in pairs Then explainthat repeating tasl< the from I Speaking w i l l h e l pt h e i r f l u e n c y n d o v e r a l p e r f o r m a n c e . e t e l l a l R your story with some of theseexpressions too.

..".-t

67

.

Answers
l. 2. 3. 4. a. over a. just a.Traffic a. got b. did b. crowded b. down b. sea c. caught c. line c.got c. calm d. any d' 8ot

advice:dictionar ies I Lear ner

i

Listening
Explain the situation and what you want students to do and play the recording.Then get them in groups to d i s c u s st h e i r i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n .N e x t , p l a y t h e r e c o r d i n g again so that they can add to their notes. Play the recording one more time as students follow the t t a p e s c r i p to n p a g e | 5 2 , u n d e r l i n i n ga n y e x p r e s s i o n s h e y find interesting.You may need to explain that Covencry i s a c i t y i n t h e M i d l a n d sa r e a o f E n g l a n da n d t h a t i f y o u , say somethingis o poin or a poin in the neck,you mean that it is annoying.

T h i s e x e r c i s ee x p l i c i t l yr e m i n d s s t u d e n t s o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c o l l o c a t i o na n d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f learning more with words you've met before and the importance of learning to do more with words you've met before. One way to exploit this is to write the seven headwords on the board, pointing out that stop here is a noun, and have students in pairs write S s e n t e n c e su s i n gt h e m . T h e n d o t h e e x e r c i s e . t u d e n t s sentences can then go back and modify any of their where they have found a more appropriate collocation. Encouragethem to record the collocations that are new to them and that seem useful in their notebool<s.

Answers | . c a b 1 . c a r 3 .s t o o 4 . t r a i n 5 . b u s 6 . c o a c h 7. flight

Speaking
Answers Speal<er travelled train.He had to standall the I by way and the carriage was full of footballfans g w h o w e r e d r i n l < i na n d s m o l < i na n d g shouting. Speal<er travelled plane. 2 by Their flightwas delayed Then for two hours and was quite bumpy. their baggage lost and they won't get it was Finally, they were backfor a coupleof days. overcharged the taxi fare from Gatwicl<. for Speal<er had the worst journey. 2
This exercise follows on from 6 Learner advice: d i c t i o n a r i e s , a n d i s a g o o d o p p o r t u n i t y t o t a l l <a b o u t c o l l o c a t i o nd i c t i o n a r i e sl.f y o u h a v e s o m e a v a i l a b l eb r i n g , t h e m i n t o s h o w s t u d e n t sa n d l e t t h e m c o m o a r e t h e s e with their own dictionaries.lf vou have accessto the I n t e r n e t .v o u c o u l d a l s o d o t h i s w i t h s e v e r a lo f t h e o n l i n e dictionaries. l f p o s s i b l e h a v e a c o l l o c a t i o nd i c t i o n a r y i n t h e c l a s sw i t h , you and when someone asl<s you for a good collocation, o r w h e n y o u a r e g i v i n gf e e d b a c l < n c o l l o c a t i o ne r r o r s , o give the dictionary to a student to look up suggestions. Follow-up

Speaking
U s e t h e p i c t u r e so n p a g e 8 l t o l e a d i n t o t h i s t a s k t o h e l p g e n e r a t e s o m e i d e a s . s l <i f s t u d e n t s h a v e e v e r h a d A a p u n c t u r e o n t h e i r b i l < em i l e s f r o m h o m e w i t h o u t a , r e p a i r l < i t , r b e e n i n a c a r a c c i d e n t .E x p l a i nt h a t i n t h e o UK, the Automobile Association (AA) provides road assistanceto members if thev breal<down. Ask students what, if any,the equivalent organisationsare in their own countriesand whether anyonehas had to callthem out. Give students time to lool< bacl<at the Drevious exercises before they come up with their story.You might want to have students write their story for homeworl<.

A s l <p a i r s o f s t u d e n t st o c h o o s e o n e o f c h e f o r m s o f t r a n s p o r t i n t h e p i c t u r e so n p a g e s 0 a n d 8 L T h e n 8 e x p l an r h a r r h e y a r e a n a d v e r [ i s i n g e a m t h a t h a s b e e n t a s k e d t o r u n a p r o m o t i o n a l c a m p a i g nt o e n c o u r a g em o r e people to rake rheir chosenform of transportacion. T h e y s h o u l d c o m e u p w i t h a s l o g a na n d a w r i t e a t w o minute radio commercial. ellthem that they can talk T about the bad things associatedwith other forms of transporcation (e.g.Tiredof bumpy flrghts, lost luggogeond long deloys?). Encourage students to use expressions from t h e u n i t . T h e n d i v i d e t h e c l a s si n t o t w o b i g g r o u p s w i t h one person from each pair. Each person then performs their commerciai.

68

i

r2
Unit overview
General topic Tall<ing about different l<inds food and food of problems. Reading The problemof obesityin developed counrries. Language input . ' Vocabulary describe to food: /r'so kindof solod. It's very filling.lt's got quite a stronge texture.etc. Vocabulary food-related for problemsThey're obese.Ihey've gotfood poisoning. I con't eotonything with meat in it. etc. Food collocations: on weight, bolonced put o diet, o lovely rneol etc. Expressions with should've:You should've come.You should've me before. shouldn't told I hoyeosked. etc. Pronunciation contractedforms:shou/d'ye. of shouldn't hove lf food is or hosgoneoff,it is no longerfresh, and smellsor tastesbad.For example: thinkthis milk's I gone off. lf you say I'm so hungry, could eoto horse, I you are emphasising you are very hungry. rhar For example: Whot time'sdinner? so hungry, could eato horse. I'm I ln England, Yorkshire pudding often accompanies roast beef.lt is madeof flour and water and is savoury. nor sweet.Despiteits name,it isn't a dessert. lf you describe food as yummy, you are saying is ic d e l i c i o u s .o u c a na l s os a yy u m .F o r e x a m p l e : Y A: What'sfor dinner? 8: Curry.Yum! lf you hoveo sweet tooth, you reallylil<e eatingsweet food. lf food is very moreish, so nice,you want more ano it's more of it.
Remind students to record any of the expressions that they lil<ein their notebool<s.

. ' .

Lead in Ask students to tell you about the most disgusringthing they've ever eaten, what it was, what it tasted lil<e, where they ate it. Then asl<them about the most delicious thing. Then show them the pictures of different foods on page 82 and do I Different food.

Language strip Use the languagestrip as a way to lead in to the unrt. A s k s t u d e n t st o l o o k q u i c k l yt h r o u g h t h e l i s t a n d f i n d any expressions that are true for them (e.g./'m ollergicto nuts).Explain that in this unit they will learn ways to tall< about food and diet. Encouragethem to choose some other expressions in the strip that lool< interesting and to find out more about rnem. Use the language trip later on in this unit for a small s group tasl<. Asl< students to choose several of tne expression5that contain it or this (e.g./ti very goodfor you,but I con't stond it myselfy and discusswhat is being referred to. Alternatively,asl<them ro find all the expressionswith contractions and to practise saying them. You might need to explain some of the following expressions: ' ' Hoggis is a traditional Scottish food consisting of a sheep'sstomach stuffed with minced meat. lf you ore ollergicto something, you become ill, get a rash or start sneezingwhen you eat, touch or smell something. For example: I frnd o lot more peopleore ollergicto cots ond dogs these doys. ' lf something is b/ond,it has very little flavour or rasre. For example: fhis tosteso bit blond.Con you poss the soy souce? lf you say the house redlwhite, you are referring to wine, usually the cheapest one the restaurant offers.

',,1.,; ;

/:

I i;ji -

Different food
Go over the suggestedexpressions and practise the pronunciation before having students guess what each food is in pairs.Then asl<a few students to share a c o u p l e o f t h e i r i d e a s . l a yr h e r e c o r d i n g s o r h a r r h e y c a n P then checl< heir answersThe same pairscan rhen talk t . about the food again,now thar they l<now what it is. For examole: /t doesn't look very good,but it probobly tostes de/icrous.

Answers l.E 2.H 9.C 3 .c 4 . F 5 .D 5 .t 7.A 8.8

.

69

food i Describing
focuses some typicalwaysof describing on This exercise Remind modifiersquiteand very. food. Point out the it students that when quiteis stressed, meansnot verybut it followingit is stressed, meansvery. when the adjective
Also point out the expression it's o kind of, When students have checked their answers by listeningto the recording again,have them discussthe questions at the end in pairs.At this point you might want to go over the typical structures following sensory verbs. For example: /t /ooks/tostes lsmellsgoodldeliciouslowful,etc. /t /ooks/tostes/sme//s a kind of souplchickenlold socks. /ike Have students use these different structures to describe some of the pictures.

You may needto explainthat if you sayyoucan'tbeot you something, think that it is the best thing.For examPle: doy. Youcan't beoto nicecold beeron o hot summer's consistsof fried egg,bacon, A full English breokfost fried breadand toast and grilledtomatoes, sausage, marmalade. Answers l. a. bland b. comfort c. prefer d. sauces 2 . a . h e a l t h y b .f i l l i n g c.kind d.limited 3. a.greasy b. fattening c. foreign d. spicy e. rich

Answers Possible answers l.A 2.D 3.F 4.G 9.8 5.t 6.E 7.C

Tal<e opportunityto asl< this other questions help to extend students' l<nowledge thesecollocations. of For example: Whot ore someexomples comfortfoodin yourcountry? of Whot do you think mokeso soupfilling? Do you likerich foods? Whot are somecofesor restouronts whereyou find the choice foodo bit limited? of

8.H

Speaking
T h i s e x e r c i s ep r o v i d e s m o r e p r a c t i c e u s i n gs o m e o f t h e languagein the previous exercises.Instead of having students just tell a partner about five different foods, have students wall< around describing one food to one person before moving on to speal< another. Ar the to end, asl<students to rell you what they learned using t n e s e s e n t e n c es t a r c e r s : The food /U most liketo try is .. . The food thot soundedthe rnost unusuolwos ... The food that I didn't /ike the soundof wos ...

'-r:!:,L, _..; - :" "1 -t *r, :. "rrl

eetore reao you l*i:illl
The first part of this exercise introduces some vocabulary for food-related problems as a lead-in to 2 Eat your greens! For the discussionstage,you might want to review some of the expressions comparing the past with the present if students want to tall<about how t h i n g sa r e c h a n g i n g : /t's more of o problem now thon it was before. /t's not os common os it used to be.

E n g l i s ho o d ! f
D i s c u s st h e q u e s t i o n sa s a c l a s sa n d t h e n t a l l <a o o u t w h i c h n a t i o n a la n d r e g i o n a lc u i s i n e sy o u l i k e .Y o u c o u l d also tall<about students' perceprions of food from different tountries. Ask, for examole: Whot do you think of as typicolAmerican food? Whot would you expect to eot if you were staying with o Russionfomilv? You can then tall<about what they thinl< of Englishfood, which doesn't have a very good reputation. Have students complete the three texts individuallyand then compare their answers with a partner. Encourage t h e m t o r e c o r d t h e c o l l o c a t i o n sa n d c o m p l e t e e x p r e s s i o n si n t h e i r n o t e b o o k s .P o i n t o u t t h e f o l l o w i n g patterns and asl<students to make sentences thar are true for them: I f i n d . . . o b i t l m u c ht o o . . . They'rellt'snice and + posiriyeodjective (filling,spicy)

Answers |.e. 2 .a . 3 .c . 4 . 6 . 5 .d .

.

. I Eat Vour qr eens!
; 1 ' -

t

Ask students what they think the title is referring to (vegetables). Then ask them to guess which of the problems in I Before you read will be discussed.Have them read the article without worrying about u n d e r s t a n d i n g v e r y t h i n ga n d t h e n c o m p a r e t h e t r e answers to the three questions with a partner.

70

I 2 Food

Answers l. The problem is obesity. 2. One suggestedcause is that people now tend to have less time to spend on planningand cool<ing They also feel meals,and buying fresh vegetables. a g u i l t y a b o u t n o t s p e n d i n gt i m e w i t h t h e i r l < i d s n d so give in when their children asl<for sweets and chocolates.Another suggestedcause is that big k f o o d c o m p a n i e ss p e n d m i l l i o n s e n c o u r a g i n g i d s t o eat fattening foods. 3. One company has tal<enflavouringsfrom foods children like - chocolate, bal<edbeans,pizza - and added them to vegetables.Theyhope this will encourage l<idsto eat more vegetables.

Answers l . w e i g h t 2 . d i e t 3 .f o o d 4 . m e a l 5 . f r u i t 5 . m e a t 7. salad 8. good

At a later stage in the unit you can revise this by getting one student to come to the front of the class and sit down facing the rest of the students.Write one of the words on the board so that the student at the front c a n n o t s e e t h e w o r d , b u t e v e r y o n e e l s e c a n .T h e c l a s s then have to remember different collocations for the word and shout them out - but not the actual word itself - until the student guesseswhat the word is.The studentthen goes back and another comes up and the process is repeated with another word.

When students have finished,play the recording again as they follow in the Coursebook. Encouragethem to u n d e r l i n ee x p r e s s i o n s n d c o l l o c a t i o n st h e y f i n d a interesting and then ask about any they are not sure about. Remind them to add some of these to their notebooks.

-.1

I l t s h o u l db e b a n n e d !

Sp e a k i n g
Use these questions,which follow on from the reading in tasl<, small groups. Explain that if somethingcotcheson, it becomes popular.Asl< students to tell you if they think some other things will ever catch on in a big way, for example, electric cars, portable DVD players or whatever the latest new thing is.When students have finished,asl< if they think their answers would be different if they were older, had/didn't have a family or were richer/ooorer.

Mal<esure students understand what each of these things in the box are and that some are light-hearted (l<araoke, golf and grammar) rather than serious political issues.(You might want to get students to thinl< about Y why some people might not likethese things.) ou could also turn this into a debate. Have students oicl<one of , these questionsor come up with one of their own. Divide students into two groups: one for banning,the other against.Give them ten minutes to thinl< about arguments in support of their respective positions before getting them into groups of four - two from each side t o d e b a t et h e i s s u e .

...1

i I can' t eat that!

voca ,iitii|;iiiilbulary tocus
col This exercise nforcessome food-related locations, rei or work individually and addsa few more. Havestudents thema few i n p a i r sW h e n c h e c l < i n h e i r a n s w e r s ,s k . tg a relatedquestions. example: For Whot ktnds foodmakeyou goin weight? of diet? Whot wouldyou soymakes o bolonced up Whot wouldo poor diet not include? Doesonyone octuallylikehoving heovymeol ot breokfost? a leon? Whot ore somerneots What cutsof meat ore generolly thot tend to be fotty? Tell students coupleof thingsabout yourselfso they a can see how thesecollocations be used: can /'ve I'm octuolly tryingto put on o bit of weightbecouse just comeout of hospitol. I think o niceglossof brandyis goodfor the digestion. Then get students talk about their own ideasin pairs. to

W e o f t e n s a yl c a n ' t e o t . . . o r I d o n ' t e o t . . . . Y o u m i g h t want to explain that I don't eot ... typically means you've made a conscious decision not to eat it, for example for r e l i g i o u sr e a s o n s w h e r e a s I c o n ' t e o t . . . o f t e n i m p l i e s , some reason lil<ean allergy.Have students work i n d i v i d u a l l y n t h i s t a s l <a n d t h e n c o m p a r e t h e i r a n s w e r s o in pairs.They can also talk about if any are true for !nem.

Answers l.f. .2.a. 3.g. 4.h. 5.b. 6.c. 7.e. 8.d.
You may needto explainthat if you con'tstandsomething, you reallydislil<e and that if you con'tbe bothered do to it you the something, don't want to mal<e effort to do it. Ask stucients tell you what they can'tstandor can't to be bothereddoing.For example: I con'tstondoll this rain! in Mostdoys, con't be bothered moke breokfost the I to mornng.

71

Should' ve
A s l <i f s t u d e n t s r e m e m b e r t h e c o n v e r s a t i o ni n U n i t l 0 when Rachel,Martin and Jamie were tall<ingabout where Then asl<them to to go and Jamie was being a bit fussy. tell you whac they thinl< o fussyeoter is. Have students spenda few minuteslool<inghrough the menu and t asl<ing about any of the items they are unsure of.You might need to explain the following: ' Wosobi is a l<indof hot green mustard usually served with raw fish. lt's Japanese. ' Potd is a oaste. ' ' ' Anchovies are small fish that are ofren salted and added to food. Sotoy is a dish in which the meat or vegetablesare m a r i n a t e da n d t h e n b a r b e c u e d . A lycheeis a l<indof reddish fruit with a sweet white i n s i d e .l t ' s C h i n e s e . I n o r d e r t o h e l p s t u d e n t s u n d e r s t a n dt h e m e a n i n go t asl< should've, them to explain why Cathy used the two i e x a m p l e sT h e n g o o v e r t h e e x p l a n a c i o nn c h e . Coursebool< and the two other examDles.Checl<that students can see what the present result is (l'm reolly hungry.I've got a terrible heodache).

Students can work through this exercise individually. Checl<their answers and then have students Dractisethe dialogues in pairs. Next, have one person read the prompt and the other respond from memory. Encourage s t u d e n t st o r e c o r d t h e r e s D o n s e s s w h o l e s e n r e n c e s . a You might also want to point out that could'vein n u m b e r s 4 a n d 5 e x p r e s s e ss o m e t h i n gt h a t w a s p o s s i b l e , but that wasn't done.

H a v e s t u d e n t st a l l <a b o u t t h e m e n u i n o a i r s . Answers l . W e l l , y o u s h o u l d ' v ee a t e n m o r e a t d i n n e r . 2 . Y o u s h o u l d ' v eg o n e b e f o r e w e c a m e o u t .

Listening
L e a di n b y p o i n t i n g u r t h e p i c t u r eo n p a g e8 5 a n d o a s l < i ns t u d e n t so r h i n l < b o u ti f i t r e m i n d s h e m o f g t a t anything. They shouldthen sharetheir thoughtswith a partner.You mightwant to tell the class story here.For a example: A friendof minewos out on o ftrstdote with o very sophisticoted womon. reollywontedto impress ond so He her, he took her to a reollyfoncy restouront. pretended He to know oll aboutwine,eventhoughhe neverdrinksit,ond ordered bottleof their fnest red.Anywoy, o wos everything goingwell until he reoched the soltond occidentally for knocked overthe bottle, spilling oll overthe womon's it white si/kshlrt. H a v es t u d e n t sh e n a s l < o u q u e s t i o n s .o r e x a m p l e : t y F So, he everseeher ogoin? did Oh,yes,they'rehoppily o morried couple now! E x p l a i nh e s i t u a t i o nn t h e l i s t e n i n t e x r a n d g o o v e r r h e t i g three questions. Playthe recordingand then have s t u d e n t s h a r e h e i r a n s w e r s n d r e a c t i o n sn o a i r s . s t a i
Answers l. N o , b u t t h e y p r e t e n d e dt h a t t h e y d i d . 1 l

3 . W e l l . y o u s h o u l d ' v eb r o u g h t a c o a r . 4. You should've told me before! | could've cool<ed s o m e t h i n ge l s e . 5 . R e a l l y Y o u s h o u l d ' v es a i d .W e c o u l d ' v e d o n e ! | s o m e t h i n gs p e c i a l . 6. You should've come to the party. lt was great fun.

The second task gives more practice with shou/d'ye as well as focusing on some more food collocations. Have s t u d e n t sg o b a c l < n d u n d e r l i n et h e c o m p l e t e a e x or e s s o n s . i

Answers l . ( l ) s h o u l d ' v e d d e d( s o m ew i n e o r s o m e t h i n g . ) a 2 . ( l t o l d y o u w e ) s h o u l d ' v eb r o u g h t ( a n u m b r e l l a . ) 3 . ( l l < n e wl ) s h o u l d n ' t h a v e h a d ( a l l t h a t c r e a m w i r h the cal<e.) 4 . ( Y o u ) s h o u l d ' v ec o m e . 5 . ( Y o u ) s h o u l d ' v es e e n ( i t . ) 6. (l l<new l) should've gone (to the banl<before I came out.) 7 . ( l ) s h o u l d ' v eo r d e r e d ( s o m e t h i n gl i g h t e r . )

2. Steve didn't lil<emost of the food, but said that he d i d t o b e p o l i t e .A l s o , t h e b i l l w a s w r o n g a r f i r s r and they had to correct it. Then they realised that they didn't have enough cash on them. 3 . H e m i g h t h a v eg o n e h o m e . H e m i g h t h a v e h a c t r o u b l e f i n d i n gt h e c a s h m a c h i n e . 4. Answers will vary.

72

12 Food

,iiilii:i unciation: Pron contractions
Play the recording a couple of times so students get used to the way the contracted forms sound. Then play the recording again,pausingafter each sentence so that students can repeat.They can then practise sayingthem to their partner. For each one, have them read tne p h r a s e s i l e n t l y l,o o l <u p a n d t h e n s a y i t . T h i s h e l p s t h e m mal<ethe contraction becausethey have to get to the end quicldy before they forget. Get students to discussthe second tasl<in pairs. Choose a few students to share some of their suggestionswith the whole class.

F o l l o w u p b y d i v i d i n gt h e c l a s si n t o p a i r s .A s k o n e p e r s o n to re-read the letter and write all the expressions with get (got to the stotion,got to the motorwoy, got o bit /ost,get to the weddin$get out of prison)on a piece of paper,and their partner to do the same with go (five minutesbefore we were supposedto go,go back home, we went off the motorwoy,I wos sure I wos goingin the right direction,we went the wrong woy ogoin).Have students close their Coursebool<s nd use these expressions o help retell a t tne story.

Follow-up Use the menu on page 85 to develop a role play.Have students worl< in pairs. One person is a fussy eater and the other can't make a decision (or one person wants t h e c h e a p e s tt h i n g o n t h e m e n u ,w h i l e t h e o t h e r p e r s o n wants a lot). lf you get srudenrs in groups of three, one person can be the waiter. Brainstorm a list of restaurant languagefirst: I ' l lh o v e t h e . . . Are you reody to order? I need a few more minutes. Whot's it got in it? Does it come with chips? Have students lool< through the languagestrips at the start of this unit and Unit 7 for other useful exoressions. Then have them write the dialogue and practise it before acting out their sl<itto another group or to the whole ctass.

Answers Possibleanswers: 2 . . . . b e c a u s en o w w e h a v e t o p a y t h i s h u g e b i l l . 3 . . . . b e c a u s en o w I d o n ' t h a v e t h e r i m e t o w n r e my thesis. 4 . . . . b e c a u s en o w h e ' s o n t h e w a i t i n g l i s t . 5 . . . . b e c a u s en o w h e t h i n l < sI ' m b e i n g n o s y . 6 . . . . b e c a u s en o w y o u ' r e i n a l o t o f t r o u b l e . 7 . . . . b e c a u s en o w I d o n ' t h a v e t h e t i m e t o h e r p you. 8 . . . . b e c a u s en o w t h e y ' v e d e c i d e d t o p a i n t t h e whole house a differenr cotour. 9 . . . . b e c a u s ei t w a s g o o d . Y o u f e e l b a d n o w b e c a u s e y o u m i s s e di t . | 0 . . . . b e c a u s en o w I f e e l s i c k

! F u r t h e rp ra cti ce
Have students read the letter and then tall<about ir in pairs.Alternatively,have them listen to you read the letter a couple of times before they discussit. Write some of their suggestions n the board.Youmight also o want to tall<about how we can use never for emohasis. For examole: They never should'vetaken the cor in the first Dloce! -ere are some suggestedanswers: They should'veleft earlier. Jonet shouldn'thove rung her mother. They reollv should've bookedsome seots. They should'vewaited and caught the next troin,'onet should never hove /istenedto Nick. Theyshould've oskedsomeonefor directions. ;anet should'vekept to the speed limit. .,onet never should'vetried to bribe the Dolicemon.

t -

73

The exercises here can be usedas a test.However, 4 Look back and check and I What can you remember? are better done as a discussion oairs. in '".1 . ' ' I

Adjectives
Answers

j g r a m m a r re vre w

Answers l. did you start 2. was,l've ever beenro 3. t'd 4. never come 5 . Y o us h o u l d ' v e e e n b 6. we came 7. l<eeps cuttingout 8. haveyou had 9. l've forgotten 1 0 . g o ,s t a yi n

l. quiet 2. obsessed 3. bland 4. user-friendly 5. wrong 5. awful 7. amazing 8. greasy 9. spicy 10. hopeless

and answer s Questions
Answers

:r .:l -

t I C o m p a r i n gh i n g s

l.h. 9 .g .

2.f. 3.j. 4.a. 5.d. 6.c. 7.b. 8.e. 10.. i

Answers | . nicest 2. coldest 3. most annoying 4. most painful 5. most well-paid 6. most depressing 7. most badly-paid 8. scariest

.fl$ wtrat canyou remember?
Answerswill vary. " t -

1LOm m onexpr esslons

Verb forms
Answers l. staying 2. to go 3. asking 4. to get 5. getting

Answers l. banned

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

t a l < i no u t g breal<ing down to buy walking living

I

rh^'

'^4.

',4.

3. have

hardly

l

i L o o k b a c ka n d ch e ck

5. better 5. late 7. going 8. to go 9. bothered 10. mind Answers for I

Answerswill vary.

rilf;iiil collocations verb
Answers l.j. 2.h. 3.i. 4.g. 5.b. 6.c. 7.e. 8.d. 9 . f . | 0 .a .

74

R e v i e nU n i t s 1 2 r 9

Revision
Answers l . P o s s i b la n s w e r s : h o t e l , c i n e m a . e a a 2. Can (ane) come alongl/Can invite(George)? I 3. You use it to move the arrow (cursor)on your comPuter. 4. An omoteur someonewho does an activityfor is professiono/ the love of it, not as a living.A rs someonewho does something a living. as Usually, we tall< about amateur/professional sports players, actors,singers, photographers, painters, 5. Comfortfood is food that mal<es you feel warm a n d c o s y E x a m p l eis c l u d e h i c l < ep o t p i e , . n c n macaroni and cheese, Comfort food is good etc. t o e a t w h e n y o u ' r ef e e l i n g e p r e s s eo r a b i t i l l . d d 6. Possible you, answers: someonewho annoys someoneyou havehad a fight with. 7. You'reobese you'reseverely if overweight. you lf are obsessed with dietingand are seriously underweight a result, you are onorexic, as 8 . P o s s i b la n s w e r s.:. . a s l < i nm e o u t , . . . m a l < i n g e g noises henhe eats. w 9. Possible answers: nine,near the ticl<et counter, at on tne corner. 10. Possible potato salad, answers: fruit salad, egg salad. I L Possible answers: doesn'tworl<. it the Derson (staff)isn't doingthe job properly. 12. Junkfoodincludes foods that are bad for your all health.Fost food is food (usuallyjunk food) that you canget quicklyat a restaurant take-away or stand./unk expression, foodis a negative fostfood is neutral. 1 3 . l t c a n m a k ey o u r c o m p u t e rc r a s ho r w i p e y o u r h a r dd r i v e . 14. lf your doctor tells you to, or if you can't eat certainfoods. 1 5 . Y o u m i g h ts t o p o v e r a t a p l a c ei f y o u r c o n n e c t i n g flight is delayed, if you'd like to spendsome or time in that placebeforeflyingon to your ultimatedestination. Also,with lots of longdistance flights, you can stop over in a cicyand p change lanes. 16. You'veeatentoo much and are uncomfortably full. 1 7 . I d o n ' t m i n d .l ' m e a s y . 1 8 . R i o ef r u i t . 19. Possible answers: for fried food can be too greasy, e x a m p l e h i p sc u r r y c a n b e t o o s p i c ys o u p , c ; ; vegetables be a bit blandif they lacl< flavour; can desserts food madewith a lot of butter, or a l c o h o o r c r e a mc a n b e v e r y r i c h . l 20. Possible answers: hasn'tarrivedyet, bad it w e a t h e ri s h o l d i n g t u p s o m e w h e r e t i s b e i n g i i, in s o e c t e d .

75

Unit overview
General topic Talking about places see on holiday to and the weather. Dialogue Two coupleson holidaydiscuss their plansfor the day. Language input . ' . . Vocabulary differenttourist anracrions: for o monument, cothedrol, theme pork,etc. o o Recommending: I wos thinkingof trying somelocal Canyou recommend onywhere? etc. food. Holidaycollocations: wenton a guided We tour. I mustremember write o few postcords. to etc. Describingplaces:lt'so bit of o rip-off.lt's o bit of o tourist trop. You get a greot viewof the city from up there.etc. Weather vocabulary: rainedthe wholetime. lt Theheat wos unbearoble. wos o bit chilly. /t etc. Expressions with going will,probobly to, and might: I'm just going haveon eorly night. don't know,l'll to I probobly stoyin. / suppose mightgo trovelling. just I Expressions with it depends: depends the lt on weother. depends lt how I feel.etc. Pronunciation: linkingfinalconsonants with a followingvowel.

You might needto explainsome of the followingpraces a n de x D r e s s i o n s : . lf something we//wortho visit, is a reallygood is it placeto go and see.For example: you're lf everin London, to go to the Museumof Monkind;lt's well try worth o visit. . ' TheNotiono/ Gollery a largeart galleryin London. is A bozaoris a big market,especially the MiddleEast. in There are famousbazaars citieslike Cairo and in Is t a n b l . u A mummyis a dead body,usually from long ago, that hasbeen preserved. lf you shoptillyou drop, you spenda lot of time and energyshopping. example: going spend For I'm to the weekend Singopore I'm plonning shoptill l in ond to drop. lf something o totalrip-off, is not worth the is it moneyyou payfor it, or you are beingovercharged for it. For example: Don'ttokethe open-oir tour bus; it's a totol rip-off. The lmpressionists rerm applied a group of is a to artists, exampleMonet and Renoir, for from the late nineteenth century, who paintedin a characceristic style. TheAoopolis refersto the ancientGreek citadel overlool<ing Athens. lf some friendsare Putting up. you are staying you with them in their house.

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Remindstudents record any of the expressions to that they like in their noteboor<s. Lead in Leadin by asking some generalquestions about s i g h t s e e i nF o r e x a m p l e : g. Do you /iketo spendtime srghtseeinor do you preferto go g, to the beochor stayin the bar? Whot kind of ploces you likero see,hisroric do buildings, museums, portsof towns, old morkets? Do you usuollyorgonise your time or justtoke thingsos they come? Do you try to seeo little bit of every.hing o lot of o few or things?

Language strip Use the language strip as a way to lead in to the unic. Ask students quicl<ly to look throughthe list and find any expressions rhat they could havesaidabout something they havedone in the past (e.g. Whot o view! The weatherwosperfectfor sightseeing). Explainthat in t h i s u n i t t h e y w i l l l e a r nm o r e w a y so f t a l k i n g b o u t a p l a c e so v i s i ta n d t h e i r p l a n s o r t h e d a yw h i l e o n t f holiday. Encourage them to choosesome other expressions the strip that look interesting in and to find o u t m o r e a b o u tt h e m . Use the language strip later on In this unit for a small group task.Asl<students discuss to what placethey thinl<is beingreferredto in some of the expressions. For example,The morkets werereolly greotcould be referringto Bangkol<. Alternatively, they can thinl< about how to respondto some of the questions (e.g.Whot did you thinkof the Notionol Gollery?).lf is a yes/no it question (e.g. Did yougo to the bozaor?), they shouldincludea follow-upcommenr(e.g. we didn'tget roundto it). No,

76

'1 3

Sightseeing

.-; i

:
' ' .

I Recomm ending
t

l

l

w I S i g h t s e e i n q o rd s

This exercise focuses several on words that are similarin m e a n i n g . y u s i n g h e i r d i c t i o n a r i e r e f e r r i n go t h e B t s, t pictures, and thinl<ing examples, of studenrs will probably be ableto see the differences. When they thinl<of famousexamples, can havethem worl<in parrs you i n i t i a l l y n dt h e nc o m p a r e h e i r a n s w e r s i t h a n o t h e r a t w pair. Then in this largergroup,they can maketheir recommendations. While goingthroughthe answers the first tasl<, to givea few collocations eachplace. for For example: a life-size stotue ... of o fomous onument ... m to visiton ort gollery look roundthe locolmuseum o locolchurch o magnificent cothedrol ottendproyers the mosque in a socredtemple o royalpolace o ruinedcost"le spend doyot a themepork the there's funfairin town o on lnternet caf6 o foncyrestouront

Students somerimes have difficulty with the verb recommend. well as the phrase Can you recommend As onywhere? you may want to also give them other pnrases as well.For example: I strongly recommend it. I wouldn't recommend it. Con you recommend o good doctor? Encourage students to record these in their notebool<s. Also point out the pattern I wos thinkingof to introduce a tentative Plan.

Have students worl< individuallythrough the task and then play the recording so they can checl<their answers. After they asl<each other to recommend places,asl< them to close their Coursebooks and asl<you the questions to see if you have the same ideas.

Answers l.f. 2 .e . 3 .c . 4 .g . 5 .a . 6 .h . 7 . b . 8 .o .

Here is information about some of the places mentioned in the resoonses: fhe EritishMuseum in London has a huge collection of historic artefacts from all over the world. The Notionol Portroit Gollery is next to the Narional G a l l e r y i n L o n d o n a n d s p e c i a l i s e isn p o r t r a i t s . Porc Asterixis a theme parl<whose theme is the French cartoon character Asterix (and his friends Obelix, etc.). is (the capital Jolon Suroboyo a famous marl<et in Jal<arta of Indonesia). Broodwayrefers to the theatre district in Newyorl<. ShinjukuPork is in Tokyo.

Answers l. A stotueis of a person, while o monument De can a n y t h i n go r e m i n dp e o p l e f a n e v e n to r a p e r s o n . t o 2. A gollery contains worl<sof art, while o museum can containmanydifferentobjectsand artefacts, nor necessarily worl<sof art. 3. A cothedral largerand more importantthan o is church. Traditionallx cothedrol the seat of a a is b i s h o pT h e r ea r e u s u a l l y n e o r t w o c a t h e d r a lis . o n a city,but there are manychurches. 4 . A m o s q u es a p l a c e f w o r s h i pf o r M u s l i m s , h i l e i o w a temple for Hindus, is Buddhists Sikhs. or 5. A paloce a home for royaltyor headsof scace, is while o cost/e a largefortifiedbuilding is built long
480.

Collocations
Leadin by asl<ing students tell you what generalthings to peopledo on holiday. Students might suggest thingslike exchonge moneyand tokeo tour.Write their suggestions on the board.Then havethem do the exercise. After you havechecl<ed students' answers, if they want to asl< modifyany of their previous suggestions, exampre, for go on o guidedtour,chonge moneyot the bonk.Extend the exercise asking by questions. example: For Whot thingsdo you like toking photosof7 Do you likehoving your picturetoken? Conyou remember whot e/se, opart from tickets,you con 'book'? (o room,o seot) Whot else, oport from o restouront, be'futty booked'? can (o flight,o hotel) You may need to explainthat if you buy something the on blockmorket, you are not buyingit through cheproper channels, dso it is illesar. an

5. A theme pork is usually larger than o funfair and has a p a r t i c u l a rt h e m e , w h i l e o f u n f o i ri s s m a l l e r a n o often moves from town to town. 7. A restouront tends to have a bigger selection of food and is open for lunch and dinner, while o cof6 serves quick snacl<s and can be open all day. a. D. c. d. a a a a c a t h e d r a lo r c h u r c h monument restaurant theme park

77

Practise the two examples in the final part of the You exercise with two students in front of the class. could have students wall< around having one conversation with one person before moving on to talk about another place with another person.

Sp e a k i n g
Introducethis exercise tellingstudents by about an experience yourself. Again, encourage questions and have you might them recallany usefulphrases that you used. want to alsofeed in other questions practising some of the collocations from 3 Collocations: Do you prefer going guidedtoursor going on roundby yourselfT Do you sendpostcords whenyou're hotidoy? on Whot do you recommend doingto keepyour thingssofe? Do you toke travellers'cheques do you useo creditldebit or cord?
,
* - ; * ' * 1 . , . ; , i ! . ; l

tl'15- | I ' I. i

Speaking
T h e s eq u e s t i o n se a di n t o t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n . y o u u l d l co u s et h e m f o r a w h o l e c l a s s i s c u s s i o ln .s o ,b r a i n s r o r m d f a list of places stayin: hotels, to youth hostels, bed and breakfasts, campsites, caravans, Also,askfurtner etc. questions. example: For Did you stoyin touch? Hoveyou everhod o holidoy romonce? lf you ore obrood, you tend to mokefriends do with people from the somecountryos you? Y o u c a nt h e n g e t s c u d e n ris p a i r sr o t a l k a b o u tt h e n , p l a c e sn t h e p i c t u r e s . h e p i c t u r e s h o w p a r i sN e w i T s Y o r k , T h a i l a n d d B u e n o s i r e s W r i t e s o m es e n r e n c e an A . starters n the board: o I'd definitely ... visit y l ' dp r o b o b ld o o b i t o f . . . Maybed go ... l

' i what's it like?
l ' " ; . {

..t

Beforedoingthis task,focusstudents' attentionon rne picturesand asl< them in pairsto describe what kind of placeeachone is.Write the followingpatternson the board to help: /t lookslikeo ... I thinkthot's ... in fhct /ookslikeo (odjective) of ptoce. kind l s n ' t h o tt h e. . . ? Students can then decideif the descriptions negative are or positiveby choosing whether a. or b. follows each one.Check that studentsunderstand expressions the by a s l < i nq u e s t i o n s .o r e x a m p l e : g F How muchshould theychorge,then? Why do you think it's o roughoreo? Do you thinkyou'dpickup o bargoinor getrippedoff in o touristtrop? Then playthe recordingso studentscan checktheir answers. Playthe recordingagain, while students follow the tapescripr page | 53. Point out the expressions on thonksfor letting know and thanksfor telling me me. Answers S e n t e n c ets a r c a n b e f o l l o w e db y a : 2 , 6 , 7 a n d 8 h S e n t e n c ets a t c a n b e f o l l o w e d v b : l . 3 . 4 a n d 5 h b

W hile you listen( A day out)
Explain the situation.Then go over rne rwo quesrions and ask students to listen for the answers.play the recording, mal<ingsure that they cover the text. Get t h e m t o d i s c u s st h e a n s w e r s i n p a i r s .T e l l t h e m r o K e e p the text covered as rhey do this.

Answers | . They are visiting Paris. (the Louvre, the Eiffel Tower, Champs lysee) E 2 . D a v i da n d V i c t o r i a r e m o r e o r g a n i s e d . a
Next, let students read the conversation as you play the r e c o r d i n g a g a i n T h e n a s k s t u d e n t s ,i n p a i r s ,t o f i l l i n t h e . first two or three gaps from memory before you pray the recording again, this time with pauses so that they c a n c h e c k a n d f i l l i n t h e m i s s i n gw o r d s . D o t h i s t w o o r three gaps at a rime until the end. Play the recording through one more time with students following the text. lf you want students to read the conversation,or Darrs o f i t , i n p a i r s ,u s e r h e t a p e s c r i p ro n p a g e 1 5 4 .T h e m i s s i n g words are highlightedn colour. i You may want to point out or explain a couple of exDressions: ' l f s o m e o n e a s l < sf i t i s O K i f t h e y d o s o m e t h i n g , o u i y can say Go oheod to mean that it is OK. For examDre: A: Con I borrow your dictionary? B: Yeoh, oheod. go

Real English Referstudents the Real English note on a tourist to trop.Tellthem about some tourist traps you've encountered your travels. in Ask if they'veever beento a tourist trap.Do they know of any tourist traps near themi

78

'l 3 Siqhtseernc

You sayThot's shome sympathise o to with someone about a situationor to expresses that you are sorry a b o u ts o m e t h i n g .o r e x a m p l e : F A: I'm ofroid the restouront's fulty booked. B: Oh,thot'sa shome. wos reollylooking I forwordto goingthere. lf you wonder oround somewhere,you your time tal<e w a l k i n g r o u n da p l a c e i t h o u t a n yd e f i n i t e u r p o s e . a w p For example: you foncywondering Do round the cothedrol an hour beforewe get something eat? for to Answers Words in gapsin the conversation: l . j o i ny o u 2. comfortable 3. a greatview 4. thoughtabout it 5. havea wander round 5. depends 7. gets 8. plans 9. don't reallylike 10. soundsil<e l I l . c l e a ru p 12. whattime I 3. bookeda table 14. probably ill w | 5. afford it

responding.Tell them to swap roles halfway througn. Before moving on to the next tasl<, tell students ro go bacl<and find those collocations and expressions rhat are new to them and to transfer them to their notebooks. Point out the following time expressions:the whole time, most of the time, o couple of times,the rest of the ttme.

Answers l . T e r r i b l e ! 2 . G r e a t ! 3 . T e r r i b l e !4 . O K . 5 .O K . 5 . T e r r i b l e ! 7 .O K . 8 . O K . 9 .O K . l 0 . T e r r i b l e !

The questions in the second tasl<work best in multinational classes. your students are all from tne lf same country, asl<them to tall<about another counrry they know, or bring in some information, maybe off the Internet, about different places around the world. Give each person in a small group different information to lool< through quickly. Students can then answer rne questions about these Dlaces.

'

...""1 1 Weather forecasts
"l

Introducethis exercise writing theseexpresstons by on the board: We werereallyluckywith the weother. ... lt We didn'thovemuch luck with the weother. ... lt Havestudentsuse these patternsto tall< about the holiday from 3 Talking about the weather. Then explainthat in English often talk about luckor chance we (e.g.There's chonce snow.With tuck,itwon,troin o of for you)with the weather. Ask students why they thinl< that is the case, and then havethem do the exercise. Answers l.d. 2 . b . 3 .f . 4 . a . 5 .e . 6 .c .

Havepairsof studentsreactro the dialogue discussing by the questions the end.Ask a few students tell you at to what they thoughtand add a few more adjectives if necessary. example: For Helshesounds bit fussy oringIp osho rty i ndeclsive. o Ib I I Helshesounds reollyeosy-goinglfunlfriendly. As an extension havegroupsof four students or three - if you explainthat jason stayed bacl< the hotet _ at role-play the sceneat the restaurant where the peopre talk about how their daywas.This is a good chance to reviewsome of the language from the previous unics.
I

$ij$Talking about the weather
Lead in by asl<ing students what they thinl< the wearner is going to be lil<etoday, and then if appropriate, wnat they want it to be lilce.Refer bacl<to the photographs of places on page 94, and asl<what they thinl<the weather's like there. This gives you a cnance to react to some of their suggestionsand feed in other collocations. For examDle: It looks quite cold ond misty there. I bet it gets very humid there. /t /ooks lovelv ond cleor. Get students to work through the exercise and then have them compare answers in pairs with one person asking Whot's the weother /ikeZand the other person

Have students practise the expressions but with ony luck and knowingour luck,and then have them practise saytng the sentences in pairs with one person asl<ing hove you heord the forecostT and the other person responding.

; i; rr.,l
., .".1-

:: I ..., .ii; :t,t": i

Students may have learnt that wil/ is used to talk about the future in English. However, just like the weather, the future can be predicted with varying degrees of certainty, and so we use different forms to express it. Lead in by asl<ing few students these questions: a Cot ony plons for the weekend? Whot ore you up to tonight?

79

Then have students worl< in Dairs on the tasl<shere. Encouragehem to record some of the complete t expressions (e.g. /'// probobly stoy in ond toke rt easy.I in supposeI might go trovelling) their notebool<s,perhaps u n d e r a s e c t i o n f o r t h e f u t u r e . F i n i s hu p b y a s l < i n g students the same questions from the lead-in to see if c h e y a n s w e r w i t h d i f f e r e n re x p r e s s i o n s . Answers The expressions in the dialogue are: We'll probably tal<eit easy this morning. We might go to the Picassoexhibition. Yeah,we're going to go up the EiffelTower this morning and then we're going to go for a cruise down the river. Well, they said it's going to rain this morning, but it might clear up later. Are you going to eat here tonight? We might go out, it depends what time we get bacl< this afternoon.

to A: So, you going giverrss:--: -: -'.,',i!'<tonight? are B: Well,it depends. A: On whot? A: Whot kind of moodI'm in,I suppose.
You might want to explain that whether and if are used w h e n t h e r e i s a c h o i c e ,f o r e x a m p l e y o u ' r e e i t h e r o n time or you're late. The words or not can therefore follow at the end of the senrence: /t depends iflwhether I hove time or not. They can also follow directly after whether- but not lf, It dependswhether or not I hove time.

Answers l. 2. 3. 4. d e p e n d so n d e p e n d so n depends depends 5 . d e p e n d so n 5. depends 7. 8. 9. 10. I l. | 2. d e p e n d so n depends how how much what time how | 3. 14. | 5. 15. I7. how long what time whether what whether

S t u d e n t sc a n d o t h i s e x e r c i s ei n d i v i d u a l l y n d t h e n c h e c k a t h e i r a n s w e r si n p a i r s .T e l l t h e m t o e x p l a i n r h e i r d e c i s i o n s G o o v e r t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o no f t h e s e p h r a s e s , . especiallythe contracted form /'/l and the reduceo pronunciation of goingto.Then have students practise reading the conversations.

T h i s i s s o m e r i m e sa d i f f i c u l tc o n c e p t f o r s t u d e n t st o a c c e p t .E x p l a i nt h a r n o t o n l y w i l l i t h e l p t h e m s p e a l < m o r e f l u e n r l yi n g r o u p s o f w o r d s , b u t i t w i l l a l s o h e l p them to avoid the problem that some learners have of d r o p p i n g c e r t a i n f i n a l c o n s o n a n rs o u n d s .G o t h r o u g h t h e two examples,and have students practise them before h a v i n gt h e m m a r l <t h e l i n l < i n gn I - 9 . P l a yt h e r e c o r d i n g i once all the way through and then again,pausingafrer e a c h s e n t e n c es o t h a t s t u d e n t sc a n r e p e a t i t s e v e r a l t i m e s .Y o u c a n a l s o p o i n t o u r r h a t r h e ' d ' s o u n d i s u s u a l l y dropped in lt deDends.

Answers l. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. l ' l l ,I m i g h t I ' m ( j u s t )g o i n gt o , I m i g h t , l ' l l we'll, e might w Imight,Imight,l'll l ' m g o i n gt o l ' l l ,I m i g h r l.' m ( n o r )g o i n gc o

Answers 9. It depends ow I feer. h 12. h depends how-qlggllam. | 3. h depends how long-it'll tal<e. 14, lt depends hattimJl get home. w 1 5 . l t d e p e n d s h e t h e ri g e t b a c ki n t i m e o r n o t . w 15. lr depends what kiid.,ofrhinglou liki 1 7 . l t d e p e n d s h e t h e rI v e g o t p a i do r n o t . w

,lli,ilrirttt'rerpra.tice
T h i s e x e r c i s eg i v e s s t u d e n t s a c h a n c et o p e r s o n a l i s e these structures, and are good examples to include in their notebool<s.Instead of having pairs of students just d i s c u s st h e s e q u e s t i o n s , a v et h e m w a n d e r a r o u n d t h e h class asl<ing one question to one person before moving o n t o a n o t h e r p e r s o n w i t h a n o t h e r q u e s t i o n .F i n i s hu p b y a s k i n gt h e c l a s sw h o h a d t h e m o s r i n t e r e s t i n go r u n u s u a lo l a n s .

Fur therpr actice
Have students asl<each other these questions in pairs and then asl< hem to spenda few minutesmemorising t t h e r e s p o n s e sl - 8 i n 4 l t d e p e n d s . T h e n g i v e e a c h student a number from one to seven. his is the number T of the question thar they have to asl<. Get all the s t u d e n t st o s t a n d u p a n d g o a r o u n d a s l < i n gh e i r t questions and trying to remember an appropriate resDonse.

T h i s i s a v e r y c o m m o n p h r a s e j u s t b y i t s e l fw h e n w e don't want to be explicitor when we want to delay answering.You could give students an example of an interaction lil<ethis:

80

13 Stqlttseetnq

Answers P o s s i b la n s w e r s : e l. lt depends ow I feel/howired I am/whatime h t I get home.
2. lt depends how much time we've goriwhat time the film finishes. 3 . l t d e p e n d sh o w I f e e l / h o w t i r e d I a m / w h a t t i m e I get home/whether I get bacl<in time or not. 4. lt depends how I feel/how tired I am/whar trme I get home. 5 . l t d e p e n d sw h e t h e r I ' v e g o t p a i d o r n o t . 6 . l t d e p e n d sh o w l o n g i t ' l l t a k e / h o w t i r e d I a m . 7 . l t d e p e n d sh o w m u c h t i m e w e , v e g o r .

Follow-up H a v e s t u d e n t sc h o o s e o n e o f t h e c i t i e s i n t h e photographs on page 94 and inraginethat they are on h o l i d a yt h e r e . T h e y s h o u l d w r i c e a l e t r e r o r a p o s t c a r d t o a f r i e n d e x p l a i n i n g h a c t h e y h a v e b e e n d o i n g ,w h e r e w they've been going,what they've been eating,how the weather has been, what the people have been lil<e, etc. Give students a chance to review the languagein this u n i t a n d p r e v i o u s o n e s . l f y o u a r e h a v i n gt h e m w r i c e i n c l a s s g o a r o u n d h e l p i n g W h e n t h e y h a v ef i n i s h e d , h e y , . c can exchange letters with a partner, read it and then tall< about it.

Speaking
I h e s ep i c r u r e sn c l u d e o m ep l a c e sh a t a r e n ' tt y p i c a l i s t t o u r i s ta t r r a c t i o n s .x p l a i n h a t e a c hp l a c ei s . T h e E w p i c t u r e s h o wT o k y o D i s n e y l a n d , T h ei r o s h i m a e a c e p s , H M u s e u ma n d t h e G a l a p a g ol s l a n d s . r i t e a f e w , W e x p r e s s i o no n t h e b o a r dt o h e l o : s I'd nevergo there, evenif you poid me. It'snot reallythe kind of thingI'm into. l'm sureit'sfoscinoting. I thinkeveryone shou/d it. see

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:

81

U n i t o v e r v i ew
General topic of Tall<ing about schoolsand differentl<inds exams ano tests. Reading i T h e w a y t e a c h e r s s e dt o d i s c i p l i nc h i l d r e nn u e it schoolsis not lil<e is now. Language input . in Verb patterns: woscought drinking schoo/.She She He corriedon drivingevenofter her accident. wos /ote.etc. socked olwaysbeing for

You might need to explain some of the following exPressrons: . leave without lf you drop out of universitylschool,you but finishing.For example: I got into o good university, I just got fed up with it ofter o few months ond dropped out. you are studying lf you are doing o subjectsomewhere, i t . l f i t i s a t u n i v e r s i t ya n d t h e u n i v e r s i t yi s n a m e d after the city, you can just use the city's name. For ot example: I'm doing chemicolengineering leeds. o lf you are hovingltoking gop year,you are tal<inga year off between leavingschool and starting university.For example: I'm plonningto spend my goP yeor trovellingoround the world. l f y o u r m i n d g o e sb l o n k , y o u s u d d e n l yc a n n o t r e m e m b e r o r t h i n l <o f s o m e t h i n g .F o r e x a m p l e :M y mind's gone completely blonk. I con't remember who gove me thot neckloce. . If you say you got three As ond a B, you are referring to the results of your exams. Usually you are referring to yourA-levels and the grades reguired to get into universicy. A-levels are exams that are usually taken in the final year of school in the UK when you are eighteen. Whot do you coll A-levels your country? in means Whot do you coll the exoms you toke ot the end of secondoryschool in your country?

'

.

in ottention closs. He Schoolexpressions: never Poys etc. Shet the teocherlDet. . Expressions collocations talkingabout for and My examsand tests:I gotmy results. mindwent completely blank.I did a lot of revision the exom. for etc. ' lntonation for expressingsympathy: reallysorry I'm to heor that.l'm so sorry.etc. Verbsfor tall<ing about hopesand plansin the future: I'm plonning spend summerworking to the abrood.I'm reallylookingforwardto it. etc. Asl<ing opinionsabout the future and responding: Do vou think she'll come? doubt it. I Pronunciation the contractedform 'll lt'llroin of loter.l'll giveyou o hond with it.

.

.

R e m i n d s t u d e n t st o r e c o r d a n y o f t h e e x p r e s s i o n s h a t t t h e y l i l < ei n t h e i r n o r e b o o r s . Lead in

Language strip Use the languagestrip as a way to lead in to the unir. Asl< students to lool< quicl<lythrough the list and find any expressions thar they have used themselves (e.g. Hove you done your homework?)and any that are true for t h e m ( e . g .I h o t e ds c h o o / )E x p l a i nt h a t i n t h i s u n i t t h e y . will learn ways of tall<ingabout school and tal<ingexams. E n c o u r a g e h e m t o c h o o s e s o m e o t h e r e x p r e s s i o n si n t the strip that lool< interesting and to find out more about them. Use the language trip later on in this unit for a small s group task. Asl< students to find those expressions that are about exams (e.g.l've got rny results), those that are about university (e.g.I'm doing Frenchot Nottinghom)and those that are about school (e.g.How old were you when you left school?). (Of course, some expressions do not fall into only one category.)You could then asl<students to choose several of the expressions to asl<each other (e.g. What wos your degreein ogoin?).

L e a d i n b y w r i r i n g r h e w o r d t e o c h e ro n t h e b o a r d .T h e n , a s a c l a s s , r a i n s t o r m a l i s t o f a d j e c t i v ec o l l o c a t i o n s H e r e b . are some less obvious examples:hordworking,overworked, competent, inexperienced,sympothetic.Then on to the go first exercise.

Speaking
I n t r o d u c e t h i s e x e r c i s eb y t e l l i n g s t u d e n t sa b o u t s o m e o f your own teachers,for example a teacher that inspired you to become a teacher yourself, a teacher that made your life a misery, etc. lf you are short of ideas,you can use this examole: A friend of mine once met one of her old teochers severol years ofter she hod left school. When she told her old teocher thot she wos herself o teocher,he nearly died of shock.Apporently,she hod been quite unruly in school. When he osked whot mode her go into teoching,she exploined thot she hod mode her teochers' liveso misery os o student ond now she wonted to moke her students'/ives miseryos o o teacher!

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14 S t u d y i n g Have students tall<in pairs about the questions and the pictures on the page.Asl< if any of the things in the picturesremind them of their own time at school. that the teacher was sacl<ed for grabbing the boy's shirt o r w h e t h e r p h y s i c a l u n i s h m e n ts h o u l d b e o u t l a w e d i n p s c h o o l sa n d i n t h e h o m e .

I While you read (The bad old days)
P o i n t o u t t h e t i t l e o f t h e a r t i c l e a n d a s k s t u d e n t sr o guess what it might refer to. Then explain the rasl<. Have students read through the article and then compare their answers with a Dartner. The verbs in this exercise are followed by a variety of patterns. This is a good time to mal<esure students are r e c o r d i n g a n d l e a r n i n ge x a m p l e si n w h o l e e x p r e s s i o n s . You may need to explain the difference between orome somebody for o problem and blome o problem on o person.. on is followed by the cause,while for is followed by the result. Ask students to complete these sentences appropriately: They blomed the crosh on ... Whenever something got broken, was olwoys blomed on .. it I blame the governmentfor ... I olwoystook the blome for ...

l

Answers Answerswill vary.

Playthe recordingof the articlewhile students follow in t h e i r C o u r s e b o o kE n c o u r a gte e m t o u n d e r l i n e n y . h a expressions collocations you or that seem interesting. maywant to point out and explainthe following exDressions: ' lf you voiceyour support someonelsomething,you for verbally express your supportfor that personor idea. We can use the verb voice with other emouons, too: to voice your concernlongerlfrustrotion. For example: lot of people voicing A ore their frustrotion ot the lock o[progress reoching ogreement. in on , lf you ore ot you are responsible something for foult, that went wrong.For example: The bigfoodcompontes ore reollyot foult for the problems obesity. of ' lf you are cheeky, are being you a little disrespectful and funnyat the sametime. For example: wos cheeky I towords teochers, I nevergotin reollyserlous the but trouble. ' lf you pushsomeone the limit, to you provol<e them ro a point where they lose control.For example: you'd betterstop now. Youiepushing to my limit. me lf you outlowsomething,you mal<e illegal. it For example: They've outlowed useof mobile phones the while driving.

Answers
t q

4 . a . 5 .e .

6.d. 7.b.

The expressions are: got sacl<ed for tearing a boy's shirt c o m p l a i n e dt o t h e h e a d m a s t e r sacl<ed for physicallyabusing the boy caught two students tall<ingin class mal<eyou hold your hands out lil<ea cross carry on teaching the class caught anyone doing anything wrong threatening them with the sacl< blame the ourlawing of physicalpunishment for an i n c r e a s ei n b a d b e h a v i o u ri n c h i l d r e n get sacl<ed for stopping a fight caught smol<ingin the toilers

Speaking
H a v e s t u d e n t sd i s c u s st h e s e f o l l o w - u p q u e s t i o n si n s m a l l groups.You may want to point out the pattern cotch someonedoing something. The -ing form is used here because it shows that the action was in progress.Asl< s t u d e n t sf o r o t h e r t h i n g s a t e a c h e r o r t h e p o l i c e m i g h r catch you doing. For example: I was cought fightingin the toi/ets. I wos cought running in the corridors. We were once caught shoptifting. You could also explain that you can skip meols. For examole: I usuolly skip breokfast. F i n i s hu p b y a s k i n gs t u d e n t sw h o h a d t h e m o s t u n u s u a l , effective or cruellest punishments.To extend the d i s c u s s i o nh a v e s t u d e n t s d i s c u s sw h e t h e r i t w a s r i g h t , This exercise gives more practice with the vero parrerns from 4Verb patterns. Have srudents lool< through the q u e s t i o n sa n d t h e n a s l < h e m t o c l o s e t h e i r C o u r s e b o o l < s t a n d a s k y o u . A n s w e r t h e i r q u e s t i o n sa n d t h e n a s l < h e m t to recall several expressions you used.Write them on t h e b o a r d .S t u d e n t sc a n t h e n o p e n t h e i r b o o l < sa n o d i s c u s st h e q u e s t i o n st h e m s e l v e si n s m a l l g r o u p s ,u s i n g any of the expressions o help them if necessary. t

'

t Teacher and students _ s
I

i

Here the focus is on several expressions connected to s c h o o l .S t u d e n t sc a n w o r k i n d i v i d u a l l yh r o u g h t h e t a s l < t and then compare answers with a partner. you could also a s k t h e m t o d e c i d e w h i c h a r e p o s i t i v ea n d w h i c n a r e negative.As you go through rhe answers,checl<that they u n d e r s t a n ds o m e o f t h e e x p r e s s i o n sb y a s l < i n gu r t h e r f questions. or example: F

t

83

tlo',', would o teocher know someone wosn't Poying cttention?

Answers The correct order is: l.c. 2-g. 3.d. 4.e.

Hovr would you know if I wosn't poying ottention? Whot kind of thing would you do if you were in detention? Whot is the opposite of 'top of the closs'? How con o teocher be encouroging? How could you tell someone wos the'teacher's pet'? Then pairs of students can tall<about the sentences that relate to their life.

5.a.

6.f.

7.h.

8.b.

Listening
Explain the situation and have students predict how the s e n t e n c e sw i l l b e c o m p l e t e d .T h i s h e l p s r e i n f o r c e s o m e of the collocations from 2 Speaking. Play the recording and then have students complete the sentences.Play it a s e c o n d t i m e f o r t h e m t o c h e c l < . Y o u a n t h e n h a v et n e m c l i s t e n a t h i r d t i m e , f o l l o w i n g t h e t a p e s c r i p to n p a g e 1 5 4 .

Answers S e n t e n c ec o n c e r n i n s t u d e n t sl:, 3 , 5 , 7 , 9 a n d I I s g S e n t e n c ec o n c e r n i n t e a c h e r s :, 4 , 6 , 8 , | 0 a n d | 2 s g 2 P o s i t i v e e n t e n c e s : 2 ,a n d 8 . s 7 The rest are negative.

Answers | . fail,go to university 2. she only did one of the writing pieces 3. revised really hard for ir, tal<ethe course and the exams again

Test,exam, degree, etc.
T h i s e x e r c i s ea l l o w s s t u d e n t s r o s e e t h e d i f f e r e n c ei n m e a n i n gb e t w e e n s i m i l a rw o r d s . T o l e a d i n , w r i r e t e s t , exom and degreeon the board. Asl< students to use each word to write a sentence about themselves. Then have t h e m d o t h e e x e r c i s e W h e n t h e y h a v ef i n i s h e d a s l < h e m . , t to lool< bacl<at their sentences and modify the language i f n e c e s s a r y , r e x a m p l e b y c h a n g i n g r a d d i n ga fo o c o l l o c a t i o n . a i r so f s t u d e n t s c a n t h e n t a l l <a b o u t t h e P qualificationsthey have or want to get. Write some more expressions with quolificotion the board for on students to complete and tall<about: I wont to get o quoliftcotion ... in These doys you need quoliftcotions you wont to be a . . . if Most peoplewho opp| for ... hove got o lot of quolificotions

-ruerlre
Here are some more expressions bout examinations a W h e n s t u d e n t s h a v ef i n i s h e dd o i n g t h e m a t c h i n gt a s l < , h a v et h e m t e s t e a c h o t h e r i n p a i r s ,w i t h o n e p e r s o n sayingthe first half of the sentences and the other p e r s o n c o m p l e t i n gi t w i t h o u t l o o k i n g a r t h e Coursebool<.Explain that if you just obout or borely scropethroughon exom,you only just pass it. For example: You just obout scropedthroughwith 7l%.

Answers l.b. 2 e 3 d 4.{ 5 .c 6 .a .

Answers l. examination 2 . d e g r e ed i p l o m aq u a l i f i c a t i o n s , , 3. certificate

E x p r e s s i o n m e a n i n g h e p e r s o n d i d w e l l :2 a n d 3 s t E x p r e s s i o n s e a n i n gt h e p e r s o n d i d n ' t d o s o w e l l : m l.4,5and5

intonation I Pr onunciation:
I n t o n a t i o n c o n v e y sa l o t o f m e a n i n g . W r i t e a s i m p l e s e n t e n c el i k e f h o t s m y b o o k o n r h e b o a r d .A s l <s t u d e n t s to practise sayingit with different emotions: anger,real p l e a s u r e b o r e d o m , r e a l p r i d e ,e t c . T h e n a s l < h e m w n a t , t they were doing with their voices to convey that emotion. Play the recording once all the way through to allow students to hear the intonation patterns for the expressions giving sympathy.Play it a second time, pausingafter each response to allow students to repeat. Then have them worl< in pairs reading the conversation. Have them thinl< of ways ro extend the dialogue.You might want to give an example with one student. For examPte:

Speaking
I n t r o d u c e t h e t a s k b y d i s c u s s i n gh e i n i t i a lq u e s r i o n sw i t h t t h e c l a s sa s a w h o l e . T h e n h a v e s r u d e n t si n d i v i d u a l l y d e c i d e t h e o r d e r a n d c o m p a r e w i t h a p a r t n e r .T e l l t h e m t o r e c o r d t h e c o l l o c a t i o n st h a t a r e n e w t o t h e m i n t h e i r notebooks. Explain that if you mess up something o test, on you do it badly.lf you mess up your room,however, you mal<e it untidy. lf you monoge to do something, you are implying that it is difficult or requires some effort to a c c o m p l i s hF o r e x a m p l e : . After five hours,l ftnolly monoged to get to the summit.

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l4 Studylnq

A: l'm sorryI'm so /ote,but I hod on occident the caron in the woyhere. B: Oh,no! I'm sorryto heorthot. Areyou oll right?Whot hoppened? the cor bodlydamaged? Wos A: I'm fine,justo bit shoken. the cor'snotin good But shope. had to getit towedto o goroge. I B: So,did someone intoyou or something? run A: Well,l'm to blame, really. wos tryingto overtoke bus I this on o blindcornerond I croshedrightinto thisoncoming cor. Referstudents the Real English note on which to words are stressed. a few sentences Say and have studentspractise, responding with the appropriate e x p r e s s i oa n di n t o n a t i o n . o r e x a m p l e : n F /'ve/ostthot gold brocelet. l've /ostmy pen. /'ve/osta verydeor friend. Once studentshavepractised their dialogues few a times,havethem perform them to other pairs.

2. my driving rest / halfway through / for ages / started waving / the car in front of me / crashed / Needless t o s a y ,. . . 3 . A f r i e n d o f m i n e / c o p y i n gi c h e a t i n g/ o n e o f t h e b e s t s t u d e n t si n t h e s c h o o l / c o n f i d e n t / U n f o r t u n a t e l y/, N e e d l e s st o s a y ,. . . You could round up by re-telling the stories yourself, e l i c i t i n ga s m a n y o f r h e c o l l o c a t i o n sa n d e x p r e s s i o n s f r o m t h e c l a s sa s y o u c a n - o r e l s e y o u c o u l d s i m p l y a s l < them to compare the versions they have thought of - or written - with those on page 100.

Speaking
Start off by asl<ing students to sort the tests ano exams in the box according to different criteria, for example, those that you revise for, those that you don't lilce, those w i t h s e r i o u s c o n s e q u e n c e sf y o u f a i l ,e t c . y o u m i g h t n e e d i to explain that o screentest is for an actor who wanrs a part in a film, and that o rnock exom is a practice exam. After students have told their partner a story, have them tell the same story to another person.

I m e s s e du p b a d l y!
This exercise features the topic of exams and tests with m o r e c o n n e c t e d e x p r e s s i o n sS t u d e n t sc a n f i l l i n t h e g a p s . a n d t h e n c h e c k t h e i r a n s w e r si n p a i r s . y o uc o u l d t h e n r e a d o u t l - 3 a n d e i t h e r e l i c i t r h e a n s w e r sf r o m t h e c l a s s a s y o u c o m e t o e a c h g a p o r e l s e s i m p l yg i v e t h e g r o u p tne answers.

1

i.r'

*

The futur e: sevenim por tantver bs
Remind students that the structures I'm goingto, I'll probobly and I might from Unit l3 express how certain we feel about things in the future. T h i s e x e r c i s ew i l l h e l p s t u d e n r sw i t h t h e g e n e r a l m e a n i n g of the seven verbs and the grammatical patterns that follow them. Have students sort the expressions rnto categories:those that are followed by an infinitive with to (e.g.plon,hope, expect),thosefollowed by a preposition + a noun or -ing form (e.9. think of, look forword to) and those followed by a noun (e.g.opply for,dreod,expea).

Answers | . a. revision b. last c. notes d. failed 2 . a .f a i l e d b.Test c.pass o .e n o u g h 3 . a .c h e a t i n g b . c o n f i d e n t c . c o p i e d d . w e l l
Point out the expression needless soy in each story. to T h i s i s a c o m m o n w a y o f e n d i n ga s t o r y w h e n t h e r e s u l t i s w h a t y o u w o u l d e x p e c t t o h a p p e n .G i v e s t u d e n t s a couple of expressions hat might be usedwhen the t r e s u l t i s s u r p r i s i n gF o r e x a m p l e : . Funnilyenough,(l possed). lmagine my surprisewhen I found out ( I'd possed). S t u d e n t sm i g h t w a n t t o u s e s o m e o f t h e s e e x D r e s s r o n s to end their own exam stories. Let students spend a few m i n u t e s l o o l < i n g a c l < h r o u g h t h e p r e v i o u se x e r c i s e s b t before telling their stories again to rheir partner. lf you want to revise the languagein these three stories in a later lesson, ne way you could do it is to write a o few l<eywords from each story on the board and put s t u d e n t s i n g r o u p s t o r e - t e l l t h e s t o r i e s .F o r e x a m D l e , you could write up the following: l . l e f t h i s r e v i s i o n/ m o s t o f t h e t i m e . . . b u t o n e n i s h t / stayed up all night i several caffeinetablets / U n f o r t u n a t e l y / N e e d l e s sr o s a y ,. . . ,

Answers r. 2. 3. 4. aPPIy dread plan hope
5 . t h i nl < 6. lool< forward to 7. expect, expect

Before doing this exercise,mal<esure students are comfortable with the formation of the present c o n t i n u o u sa s w e l l a s t h e s p e l l i n g u i d e l i n e s o r w h e n t o g f double the consonant (e.g.p/on -plonning)and dropping the final 'e' (e.g. hope- hoping).

85
{
i

m exPecung
a. m applying a . m (really) lool<ing

4. 5. 5. 7.

forward to a.'m hoping 'm a. planning 'm a. thinl<ing 'm a. dreading

b.'m (not) expecting b.'m applying b . ' m ( r e a l l y )l o o l < i n g forward to b.'m hoping 'm (not) planning b. 'm thinl<ing b. 'm dreading b.

Then Have students worl< in pairs creating the dialogues. them a few times. You could have them practise reading suggestthat they memorise two or three and then perform them for another pair.

,.',.'..,]

fi

Pr onunciation: 7

You may needto explainthat PRstands public for relotions. students Tell some examples about yourselfor a friend beforehaving them do the samein pairs.

This contraction is a little difficult for some speal<ers. You may need to have students practise this exercise several times. Play the recording once all the way through and then again,pausingafter each sentence.For extra practice, asl<students to choose five of the r e s p o n s e s n d w r i t e t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g u e s c i o nT h e y a q . c a n t h e n a s l < h e i r q u e s t i o n st o a p a r t n e r w h o c h o o s e s t the appropriate response.You may need to explain that if you give someoneo hond,you help them do something. For examole: A: I'm hoving trouble fixing my fence. B: I'll come over ond give you o hond if you like.

A s k i n gf o r a n o p i n i o n
This exercise focuses on the very common question Do you think + will ... ? Go over the explanation and then have students put the words in the right order to mal<e q u e s t i o n s S t u d e n t ss h o u l d n ' tf i n d i t t o o d i f f i c u l tb e c a u s e . they all start with Do you think ... ? Play the recording so s t u d e n t sc a n c h e c l < h e i r a n s w e r s , n d t h e n p l a y i t a g a i n , t a pausingafter each question so that they can repeat.

Answers l. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. D o y o u t h i n l < h e ' l lc o m e l s D o y o u t h i n l < ' l l n e e da c o a r l l D o y o u t h i n l < o u ' l ls e e K e n l a t e r i y Do you thinl< we'll be bacl< eight? by D o y o u t h i n l < o u ' l lp a s s ? y Do you thinl< you'll do a Masrer's after you graduatel

I n t h i s e x e r c i s e , n c o u r a g es t u d e n t st o m a k e a f o l l o w - u p e comment as well.For example: A: Whot do you think the weother will be like tomorrow? 8: ltt bound to roin. lt's the weekend.lt olwovs roinsot the weekendhere. As an alternative,write these questions on slips of paper and give one to each student. They then go around the c l a s sa n d a s l < h e i r q u e s t i o n t o a n o t h e r s t u d e n t .W h e n t t h e y h a v ef i n i s h e d t h e y e x c h a n g es l i p sa n d f i n d s o m e o n e , e l s et o a s l < h e i r n e w q u e s t i o nt o , a n d s o o n . t

n a t u ra la n sw e rs
L e a di n b y h a v i n g t u d e n t s s l < o u s o m eD o y o u t h i n k. . . s a y ? o p i n i o nq u e s t i o n a b o u tt h e f u t u r e . n s w e ru s i n g o m e s A , s of the short answers here.Then go over the e x p l a n a t i o nT h e s es h o r t e x p r e s s r o n s e v e r y c o m m o n , s. ar and in this context are more typicalthan responses with m o d a la u x i l i a r i elsk em u s ta n d m o yf o r e x p r e s s i n g i degrees certaintyin the future,somerhing of which some studentsmight asl< about. Answers l . a . I d o u b t i t b . l t ' s b o u n dt o c . l t m i g h t 2 . a .h o p e f u l l y b . d e f i n i t e l y c . p r o b a b l y 3 . a .D e f i n i t e l y b . I d o u b ti t c . h o p e f u l l y

lf students don't l<now,Lazio and Arsenal are football teams from Rome and London respectively. dialogue In number 3, note the expression her porentsore going to kill me.You might say someoneis going to kill me to mean that they are going to be very angry when they find out about s o m e t h i n gy o u h a v e d o n e o r n o t d o n e .

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r5
Unit overview
General topic Tall<ing about sport and mal<ing predictions. Listening Fivepeopletall< about sporcing evencs. Language input . Verb collocations with varioussporrs: ptoyo bit I of golf now and then.I go swimming quitea lot,gotf course, bosketboll courr,erc. Expressions tall< to about keepin fit: I do liketo g keepfit. I ovoidred meot.etc. Vocabulary describing for sportingevents: woso it dirty gome,it's on owoygome, the fight was fxeo, etc. First conditionals: they score lf haveo fust,they'll chonce. he doesn't lf problems, hoveony mechonicol he shouldwin. Common if expressions comeif I con.l'llgtve l'll you a hond if you wont. Agreeing, disagreeing showingsurprisewith and know:l know!I meonhowmuch doesTigerWoods earn a yeor?I don't know. thinksshe! quitesexy. / I don't know why she stoys with him.etc.
Kilmornockis a Scottish football team. l n s o m e s p o r t s l i l < e e n n i s ,i f y o u a r e t h e n u m b e r o n e t seed,you are ranked as the best player in a competition. For example: She stondso goodchonce now thot the number one seeo ,s out. It'so por 5 refers to golf. lt means that five hits of the b a l l a r e e x p e c t e d o n r h i s o n e p a r t i c u l a rh o l e . fhe dogs refers ro dog racing. Gome,set ond motch could be said when a player wins a tennis match. This means that a player has just won the last game of a set, the last set, and the matcn itself. lf you say lt wos out, you are usually referring to the fact that the ball has gone out of play.For example, in cricl<etyou would say /t wos out if you believe tnat t h e b a t s m a n i s o u t . T h i s e x p r e s s i o ni s a l s o u s e d w h e n t h e b a l l h a s l a n d e do u t s i d e t h e l i n e d u r i n g a t e n n i s match. Fans watching a match or game will use this expression when they disagreewith the umpire or referee\ decision that it wasn't out. A shuttlecock the object that players hit over tne is net in badminton. We got throshedmeans we lost a game/match very heavilv. . Hei got o greotleft foot is usually said about a footballer and means he's very skilful with his left foot.

. . .

. '

Language strip Use the languagestrip as a way to lead in to the unit. Asl< students to quicl<lylool< through the list and find at least two expressions that they could see themserves u s i n g .E x p l a i nt h a t i n t h i s u n i t t h e y w i l l l e a r n m o r e w a y s of tall<ing bout sport. Encourage hem to choose some a t o t h e r e x p r e s s i o n si n t h e s t r i p t h a t l o o l <i n t e r e s t i n ga n d to find out more about tnem. Use the language trip later on in this unit for a smatl s g r o u p t a s l <A s l <s t u d e n t s t o d i s c u s sw h i c h s p o r t i s b e i n g . referred to in some of the expressions.you could also asl<them to find expressions that might be said about a sport that you are watching or have just finished watching (e.g.He shouldhove been sent offl. You might need to explain some of the following expressions. ' l f a t e a m a r e p l a y i n go t h o m e , t h e y a r e p l a y i n ga t t h e i r own ground or stadium. For example: Why do they olwoys play so bodly ot home? ln some team sports, like football, o ployer is sent olf if the referee decides that they have seriously brol<en one of the rules of the game. For example: / con,t believehe wos sent off for that tockle. Remind students to record any of the expressions that they lil<ein their notebool<s. Lead in G e t s t u d e n t s i n r o p a i r s .G i v e t h e m o n e m i n u t e t o w n r e down all the sports rhey can thinl< of; however, one person has to write down all the team sports while the o t h e r p e r s o n a l l t h e i n d i v i d u a l p o r t s .A f t e r o n e m i n u c e , s s t u d e n t sc a n c o m p a r e t o s e e w h o h a d t h e m o s t . T h e n , a s a c t a s sg e r s r u d e n r st o t e l l y o u r h e s p o r t s i n t h e i r l i s r s , , w h i l e y o u w r i c e t h e m o n t h e b o a r d . R e f e r s t u d e n t st o the picrures on page | 04 to see if any of the sports they came up wich are shown.Keep the list on the board while students do I Are you any good?.

I

;.i' ";."/ ..

.n i

..

,,{

r'..

.f. -

,. ." '.i

1

I

i Ar e you any good?
H e r e s t u d e n t s s o r t t h e s p o r t s a c c o r d i n gt o w h e t h e r they collocate with p/oy or go. When they have finished, asl<if they notice any parterns.They may tell you that the sports with bol/ in them tend to collocate with play

-

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87

and those ending with -ing tend to collocate with go. Get s c u d e n t s o l o o l <a t t h e l i s t o f s o o r t s o n t h e b o a r d a n d t decide if they collocate with go or ploy.You might have some lilceboxing and toe-kwondo that collocate with do. Point out the expressions o lot of,quite o lot,a bit of, olmost everydoy, sometimes, now and then.Ask which of them mean that the person does a sport frequenrly.

Before getting students to read the text, put the following words and phrases on the board:fruit ond vegetobles, yogo,teom sports, red meot, stomino,gym. Asl< s t u d e n t st o p r e d i c t w h a t m i g h t b e s a i d a b o u t e a c h o n e i n a text about l<eeping For example: fit. It's a good ideo to do yogo. You shouldn't eot red meot. You may need to explain that if you hove stomino, you are able to do something for a long time. For exampre: You need o lot of stomino to do cross-country running. Then have students read the text and complete the gaps. Before going through the answers,ask what they thinl< hove o go ot means (try).

Answers l . g o 2 . p l a y 3 .p l a y 4 . g o 5 . g o 5 . p l a y 7 . y a y 8 .p l a y 9 . g o l 0 g o .

S t u d e n t ss h o u l d m a t c h t h e f o l l o w - u p c o m m e n t s i n p a i r s , u s i n ga d i c t i o n a r y o r a s l < i n g o u w h e n n e c e s s a r y b o u t y a any of the sport-related vocabulary.(The best way ro explain some of the expressions like dribblingis oy m i m i n g t h e a c t i o n . )A f t e r c h e c l < i n gh e a n s w e r s , s K t a students what patterns they norice and write the followingon the board: I'm quite good ot + -ing. I'm OK at + -ing. I'm not very good ot + -ing. M o d e l t h e e x a m p l e d i a l o g u ew i t h o n e s t u d e n t ,p o i n c i n g out the intonation patrern of Oh, reolly?before having s t u d e n t st a l l <a b o u t s o m e o f t h e s p o r t s i n p a i r s .

Answers r. team sPorts 2. aggressive 3. goingon about 4. l<eepfit 5. red meat 6. fruit and vegetables

7 gym 8. yoga
9. stamina | 0. have a go at

Answers l . i . 2 .b . 3 .a . 4 . e . 5 . h . . 6 . f. 9.g. 10.d. 7 .j . 8 .c .
lf you wish, you could asl<students to change any of the expressions a little to make them true. For example: The one thing I would like to hove o go ot is ice-hockey. You may need to explain that if your body is supp/e, you can bend and move it easily, while if it is stiffiyou can'r; and that we can use the expression I wotch whot I eotto mean that we rry ro have a healthy diet by being careful about the foods we choose to eat. Encourage students t o r e c o r d i n t h e i r n o t e b o o l < s o m e o f t h e e x p r e s s i o n si n s c h e t e x t , p a r r i c u l a r l y h e o n e s t h a t d e s c r i b et h e m s e r v e s . r t ^

T h i s e x e r c i s ef o c u s e so n t h e n a m e s f o r t h e o l a c e sw h e r e sports are played.lf you want to extend this, you can brainstorm other names lil<eice-hockey rink,cricket ground, othleticstrock,bowlingolley,er.c. Once srudents have done the matching tasl<, model rhe example dialogue before getting them to worl< in pairs. Point out thar the expression Do you know if there'sanywhereI con ... ? is useful for other places.For example: Do you know if there'sonywhere I con buy a stomptmoke o photocopyround here?

: uescflbr ng event an
T h i s e x e r c i s ei n t r o d u c e ss o m e m o r e s p o r t i n g v o c a b u l a r y Have students worl< in pairs on the matching tasl<. Then, a s a c l a s s d i s c u s sw h i c h s p o r t i s b e i n g d e s c r i b e o , , e x p l a i n i n gh o w t h e e x p r e s s i o n s r e t y p i c a l f o r t n a t a p a r t i c u l a rs p o r r . l f s o m e s t u d e n t s n e e d h e l p w i t h a n y o f the terms here like sets or yellowcords,asl<if there ls a n y o n e i n t h e c l a s sw h o c a n e x p l a i n . h e r e u s u a l l yi s T s o m e o n e w h o l < n o w sw h a t t h e s e t e r m s m e a n . Answers

Answers l.b. 2.c. 3.a. 4.a. 5.b. 5.a. 7.a. 8.a 9 . b . t 0 .d .

Leadin by asl<ing students few questions. example: a For Whot do you do to keepfit? How oftendo you get somephysicol exercise? Whot do you eot if you wont to hoveo heolthy diet?

l . f . ( g o l f :t h e g r e e n s ) 2. c. (football: teams,grounds) 3 . d . ( f o r e x a m p l e ,t e n n i s ,f o o t b a l l :m a t c h ,f i n a l ) 4. h. (football: away game) 5. e. (boxing: fight) 6 . b . ( s l < i i n g :o w n h i l l ,s l o p e ,i c y ) d 7. g. (football: sent off, yellow cards) 8 . a . ( t e n n i s :s e t s )

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15 Sport

As an extension, pairsof students come uo with asl< to some expressions describe eventin one of the to an s p o r t sp i c t u r e d n p a g e1 0 4o r 1 0 5 . o r e x a m p l eo r o F f cycling, you could saythe conditions were Derfect.you c o u l da l s ob r i n gi n v a r i o u s p o r t sr e p o r t sf r o m s newspapers the Internetfor students reao ano or to u n d e r l i n eh e a s s o c i a t ee x D r e s s i o n s . t d

Point out several expressions here with rhe verb hove: hove on off day,hove a chonceand hoye problems. For hove o n o f f d o y ,g i v e t h e c l a s ss o m e o t h e r e x a m p l e s s u c n , as: I'm sorry obout thot, I'm hoving o bit of an off doy today. You could also give them variations of this pattern: I'm hoving o goodlbodlhelt of o doy. Ask students what l<indof day they are having. Also, point out the collocations here. For example:score frst, hove o chonce,serves we//,gives owoy double sprtnt foult"s,

Sp e a k i n g
S t u d e n t sc a n d i s c u s st h e s e q u e s t i o n si n s m a l l g r o u p s .G o a r o u n d m o n i t o r i n g a n d c o l l e c t i n ge x a m p l e so f a n y languagestudents are having problems with _ as well as any good uses of language- to give feedbacl< wnen on they have finished.Follow up by getting students to close their Coursebool<s nd asl< ou the questions. or a y F examDte: A: Hove you heord of ony motches being ftxed? B: Well,wosn'tit rumouredthot the tgggWortd Cup Finol wos fixed? I meon, how e/se could you exDloinBrozil,s performance?

finish.
G o o v e r t h e g r a m m a r e x p l a n a t i o nw i t h s t u d e n t sa n c mal<e ure they notice the use of the presentsimplein s t h e i f c l a u s e A l s o , e x p l a i nt h a t t h e n i s u s e d t o e m p h a s i s e . t h e c o n d i t i o n a lr e l a t i o n s h i pb e t w e e n t h e t w o a c t i o n s . Then asl<students to norice the different modar e x p r e s s i o n s n t h e m a i n c l a u s e . x p l a i nt h a t t h e y i n d i c a t e i E different feelingsabout the future. For example, shou/d shows that we expect it to happen,while could possibly and might show that we aren,t so sure as'tt probobly. Draw students' attention to the fact rhat we say '/l probobly ldefinitely,but probobtyldefinitely won't.

r ": lr. l" ,,iiriJ conditionals First
In this section students focus on the structure often called the first conditional.The structure is typified by the use of the word if to introduce the condition _ often i n a c l a u s e- a n d a c l a u s er e f e r r i n gt o a p o s s i b l er e s u l t . Studenrs may have studied that the clause with the result uses wil/.Although wil/ is frequent, remind students that we use various structures to tall<about the future, ano so other modal auxiliaries re common in first a c o n d i t i o n a le x p r e s s i o n s o o . t L e a d i n b y a s l < i n g q u e s t i o n a b o u t a n u p - c o m i n gg a m e a t h e c l a s sw i l l b e f a m i l i a rw i t h . F o r e x a m o l e : Do you think .. . witt be o good gome? Do you think ... witl win? Then have students complete the tasl<. you go As t h r o u g h t h e a n s w e r s , s k w h i c h s p o r t i s b e i n gd i s c u s s e d . a You might need ro explain that MichoelOwen is an Englishfootball player and Rongers are a football team from Glasgow.

Fur therpr actice
) t u d e n t s c a n n o w a p p l yt h e g u i d e l i n e s r r u l e s t h e y o e s m b l i s h e di n I F i r s t c o n d i t i o n a l s t o r h e c o n t e x t o f r e p o r t i n g n e w s .G e t s t u d e n t st o d o t h i s e x e r c i s e i n d i v i d u a l l y e f o r e h a v i n gt h e m c h e c l < h e i r a n s w e r s r n b t p a i r s .E n c o u r a g e h e m t o u s e s o m e o f t h e m o d a l r a u x i l i a r yp h r a s e sf r o m I F i r s t c o n d i t i o n a l s . G o a r o u n d t h e c l a s s c h e c k i n gt h e i r a n s w e r sa s t h e y w o r l < .T h e n p l a y , t h e r e c o r d i n g s o t h a t t h e y c a n c o m p a r e .p o i n t o u t s o m e of the expressionsn the tasl< nd asl< urther quesrions. i a f For example: Whot else,oport from'tolks' con breok down? (a cor, o mornoge) Whot's the opposite of 'put up toxes'?(lowerlreducelcut roxes/ Whot hoppenswhen there'so fomine?(croDsdie.horyests foil. people storve to deoth) Whot e/secould you be thinkingof ,goingon'?(o cruse, o holidov,o strike) Whot hoppens when o comDonv ts taken over? Before having students practise reading the c o n v e r s a t i o n s n p a i r s ,d o t h e f i r s t o n e a s a n e x a m D r er o i . s h o w h o w t h e c o n v e r s a t i o nc a n b e c o n t i n u e d .

Answers | . d . ( a t h l e t i c sa c e , p r i n tf i n i s h ) r: s 2. c. (football) 3. a. (football: score) 4 . b . ( t e n n i ss e r v e d o u b l ef a u l t s ) : , 5 . e . ( m o t o r r a c i n gm e c h a n i c a lr o b l e m sb r e a l <o o w n , ; : p , s 6. f. (anyteam sporr:they play, they win)

89

Answers
lf that happens,they'll go to war.

Answers | . want 2. can 7. see 8. feel 3.want 4. have 5. hear 6.find

2.
J. A a-

lf they do that, we won't be able to afford a holiday. m l f t h e y d o n ' t d o s o m e t h i n g , i l l i o n sw i l l d i e . l f h e c a r r i e s o n e a t i n gs o m u c h , h e ' l l e n d u p h a v i n g a heart attacl<.

5. lf shes found guilty,she'll get fifteen years 6. How will that affect you if it happens? 7. Will you get more money if you get itl S t u d e n t sc a n d i s c u s st h e s e q u e s t i o n sa s a w h o l e c l a s so r i n s m a l l g r o u p s .Y o u c o u l d a l s o h a v et h e m d i s c u s s whether it is better to watch something live or on TV a n d w h e t h e r i t d e p e n d so n t h e s p o r t . W r i t e s o m e u s e f u l e x p r e s s i o n s n t h e b o a r d .F o r e x a m p l e : o You con't beot the otmosphere. You don't get o very good view. You spend o fortune to get sooklng wet looking ot the bock of someone's heod.
I

Speaking

Freepractice
Have students write four or five questions and answers, a n d t h e n h a v et h e m w a n d e r a r o u n d t h e c l a s sa s l < i n sh e i r t q u e s t i o n s . i v e t h e m a n e x a m p l eo f a p o s s i b l e G conversation: A: Do you think Brozil will win the nextWorld Cup? B: lt depends.lf they ploy like they did in the lost one,then they'll definitelystond o chonce. A: Do you reolly think so?I think if they come up ogainst Germony ogoin,they'll definitely lose. H a v e s t u d e n t s s p e a l <o s e v e r a lp e o p l e . Y o u m i g h t a l s o t w a n t t o t a l < ep a r t i n t h i s a c t i v i t y a s s t u d e n t s w i l l b e a b l e t o h e a r t h e l a n g u a g e o u u s e a n d p e r h a p sr e - u s e i t y themselves.

] Peopletalking about spor t
E x p l a i nt h e s i t u a t i o na n d p l a y t h e r e c o r d i n g .G e t s t u d e n t s t o a n s w e r t h e o u e s t i o n si n b o t h t a s l < s n d t h e n t o a d i s c u s s h e i r a n s w e r s i n p a i r s .E x p l a i nt h a t i f s o m e t h i n g i s t controversiol, there is a lot of debate about ir. For example, we can tall<about controversiol po/icies, declsions, books,films. Also, explain the more informal expressions: . lf someone teom is throshed, lo they lose heavily. . lf you blow it, you had a chance of doing something s u c c e s s f u l l y .u t l o s t t h e c h a n c e . b

R o l ep l a y
G i v e s t u d e n t sa f e w m i n u t e s t o t h i n l <a b o u t w h a c c h e y want to say about each person and how they want to say it. Get them to role-play the dialogue in pairs before changingpartners and repeating the tasl<with someone new.You might want to point out rhe gossiping exPressrons: Hove you heord that ... ? Did you know thot ... ? D i d . . . t e / /y o u t h o t . . . ? I h e o r dt h o t . . . S o m e o n eo l d m e t h o t . . . t Students can then use them to have a quicl<gossip about some people they l<now.

Answers | . Tennis:The speal<ers are disappointed that Mottram losc. 2. Boxing:They feel the fight was fixed. 3 . S n o o l < e r : T h em a n i s t e l l i n g a n e m b a r r a s s i n g t o r y . s 4 . D o g r a c i n g : h e s p e a k e ri s h a p p y h e w o n a b e t o n T a race. 5 . F o o t b a l l T h e s p e a l < e ra r e d i s a p p o i n t e d h a t : s t E n g l a n dl o s t t o J a p a n . Conversation l: d. C o n v e r s a t i o n2 : b . C o n v e r s a t i o n3 : e . Conversation 4: a. C o n v e r s a t i o n5 : c .

G e t s t u d e n t st o c o m p l e t e t h e e x p r e s s i o n sa n d t h e n p l a y , t h e r e c o r d i n gs o t h e y c a n c h e c l < h e i r a n s w e r s T h e n p l a y t . the recording again,pausingafter each sentence,so the students can repeat. Then get pairs of students co d i s c u s si n w h a t s i t u a t i o ny o u m i g h t u s e s o m e o f t h e s e expressions.For example, I'll come if I con could be a response to an invitation to a party. Encourage students to remember these common exoressions s whole a phrases.After they have finished this exercise,write the first two words of each expression (e.g. l'll give)on the b o a r d ,a n d s t u d e n t s c a n s e e i f t h e y c a n c o m p l e t e t h e m from memory.

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15 Sport

Speaking
This exercise introduces an expression for agreeingthat rs a more normal alternative to / ogree.Model tne examples for the students and point out the use of the discourse marl<er I meon to introduce a statement that explains the reason for your agreement. Before students talk about the statements l*5 with a partner, model an example with one of the stuoents: A: fhere's too much sport onTV these doys. B: I know. I meon, o whole ofternoonof golf on o Sundoy ofternoon. lt's ridiculous. You may need to explain that if you think somethlngls pointless, you don't thinl< it is worthwhile becauseyou don't see its purpose. We can talk about o pointless discussion nreeting and say that it is/seemspointlessto do or something. For example: It seems obsolutelypointlessto corry on /ike this. Instead of havingstudents worl< in pairs on this exer-crse, you can have them stand up and go around the class, asking one question to one person before asl<ing anorner question to someone else. Have them speal< about to eight people if possible,so that they get ro practise each question rwice.

And finally
Beforestudents worl<on this,mal<e sure they know what eachof thesesports are.you may needto explain the following: . Curling a winter sport where you is slidea large circularstone down an ice sheettowardsa rarget area. . Synchronised swimming lil<e is balletin the warer,ano the participants haveto perform movemenrs in perfecttime with eachother. Then get students worl< in pairssortingrhe sporrs to into the three categories. When they havefinished, they c a nc o m p a r e h e i r d e c i s i o nw i t h a n o t h e rg r o u p . t s Follow-up To tie in with the topic from the previousunit,asK s t u d e n t s h a t t h e y r e m e m b e r b o u tp l a y i n g p o r r i n w a s school. Write some expressions the board ro help on them,and then get them to talk about their answers with a partner: I wosquitegoodot .,. whenI wosyounger. I reollyusedto lookforwordto ... / usedto reollyhote... We hod thisreolly(odjective) gomeslphysicol educotion t e o c h e.r . . / usedto be on the ... teom. I never modeit on to the .., teombecouse. . . I ployed for my school. ... I represented school ... my ot

Answers The five examples from the tapescript page 156are: on I know.Five-oneup in the lastset and servingfor the m a t c h- h e s h o u l d ' v e o n . w I know.He just seemedto go to pieces. I l<now. was awful. lt I know.They must'vebribedthe judgesor something. I l<now. ljust don't l<nowhow they can sayWinton won on points. For l-5, answers will vary.

don't know
Here students see another functional use of an expression with know. Go over the example and the explanation with students,before havingthem do the matching tasl<. pornt out Then explain the second tasl<. that I don't know expresses slight disagreement here. play the recording so that students can checl<their answers. You may want to explain that we often say that o washing mochine eotsour socksto explain the strange p h e n o m e n o n o f h o w s o c l < s e e m t o d i s a p p e a ri n a s w a s h i n gm a c h i n e !

Answers I . d .v i . 2 . ' . i v . 3 .e . i i i . 4 . a . i i . 5 . c . i . f 6 . b .v .

Pron ,',,;,r.,,' u nciation: i ntonation
Play the recording of the conversations in 2 people talking about sport and 4 | don't know again,so that students can hear the rising intonation pattern of I don't know and the flatter intonation of I know.Then nave t h e m p r a c t i s et h e c o n v e r s a t i o n s n o a i r s . i

91

16
Unit overview
General topic Tall<ing about business politics. and Reading A C h i n e s e - l n d o n e s i a n l t u o h i s o w n b u s i n e sfs o m bui r nothing. Language input . ' Business collocations: employ of people, lots moke contacts, runshis own business, etc. Expressions with business compony'.We o lot and do of business SouthKoreo in andToiwon.lt's ogoinst policy. comPony etc. Collocations and expressions with money'. good itt voluefor money, owe moneyto the bonk,etc. Collocations with morket'.corner morket,flood the the morket,themarketis boomingetc. Business verbs:louncho product, promote product, o set prices, roiseprices, etc. Secondconditionals: government The couldinvest more moneyin schoo/s they wontedto.lf it wos if mine.l'd lend it to vou.
lf o morket is booming, there is a lot of buying and sellinggoing on. We can also describe the economyas booming.For example: The prime minister'schoncesof being re-e/ectedore looking good,with low unemployment and o boomingeconomy. lf you say someone could sellfridges to Eskimos,you are i m p l y i n gt h a t t h e y a r e s o g o o d a t s e l l i n gt h i n g s t h a t t h e y w o u l d b e a b l e t o s e l l s o m e t h i n gt o a p e r s o n w h o n e i c h e rn e e d s i r n o r w a n c s i ! . lf you deol with customers, you have a job that involves worl<ing with people who want to buy goods or service from you. For example: I'm lookingfor o Dositionwhere I don't hove to deol with customersoll the time. lf a company went to the woll, they went banl<rupt. R e m i n d s t u d e n t st o r e c o r d a n y o f t h e e x p r e s s i o n s h a t t they lil<en their noreboot<s. i

. ' ' '

Lead in Asl< students if they are in business, would ever or c o n s i d e r g o i n g i n t o b u s i n e s sa n d t o t h i n l <a b o u t w h a t , the advantagesand disadvantages are of running your o w n b u s i n e s sT h i s l e a d s i n n i c e l yt o t h e f i r s t e x e r c r s e . .

l

l

i

a

r

Language strip Use the languagestrip as a way to lead in to the unic. A s k s t u d e n t st o q u i c k l y l o o k t h r o u g h t h e l i s t a n d f i n d any expressions hat could be saidabout rheir country t or about a company they worl< for. Explain that in this unit they will learn ways of tall<ingabout the world of b u s i n e s sE n c o u r a g e h e m t o c h o o s e s o m e o t h e r . t expressions in the languagestrip that lool< interesring and to find out more about tnem. Use the language trip later on in this unit for a small s group tasl<. Ask students to find those expressions that are about the economy (e.g.The housingmorket s booming)and those said about a company (e.g./t! on o/d Then asl<them to discusswhat it or they family business). might be referring to in some of the expressions. Y o u m i g h t n e e d t o e x p l a i ns o m e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g expressions. . lf you hove built uP o compony from nothing,you started with a very small company and little money and have turned it into a much bigger one. For example: ltt o real shome thot they ore sellingthe businessoff; she built it up from nothing. lf you refer to something as a widget, you mean it is a small object/bit of equipmenr that you don't l<now the name of. For example: The beer stoys fresher for longer now, becousethey put o widget in the con.

Speaking
You can use the questions in the first task for a whole c l a s sd i s c u s s i o nT h e n p o i n t o u t t h e c o l l o c a t i o nf o c e . problems perhaps mentioning some other verb collocations,such as deol with problems, so/veproblems, get round problems before having students worl< in pairs d i s c u s s i n gh e p r o b l e m s l - 8 i n t h e s e c o n d t a s l < . Y o u a y t m also need to explain that bureoucrocy refers to a system w i t h a l o t o f c o m p l i c a t e da n d a n n o y i n gr u l e s ,a n d i s usually used negatively. Other words rhat collocate with bureaucracy are eliminoteand cut (i.e. e/iminotebureaucracy and cut bureaucrocy). Before moving on to the reading tasl<in the next exercise,get students to tell you who they thinl< would b e g o o d a t d e a l i n gw i t h m o s t o f t h e i t e m s l - 8 .

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16 B u s r n e s s
I

While you read (A self-made
Introduce the reading tasl<by referring students to the p i c t u r e s o n p a g e s I l 0 a n d | | l . A s k s t u d e n r sw h a t they thinl< the article is going ro be about, based on what they see in the pictures. Encouragethe use of structures lil<e: It'sproboblyobout how ... It might hove somethingto do with when ... It could be connected with ... Then go over the introduction and explain the task. Have students read the article without worrying about u n d e r s t a n d i n g v e r y t h i n gT h e y c a n t h e n c o m p a r e t h e i r e . answers with a partner. Ask them to explain the title A self-modemon.

Usefulcollocations ,tl];#l
This exercise focuses on several verb + noun collocations that appear in the text. Students can worl< o n t h e t a s l < sn d i v i d u a l l y n d t h e n c o m p a r e w i t h a i a p a r t n e r h o w t h e c o l l o c a t i o n sw e r e u s e d i n t h e r e x t . F o l l o w u p w i t h s t u d e n t st e s t i n g e a c h o t h e r i n p a i r s ,w i t h o n e p e r s o n s a y i n gt h e v e r b a n d t h e o t h e r p e r s o n t r y i n g t o r e m e m b e r t h e n o u n p h r a s e t h a t c o l l o c a t e sw i t h i t . Encourage students to record the collocations and the examples from che text that they want to remember in their notebooks. In another follow-up activity,you could even have students put the collocations in the order that they occur in the text, and then use them to recall as much of the story as they can.

Answers The problemsmentioned in the article are: d e a l i n gw i t h e m p l o y e e s( l S p e a l < i n g , m b e r l ) nu d e a l i n gw i t h o f f i c i a l s n d b u r e a u c r a c y( l S p e a k i n g , a number 2) r a i s i n gt h e m o n e y t o s t a r t a b u s i n e s s( l S p e a l < i n g , number 4) s e l l i n gt h i n g s ( | S p e a l < i n g , m b e r 7 ) nu m a l < i n g o n t a c t s ( l S p e a k i n gn u m b e r g ) c , O t h e r p r o b l e m s h e m e n r r o n sa r e : living away from his family paying taxes and wages meetingdeadlines having his shops attacl<edin anti-Chinese rioting d e a l i n gw i t h c o r r u p t i o n a n d a n u n s t a b l ee c o n o m y d e c i d i n gw h o i s g o i n g t o t a l < eo v e r t h e c o m p a n y

Answers Ld. 2.c. f.i. l0.g 4 .e . 5 .b . 6.j 7 . h . 8 .f

Speaking
T h e s e q u e s r i o n sf o l l o w o n f r o m s o m e o f t h e i s s u e s raised in the article A self-made man. Have small groups of students discussthem as you go around the class moniroring. You may wanr to lead in by tall<ing about the first two questions yourself to give studenrs some ideas.To follow up, you could have pairs of students write a conversation between Darno and his s o n , i n w h i c h D a r n o e x p l a i n sh o w l i f e w a s m u c h h a r d e r w h e n h e w a s y o u n g .T h i s w o u l d b e a g o o d o p p o r r u n t c y ro revtse comparative structures and to see how s t u d e n t s u s e t h e s t r u c t u r e u s e dt o w h i c h i s f o c u s e d o n i n the next unit. Write some expressions that students m i g h t f i n d u s e f u l .F o r e x a m p t e : ln my doy,we used to ... Young people todoy don't know whot hord work is. I'm sure it wosn't os bod os oll thot! At /eost you could get o job!

Play the recording of the article as students follow in the C o u r s e b o o l <E n c o u r a g e h e m t o u n d e r l i n ea n y . t I n t e r e s t r n g x p r e s s i o n s n d c o l l o c a t i o n sy o u m a y w a n t e a . t o p o i n t o u t t h e f o l l o w i n g ,w h i c h a r e n ' t d e a l t w i t h i n later exercises: . lf you describe a place as being in the middle of nowhere, is far away from other places.For exampre: it I wos dropped off in the middle of nowhere ond hod to wolk miles to the neorestvilloge. . You say on top of ott thot when you are listing negauve t h i n g sa n d w a n r t o a d d y e t a n o r h e r o n e r o t h e l i s t . For example: I got soakingwet on my way to work, my computer wouldn't stort up, ond on top of oil thot, the boss wonted to see me obout the controctwe hod iust /ost. ' lf you describe someone as soft,you mean that they aren't tough or strict enough to do something. For example: I hod this reolly soft teocher ot school. He let the kids get owoy with everything.

s, ! B u s i n e sc o m p a n y
Here studentscan again focuson the difference between t w o s i m i l a r o r d s b y l o o l < i na r r h e i r c o l l o c a t i o n s . w g trncourage students devotea pagein their notebool<s to to expressrons usingthesetwo words.As you go t h r o u g ht h e a n s w e r s ,s l <u r t h e rq u e s t i o n t o h e r p a f s reinforcethe language. example: For Why do you think it'scolledo company cor?(The compony buysit for the employee keepsit if the employee ond teoves.) Whot might be some otherthingsthot ore ogoinst compony policy? (smoking offices, in personol of e_moil) use How coulda strong currency cause compony lose o to business? is more expensive customers other (lt in for countries buy yourproducts.) whot hoppens to And to componies the currencv weok? if is

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5!i iress

You could asl<if students notice that in the examples here componyrefers to a particular organisation.

Verb + money
Here are more collocations with money. Remember to focusstudents' attentionon the prepositions too. Get studentsin pairsand asl< them to thinl< anotherway of to completeeachphrase. For example: borrowmoneyfrom my parents invest moneyin the stockmorket E n c o u r a gte e m t o r e c o r dt h e s ee x p r e s s i o nis t h e i r h n notebooks. you go throughthe answers, As you might s w a n t t o a s kf u r t h e rq u e s t i o n w h i c ha r e n ' td i s c u s s e o later in 4 Speaking. For example: How e/secouldyou sovemoneyon holidoy? Where's bestploceto invest the yourown moneythesedoys? Whot couldbe someexomples stupidthings of you don't reollyneed? Ask students why they mightwant ro borrow money from a friend,to elicit purposeexpressions with to. For examPre: To buy o coffee. Topoy my parents bock. Answers l.d. 2.c 3.a 4.b. 5.h 6.g 8.e.

Answers | . c o m p a n y 2 . b u s i n e s s3 . c o m p a n y 4 . b u s i n e s s 5 . b u s i n e s s6 . c o m p a n y 7 . b u s i n e s s8 . c o m p a n y You may needto explainthe two idiomaticexpressions. We can sometimes use business refer to an eventor to s i t u a t i o n ,s p e c i a l li y i t i s t o p i c a.lC o m p o ns o m e r i m e s e f y refersto other peoplewho are with you,so if you keep someone compony, are with them to srop them you f e e l i n go n e l yH e r e a r e s o m eo t h e r i d i o m a t i c x p r e s s i o n s l . e with thesetwo words: / t s n o n eo f y o u rb u s i n e s s . Mind yourown business. Ihis nrecnsbusiness. We'vegot compony. We portedcompany yeorsogo. You're goodcompony. in

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T a l k i n ga b o u t mo n e y
S t u d e n t s a nw o r k i n d i v i d u a l ov r h i s e x e r c i s e n d t h e n c l n a discuss lasttwo questions the with a partner. Follow up by asl<ing pairsof students tell you their suggestions to of when to use thesephrases that you can checl< so theirunderstanding.
Answers l. value 2. waste 6. married 3.got 4. short 5. burn

t -

j Fur therpr actice
This exercise gives students an opportunity to see these collocations used in context.You may want to spend some time reviewing the difference between borrow and lend.Explain that to borrow is to receive something temporarily, while to /end is to give something temporarily. Encourage students to record example s e n t e n c e su s i n gt h e s e v e r b s i n t h e i r n o t e b o o l < s , e s p e c i a l l y n e s t h a t t h e y m i g h t u s e t h e m s e l v e sa l o t . F o r o example: Con I borrow your dictionoryfor o minute? Y o u m a y w a n t r o p o i n t o u t s o m e o t h e r c o l l o c a t i o n sa n d e x p r e s s i o n si n c h i se x e r c i s e : toke out o loon it's worth over twenty-fivethousond pounds before we set off hos more money thon sense You may need to explain that if you get o tox breok,the amount of tax you have to pay is reduced becauseyou belong to a certain category of tax-payer,for example, you are a parent. or you may get your taxes reduced becauseyou have done something with your money which entitles you to a reduction, for example, you have given some of it to charity.

P o s s i b l e n s w e r sf o r w h e n y o u m i g h t u s e t h e a sentences: | . Y o u m i g h t u s e t h i s s e n r e n c ei n a r e s r a u r a n c h i c h w serves large portions but is quite cheap. 2. You might use this sentence if someone wanted to buy a first-class rail ticl<etfor a twenty-minute train ride. 3 . Y o u m i g h t u s e t h i s s e n t e n c et o y o u r p a r t n e r i f y o u want to buy something and you don't have enough money with you. 4. You might use this sentence if someone asl<s you if could lend them some money but you don't have any money to lend them, or if you don't want to lend them any money. 5 . Y o u m i g h t u s e t h i s s e n t e n c ei f s o m e o n e h a s s p e n t m o r e m o n e y o n s o m e t h i n gt h a n y o u t h i n l <t h e y should have. 6. You might use this senrence if you thinl< that the only reasona woman has married a man is because he is rich.

Answers l. owe 2. invest 3. change 4. wastes 5. gave 6 . s p e n d 7 . l e n d 8 . b o r r o w 9 . b o r r o w e d 1 0 .l e n t

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T 6 B L rn e s : s

F i n i s hu p b y d i s c u s s i n gh e q u e s t i o n sa t t h e e n d o f t h e t exercise as a class.lt might also be interesting to exptore h o w t h e c o l l o c a t i o n so f m o n e ya n d t i m e a r e s i m i l a r i n English. Asl< students to thinl< of words or Dhrasestnar collocate with both nouns. For example: woste,save, run out of, invest,short of + timelmoney.you can then teacn students the expression tlme is money.Asl< if tlme has s i m i l a r c o l l o c a t i o n si n t h e i r o w n l a n g u a g e n d i f n o r , a whether there is another noun that does. lncidentally, the sayingNeither o lendernor o borrowerbe is from Shal<espeare's Honrlet.

',,'ll

falting about markets

While the main focus in 5 Collocations with morket w a s o n v e r b c o l l o c a t i o n sh e r e i t i s o n a d j e c t i v e , collocations.Draw students' attention to the woros anc p h r a s e si n t h e b o x , a n d p o i n t o u t t h a t t h o s e o n t h e r i g h t are positive,while those on the right are negative. you may need to explain the following: . lf o morket is soturoted, the market cannot grow any m o r e , b e c a u s et h e s u p p l y o f p r o d u c t s e x c e e d s demand. . Do-it-yourself refers to home improvements rnar you do yourself.

Sp e a k i n g
This exercise gives students an opportunity to use some of the languagefrom the previous exercises. The topic of charity might be one to explore further.you could have g r o u p s d i s c u s sq u e s t i o n sl i l < e : Whot ore some big choritable organisotions your country? in Whot do you think the most deserving chorrtoblecousesore? ls it rrght that people get tox breoks for giving to chority? Shouldn't they just be toxed more? Do some choritiesdo more horm thon good? Y o u c o u l d a l s o a s l < t u d e n t s t o d i s c u s sw h e n t h e s following expressions might be used: All proceedsgo to chority. It's for a good couse. I don't occept charity! lf you are from a different country from your sruoenrs, have them asl<you some questions about the marl<ets there. For example: What's the ... morket likein ... these doysZ l ^

I Business bs ver
Have students worl< in pairs to discussthe questions. Encouragethem to use a dictionary or to asl<you if they h a v e q u e s t i o n sa b o u t m e a n i n g . o o v e r t h e q u e s t r o n s G again,havingthe students share their answers with the whole class.

Answers P o s s i b la n s w e r s : e
l . T h e y d i s c o v e r t h e p r o d u c t i s a h e a l t h h a z a r oo r c o u l d c a u s ea c c i d e n t ss o m e h o w ; t h e y d i s c o v e r a design fault. Becausea new advertising strategy is very unpopular; because protesters boycott the product due to the fact it is made in cheapsouth-eastAsran factories, etc. British Airways always used to have the British flag - the Union J a c l < o n t h e t a i l f i n so f t h e i r p l a n e s . T h e y d e c i d e d r o r e p l a c et h e m w i t h a m o r e g l o b a l r a n g eo f d e s i g n s . T h i s r o v e d t o b e v e r y u n p o p u t a r , p so they had to rethinl<their srrategy.In the eno, they went bacl<o the old design.t was a very t l costly misral<el To tal<econtrol of a larger share of the marl<et;to k i l l o f f t h e c o m p e r i t i o n ;t o a c q u i r e n e w p r o d u c t s / marl<ets, etc. l o c o v e r i n c r e a s i n g r o d u c t i o n c o s t s ;t o i n c r e a s e p profits. To pass on the benefits of decreased production costs to customers; to attract attention to their b r a n d ; t o s e l l o f f o l d o r u n w a n t e d s t o c l <e t c . . Senior managers leavingand starting to worl< for o n e o f t h e m a i n c o m p e t i t o r s ;f r a u d ;a n e c o n o m i c c o l l a p s ee t c . , Being caught stealing from the company you work f o r ; a s e x s c a n d a lb e i n g a c c u s e do f ; sexism/racism/harassment, . e c

with market i Collocations
In the next two exercises,students focus on another word that has many collocations,a lot of which are i d i o m a t i c .R e m i n d s t u d e n t s , h e r e f o r e ,t o i n c l u o e a t translation along with those expressions that they r e c o r d i n t h e i r n o t e b o o l < sD i s c u s st h e q u e s t i o n a o o u r . how Darno Setiadi cornered the propeller marl<et by g e t t i n gs o m e o n e i n t h e g o v e r n m e n tt o h e l p h i m g e t a n import licence before having studenrs find the c o l l o c a t i o n si n t h e t e x t Answers Collocations with morker: a fairly closed marl<et oPen uP the marl<et m a k e t h e m a r l < e tm o r e c o m p e t i t i v e breal<into the marl<et dominate the marl<et totally squeezed out of the marl<et cornered the marl<et the black market flood the marl<et

I

Have pairs of students tall<about anything in the text that is alsotrue about their own country.you could also asl<them to use each of the collocations to wrire a rrue s e n t e n c ea b o u t t h e i r o w n c o u n t r y . F o r e x a m p l e : We've been forced to open up our rice morket.

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8. They've just had a child; they want to travel for a y e a r ; o n e o f t h e i r p a r e n t s i s i l l ,e t c . 9 . B e c a u s e h e y a r e i n c o m p e t e n t ;b e c a u s et h e y t u n d e r m i n e t h e b o s s ' sa u t h o r i t y ;b e c a u s et h e y a r e always late, etc.

unit they lool<edat first conditional structures, many of 'oast' which used will.We can thinl< of would as a form of will. Point out the variety of modal auxiliariesthat are found i n t h e m a i n r e s u l t c l a u s eo f s e c o n d c o n d i t i o n a l sS o m e . students may wonder if were should be used instead of wos.Although were is per{ectly acceptable,it is c o n s i d e r e dm o r e f o r m a l a n d i s b e c o m i n g l e s s c o m m o n than wosin spoken English.

r

t''1.1 f'

Answers T h e l i s t e n i n gt a s l <c o n t a i n ss e v e r a le x a m p l e so f t h e s e c o n d c o n d i t i o n a lw h i c h i s t h e f o c u s o f 2 S e c o n d , c o n d i t i o n a l s . I n t r o d u c e t h e l i s t e n i n gt a s l <b y h a v i n g s t u d e n t st a l l <a b o u t t h e i r o w n v i e w s o f o o l i t i c i a n s Y o u . m i g h t w a n t t o p r o v i d e s t u d e n t sw i c h s o m e c o l l o c a t i o n s either before or afrer they do this. For example: Helshe's o clever I r esp ectedI shrewdI p ol itici n. a M ost p olitici ns ore h onest/dish n estlp owero o hungrylcriminolslfairlydecent people. P l a yt h e r e c o r d i n g a n d t h e n h a v e s t u d e n t s d i s c u s st h e i r a n s w e r s i n p a i r s .T h e n a s l <i f t h e y c a n r e m e m b e r t h e p o l i t i c i a nc o l l o c a t i o n st h e y h e a r d i n t h e d i a l o g u eThey'reoll liors,I just don't trust ony of them, they re oll corrupt,They'reoll only interestedin moking money for themse/yes and add them to the list on the board. Play t h e r e c o r d i n g a g a i na s t h e c l a s sf o l l o w s t h e t a p e s c r i p c n o p a g e 1 5 6 .P o i n t o u t t h e s t r u c t u r e M i r i a m u s e s : They're ll ... . Thisis common when we wanr to maKe o generalisations. t a I l . B o b t h i n l < s h e g o v e r n m e n t m a l < eb i g b u s i n e s s n d rich people pay higher r i c h p e o p l e p a y h i g h , taxes. I 2. The government are actually cutting taxes. 'past 3 . H e u s e st h e ' D a s t t e r s e ' a n d w o u l d t o s h o w t h a t h e n d o e s n ' t t h i n l <i t w i l l I a p p e n . h
l I

D es o ] O t h e r e x a m p lle so f s e c c n d c o n d i t i o n a l si n t h e I raPescflPt are: t a D e s c r i o ta r e : I i lf the state was running things like the railways and t e l e p h o n e sw e w o u l d n ' t h a v e s u c h h i g h l e v e l so f , unemPtoyment. lf they taxed businessmore, rhen they'd just go somewhere else,or find some way of avoiding payingic

Practice
T h i s e x e r c i s ec o n t a i n ss o m e c o m m o n s e c o n c c o n d i t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n s n d p a t t e r n s :F o r e x a m p l e : a . . . c o u l d. . . i f t h e y w o n t e dt o peop/elust wouldn'tocceptit E n c o u r a g es t u d e n t st o r e c o r d t h e s e i n t h e i r n o t e b o o l < s . P o i n t o u t t h a t t h e p h r a s et h o t w o y i s u s e d t o i n t r o d u c e t h e c o n s e q u e n c e f c h e p r e v i o u s s t a t e m e n ci . e . ,i f o theylyou did that.

Answers Bob is probably going to vore for the People's Worl<ers' Party because he thinl<sthat if they were in p o w e r ,t h e y w o u l d b e a b l e t o r e d u c e u n e m p l o y m e n t b y r u n n i n g t h i n g s l i l < e h e r a i l w a y sa n d t h e t e l e p h o n e s , t and mal<ebig businessand the wealthy pay more raxes, w h i c h t h e p a r t y w o u l d i n v e s ti n s c h o o l sa n d h o s p i t a l s . M i r i a m i s p r o b a b l yn o t g o i n g r o v o t e . S h e t h i n l < s p o l i t i c i a n s r e a l l l i a r s ,c o r r u p t , a n d t h e y a r e a l l e q u a l l y a bad; they are only interested in mal<ingmoney for themselves.She doesn't rrust any of them. They all say t h e s a m e t h i n g a n d h a v et h e s a m e p o l i c i e s .

Answers l . c o u l d ,w a n t e d t o , d i d , ' d 'd 2 . w o u l d n ' t ,d i d ,w o u l d , 3. 4. 5. 6. c o u l d ,d i d ,w o u l d ,w o u l d d i d ,m i g h t , ' d d i d ,w o u l d n ' t , ' d 'd, would, wouldn't

Se c o n d o nd i ti o n a l s c
l n t h i s e x e r c i s es t u d e n t s a r e e n c o u r a g e dt o d e v e l o p a 'guideline' f o r t h e u s e o f s e c o n d c o n d i t i o n a l sb e f o r e reading the explanation.After they read the explanation, you may want to tall<a little about how in Englishthe past tense doesn't always refer to time. Sometimes it e x p r e s s e sd i s t a n c e e i t h e r i n t e r m s o f p o l i t e n e s sa n d , respect (e.g.I wonted to osk you something)or, as in the case here, distance from reality i.e.,what we don't e x p e c t t o h a p p e n .R e m i n d s t u d e n t st h a t i n t h e p r e v i o u s O n e t h i n g y o u c o u l d d o b e f o r e h a v i n gp a i r s o f s t u d e n t s d i s c u s st h e o p i n i o n s i n d i a l o g u e sl - 6 , i s t o r e v i e w t h e I know and I don't know strucrures on page | 08 in the p r e v i o u s u n i t .T h e y c a n r h e n p r a c r i s eh a v i n g conversationsil<ehis: l t A: I think they should ban smoking,ot /eosr in public ploces B: I know. I meon, that woy,they'd sove o lot of money on medicol bills. A: Personolly, think thot the government could investmore I in schoolsif they wonted to. B: I don't know. lt's not os simple os oll thot.

96

T5 B L r s e r s n

. '.1 Refusing requests
. a t -

.,".t

Refusingrequests is another common use of second conditionals.Lead in by asl<ing the students to thinl< of a request to mal<eto you. When they asl<, turn them d o w n , u s i n gs e c o n d c o n d i t i o n a l s F o r e x a m p l e : . A: Con you not give us any homework tonightT B: You know, if I could, I would, but I've got to give you some everv dav. After answering a request, ask if students can recall what y o u s a i d ,a n d w r i t e t h e e x p r e s s i o n s n t h e b o a r d . T h e n o go over the explanation in the Coursebool< and do the tasKs.

I n t h i s t a s l <m o s t o f t h e e x a m p l e so f t h e s e c o n d c o n d i t i o n a la r e a b o u t h y p o t h e t i c a lp r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n s , rather than what we don't expect to happen.For example: I'm o mon, but if I were o womon,lA ... Point out that the expression if I hod the moneyltime means if / hod enough moneyltime to do something.Have students complete these sentence starters, and then tall< about them in small groups. To turn the tasl<into a game, have pairs of students write how they thinl< you would c o m p l e t e t h e s e n t e n c e sT h e n t e l l r h e c l a s sy o u r i d e a s . . Students get one point for each correct prediction. Follow-up

Answers l.e. 2.d. 3.c P o s s i b lq u e s t i o n s : e 2. Do you fancycomingwith us ro Parisnext weel<endi 3. Do you want to come out for a drinl< after workf 4 . A n e w c l u b ' s p e n e du p a n d a g r o u po f u s f r o m o worl<are goingdown to see what it's like.Do you wantto join usl 5. Would it be OK if I stayed your placei at 5 . l s i t a l l r i g h ti f t h e b a n dc o m e r o u n dr o p r a c t i s e tonightl 7. I couldn'tborrow Freddie's for the day, car could l? 5.b

Asl< students to worl< in pairs and imagine that they are CEOs of a big high-profile company lil<eStarbucr<s, M c D o n a l d ' s M i c r o s o f t ,S h e l l , t c . T h e y s h o u l d t h e n t h i n l < , e of how they would do businessdifferently,what changes they would mal<e, what new marl<etsthey would seel<to b r e a k i n t o ,e t c . G i v e t h e m t h e b e g i n n i n g : lf we were the heads of ... , then this is whot we would do. WeA... Allow students a few minutes to lool< through che l a n g u a g en t h i s u n i t b e f o r e t h e y d i s c u s st h e i r i d e a s . h e n i T d i v i d e t h e c l a s si n t o t w o g r o u p s .E a c h p a i r o f s t u d e n t s s h o u l d e x p l a i n t h e i r i d e a st o t h e b i g g e rg r o u p , u s i n g s e c o n d c o n d i t i o n a ls t r u c t u r e s .O t h e r s t u d e n t s c a n r n e n comment on their ideas. or example: F lf you did thot, youA go bonkrupt within the yeor.

97

The exercises here can be usedas a test.However, 4 Look back and check and8 What can you r e m e m b e r ? a r e b e t t e rd o n e a s a d i s c u s s i oin p a i r s . n

Verb collocations
Answers l . i . 2 .e . 9.d. r0.f 4 . g . 5 .b 8 .h .

Answers 'll l. p r o b a b l ya i n r 2. were/was, be I'd 'm 3. d o i n g , ' mj u s t g o i n gt o g o 4 . d i d n ' tl i v e , ' dh a v e 'll 5. p a s sa s l < ,s l < l,l p r o b a b l ya i l , a ' f 'm 5. dreading 7. 'll snow, oes, oes d d

Adjectives
Answers l. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
9

G r a m m a rre vi e w
Answers l. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. lwas thinl<ing i t w a s g o i n g t o r a i n , i t d o e s n ' t l o o l <l i l < e t w i i I'm really lool<ingforward to I doubt it'll be lt's bound to be buying to sacl< I m i g h t ,l t d e p e n d s

rough silly sticl<y damaged dead physical long
nninrlo<<

I

8. saturated

I
__l
7.c 8.e

| 0. aggressive

and answer s Questions
Answers l . d . 2 .g . 3 .i . 4 . a . 5 .b 9 f. t0.h.

Pr e p o s i t i o n s
Answers l. on 2. for 3. with 4. on 5. of 6. for 7. in 8. for 9. to 10. to,about ll. to 12. at

] what can you r emember ?

F;;*
I Answers |. 2. 3. 4. 5. worth tell trap short burn

] l l

Answerswill vary.

--jgrrgt

expr essions

Answers Answerswill vary.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

left rarher difference what how

Answersor I l-13 will vary. f

98

R e ve w U n r t sI l - I 6

Answers l . P o s s i b la n s w e r s h e t e a c h e rb o u g h td r i n l < f o r e t: s h i s / h e r t u d e n t s ,e / s h e o m e t i m ed o e s n ' t h o w s h s s s up for class, he/shemal<es of the students. fun 2. When you areon holiday. 3 . B y e x e r c i s i nm o r e . g 4. Possible answers: write the answers your on hand, look at someoneelse's paperfor the answers, someonefor the answers. asl< 5 . l t i s r e - s c h e d u l e d h a p p e n n a n o t h e rd a y . to o 6. A temple a placeof worshipfor Hindus, is B u d d h i s ta n d S i k h so m o s q u ie a p l a c e f s ; s o w o r s h i pf o r M u s l i m s ; c h u r c hs a p l a c e f o i o w o r s h i pf o r C h r i s c i a n s . 7. By attracting of the business that marl<et all for maybeby tal<ing over smaller, competing companies, beinggivena sraremonopolyor by by heavy/clevadverrising. er 8. Possible answers: to get the teacher's try attention, answerquestions correctlyall of the time, bring presents the teacher. for 9. Boiling ot. h 1 0 . P o s s i b l a n s w e rY o u m i g h tf e e ld i s a p p o i n t eo r e : d an8ry. I l. Businesses.stocl<s. 1 2 . A n s w e r s i l l v a r y Y o u c o u l dm e s su p a n e x a mb y w . n e g l e c t i ntg a n s w e r o m eq u e s t i o n s .o u c o u l d o s Y messup your drivingtest by hittinganothercar. 1 3 . l t w a s d e c i d e d y i n s i d e r s e f o r et h e r a c ew h o b b w o u l dw i n .O n e s i d ew a s p r o b a b l y a i dt o l o s e . p 14. Possible answers: Basl<etball football. and 1 5 . l t c h a r g e t o o m u c hm o n e y . s 1 6 . H e / s h e p e n d st o n t h i n g sh e / s h e o e s n ' t e e ds i d n a n dt h e n d o e s n ' t e a l l y s e ! r u 1 7 . I n t h e U K , o d e g r e es m o r e p r e s t i g i o uts a n i h o diploma. degree from a university A is and is givenafter three years'studying. nationally lt's recognised standardised. diplomo usually and A is i n a v o c a t i o n a l u b j e c lti l < e u r s i n g r t e a c h i n g . s n o 1 8 . P o s s i b la n s w e r s : W h ey o u h a v e o d o s o m e t h i n g e n t you don't want to do, or when you don't want to do something n your own. o 19. Answerswill vary. hotel or resort might be fully A booked. concert or evenrcould be soldout. A 20. l'll do it if I getthetlme meansthat the personwill try to do the tasl< he/sheis not roo busy. do if l'd it if I hod the time is hypothetical. meansthe lt persondoes not havethe time,and so (regrettably) not do it. will

99

l7
Un i t o v e r v i e w
General topic Tallcing about family, friendsand relationships. Reading Six differentpeopleexplainwhat l<ind personthey of are attracted to. Language input ' ' ' Vocabulary relatives'. for mother-in-low,stepbrother, holf brother, etc. Adjectives describe to character: out-going fussy, big-heoded, etc. Expressions describing for when you met: l've knownher sinceI wos o child. met her whenI wos I
arnt tnA thirtv arc

lf you are oneof four, you are one of four childrenin a familv. lf someoneis your holf-brother holfisister, nave or they o n e p a r e n ti n c o m m o nw i t h y o u . lf you saysomething oll history, are saying is you that i t i s p a s ta n d i s n o t i m p o r t a n t n y m o r eF o r e x a m p l e : a . We usedto fightterribly, he'sgone but now,so o// itt history. lf you describe two peopleas on item, you are saying that they are goingout togerher. For example: l've beenseeing thosetwo o lot together recently. you Do thinkthev're iteml on lf you're sPeoking someone, haveprobably not to you had a disagreement don't want to tall< rhem and to any more. For example: We're speoking not becouse of whot shesaidobotftmy Kevin. lf you go for the strong, silenttype,you are attracted to q u i e tm e n w h o d o n ' t m a l < e l o t o f f u s sa b o u tt h i n g s , a b u t w h o a r ev e r y s u p p o r t i v e n dc a r i n g . a Remindstudents record any of the expressions to that they like in their notebool<s. Lead in A s a l e a di n ,b r a i n s t o r m u e s t i o n t h a t h a v et h e w o r d q s i n t h e m .F o r e x a m p l e : fomily Do you getolongwith your fomily? Do you comefrom a big fomily? Do you wont to sett/edownand storto fomily? Write them on rhe board and havethe classasl< you. T h e n s t u d e n t s a na s ke a c ho t h e r i n s m a l lg r o u p s . Y o u c mightwant to explainthe difference betweenyour immediote and your extended fomily fomily.

' '

Relationship verbs: fancied lA Annofor oges.l ftnolly osked out on o dote.etc. her Pronunciation: linking: I wentwith o friendof No, mine. Expressions talkingabout who you find for attractive:I want someone who is honest. etc. Expressions tall<ing for about what you'renot lool<ing in a relationship: never out with for I'd go someone with o totto,ecc. E x p r e s s i o n o r g u e s s i nh o w o l d s o m e o n e s :H e fs g i con't be olderthon erghteen. must be in her lote She etc. forties. Expressions with usedto andwould: usedto moke I /otsof mistokes when/ flrst stortedleorning Sponish. I'd getwordsmixedup ond ld speokbitsof French by mistoke ond l'd forgetthings.

Language strip Use the languagestrip as a way to lead in to the unic. A s k s t u d e n t st o q u i c k l y l o o l <t h r o u g h t h e l i s t a n d f i n d a t l e a s t o n e e x p r e s s i o nt h a t i s e i t h e r t r u e o r d e f i n i t e l yn o t t r u e f o r t h e m . E x p l a i nt h a t i n t h i s u n i t t h e y w i l l l e a r n w a y s o f t a l l < i n g b o u t f a m i l y f r i e n d sa n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . a , E n c o u r a g e h e m t o c h o o s e s o m e o t h e r e x p r e s s r o n sn t i t h e s t r i p t h a t l o o l <i n t e r e s t i n ga n d r o f i n d o u t m o r e about them. Use the language trip later on in this unit for a small s group tasl<. Asl< students to find those expressions that c o u l d b e u s e d w h e n t a l l < i n g b o u t y o u r f a m i l y ( e . g ./ ' m a o n e o f f o u r )a n d t h o s e t h a t c o u l d b e u s e d w h e n t a l l < i n g about a relationship (e.g.We've known eoch other for oges). You might need to explain some of the following exoressions:

Speaking
T h i s e x e r c i s ei n t r o d u c e s s o m e r e l a t i o n s h i o sh a t a r e n ' t t often taught, so go over those that students may De u n f a m i l i a rw i t h . Y o u m a y n e e d t o e x p l a i nt h a t y o u r stepsister the daughter from a previous marriage of the is man or woman your mother or father married. lt might b e e a s i e r t o i l l u s t r a t et h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s u a l l yo n t h e v board using a family tree.You may need to explain that in Englishwe don't differentiate between the two sides of a family.For example, rhe term for the mother of my wife and the mother of my husband is the same:mother-inJow. As a class,discuss how this may be different in students' own languages.

100

i l 7 [ r e r d sa r d l a r r v

go havestudents aroundthe class Jo do this exercise, a s l < i nq u e s t i o n s .o r e x a m p l e : g F Hoveyougot o ... by onychonce? Youhoven't o ... hoveyou? got Hoveyou gota . .. , if you don't mind me osking? F i n i s h p b y s e e i n g h o f o u n dt h e m o s t p e o p l e . u w

her since I wos o child) and in others are in the past simple (l met her when I wos twenty-four).

Answers

Adjectives
This exercise introduces some adjectivesthat can describe a person's character.Before students complete the exercise,tell them to find those adjectivesthat are positive and those that are negative.Encourage them to use a dictionary for those adjectivesthey are not sure of. The more positive ones are independent, out-going, generous, liberol,eosy-going, The more sporty and gorgeous. negative ones are strict, fussy,meon and big-headed. Quiet and re/igious are either positive or negativedepending on t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e p e r s o n u s i n gt h e m . S t u d e n t sc a n then complete the sentences.Play the recording so thar they can checl<their answers.Then have students asl< e a c h o t h e r t h e o u e s t i o n sa t t h e e n d .

Before having students tall<about their friends in small g r o u p s ,t e l l t h e m a b o u t o n e o f y o u r b e s t o r o l d e s t friends. Explain how you met and what they are lil<e. You may need to explain that go out with can either be about someoneyou are in a romantic relationship ith, for w example, Are you two going out,then?or about socialising, for example, Do you foncy going out with us tonight?

pathetic story
T h e f o c u s o f t h i s e x e r c i s ei s o n s o m e v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n s t o d e s c r i b e a r e l a t i o n s h i pS t u d e n t sc a n w o r l < i n d i v i d u a l l y . on the re-ordering tasl<before checl<ing their answers with a partner. Then they can discussthe questions at t h e e n d . E n c o u r a g e t u d e n t st o r e c o r d t h e s e e x p r e s s i o n s s i n t h e i r n o t e b o o l < sR e m i n d t h e m t h a t t h e y c o u l d r e c o r d . them in a sectionabout relationshios s well as on a a page where they are collecting expressions with get or phrasal verbs with out, etc.You may need to explain that if you dump son.)eone, decide to stop having a you relationshio ith them. w

Answers l. 2. 3. 4. 5. 5. 7. strict fussy...easy-going i n d e p e n d e nrte l i g i o u s ,e n e r o u s , g liberal b i g - h e a d e m,e a n d g o r g e o u s ,u i e t q out-going, sporty

Answers T h e c o r r e c to r d e r i s : l . c 3.a
,|. o

You may need to explain thatyour gron is your grandmother and that if you describe someone as chotty, t h e y a r e f r i e n d l y a n d l i k e t a l k i n gt o p e o p l e .P o i n t o u t several other collocations here: the exoct oDDosite and very easy to get on with.

Before moving on to the next exercise,you could have pairs of students close their bool<sand try to recall the story from some verbs that you write on the board: foncy, osk out, go out, met, see,get serious,Ieove,work out, get bock together,get /ost

Speaking
Explain that if you don't know whot someoneseesin you don't understand why the former is in someoneelse, a relationship with the latter, becausethe latter is not v e r y a p p e a l i n gS t u d e n t sc a n d i s c u s s h i s t o p i c i n s m a l l . t SrouPs.
I

P r o n u n c i a t i o ni:n k i n g l
This exercise gives students more practice with linl<ing within phrases.Help students see that in the two expressions at the start my friend is referring to a specific friend. The listener probably l<nowswho you are talking about, perhaps becauseyou only have one friend. A friend of mine,on the other hand, could be one of several friends you have from worl<. Play the recording all the way through so students can hear how the words are linl<ed. Then play it again,pausing after each sentence so that students can repeat. Have pairs of students practise by alternately asl<ing Did you go on your own? and s a y i n gt h e r e s p o n s e . f p o s s i b l e h a v e t h e m r e a d t h e l , response to themselves,lool< up, and say it to their partner to help with the linl<ing.

I H o w d i d yo u me e t?
T h i s i s a c o m m o n q u e s t i o nw h e n t a l l < i n g b o u t a relationships.lthough it is commonly used about A r o m a n t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p si , i s a l s o u s e d t o t a l k a b o u t t friends. Have students worl< individuallythrough the two matching tasl<sand then checl<their answers with a partner, with one person reading l-4 and the other giving the appropriate response a-d; students then switch over for 5-8. Have them explain why the verbs in some answers are in the present perfect (e.9.I've known

101

i Speaking
You might want to model this tasl<for students before t h e y d o i t t h e m s e l v e sF o r e x a m p l e : . A: I went to thot new club the other doy. B: Reolly?Did you go on your own? A: No, I went with a few friends from work. B: Whot wos it like?Did you hove o good time? A: lt wos OK. I wosn't reolly into the music they were ploying,though Encourage students to add a follow-up question and answer.

.,,...'',''...1

I Lanquaqefocus

In this exercise,students are introduced to more ways to describe people, and also two patterns from the reading text. Get students to do the first tasl<in pairs, a n d t h e n d e c i d e i f t h e s e d e s c r i p t i o n sa r e g e n e r a l l y positive or negative.

Answers Possible answers: a bit of an introvert:Alfonso f a s h i o n - c o n s c i oC s : a r a uhi unlucl<y love: in Thorsten/Alfonso desperate: Thorsten q u i t ef u s s yC h i a r aS e o n - H e e : , content:Lauren h e a l t h - c o n s c i o u se Ri : l e s s u s s y h a n h e u s e dt o b e : T h o r s t e n f t a bit strange: eon-Hee S fit: Rie

Speaking
Focus students' attention on the photos of the peopre on page 122.Get them in pairs to tall<about whether they find any of them attractive. Write some expressions n the board to help them: o I (don't) reollygo for ... I (don't) like the wov shelhe /ooksidresses. I don't find himlher oll thot ottractive. She/hei o bit too ... for me. You could also have students thinl< about the l<indof personality they thinl< each person has.Teachthe phrases / bet and I reckonto mal<eguessesand encourage the use of some of the adjectivesfrom 2 Adjectives on page

|20: A: I bet the mon in the fust pictureon the left is veryquiet. B: I don't know.Lookot that smile. reckon I he'srotheroutgoing.

Have students comDlete the next tasl<and then draw their attention to rhe patterns. Two of the three patterns contain a relative clause with (someone) who. The third (someone) with is an alternative to the relative clause (someonelwho hos.Students see thar 'd (would) and 'past' the t e n s e e x p r e s st h e u n l i l < e l i h o o d f t h e p e r s o n o actuallygoing out with a person lil<ethis. Have students record these patterns with their own personalised e x a m p l e si n t h e i r n o t e b o o l < sP o i n t o u t t h e c o l l o c a t i o n . strongpoliticolyiews. Ask students if they l<now of any other nouns, apart from the obvious, that collocate with strong (orgument, m a rrioge,occent).

Answers

While you read (What'syour type?)
I n t r o d u c e t h e a r t i c l e a n d e x p l a i nt h e t a s k .S t u d e n t sc a n t h e n r e a d a b o u t t h e s i x p e o p l e a n d s h a r et h e i r r e a c t i o n in pairs.Asl< students what they thinl< the title What's your type? means.Then play the recording of the a r t i c l e w h i l e s t u d e n t sf o l l o w i n t h e C o u r s e b o o l < . Encouragethem to underline, asl<about, or record any I n t e r e s t i n ge x p r e s s i o n s r c o l l o c a t i o n sp a r t i c u l a r l yt h o s e o , they thinl< they might use rhemselves.Youmay wanr to poincout the followingin any case: I've chongedmy mind obout ... I'm the wrong Personto ask she wos everythingI wos looking for l've lowered mv stondords

l . c . f . h l. < 2 . a .d . g . l . 3 . b . e . i .j .

How old ar e they?
A s k s t u d e n t st o c o m p l e t e e i t h e r o f t h e f o l l o w i n g w i t h reference to age: lf I wosn't olreody in o relotionship, be lookingfor I'd s o m e o n e. . . l'm lookingfor someone... Listen to a few suggestionsbefore tall<ingabout the fact that you would probably not mention a specific age. T h e n e x p l a i nt h a t i n t h i s e x e r c i s e s r u d e n t sw i l l s e e , various expressions that tall<about age in an unspecific way. Students can do the first tasl<individuallyand then checl<n pairs. i Point out the two structures here that are used for guessing: H e l s h e m u s tb e . . . Helshe con't be . ..

102

a 17 Frends ndfam y

I t

A.,t*urt
l.d. 2 .c . 3 .s .

i 1

-

4.a

5.b. 6.e. 7.h. 8.f.
--]

I Answers l | . used dress to
) r rcarl rn nlaw

E x p l a i nt h a t w e u s e m u s t t o s a y t h a t w e a r e q u i t e s u r e something is true when we have evidence for it, and con't t o s a y t h a t w e a r e q u i t e s u r e s o m e t h i n Si s n ' t t r u e . , P r a c t i s et h e p r o n u n c i a t i o no f t h e p h r a s e s s o t h a t s t u d e n t s c a n u s e t h e m i n t h e a c t i v i t i e sa t t h e e n d o f t h e e x e r c i s e . o t h e s e i n s m a l lg r o u p s . D

Gr amm arstudy
Have students read the grammar explanations and asl< about anything that they are not sure of.You may need to explain that o stdte refers to things that we don't see as actions.Ask students to tell you some verbs that are often used to describe a state rather than an action, for e x a m p l e ,b e , o w n ,/ i v e , t c . R e m i n d s t u d e n t st o r e c o r d e c o m p l e t e e x a m p l e so f u s e dt o , i n c l u d i n ga n y t i m e p h r a s e s in their notebool<s.Point out that the negative is more commonly expressed as never used to.

Speaking
Asl<students exDlain difference betweenin his to the in the and in the forties beforediscussing questions forties smalgroups. l Answers meanshe is betweenforty and forty-nine ln his florties y e a r so l d . ( l n t h ef o r t i e s e a n s n t h e d e c a d e1 9 4 0 - 1 9 4 9o r a m i 40 degrees and 49 C temperature between of I degreeC. l

Practice
w A l t h o u g h t h i s e x e r c i s ep r a c t i s e se x p r e s s i o n s i t h u s e dt o , i t r e i n f o r c e sv e r b + n o u n c o l l o c a t i o n sa s w e l l .

Write some expressions n the board to help them tall< o about these questions. or example: F in I think life wos much eosierlhorder ... People od o lot more ... in ... h Musiclclothes from the ... ore coming bock into fashion. ... Thesedoys,the foshionlmusic from the ... /ooks/sounds

Answers
I

i l . d . 2 . s . 3 .e

4.h

5 .i .

6.1 7.c

8.b"

lr,
. W h e n s t u d e n t sh a v e f i n i s h e d m o d e l t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o no f used to and have them practise reading the sentences, T h e n h a v et h e m m e m o r i s e t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e s e n t e n c e sa - i a n d t e s t e a c h o t h e r , w i t h o n e p e r s o n r e a d i n gt h e f i r s t p a r t l - 9 a n d t h e o t h e r p e r s o n a c o m p l e t i n gt h e s e n t e n c ew i t h o u t l o o l < i n g t t h e Coursebool<.

|

- ..

U s e dto , w o u l d
This section explicitly focuses on used to and would: lrowever,students will have seen many examples already g i n t h e C o u r s e b o o l <T h e l i s t e n i n gt a s l < i v e s s t u d e n t s t h e . opportunity to hear several more contextualised e x a m p l e sb e f o r e t h e y f o c u s o n t h e ' r u l e s ' i n 2 Grammar study. a . L e a d i n b y d i s c u s s i n gh e f i r s t q u e s t i o n a s a c l a s s T a l l < t l i t t l e a b o u t h o w y o u h a v e c h a n g e dy o u r s e l f b e f o r e a s l < i n g T e s c u d e n t so d o c h e s a m e . h e n i n t r - o d u c t h e l r s t e n i n g t t a s l <a n d e x p l a i nw h a t s t u d e n t s h a v e t o d o . P l a yt h e r e c o r d i n go n c e a n d h a v e s t u d e n t s c h o o s e t h e r i g h c p i c t u r e a n d t a l l <a b o u t t h e d i f f e r e n c e sT h e n h a v e t h e m . w o r l < o n s e n t e n c e s l - 5 . P l a yt h e r e c o r d i n g a g a i ns o t h a c t h e y c a n c h e c l < h e i r a n s w e r sY o u m a y n e e d t o e x p l a i n t . t h a t i f y o u a r e o b i t o f o l o d i e s ' m a n , y o ue n j o y s p e n d i n g time with women and want them to find you attrac[ive. P l a yt h e r e c o r d i n g o n e m o r e t i m e a s s t u d e n t sf o l l o w t h e tapescript on page | 57.

Follow- upcom m ents
Would has a similar meaning to used to. However, it often i s u s e d a s a f o l l o w - u p t o u s e dt o a n d i s o n l y u s e d f o r reoeated actions. not states.Draw students' attencion to t h e c o n t r a c t i o n i n t h e e x a m o l e s O n c e s t u d e n t sh a v e . m a t c h e d c h e f o l l o w - u p c o m m e n t s ,h a v e t h e m p r a c t i s e r e a d i n gt h e s t a t e m e n t si n 3 P r a c t i c e a n d t h e f o l l o w - u p commenrstogether.

Answers 2 .g . i x . 3 . e . v i i . 4 . h . v i i i 8 . b .i i . 9 . a . v . 5 . i .v i 6.f.i

10

: -

l : : ' : :

- : !

I free practice
Give students a true example about yourself first. For examole: When I wos younger,/ used ro be reolly sporty.l'd go to the gym every other eveningond l'd play footboll every weekend. Have students go around tall<ingto several people before getting the class bacl<together to find our if there are any peoplewho usedto do the samesort of things.

Speaking
Explain that if you go offsomething,you longerlike it. no lf you go off the ideoof doingsomething, no longer you want to do it because is no longerattractive you. it to Tell students your own answers some of the to q u e s t i o n s e f o r eh a v i n gh e m d i s c u s t h e m i n s m a l l b t s groups.You may want to point out how usedto is lil<e a regularpastrenseverb in that in negatives questions and it is useto. However, pronunciarion exacrly the is the sameas usedto. Follow-up For a writing tasl<, havestudentsimagine that they are one of the peoplein the reading text on page | 22 What's your type? Eachpersonmanaged find their to idealpartner. However, several yearshasgone by,ano while at first they were very happy, thingshavechanged. T h e y s h o u l dw r i t e a l e t t e r e x p l a i n i nw h y t h e y a r e g o i n g g to leave their partner.Encourage use of usedto the e x p l a i n o w t h e r e l a t i o n s h iw a s o n c eg o o d .F o r h p example: Youusedto giveme flowers. lovedthe woy you used coll I to me everyday from work.I'd olwayslookforwordto the phone ringing becouse knewit mightbe you.Butnow you hordly I evertolk to me! When studentshavefinished, havethem exchange lerters with another personand then tall< about what they have read.

Situations
It is common to l<eepconversations going by asl<ing q u e s t i o n si n r e s p o n s et o w h a t s o m e o n e h a s s a i d .T h i s exercise practises this in the contexr of responding to someone explaining hat they usedto do.When w checl<ing answers,have students practise the inronatron patterns of the questions. For the second tasl<, you might want to do the first conversation as an exampte ro show how the conversation can be extended. For examDle: A: / used to live in Spoin. B: Oh, reolly?Whereabouts exactly? A: I wos in Modrid, the copitol. B: And why did you leove? A: Well, I wos there with my fomily.My dod worked for the embossy.Wewere there for obout seven yeors until I wos twelveond then we moved bock home. B: lt must'ye been nice to grow up in another country. A: Yeoh,it wos. Then get students to practise these conversations in oairs.

Answers P o s s i b la n s w e r s : e l. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. W h e r e a b o u t s x a c t l yW h y d i d y o u l e a v e ? e l Were you anygood? Why did you stopi H o w m a n ya d a y ? W h e n i d y o u c u t d o w n ? d What l<ind f thing? oetry?Why idyou stopl o P d Were you anygood? Why did you stop? What were you doingthere? Why did you leavel

104

tg
Unit overview
General topic Talking about festivals, languages stereotypes. and Reading Four peopledescribe famousfestivals. Language input . Vocabulary tall<ing for about festivals: fhere'so big porode.There'shugestreetporty.lt's become bit o o too commercial. etc. Relativeclauses: didn't. thot job I oppliedfor.lt's I get one of thosethings you cut your noils with.Whotdo you coll o personwho con't stopdrinkingand is olwoys drunk? Vocabulary tall< to about language'. mothertongue, o strongoccent, minoritylonguoges, etc. Expressions disagreeing: conyousoythot? for How Comeon!That's bit of on exoggerotion. a etc. Talkingabout stereotypes: She! o typicolsmoll-town girl - reollyconservotive! comeon!Justbecouse Oh, you don't comefrom the city, doesn't it meonyou con't be oDen-minded. etc.
lf you say a place is right on the border,you are e m p h a s i s i n gh a t i t i s a l m o s t e x a c t l y o n r h e b o r d e r . t Right is often used for emphasis.For example: lti right next to the bonk. lt's right in front of you. The Canoriesare a group of islands in the Atlantic and b e l o n gt o S p a i n . lf you describe a place as cosmopo/iton, people from m a n y d i f f e r e n tc o u n t r i e s a n d c u l t u r e s l i v e t h e r e . F o r example: NewYork is one of the most cosmopoliton placesI've been to. A fiestois a big public celebration, especiallya religious festival.They are very common in many S p a n i s h - s p e a k i n g u n t r i e s .E n g l i s hh a s b o r r o w e d t h e co word festo, so the Englishfor festo is festo. English also uses the French word fete for a small outdoor c e l e b r a t i o nw i t h g a m e sa n d s t a l l ss e l l i n gt h i n g s l i l < e h o m e - m a d e c a k e sa n d i a m s . Remind students to record any of the expressions that they like in their notebool<s.

.

. ' .

Lead in Y o u c o u l d u s e s o m e o f t h e q u e s t i o n si n t h e l a n g u a g e strip to lead in to the topic of festivals. Asl< students if they have any big festivalsof the Arts in their country or city, how they celebrate NewYear and what some examples of old foll< traditions in their country are. lf you are from a different country from your students,tall< about some of these things yourself.

Language strip Use the languagestrip as a way to lead in to the unic. Asl< students to quicl<lylool< through the list and find one expression that is connected with each of the following: nationality (Scondinovions usuollyblond,oren't ore they?), festivals(e.9./ts o big festivolof the Arts), and languages (e.g.Are you bilinguol, then?).Explain that in this unit, they will learn other ways to tall<about these areas. Encourage hem to choose some other expressionshat t t lool< interesting and to find out more about them. Use the language trip later on in this unit for a small s group tasl<. Ask students to look at the expressions with i t a n d d i s c u s s h a t t h i s c o u l d b e r e f e r r i n gt o . F o r w example, lt's a big festivolof the Arts could be referring to t h e E d i n b u r g hF e s t i v a lS t u d e n t sc o u l d a l s o t r y t o a n s w e r . some of the questions (e.g.How do you celebroteNewYeor in your country?). You might need to explain some of the following exDressrons: ' There is no such languageas Swiss, someone so asl<ing the question Does onyonespeok Swiss7 wouldn't l<now much about Switzerland! German, French and I t a l i a na r e a l l w i d e l y s p o k e n i n S w i t z e r l a n d . Scandinavions usuollyblond,oren't they?implies a ore stereotypical image of people from Scandinavia.

Vocabulary
This exercise introduces some vocabulary to do with festivals. Point out the pictures A-H on page 126 and have students worl< in pairs matching them to rhe sentences l-8. After checl<ing their answers,have students go bacl<and underline the collocations and transfer them to their notebool<s.Youshould exolain that o bonfireis a big fire lit as part of a celebration, or s o m e t i m e si u s t t o b u r n r u b b i s h .

Answers l.h 2.d 3.a 4.f 5.g 6.b 7.c 8.e

Speaking
G e t s t u d e n t s i n s m a l l g r o u p s t o d i s c u s st h e s e q u e s c i o n s Have them mal<eguessesabout all the pictures on page 1 2 6 .W r i t e s o m e e x p r e s s i o n s n t h e b o a r d t o h e l p .F o r o examDte:

'

105

.:: a'0 aIqLaqes

/ t / o o k s/ l k el t i r n . . . lsn't thot the festivol . . . ? in / bet lts got sonrething do with ... to It'sproboblyin . ..

brooden my mind make friends miles owoy the festivol runs (oll through the beginningof Morcnl You may need to explain that if you say there ore literolly thousonds people there,you thinl< that there are really of thousands of people there. This is because we often exaggerate numbers and amounts. For example: The stogesseem to be miles owoy. I've got millionsof things to do. H e r e i s s o m e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e f e s t i v a l sn o t mentioned in the article. P i c t u r e E i s o f t h e S o n g l < r a ne s t i v a lw h i c h i s h e l d i n f , T h a i l a n df r o m A p r i l | 3 f o r t h e b e g i n n i n g f t h e o traditional new year.People soal<each orher wirh water, s y m b o l i s i n g h e c l e a n s i n go r a n e w y e a r . t f Picture A is of the Ol<toberfest,which is a rwo-weerc f e s t i v a li n M u n i c h ,e n d i n g o n r h e f i r s t S u n d a yo f O c t o b e r . L a r g e b e e r h a l l sa r e e r e c t e d a n d b e e r s p e c i a l l y r e w e d b f o r t h e o c c a s i o ni s s e r v e d . P i c t u r e B i s t h e B e r l i n L o v e P a r a d e a h u g e a n n u a ls t r e e t , p a r t y i n B e r l i n ,G e r m a n y .l t i s f a m o u s f o r i t s t e c h n o mustc.

!i|qf9t| re€d(Fourexperiences)
I n t r o d u c e t h e t o p i c o f t h e r e a d i n gt e x t t a s l < n d e x p l a i n . a Point out the collocation hold a festivol. Asl< if students l<now some other events rhar we use with hold (e.9.o meeting,o conference). Have them read the cext and then s h a r e t h e i r r e a c r i o n sw i t h a p a r r n e r . r i t e t h e f o l l o w i n g W sentence starters on the board for them to use if necessary: One thing I leornedwos that ... One thing / wos surprlseoobout wos thot ... / wos surprisedthot ... I didn't reolise thot .. I olwoysthought thot ...

lAr." ^
i HillCarnival picrure is H. I ),.,rIFa s r o n b u r y I he Gl
F:llas is nirrr rra f

f e s c i v a il s p i c c u r eF

["rl:"ll.,suri

is picture G.

Speaking
G o o v e r t h e q u e s t i o n sb e f o r e h a v i n gs t u d e n t sd i s c u s s t h e m i n g r o u p s .E x p l a i nt h a t i f s o m e t h i n gh a s b e c o m e t o o commerciol, you thinl< that the mal<ingof money has b e c o m e t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t t h i n g .W e s o m e t i m e s d e s c r i b ef i l m s o r m u s i c a s c o m m e r c i ow h e n w e t h i n l < l t h e y a r e r e l e a s e dt o a w i d e a u d i e n c ea n d e x p e c t h i g h s a l e sn u m b e r s .Y o u m i g h t a l s o g i v e s o m e e x a m p l e so f t h i n g s t h a t m i g h t b e e m b a r r a s s i n go r y o u n g p e o p l e i n f y o u r c o u n t r y .I n t h e U K , y o u n g p e o p l e m i g h r b e e m b a r r a s s e db y t r a d i t i o n a lf o l l <d a n c i n g- m o r r i s d a n c i n g .

C o m p r e h en si o n
G e t s t u d e n t st o d i s c u s st h e s e c u e s t i o n s i n o a i r s . Encouragethem to try to remember the answers without referring ro rhe texr. Then play the recording of t h e t e x t a s t h e c l a s sf o l l o w i n t h e C o u r s e b o o l <c h e c l < i n g , t h e i r a n s w e r s .H e r e a r e s o m e e x a m p l e so f q u e s t i o n sy o u can asl<as you go through the answers: Whot expressioncould yoLt use to soy you do something every two doyslweeks?(every other doylweek) Whot ore some thingsyou do out of hobit? Whot ore the Potronsointsof some countries you know? Whot kinds of thing do peoplecelebrote in o festivol morking the orrivol of spring?

focus ] Vocabular y
T h i s e x e r c i s eh e l p s s t u d e n t s d i s t i n g u i s h e t w e e n t h e b words commemoroteand ce/ebrote. Have students c o m p l e t e t h e t w o d e f i n i t i o n sa n d t h e n d o t h e m a t c h i n g e x e r c i s e T h e n h a v e t h e m u n d e r l i n et h e c o m D l e r e . e x p r e s s i o n si n t h e s e n t e n c e sh e r e a n d t r a n s f e r t n e m t o t h e i r n o t e b o o l < sP o i n t o u t t h e c o l l o c a t i o n sh o l d o s p e c i o l . ceremonyand o foncy restouront. Explain that o ceremonyis a s p e c i a le v e n t t h a t i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d y m o r e o r l e s s b f i x e d ,t r a d i t i o n a lw o r d s a n d a c t i o n s , o r e x a m p l e ,c f wedding ceremony,on aword ceremony,the opening c e r e m o n y . l ti s u s u a l l y o r r n a l .l f s o m e t h i n gi s f o n c yi c i s f m o r e e x p e n s i v eo r o f a h i g h e r q u a l i t y t h a n n o r m a l ,f o r example. o fonc.y cor,o foncy house. Answers a. celebrate, elebrate c b. commemorate

Answers
He goes every other year.

2
3

It's become coo big. A lot of people go there just to drinl< and tal<e

oruss.
1

Out of habit. To commemorate the patron saint of the city. A f a l l ai s a p a p i e r - m a c h e o d e l . m To celebrate rhe starr of spring.

5 6 7

Have students go bacl<through the reading texr - you may want to play the recording again as they do rhis f i n d i n ga n y i n t e r e s t i n ge x p r e s s i o n s r c o l l o c a t i o n s . Y o u o may want to point out the following:

L
105

t. d

4.e

6.b.

l E f l . r to f n l 1 r e si,e s l v a l sa n r j a n q r i . r q e s

B e f o r es t u d e n t sa l l < b o u tt h e o u e s t i o n a t t h e e n d i n t a s s m a l lg r o u p st,e l l t h e m a b o u ts o m ep u b l i ch o l i d a y o r s localfestivals you l<now. the lastquestion, you could For u s et h i s e x a m o l e : A friendof mine possed drivingtest thisyeor. you her Do knowhow mony timesshehod takenit? Eight. Shewos beginning feel like she'd to neverpass. Anywoy, boyfriend her wosso impressed. Guess whot he did to celebrote? only He wentout ond bought o brondnewcor! her Finally, a few questions asl< about some of the other language here: Whot kindsof ploces (workploces, have conteens? schoo/s)

R e l a t i v e a u se s cl
In this exercise,students focus on relative clausesthat c a n o m i t t h e r e l a t i v ep r o n o u n t h o t . T h o tg e n e r a l l y replaces the relative pronouns who(m) or which when the r e l a t i v ec l a u s ei s d e f i n i n gi . e . ,i t g i v e s i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t d e f i n e st h e n o u n . F o r e x a m p l e : Where's the bool< thotlwhich I lent you? Thot can be omitted when it acts as an object in the r e l a t i v ec l a u s e , u t c a n ' t b e o m i t t e d w h e n i t i s t h e b s u b j e c t .F o r e x a m p l e : Where's the book (thot) I lent you? (thot = object) I need something thot con go more thon 60 milesper hour! (thot = subject) One easy way to thinl< about this is that if thot is followed by a pronoun, it can be lefr out; if thot is followed by a verb, it has to stay.Asl< students to lool< at t h e e x a m p l e a n d t o r e a d t h e e x p l a n a t i o nA n s w e r a n y . questions they may have before doing the matching exercise.You may want to remind students of the p a t t e r n s c h e ym e r i n t h e p r e v i o u su n i t : I wont someone ho ... w I'd nevergo out with someonewho ... I n t h e s e c a s e st h o t c o u l d r e p l a c ew h o ,b u t c a n ' r b e omitted because it acrs as the subject of the relative clause.

Whot e/secon you opplyfor,oport from o jobT(o grant,o leoveof absence) Conyou think of someother reosons why you might be reolly disappointed?

j

ryg..it:

D o a n e x a m p l e w i t h t h e c l a s st o g i v e t h e m t h e i d e a o f h o w t o d o t h i s .D e s c r i b e a n o b j e c t l i l < e w a t e r i n g c a n , a for example, and have students draw it. /t's one of those things you woter plonts with. lt's got o hondle ond a thing the water comes out of. Remind students of the words thing and stuff which they m i g h t f i n d u s e f u li n t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n s . Y o u o u l d a l s o g i v e c them this Dattern: /tt one ofthose thingsyou use to ... F i n i s hu p b y h a v i n gs t u d e n t sa s l < o u a b o u t a n y o f r h e y t h i n g st h e y c o u l d n ' t f i n d t h e n a m e o f i n t h e l a s t t a s l < .

with r elativeclaus es Questions
The explanation at the start of this exercise reinforces t h e f a c t t h a t r e l a t i v ec l a u s e sd e s c r i b e n o u n s .G o o v e r r n e e x p l a n a t i o nw i t h s t u d e n t sa n d a n s w e r a n y q u e s t i o n st h e y m a y h a v e . h e n d o t h e f i r s t q u e s r i o n a s a n e x a m p l e .Y o u T c o u l d e i t h e r h a v e s t u d e n r sw o r l < o n t h i s i n o a i r s o r individually.

]
Answers
What are the (two) people you share a flat with lil<e ? D r a w s t u d e n t s 'a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e p r e p o s i t i o n si n a , b , d , e , g a n d h . F o r t h e l a s t t a s l <r,h e f o l l o w - u p e x e r c i s e g o a r o u n d t h e c l a s sa n d c h e c l < , s t u d e n t s 'a n s w e r sb e f o r e a s l < i n g o m e p e o p l e t o t e l l t h e s c l a s sa f e w o f t h e i r a n s w e r s . What was that hotel you stayed in in Paris lil<e? What was that club you went to on Friday lil<e? What are the other people you worl< with lilcel What was that restaurant you went to for your

birthdaylil<e?
Answers Possible nswers: a 2. Hey, there's that girl you used to go out with. 3 . Y o u s h o u l d t r y t h a t r e s r a u r a n to u r t e a c h e r mentioned. 4 . I c o u l d n ' t d o t h a t h o m e w o r l <y o u t o l d m e a b o u t ,

5 . W h a t w a s t h a t E n g l i s c o u r s ey o u d i d i n A u s t r a l i a h Iil<e I

I7. I
l 8.

W h a t d i d y o u d o i n t h a t c l a s sI m i s s e d l a s t w e e l < l What was that school you studied at in Sydney called I Did you get that job you applied for?

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For the secondtask,act out rhe first conversation with a s c u d e na s a n e x a m p l e : t A: What ore the people livewith tike? you B: They're reollyfriendly.Reolly nice. A: You're lucky.The people livewith ore owful. I B: Why do you soythot? A: They\enot veryfriendly oll.They at hardlyeverspeokro me.

Answers l. An occent is the way you pronounce the language, while o dialectis a form of the languagethat is spoken in a particular area or by a particular group of people. 2. Yourmother tongue is the languageyou learn from your parents,while o linguo fronco is a language u s e d t o c o m m u n i c a t eb e t w e e n p e o p l e w h o d o n ' t speal<each other's mother tongues. 3. S/ongis very informal languagethat can be p a r t i c u l a rt o a c e r t a i n r i m e o r g r o u p o f p e o p l e , while sweoringis the use of rude or offensive tanguage. 4. lf you are bilinguol, you grew up learning two languages and can speal<both of them equally well, while if you can speal<o foreignlonguoge, you may have .just learned it later in life and you probably d o n ' t s p e a l <t a s w e l l a s y o u r m o t h e r r o n g u e . i 5. lf you have o s/ightoccent, your pronunciation is a little different from what is considered standard, while if you have o strongoccent, there is a big d iffere n ce.

D e f i n i n gp e o p l e
Here students see another example of a relative clause, t h i s t i m e w i t h t h e r e l a t i v ep r o n o u n w h o .l t ' s p o s s i b l et o u s e t h o t i n p l a c eo f w h o i n t h e s e e x a m p l e s , u t o p e r s o n b w h o t e n d s t o b e m o r e c o m m o n . A s k s t u d e n t si f t h e y notice that in the examples here, who acts as the subject of the relative clause.Point out the exoression the'reol' . J o p o n i n t h e e x p l a n a t i o n E x p l a i nt h a t t h i s m e a n s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l ,r u r a l j a p a n ,n o t t h e m o d e r n , w e s t e r n i s e d , u r b a n J a p a n A s l <w h a t t o u r i s r s w h o t h i n l <l i l < e h i s w o u l d t . believe the 'real' country is in the student's country. Ask if this perception of cheir country is correct. Students can worl< on the dictionary tasl<in pairs. Before you checl<their answers,you could write this partern on the board to show how we can use a similar relative c l a u s es t r u c t u r e f o r g i v i n ga d e f i n i t i o n : A ... issomeone ho ... w T h e n h a v e s t u d e n r sw r i t e t h e d e f i n i t i o n si n t h e i r notebool<s.Point out the collocation perform operotions. G i v e s t u d e n t ss o m e m o r e e x a m D l e s f n o u n s t h a t o collocate with perform (e.g. o ceremony,o trick, miracles).

Before having students discussthe questions in the second tasl<, mal<esure they understand the expressions o minority longuogeand hoye o hrgher stotus.

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Reading
Answers l. an alcoholic 2. a workaholic 3. an undertal<er 4. a surgeon 5. a journalist 6. a juggler U s e t h e p i c t u r e so f p e o p l e o n p a g e | 2 9 t o h e l p s t u d e n l s generate some ideas for the second tasl<, but encourage t h e m t o t h i n l <o f o t h e r t h i n g s a s w e l l . l t m a y h e l p t h e m t o i m a g i n ei f t h e y w e r e d o i n g i t i n t h e i r o w n l a n g u a g e . Focus attention on the title (English teacher sacl(ed f o r s p e a k i n g E n g l i s h ! ) a n d h a v es t u d e n t sp r e d i c t w h a t the article is about. Then asl<students to read rhe text a n d s h a r e t h e i r r e a c r i o n si n p a i r s .A s l <t h e m i f t h e t i t l e was really accurate.At rhis point, you might want to tell y o u r s t u d e n t sa l i t t l e a b o u t t h e W e l s h l a n g u a g e . l t h o u g h A Englandool<control of Wales in the thirteenth cenrurx t Wales was better able to preserve its original language a n d c u l t u r e t h a n o t h e r a r e a so f t h e B r i t i s h l s l e s . t s r languageis still widely used and about25% of people are b i l i n g u a li n W e l s h a n d E n g l i s hT h e r e i s a s t r o n g . m o v e m e n ct o e n c o u r a g ec h e u s e o f W e l s h .

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inter view
This exercise shifts the topic away from festivalsto languageand stereotypes.Students can use their dictionaries for the first tasl<. When checking their answers,write an example of how some of the rerms can be used: Where's your occent from? They speok in o strong diolect up in the north. I didn't know their mother tongue wos French. Englishis the linguo fronca of internotionolbusiness. 'Keep shtum'is o s/ongterm meoning'keepquiet'. I think there's too much sweoring onTV these days. She'svirtuolly bilinguol in Frenchond English. E x p l a i nt h e t a s l <a n d p l a y t h e r e c o r d i n g o f t h e i n c e r v i e w Then have students compare notes in pairs before playingthe recording again so they can checl<therr a n s w e r s . A s ks t u d e n t s i f t h i s c h a n g e dt h e i r m i n d a b o u t G a r e t h D a v i e sa n d h i s s i t u a t i o na t a l l .

Answers A r g u m e n t so r : C h r i s t i n e a y s h a t W e l s hi s d y i n go u r . f s r W h e n t h e l a n g u a gd i e s y o u a l s ol o s et h e c u l t u r ea n d e , traditionsof the country.Languages need to be Drotected.

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'I 8 N a t o n a i t i e s ,t e s tv a s a n c l a n q u a c l e s ,l

Arguments against: Gareth saysyou can't mal<epeople learn languages. People have a right to speak their languageof choice.

and reality I Stereotypes
L e a d i n b y f o c u s i n gs t u d e n t s 'a t t e n t i o n o n r h e p i c r u r e a n d a s k w h i c h c o u n t r y i s b e i n gs h o w n a n d h o w t h e y l<new. Then asl<students to think of what British oeoole a r e t y p i c a l l yl i l < eL i s t e n t o t h e i r a n s w e r sa n d e x p l a i nt h a t . when we have a general image of a group of people lil<e this, we often call it a stereotype. Explain that if someone fits a stereotype, the general image is true about that person.You might also want to give some other c o l l o c a t i o n sF o r e x a m p l e : . reinforce d stereotype o populor stereotype This exercise revises some character adjectivesand introduces some more character adjectivesas well. Students can use their dictionaries for those they are unsure of.You may need to explain the following: . lf you describe someone as orrogont, you don't like the way they act becausethey thinl< they are better than other people l f y o u d e s c r i b es o m e o n e a s s n o b b i s h ,o u d o n ' t l i l < e y the way they act becausethey thinl<they are better than other people, perhaps becausethey have a higher social status or more money.

Disagreeing
T h i s e x e r c i s ei n t r o d u c e ss o m e e x D r e s s i o n so r f disagreeing. Have students worl< on the first tasl<alone and then compare answers in pairs. Playthe recording so they can checl<. E x p l a i na f e w o f t h e e x p r e s s i o n s . . Come onl is often used when we thinl<that what someone hassaidis ridiculous. or examole: F A: lt's freezing outside. B: Oh, come onl lt's not that bod. . lf you mal<eon exoggerotion, you mal<esomethinS sound greater, more important, more, etc.Than it r e a l l y i s .F o r e x a m p l e : A: So,there were millions people on morch,then? of B: Well, OK thot's a bit of on exoggerotion. . lf you say iett just ogreeto dlsogree, you are indicating t h a t y o u n o l o n g e r w a n t t o a r g u e b e c a u s ei t i s c l e a r that both sides are not going to change their oosition.

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Answers l. 2. 3. 4. 5. 5. Comeon!That's bit of an exaggeration! a So what you'resaying is D o y o u h o n e s t l y e l i e v eh a t f b t How can you saythat? Listen, wei-e obviously nevergoingto agree Let'sjust agreeto disagree

Play the recording so students can checl<their answers. Then play it again so students can follow the intonacion patterns and respond chorally.They can then practrse with a Dartner.

Answers l. generous 2. quiet 3. out-going 4. open-minded 5. nice 6. distant 7. dull 8.TWo-faced

Play the recording again,pausingafter each gap to practise the intonation. Then have pairs of students read the conversations.Encourage them to use these exoressions in the oair worl< casl<.

P o i n t o u t t h e e x p r e s s i o n s h a t a r e c o m m o n r e s p o n s e st o t overgeneralisationslil<e: Every . . . I've ever met wos ... l've got o reallygood friend who's ... ond she/het ... Thot's such o stereotype/ y / u s t b e c o u s e o u . . . i t d o e s n ' tm e o n y o u . . .

Speaking
T h i s e x e r c i s eg i v e s s t u d e n t s a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o u s e s o m e o f t h e e x p r e s s i o n s r o m 4 D i s a g r e e i n g . R e v i e ws o m e o f f t h e o t h e r l a n g u a g er o m p r e v l o u s u n i t s c h a t m i g h t b e f u s e f u lh e r e t o o . F o r e x a m p l e : Personolly,think ... I Definitely! fhot's the woy I see it too. I know (whot you meon). G o a r o u n d t h e c l a s s , o n i t o r i n g s t u d e n t sa s t h e y d i s c u s s m t h e s e i s s u e sa n d c o l l e c t e x a m p l e so f l a n g u a g e i f f i c u l t i e s d to go over later. Finish up by havinggroups briefly report bacl<on what they tall<edabout. To follow up thrs activity,have pairs of students choose one of the q u e s t i o n sa n d w r i t e a d i a l o g u el i l < e h e r a d i o i n t e r v i e w t between two people with opposing views.

Write these resDonseson the board so students can refer to them when they have their own conversalions about other stereotypes.You may want to talk about how numbers l, 2, 3, 5 and 6 are about stereotypes E n g l i s h e o p l e h a v e ,a n d t h a t n u m b e r 8 f e a t u r e sa p stereotype Englishpeople have about themselves.

Follow-up Have students write a description of a festival from their o w n c o u n t r y o r c o m m u n i t y ,o r , i n a m o n o l i n g u a lc l a s s , asl<them to find out about a festival from anotner country. They should explain what the festival c o m m e m o r a t e s o r c e l e b r a t e sw h e n i t i s h e l d ,w n a t , h a p p e n sw h e t h e r p e o p l e d r e s s u p , e t c . T h e y s h o u l d a l s o , try to use relative clausesto define any special e q u i p m e n t o r a n y s p e c i a lr o l e s p e o p l e h a v e . h e n W students have finished,asl<them to exchange papers with a p a r t n e r .T h e y s h o u l d r e a d t h e i r p a r t n e r ' sd e s c r i p r i o n and then tall<about whar they read.

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Unit overview
General topic C r i m e sa n d p u n i s h m e nC;e l e b r i t y r i m i n a l s . t c Reading T h e c a s e s f n i n ec e l e b r i t y r i m i n a l s . o c
. . rvhat they originally did. For example: I think he got whot he deseryed.lf you bring o weopon to school, you should be expelled right owoy. lf someonemugs someone, they attacl<a person in a p u b l i c p l a c e i n o r d e r t o s t e a lt h e i r m o n e y o r valuables. For example: Did you heor he wos muggedon his woy home lost night? lf someone got owoy with millions, they managed to s t e a l m i l l i o n s o f p o u n d s ,d o l l a r s ,e t c . a n d e s c a p e without being caught.For example: Did you heor obout thot shop that wos held up last week?Apporently, they got owoy with over o thousondpounds. lf the police drop the chorges ogainst sorneone, rney no l o n g e r w a n t t o c o n r i n u e p u r s u i n gt h e l e g a lp r o c e s s a g a i n s ts o m e o n e t h e y o r i g i n a l l ya c c u s e do f d o i n g something illegal.For example:I think they shoulddrop the chorges ogoinsthlm. No jury is goingto find him guilty. lf women go top/ess, they don't wear anything to c o v e r r h e i r b r e a s t s S o m e c o l l o c a t i o n sf o r t o p l e s s . include o top/essbor and sunbothe top/ess. lf you refer to someone as o deoler,you are usually implying that rhey are a drug dealer.The word deoling i s a l s o u s e d t o r e f e r t o d r u g d e a l i n g F o r e x a m p l e :y o u . con go to joil if you\e cought deoling. lf you thinl< that they shouldlock someoneup and throw oway the key,you thinl< that the person should go co prison for the rest of their life. For example: When they cotch the person who mugged thot old lody,they should lock him up ond throw owoy the key. . Threestrikesond you'reout refers to the policy whereby if you are found guilty of certain crimes for t h e t h i r d t i m e , y o u a r e s e n t t o p r i s o n .l t i s a l s o u s e d f o r o t h e r s i t u a t i o n st o m e a n i f y o u d o s o m e t h i n g w r o n g t h r e e t i m e s ,y o u w i l l n o l o n g e r b e a b l e t o b e s o m e w h e r e o r d o s o m e t h i n g . o r e x a m p l e :W e h o v e o F three strikes ond you're out policy.lf youie lote three umes,you're expelled. . lf someoneis over the /imit,they have had more alcohol c h a n i s l e g a l l ya l l o w e d w h i l e d r i v i n g a c a r .F o r example: She wos three times over the /irnit.No wonder she /ost her licence.

Language input . ' ' Crimes and law vocabulary: get found guilty, six months, evosion,speeding, tox etc. Expressions reacting criminalcases: gor for to He off lightly. should've life for thor.etc. He got Expressions saying approximate for an number: around$4.5 million, obout 9300 million, over90 miles g on hour, olmost | 50, 000. Vocabulary associated with crimes:she'd been stobbed, kid went on the rampoge, this theyheld o gun to my leod, etc. Third conditional expressions: sureI would've /'m done betterif ld dressed bit more snortly for the o interview. lA known, wouldn'thove bothered. lf I etc.

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Language strip Use the languagestrip as a way to lead in to the untt. A s l <s t u d e n t s t o q u i c l < l y o o l <t h r o u g h t h e l i s t .E x p l a i n l t h a t i n t h i s u n i t t h e y w i l l l e a r n h o w t o t a l l <a b o u t c r i m e s a n d p u n i s h m e n t sE n c o u r a g e h e m t o c h o o s e e x p r e s s t o n s . t i n t h e l a n g u a g e t r i p t h a t l o o l <i n t e r e s t i n ga n d t o f i n d o u t s more about them. U s e t h e l a n g u a g e t r i p l a t e r o n i n c h i su n i t f o r a s m a t l s group tasl<. Asl< students to find those expressions that refer to a trial (e.g.Thejury found her not guilty) and those that just refer to a crime (e.g.He muggedon old lody in the pork).Then asl<srudents to choose a couple of the e x p r e s s i o n s o n t a i n i n gh e , s h e o r t h e y .T h e y s h o u l d t h e n c d i s c u s sw h a t t h e s t o r y b e h i n d t h e e x p r e s s i o nm i g h t b e . For example, students could use Thejury found her not guilty to speculate what'she' was on trial for, why she w a s f o u n d n o t g u i l t y , h e t h e r s h e r e a l l yc o m m i t t e d t h e w c r i m e o r n o t , e t c . Y o u m i g h t n e e d t o e x p l a i ns o m e o f t h e followingexpressions: . lf someone got life,they received a life sentence for a c r i m e .T h i s m e a n s t h a t t h e y w i l l b e i n p r i s o n f o r q u i t e a long time, usually at least twenty years. lt does not necessarilymean they will be there for the rest of t h e i r l i f e ,t h o u g h . lf you say someone got whot they deserved, you thinl< that the bad thing that has happened to rhem (e.g. receiving a harsh sentence) is iustified becauseof

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Remind students to record any of the expressions that they lil<ein their notebool<s. Lead in One way to lead in is to have students brainstorm a list o f c r i m e s .D i v i d e t h e c l a s su p i n t o s m a l l g r o u p s a n d g i v e them five minutes to thinl< of the names of as many crimes as they can and write them down. Go around the c l a s sa n d m o n i t o r a n d h e l p w h e n n e c e s s a r y . h e n p u t T the following patterns on the board:

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Law and orcicr

... is o seriousproblem in rnylthis country. ... is unheordof in nrylthiscountry. ... is quite common in mylthiscountry. S t u d e n t sc a n t h e n u s e t h e s e p a t t e r n s t o t a l l <a b o u t t h e crimes they have listed.When they have finished,you can go on to the first exercise and students can compare their list with the one in the book.

j W hile you r ead ( Richand Famous

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E x p l a i nt h e t a s l < o y o u r s t u d e n t sa n d d i v i d e t h e m i n c o t t w o g r o u p s .R e m i n d t h e m t h a t t h e y s h o r - i l dn i t i a l l yj u s t i read to find out what the people in the photos did. After s t u d e n t s h a v ef i n i s h e dr e a d i n g , g e tt h e m i n t o p a i r s s o that they can share what they found out. Write some e x a m p l e q u e s t i o n so n t h e b o a r d t o g e t t h e m s t a r t e d : Whot did he do? Wos he found guilty? Whot did he get? You could then have students read the half of the text that they haven't read yet. Finally, play the recording as s t u d e n t sf o l l o w a l o n g i n t h e C o u r s e b o o l < u n d e r l i n i n ga n y , i n t e r e s t i n gc o l l o c a t i o n sa n d e x p r e s s i o n s . Y o u i g h t w a n t m t o p o i n t o u t t h e f o l l o w i n g ,w h i c h a r e c o n n e c t e d t o t h e topic of the unit: he wcs occusedof cleor evidence he wos sentenced six yeors in prison to he wos token to court he took the poper to court if it had gone to court the truth come out eventuolly he wos chorged with smuggling he poid o one hundredand forty thousonddollor fine You might also want to have students find all the get expressionsn the texc: i the jury got it wrong he wos lucky to get owoy with it he got out just three years loter for good behoviour Archer'sstory-telling hod got o bit out of control he could've got seyenyears ond a $2,000 fine

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Speaking
This exercise introduces vocabulary associatedwith the legal process and the names of different crimes.You could start off by asking students to close their Coursebool<s nd read the introductionyourself. a E n c o u r a g es t u d e n t st o a s l < o u a n y q u e s t i o n sa n d t h e n y put these words up on the board: crirne,court,guilty, judge,fine, months,/ife.Asl< them, in pairs,to recall the six p h r a s e sy o u u s e d t h e s e w o r d s i n . T h e n l e t t h e m r e a d t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t h e C o u r s e b o o l <t o s e e i f t h e v w e r e right. Go through the list of crimes with students to mal<e sure they understand them. You might want to contrast possession drugswith deo/ingin drugs.Explain that of burgloryusually refers to breal<ing into private homes and s t e a l i n g h i n g s . o u s h o u l d a l s o e x p l a i nt h a t m u r d e r i s t h e t Y crime of l<illingomeone intentionally, hile monsloughter s w t h e c r i m e o f l < i l l i n g o m e o n e ,b u t w i t h o u t t h e i n t e n t o f s doing so.Point out that all of these crimes can be used with (found)guilty of ... . However, not all of them can be used with commit. Y o u c o u l d e i t h e r d i s c u s st h e s e n t e n c e s o r t h e l i s t o f f c r i m e s a s a c l a s so r i n s m a l l g r o u p s .I n e i t h e r c a s e w r i t e the pattern on the board: probobly get ... for . . . You'd Students may not l<now exactly what sentences might be r e c e i v e df o r e a c h c r i m e , s o y o u c o u l d e n c o u r a g et h e m t o u s e e x D r e s s i o n si l < e : l YouA definitelygo to prison. You'dprobobly just get o fine. D e p e n d i n go n w h e r e y o u r s t u d e n t s a r e f r o m , y o u c o u l d also teach them get the deoth penolty.lf they want to r e c o r d t h i s c r i m e v o c a b u l a r yi n t h e i r n o t e b o o l < s , e n c o u r a g et h e m t o i n c l u d ea n e x a m p l e o f h o w t h e w o r d ( s ) a r e u s e d i n t h i s e x e r c i s e .F o r e x a m p l e : lf youie found guilty of possession drugs,you'd just get o of f,ne. R e m i n d t h e m t o i n c l u d e a n a p p r o p r i a t et r a n s l a t i o nt o o . Focus students' attention on the photos and then get t h e m i n p a i r s t o t a l l <a b o u t w h a t k i n d o f c r i m e t h e y t h i n l < o the people committed.Write some language n the board to help. For example: I think I reod somewherethot he wos found guilty of ... W o s n ' th e t h e o n e w h o . . . ?

9r.q "ryTl9r:
In this exercise,students are introduced to several expressions for giving a reaction to a crime or trial. You might want to start off by just asl<ing them what they t h i n l <a b o u t o n e o f t h e c e l e b r i t i e sL i s t e n t o t h e i r i d e a s . and then focus their attentionon the exoressions. Explain that if you think someonegot off lightly, you thinl< t h e y o n l y r e c e i v e da v e r y s m a l l p u n i s h m e n t , u t t h a t i f b you thinl< the sentence wos o bit horsh,you think it was too severe.Point out that There'sone low for the rich ond onother one for the poor is a fairly fixed expression.Ask s t u d e n t si f t h e y c a n t h i n l <o f a n y o t h e r s i t u a t i o n st h e y l<now that this expression can be applied to. Then get them in pairs to react to the different cases.

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U s e t h e s e q u e s t i o n sf o r a s m a l l g r o u p d i s c u s s i o nY o u . might wanr to starr off by telling rhe students of any other casesthat you know ol especiallyany where the p e r s o n w a s e v e n t u a l l y o u n d i n n o c e n t .E n c o u r a g e h e m f t co asl<you questions and react using any of the e x p r e s s i o n si n 3 C o m m o n e x p r e s s i o n s . G o a r o u n d monitoring and collecting examples of language difficultiesto go over when studenrs have finished.

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practice
S t u d e n t s a na s l < n d a n s w e r h e s eq u e s t i o n sn p a i r s . c a t i You could alsowrite some expressions the board to on help. orexample: F It mustbe oboutlolmostloroundlover ... /'m sureit con'tbe morethon ... At o rough guess soy... lU F i n i s h p a s a c l a s s y l i s t e n i nt o w h a t s r u d e n r h a v e u b g s come up with. Reactro their ideas with expressions lil<e: Thot'squitehorshlnot muchlo bit high. Reolly? much?Areyou sureoboutthot? Thot Encourage students react usingtheseexpressions to as well.

To illustrate how we are frequently not specific in tall<ing about numbers, asl<a few students some ouestions lil<e How long does it toke you to get to schoo/ in the morning? T h e i n t e r a c t i o nc o u l d g o s o m e t h i n gl i l < e h i s : t A: How /ong does it toke you to get to schoolin the

8: A: B: A:

morning? Onehour. Youmeon exoctly one hour? No,oboutonehour. Youielucky,thot's quitefost. usuolly lt tokesme overtwo hours.

Answers A n s w e r s i l l o f c o u r s ev a r y , u t i f t h e s p e e dl i m i c w b on the motorway is I l0 l<ilomerres hour,the per e q u i v a l e n t i l l b e a b o u ts e v e n t y i l e sp e r h o u r . w m I n 2 0 0| t h e p o p u l a t i o n f C h i n aw a s e s t i m a t e d r o a 1 , 2 7 3 ,| 1 , 3 0 0 a l m o s o n e p o i n tt h r e eb i l l i o n ! 1 r

Then, go over the examples.Checl<that students l<now t h e m e a n i n g so f t h e w o r d s i n t h e b o x , a n d t h e n g e r r h e m i n p a i r s t o t a l l <a b o u t t h e n u m b e r s i n l - l l . N o t e t h a t i n s e v e r a lo f t h e e x a m p l e st h e r e c o u l d b e m o r e t h a n o n e answer.Play the recording so students can compare their answers.Stop after each one to asl<if anyone had a different answer.Play the recording again to let students l i s t e n t o t h e p a u s e sa n d i n t o n a t i o n . h e n p l a y i t o n e T more time, pausingafter item so that students can repeat chorally.Finally, have groups of two or more s t u d e n t sp r a c t i s es a y i n gr h e e x p r e s s i o n s . Answers l.
1.

;

-r'1"",*, ;.' ",- i,,".,t 1 cr imevocabular y

Students can worl<throughthis exercise pairs, in uslng their dictionaries when necessary. When they have finished, throughthe answers go and asl< follow-up q u e s t i o n o n s o m eo f t h e v o c a b u l a r y : s Whot kind of weoponis usedfor stobbing? knife, (o o screwd river, nything orp) o sh Whot elsecon you roid?(o bonk,o postoffice, ony kindof publicbuilding. Youcon olsoroid the fridge!) What do you think the difference between mossocre is o ond o killing? mossocre (A usuolly involves kil/ingof o lot of rhe people.The word o/soenrphosises the killing rhdr wos done tn o vtolent cruelwov.) or Why do you think'go the rompoge on with o gun'wosused lnsteod 'gooround of ('Goon the rompogd with a gun'? emphosrses theshootlng violent, coused lot of thot wos and a destruction deoth.) or Whot e/secouldsomeone hovesnotched? hondbog, (o o loptop, boby) o Whot elsecouldyou hovecomehometo ftnd7(the door wide open, bockwindow the smoshed) 'o Whot'sthe difference between serialkiller' ond'o kittei?(A seriolkillerki/lssevero/ people, ofter the otheron one different occosions. Often the victims ore kitted o similor in woy.Akilleris someone who kills.) You could also asl< students what l<ind sentence of a personwould get for eachcrime. Point out the use of oPporently several the conversations. in of Explain that

about/almosr/around ne hundred and fifty o l < i l o m e c r ea n h o u r s about/overiaround half an hour late twenty-five

5 . a b o u t / a l m o s t / a r o u n dh r e e h u n d r e d a n d t

4. about/almost/around thousand a 5 . a b o u t / a r o u n df i v e h u n d r e o 6 . about/almost/around five thousand
a b o u t / a r o u n do n e h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d

8 . a b o u t / a r o u n dt h r e e a n d a h a l f m i l l i o n 9 . a b o u t / a l m o s t / a r o u n de n m i l l i o n t

t 0 . a b o u t / a r o u n d / o v e rs e v e n t y - e i g hm i l l i o n t
a b o u t / a l m o s t / a r o u n dw o h u n d r e d m i l l i o n t

112

1 9 L a l va n d o r d e r

t h i s i s o f t e n u s e dw h e n w e a r e t e l l i n gs o m e o n e a b o u t something that we've heard about on the news or from a friend.

Answers l. a.murder a. robbery a. massacre a. snatched a. burgled a . s e r i a ll < i l l e r b. dead c. stabbeo b. raided c. got away with b. rampage c. l<illed b. came up to him c. ran off b . l < i c k e dn i c. srolen b. papers c. l<illed

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Explain the tasl<and play the recording. Students can t h e n c o m p a r e t h e i r a n s w e r s i n p a i r s .E l i c i tt h e e x p r e s s i o n s o n n e c t e dt o e a c h o n e a n d D u t t h e m o n r n e c board. Play the recording again as the class follow the t a p e s c r i p to n p a g e 1 5 8 .T h e n t h e y c a n c o m p l e t e t h e correction tasl<in oairs.

Model one of the conversations with a studentto show how it could be extendedbeforehaving them pracrise in pai rs: A: Did you heor oboutthot murderyesterdoy? 8: No, whot haDDened? A: Theyfoundthiswomondeod just neorwhereI live. Apparently, shed been stobbed rimes. six 8: Thott terrible!Where theyfind her?Was in her did she flot? A: No,theyfoundher in thebockof o von.Apporently it'd beenporked therefor a couple days. of

Answers P e r s o n: A l Person2: F Person :D 3 Person4: E Person3 madethe followinglanguage mistal<es: I w a n t t o r e p o r t t h a t I w a s s t o l e nm y m o b i l ep h o n e . I was wall<ing seawhen two boys ran and one of by boys take it. I j u s t d o a o n e - d a yr a v e lh e r e . . . f r o m B r i g h t o n . t Oh, you'reonly here on a day-trip.
The victim might have expressed himself correcuy as follows: I want to report that my mobile phone was/has been stolen. I was walking by the sea when two boys came r u n n i n g / r a np a s t m e a n d o n e o f t h e m s n a t c h e dr t . I am here on a day-trip from Brighton.

practice
T h i s e x e r c i s ee x t e n d s I B a s i c c r i m e v o c a b u l a r y b y c h a n g i n g o m e o f c h e v o c a b u l a r yP o i n t o u t t h e s . expression five millionin cosh.Do the first one as an e x a m p l e w i t h t h e w h o l e c l a s s . n c o u r a g es t u d e n t s t o u s e E a follow-up comment.For example: A: Did you heor obout thot murder yesterdoy? 8: No, whot hoDDenedT A: They found this old mon dead in his house.Apporently, he'd been beoten to deoth. B: Thot's terrible! I hope they cotch the person who did it When students have finished,have them reDeat the tasl< w i t h a n o t h e r s t u d e n t . T h e ng e t t h e c h e m c o w a l k a r o u n d the class,talking about any recent crimes they've heard about.

Vocabular y
This exercise reinforces some of the expressions from 4 F o u r c r i m e s . L e t s t u d e n t sw o r l < a l o n e i n i t i a l l va n d . t h e n h a v e t h e m c o m p a r e t h e i r a n s w e r si n p a i r s .G o through the answers yourself, asl<ing further quesrions. For examole: Someonecon hold o gun to your heod, but where would they hold a knife to? (your throotl What would you hove to hove done if your house keys were stolen?(hove the /ocks chonged) How about if the door of your flot wos kicked in? (hove it reDloced) Why might someone leove their keys ot home? (they were n a hurry, the keys were in o different jocket) lf you sow someone shoplifting, would you telt the potice? Whylwhy not? Then you can have pairs of students test each other. One p e r s o n r e a d s t h e s e n t e n c e , a y i n g ' b l a n l <n s t e a do f t h e s i' g a p p e dw o r d . T h e i r p a r t n e r ,w i t h t h e i r C o u r s e b o o l < c l o s e d ,r e p e a r st h e s e n t e n c e , u t i n c l u d e sc h e m i s s i n g b verb. Pairs of students can then worl< on the cor-reccion tasl<before you play the recording so they can checl< their answers.

'l;,1{Before you listen
Go through the sentences asl<ing students to identify the c o r r e s p o n d i n gp i c t u r e s o n p a g e | 3 5 . E x p l a i nt h e expression ot knife-Point and mention we can also say ot gun-point. You mighr wanr ro point out that we use go with shop/ifting. You could ask what other -ing words collocate with go * go shopping,ftshing,skiing,joggtng, drinking,etc. Ask studenrs what they think should happen i f c h i l d r e n a r e c a u g h t s h o p l i f t i n gw h o u s u a l l yc a t c h e s , them (store detectives,security guards,etc.), and what powers they have.Then have them discussthe question a t t h e e n d o f t h e e x e r c i s ee i t h e r a s a c l a s so r i n s m a l l SrouPs.

113

Answers
| . held 2. smashed 3. leave 4. got away with 5. report 6. snatched 7. let 8. cancelled The differencesbetween l-8 and the conversations in the recording are: | . They held a l<nifeto rhe throat, not a gun to the head. 2 . T h e b a c l < i n d o w h a d b e e n s m a s h e dn o t r h e c a r w , windscreen.

pleoded guilty prove he wos innocent we missed the flight I didn't get thot job dressedo bit more smortly have o few more doys there halfwoy through the first holf A s l <f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n sw h e r e a p p r o p r i a t e . o r e x a m p l e : F Do you think o burglar olorm rnakesony difference? Whot should he hove worn ot the interview? Write the following two pamerns on the board and e n c o u r a g es t u d e n t st o t r a n s f e r s o m e o f t h e e x a m p l e st o their notebool<s. It wouldn'thave hoppenedif ... |m sure llwe would'vedone if ...

3.
' t1 -

I left my l<eysin my car, nor ar home They got away with my handbag (and l<eys and home address),not my suitcase.lt was on the bacl< seat, not the boot.

5. He wanted to report he'd had his mobile phone snatched,not his bag. 6 . H e w a s w a l k i n ga l o n g b y t h e s e a w h e n h e h a d h i s phone snatched by two boys, not by a man. 7. They let the security guards l<now,not the police. 8 . T h e s p e a l < e h a s n ' t a c t u a l l yc a n c e l l e dt h e c a r d s y e r . r I n n u m b e r 8 , i t s a y st h e y c a n c e l l e dt h e c a r d s straightaway.

Answers La. 2 . e . 3 .c . 4.6 5.h 69. 7.f. 8.d.

F o r t h e f o l l o w - u p t a s l <s t u d e n t sf o c u s o n w h a t a c t u a l l y , h a p p e n e d a n d s o t h e h y p o t h e t i c a ln a t u r e o f t h e t h i r d , conditiorrals reinforced. o around monitoring studenrs i G a s t h e y w r i t e r h e i r a l t e r n a t i v ei f - c l a u s e sE l i c i ta c o u p l e . of suggestionsfor each question and write them on the board.

T h i r dc o n d i t i o n a l s
I n t h i s u n i t , s t u d e n t sf o c u s o n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t e n c a l l e d the third conditional.You might want to review the first and second conditional structures before having them s t a r t t h i s e x e r c i s eW r i t e u p s o m e g a p p e de x a m p l e s . from previous units: . . . g i v ey o u o h o n di f y o u . . . A: Do you think they'll win? B : l f t h e y . . . f i r s t , . . .h a v e o c h o n c e . l f I . . . t h e m o n e y , . . . l o v et o c o m e , b u tI r e o l l yc o n ' t o f f o r di t l f i t . . . m i n e ,. . . l e n d i t t o y o u ,b u t o s h e ' s n o t h e r eI c o n ' t osk him. A s k s t u d e n t s i f t h e y r e m e m b e r t h e m i s s i n gw o r d s . A s k what the time frame is and whether the speal<er thinl<s t h e c o n d i t i o n i s p o s s i b l eo r h y p o t h e t i c a lT h e n a s l < . students to read the explanation and the examples of t h e t h i r d c o n d i t i o n a l A n s w e r a n y q u e s t i o n st h e y h a v e , . and remind them rhat this structure tall<s bout a a hypothetical situation in the past.

Answers P o s s i b la n s w e r s : e 2. lt wouldn't havehappened l'd bolted the bacl< if door.
It wouldn't have happened if he'd told them where the money was hidden. It wouldn't have happened if you'd got up ar five lil<e e. m I'm sure I would've done if I hadn'tmade that jol<e about his wife. I g u e s sy o u w o u l d ' v e d o n e i f i t ' d b e e n o p e n . I ' m s u r e I w o u l d ' v e d o n e i f I ' d a c t u a l l yr e v i s e d . I'm sure we would've done if our goall<eeper hadn't been sent off.

Practice
G e t s t u d e n t st o d o t h e m a t c h i n gt a s l <i n d i v i d u a l l y n d a then compare answers with a partner. Checl<the a n s w e r sa s a c l a s s p o i n t i n g o u t c o l l o c a t i o n sa n d , expressions as you go through them. For example: my flot got broken into burglor olorm

Give students an example yourself before they worl< on their own sentences: I con't believeI overs/eptthis morning.lt wouldn't hove hoppened if lA stoyed in and hod an eorly night lost night like I'd intendedto. They can then worl< on the next tasl<in pairs.The a n s w e r sa r e f a i r l y p r e d i c t a b l ea n d i n c l u d e s o m e c o m m o n phrases:if I hodn't been so busy, would'vebeen nicer if ... , it I wouldn't hove osked.if I'd known.

114

l9

l . : L r '; r n d { , r T ( t e r

Answers Possibleanswers: | . I would've done if I hadn'tbeen so busy. 2. it would've been nicer if it'd been a bit saltier. 3. I would've done if it'd been a little cheaper. 4. I wouldn't have asl<ed I'd l<nown her boyfriend if was a boxer. 5. I wouldn't have bought it if I'd l<nown it was stolen. G i v e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t a n y o f t h e c r i m e s s t u d e n t sa r e not sure of and then get them to thinl< for a few m o m e n t s .G e t t h e m i n p a i r s t o b r i e f l y d i s c u s s h e i r i d e a s t for about five minutes before getting rhem in bigger' g r o u p s o f f i v e o r s i x t o c o n t i n u e t h e d i s c u s s i o nF i n i s hu p . by discussing s a class.You ight want to add or a m s u b s t i t u t eo t h e r c r i m e s a s y o u s e e f i t . ' The DunblaneMassacre ccurred in 1996in a o c h i l d r e n ' s c h o o l i n a s m a l l t o w n i n S c o t l a n dA s . former caretal<erburst into a class and shot twentyeight five- and six-year-old children. Fifteen of the c h i l d r e na n d t h e i r t e a c h e rw e r e l < i l l e d . h e m a n t h e n T l<illed imself. h T h e C o l u m b i n e H i g h S c h o o l s h o o t i n g so c c u r r e d i n C o l o r a d o i n t h e U S i n 1 9 9 9 . w o t e e n a g es t u d e n t s T went into their highschool and shot and l<illed twelve students and a teacher.Thev then l<illed themselves. H a r o l d S h i p m a nw a s a d o c t o r i n E n g l a n dF o r o v e r . twenty years he murdered his patients by giving them l e t h a l d r u g i n j e c t i o n s l. t h a s b e e n e s t i m a t e dt h a t h e l < i l l e d p t o 3 0 0 p e o p l e .H e ' s B r i t a i n w o r s t s e r i a l u l<ille r. . The Balibombing occurred on l2th October 2002 on the island of Bali.Two pacl<ed clubs were d e s t r o y e d b y b o m b s .O v e r 2 0 0 p e o p l e w e r e l < i l l e d . Some of the bombers got the death penalty.They w e r e r e l i g i o u se x t r e m i s t s .

You could also asl<students to thinl< of variations here too lil<eI wouldn't hove osked if ld known her boyfriend wos servingbehind the bor. '

P r o n u n c i a t i o nh i r d c o n d i t i o n a l s t:
T h e e x a m p l e sh e r e c o n t a i n c o n t r a c t i o n st h a t c a n b e d i f f i c u l tf o r s o m e s t u d e n t s . l a yt h e r e c o r d i n g o n c e a l l P t h e w a y t h r o u g h .A s l <s t u d e n t s t o l i s t e n t o t h e i n t o n a t i o n p a t t e r n .T h e n p l a y i t a g a i n . T h i s i m e , a s l < h e m t o m a r l < t t t h e s t r e s s e dw o r d s . T h e n p l a y i t a t h i r d t i m e , p a u s i n g after sentence so that rhey repeat. Follow up by d i s c u s s i n g s a c l a s sw h a t s t u d e n t s c h i n l < a c h s e n t e n c e a e c o u l d b e r e f e r r i n gc o . H e r e a r e s o m e i d e a s :N u m b e r I could mean / oskedsomeoneobout her boyfriend, only to out he'd;ust left her for onother womon! Number 2 find could mean I made the effort to go to see o moyie,but regret it now becouseit wosn't very good.Number 3 could mean / wore the scme c/othesos someonee/seto o Dorty ond they /ookedbetter in them thon I did! Number 4 could mean Someonehos only just told me obout their birthdoy porty lost Fridcy.Number 5 could mean / oskedyour porentsobout their jobs,only for you to now tell me they've both been mode redundantrecentlv. Number 6 could mean I sow o UFO or somethingelseomozing.Number 7 could mean / hod o greot teacherot secondory schoolwho inspired m e . N u m b e r 8 c o u l d m e a n S o m e b o d s o v e dm y l i f e . y Number 9 could mean / did lots of homework /ost weekend becouseI thought it wos compulsory now I find out it wos F , o p t i o n o l : i n a l l yn u m b e r l 0 c o u l d m e a n I d i d n ' td o m y homework- not becduseI'm lozy,but becouseit wos optionol, not compulsory. Explain the expression see it with my own eyes. his is usedto emphasisehat something T t d i f f i c u l tt o b e l i e v ea c t u a l l yh a p p e n e db e c a u s ey o u s a w i r . For example: A: Youknow she driveso Ferrori. don'I vou? B: You're kidding! A: No, / sow it wtth my own eyes.lti porked round the bock. F o r t h e n e x t t a s k .r e m i n d s t u d e n t s o f t h e s i t u a t i o nw i t h N i c l <a n d J a n e t .I n s t e a do f r e a d i n gt h e l e t t e r ,s t u d e n r s c o u l d l i s t e nt o y o u r e a d i t a l o u d a n d t h e n w r i t e a f e w t h i r d c o n d i t i o n a ls e n t e n c e si n p a i r s . T h e n t h e y c o u l d u s e these for the basis of the role play.Have them write the d i a l o g u ea n d p r a c t i s ei t a f e w t i m e s . T h e n g e t t h e m t o get together rvith another group and act it their dialogueso each other. t

'

Follow-up T e l l t h e c l a s sa f e w l a t e r a lt h i n l < i n g t o r i e s .M a n y o f t h e m s a r e c o n n e c t e d w i t h c r i m e s i n o n e w a y o r a n o t h e r .T h e r e a r e s e v e r a lw a y s t o e x p l o i t t h e m . Y o u c o u l d j u s t r e l l c h e c l a s st h e b a s i cp u z z l ea n d g e t t h e m t o a s l < o u y e s / n o y q u e s t i o n su n t i l t h e y f i g u r e o u t t h e a n s w e r , r y o u c o u l d o f l e s h o u t t h e s t o r y , a d d i n gl i t t l e c l u e s h e r e a n d t h e r e , a n d u s e i t f o r l i s t e n i n gp r a c t i c e . h e n s t u d e n t st r y t o w o r l < T o u t t h e s o l u t i o n i n g r o u p s .Y o u c a n f i n d m a n y o f t h e s e s t o r i e s o n t h e I n t e r n e t .H e r e i s a n e x a m o l e : At 2:00 pm the burglor olorm went off otVincent Pond's house. The police orrived. They found o broken window. Everythingwos thrown oround. The oir-conditioning wos on. They discoveredVincentupstoirs.He had been strong/ed. They phoned his wife, Potricio.She wos ploying golf. She soid she hod left home ot l2:30. A witnessconfirmedthot she hod seen Potricioot the golf club ot l: I 5. At fust.the po/ice suspectedo burglor,but three doys loter, Potricio remorried. The chief investigotoris sure PotriciamurderedVincent before l2:30 ond somehow got the burglor olorm to go off. There were no onimols in the house,no electricoldeyiceswere used ond Potricioocted olone. How did she do it? (Answer:She put o troy on the edge of the kitchen toble. On one side was o big bog of ice ond on the other o soucepan. When the ice eventuolly melted,the pon fell on the floor setting off the motion sensor ond octivoting the alorm.)

11

20
Un i t o v e r v i e w
General topic Healthproblems, adviceand doctors. Dialogue Davidand Ken tall< about recenrvisitsto the doctor's. Language input ' . ' . Verb collocations healthproblems: goton for I've owfulcold.I'vecut my finger. feelo bit sick.etc. I Givingadvice: Moybeyoushould tokesomeospirin or sornething. etc. More health-related expressions: allergic o to,hove check-up, weorcontoct/enses, etc. Reporting healthadvice: just toldme to go home He and takeit eosy. goveme somepoinkillers it. She for etc. Differencesbetween shouldand hovetolhovegotto for givingadvice:Youshould to loseo bit of try weight.You hoveto register with the surgery first. Expressions with should mal<ing for suggestions and talkingabout what we expectto happen: You shouldtry thot new ltolionploce. shouldbe openby lt the end of nextweek. etc. Pronunciation: sentence stress: A: Thisis goingto costus a fortune. 8: No. /t shouldn't that expensiye. be ' . . You might asl< How did you do it? if someonesaidthat they havehurt part of their body.For example: A: I'vedone something stronge my bock. to B: How did you do it"? A: I think it wos whenI wascorrying thot big box of booksupstoirs. . lf you saythat someone coulddo with something,you t h i n l <h a t i t w o u l d b e g o o d f o r t h e m r o h a v ei t o r d o t it. For example: /ookos if youcoulddo with o nice You cup of teo. lf you sproin youronkleor wrist, you hurt it by cwisting it. For exampleI hopeiti just o sproined onkle. lf you'refeeling bit run-down, o you'revery tired and a l i t t l eb i t i l l - u s u a l l y e c a u s y o u ' v eb e e nw o r l < i n go o b e r much recently.

R e m i n d s t u d e n t st o r e c o r d a n y o f t h e e x p r e s s i o n s h a t t they lil<en their notebool<s. i

.

Lead in Y o u c o u l d l e a d i n i m m e d i a t e l yb y f o c u s i n go n t h e p i c t u r e s a n d a s l < i n g t u d e n r sw h a t h e a l t h p r o b l e m s t h e y s can see. Asl< if anyone can remember when they last had o n e o f t h e m . A s k i f a n y o n e h a s n e v e r h a d ,f o r e x a m p r e , a t o o t h a c h e . T h e ny o u c a n d o I C o l l o c a t i o n s .

.

.

Language strip Use the languagestrip as a way ro lead in to the unir. A s k s t u d e n t st o l o o l <q u i c l < l y h r o u g h t h e l i s t t o f i n d a n y t expressions that are true for them or that they could answer in the affirmative.Explain that in this unit they will learn ways of tall<ingabout health and giving advice. E n c o u r a g et h e m t o c h o o s e s o m e o t h e r e x p r e s s i o n si n the strip that lool< interesting and to find out more about them. Use the language trip later on in this unit for a small s group tasl<.Asl< students to find those expressions that describe a problem (e.g./'ve hod o reollybod cold) and those that give advice or mal<ea suggesrion(e.g.Hove you tried Chinese medicine?).Then asl<students to thinl< of an answer for those expressions rhat are questions (e.g. How ore vou?\. You might need to explain some of the following expressions: ' Homeopothyis a way of treating illnessesby giving smallamounts of a substance hat in large t a m o u n t s w o u l d c a u s et h e s a m e i l l n e s s .

E x p l a i nt h e t a s l <a n d h a v e s t u d e n t sw o r l < i n d i v i d u a l l y n d a t h e n c o m p a r e t h e i r a n s w e r s i n p a i r s . Y o um a y n e e d t o e x p l a i nt h e f o l l o w i n g : , lf you hove o stiff neck,you have difficulty moving your n e c k b e c a u s et h e m u s c l e sa r e p a i n f u l . . . lf you ore hung-over,you feel ill in the morning after a nightof drinl<ing. l f y o u ' v eg o t h o y f e v e r , y o ua r e a l l e r g i ct o p o l l e n .

As you go through !he answers, oint out the adjectives p and modifiers on awful cold,o reolly stiff neck,o bit hungove[ etc. Also draw students' attention to the vague expressions:for some reoson, I've done somethingstrdnge and somehow.

Answers l. 2. 3. 4. 5. 5. got got cut sprained got done 7. 8. 9. 10. I l. | 2. got feel got feel got got 13. 14. 15. 16. got done sprained cut.

116

2O Heah t

Review these collocations by having pairs of students test each other. One person can read sentences l-8, s a y i n g ' b l a n l <n s t e a do f t h e g a p p e dw o r d . T h e i r p a r t n e r , i' without lool<ingat the Coursebool<,responds by r e p e a t i n gt h e w h o l e s e n t e n c ew i t h t h e m i s s i n gv e r b . S t u d e n t sc a n t h e n s w i t c h r o l e s f o r 9 - 1 6 . For the next tasl<, asl<students what they would do if they had an awful cold. Listen to their suggestionsand then focus their attention on the list of suggestionsa-1. Asl< if any of their suggestionsare listed. As a class d i s c u s sw h i c h o n e t h e y t h i n k i s t h e b e s t .Y o u c o u l d h a v e , a vote. Then asl<pairs of students to do the same for e a c h o f t h e o t h e r p r o b l e m s .O b v i o u s l y a n s w e r sw i l l v a r y , b u t s o m e l i k e h o n l y a p p l y t o n u m b e r 3 o r 1 6 .D i s c u s s t h e a n s w e r sa s a c l a s sa n d u s e t h i s a s a n o p p o r t u n i t y c o focus on some of the expressions in a*j. For example: Whot do you not do to toke it eosy?(You don't do onything mentolly or physicollytoxing.) Whot might it referto in d? (a terrible heodoche,reolly bad toothoche) Where con you hove o lie-down?(in bed, on the sofo) Do you remember'haveo lie-in'? How con you get some flreshoir if you feel cor sick or if you're stuck in a room? (open the window) A s l <s c u d e n t si f t h e y n o t i c e t h e p a t t e r n s i n t h e a d v i c ea n d then refer them to the Real English note on the use of Moybe you shou/d co soften advice.Using or something also has a softening effect by giving another unspecified oPrion.

c o n v e r s a t i o n s s i n gt h e p r o b l e m o n t h e i r c a r d .W h e n u t h e y h a v e f i n i s h e d t h e y e x c h a n g ec a r d s a n d f i n d a n o t h e r , person to speal< with a different problem. to

H e a l t hq u i z
C h e c l <t h a t s t u d e n t s u n d e r s t a n dt h e e x o r e s s i o n s h i g h l i g h t e d n c o l o u r b e f o r e h a v i n gt h e m d i s c u s st h e i q u e s t i o n si n p a i r s o r s m a l l g r o u p s .L e t s t u d e n t sg o t h r o u g h t h e l i s t i n p a i r s ,u s i n gt h e i r d i c t i o n a r i e sw h e n necessary hen asl< hem to memorise three questions T t a n d t o t h e n c l o s e t h e i r C o u r s e b o o l < sT e l l t h e m t o a s l < . y o u a n y o f t h e q u e s t i o n sY o u s h o u l d a n s w e r t h e i r . q u e s t i o n s . o t o n l y d o e s t h i s g i v e s t u d e n t sa m o d e l f o r N t h e i r o w n s m a l i - g r o u pd i s c u s s i o nb u t i t a l s o r e i n f o r c e s , t h e m e a n i n ga n d u s e o f t h e h i g h l i g h t e d x p r e s s i o n s . e

Y o u c o u l d d o t h i s a s a c l a s sd i s c u s s i o ne x p l a i n i n g h e , t vocabulary as you go through each problem. Point out the verbs get rid of, stop,sootheand stdy.Ask the class to thinl< of alternative noun phrases that can collocate with each one. For example: get rid of + dondruff, lice, othlete's foot stoP+6runnYnose soothe + o sore throot, sunburnt skin stoY+ heolthY,slim A l t e r n a t i v e l yh a v e s t u d e n t sd i s c u s st h e g u e s t i o n si n s m a l l , g r o u p s . Y o u m a y n e e d t o e x p l a i n s o m e e x p r e s s i o n si n t h e second tasl<: . . your joints are swollen and lf you have orthritis, painful. Comomileis a flower that is used to soothe the skin and mal<eherbal tea.

I Wftat'sthe matter?
i G e t s t u d e n t st o p u t t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n s n o r d e r a n d t h e n p l a y t h e r e c o r d i n g s o t h e y c a n c h e c l < h e i r a n s w e r s .P l a y t t h e r e c o r d i n ga g a i n , a u s i n g f t e r e a c h l i n e s o s t u d e n t s p a . c a n r e p e a t ,f o l l o w i n g t h e s a m e i n t o n a c i o np a c c e r nT h e n h a v e t h e m p r a c t i s e r e a d i n gt h e c o n v e r s a t i o ni n p a i r s . E n c o u r a g e h e m t o r e a d e a c h s e n t e n c et o t h e m s e l v e s , t a n d t h e n l o o k u p a n d s a y i t a l o u d t o t h e i r p a r t n e r .P o i n t out the colJocationstressfu/ doy.Asl< students to suggest w h a t c o u l d c o n c r i b u t et o a s t r e s s f u ld a y .E n c o u r a g e h e m t t o r e c o r d a n y e x p r e s s i o n s n d c o l l o c a t i o n sf r o m t h e s e a e x e r c i s e si n t h e i r n o c e b o o l < s .

T h eN H S
Explain to students that they are going to read about the British health service. Have oairs of students tall<about what they l<now already before having them read the text. By asl<ing them to underline the things that they didn't l<now already,they are focusing on useful expressions lil<esome peoplehove to woit over o yeor before they con hove on operotion. Encouragethem to record some of these in their notebool<s. F o r t h e s e c o n d t a s k ,y o u s h o u l d e x p l a i n t h a t i f t h e government privotises sornething, they sell a state-owned company or organisation and turn it into a private one. Get pairs of students to compare their answers to n u m b e r s l - 8 a n d t a l l <a b o u t t h e o u e s t i o n sa t t h e e n d o f the exercise.lf you have a story about getting medical attention in a foreign country, tell it to the class.lf your students are studying abroad in your country, you might

Answers I C o n v e r s a t i o n: L c . C o n v e r s a t i o2 : l . c . n 2 .d . 2 .d . 3 .b . 4 . f. 3 .f . 4 . b . 5 .e . 5 .a . 6 .a . 6 .e .

F u r t h e rp ra cti ce
S t u d e n t ss h o u l d w r i t e t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o na n d t h e n practice reading it. Have them try to memorise it. You c o u l d a l s o g e t s t u d e n t st o c h a n g ep a r t n e r s a n d h a v e another conversation.To extend the exercise,write the p r o b l e m s o n s l i p so f p a p e r a n d g i v e o n e t o e a c h s t u d e n t . T h e y s h o u l d t h e n g o a r o u n d t h e c l a s s h a v i n gs i m i l a r ,

117

: r

F l e at i i

want to tal<ethts opportunity to tall<about and answer t h e i r q u e s t i o n sa b o u t t h e m e d i c a ls y s t e m .A s k s t u d e n t s to read rhe Real English box and model the a b b r e v i a t i o n s o r t h e m . G e t t h e c l a s st o r e o e a t e a c h o n e f a f t e r y o u - b o t h a s a g r o u p a n d i n d i v i d u a l l y .o u m i g h t Y need to explain that the UN is the United Notions,the WHO is theWorld Heolth Orgonisotion,the BBC stands for the Eritish BroodcastingCorporotion,the ELJis the Europeon Union,the U5 is the Unlted Stores(of Americo),the IMF is the lnternotionol Monetory Fund,UFOs are Unidentified FlyingObjectsand your CV is your CurriculumVitoe.

So what did the doctor say?
A s w e l l a s s o m e m o r e h e a l t h o c a b u l a rty , i s e x e r c i s e v h g i v e s t u d e n t s o m ep r a c t i c e i t h e x p r e s s i o nfs r s s w o reportingadvice. Havethem do the matching tasl< and t h e n g o t h r o u g ht h e a n s w e r s . Y os h o u l dp o i n ro u t t h a t u just in number I meansonly. Ask further questions to f o c u so n s o m eo f t h e v o c a b u l a rh e r e .F o r e x a m p r e : y Whot kind of fluidsdo you think the doctormeons in numbe2? r Conyou remember nomeof the person the who performs (,a operations? surgeon)

While you listen (At the doctor's)
Introduce the listening tasl<and go over the two questions.Tell students to listen for the answers ro tne q u e s t i o n s . l a yt h e r e c o r d i n g ,m a l < i n g u r e r h a r t h e y P s c o v e r t h e t e x t . G e t t h e m t o d i s c u s st h e a n s w e r s i n o a i r s . Tell them to l<eeprhe texr covered as they do this. They c a n a l s o s h a r e t h e i r g e n e r a l r e a c r i o n st o t h e d i a l o g u e .

Whot kind of ointment (Chomomile couldyou rub on o rosh? is supposed be good.) to

Answers l . f . 2 . h . 3 .a . 4 . b . 5 .c . 9.9. 10.i. 6 . i . 7 .d . 8 .e .

Answers l . K e n h a d t h e f l u .H i s m o t h e rf e l l a n d h u r t h e r b a c l < . Later she got a chest infection.
2 . T h e d o c t o r c o u l d n ' t s e e K e n f o r s e v e r a ld a y s ,s o h e d i d n ' t g o . F o r h e r s o r e b a c l <t,h e d o c t o r t o l d K e n ' s mum to go home and lie down for a few days ano t r y t o l o s e s o m e w e i g h t .F o r h e r c h e s t i n f e c t i o n , e h told her to tal<eit easy and drinl< lots of warer.

N o w g e t s t u d e n t si n p a i r s t o d i s c u s s h a t t h e p r o b l e m s w were. You might want to do the first one together as a c l a s s . o r e x a m p l e ,i n n u m b e r 1 0 ,y o u c o u l d b e j u s r F feeling tired or stressed-out.Pairs of students can then p r a c t i s et h e d i a l o g u e sF i n i s hu p b y w r i t i n g t h e s e p a t t e r n s . on . . ... ... the board: fust) told me to + verb t o l d m e I s h o u l d+ v e r b g o y em e . . . t o + v e r b

Next, Iet students read the dialogue as you play the r e c o r d i n g a g a i n T h e n a s l <s r u d e n t s , n p a i r s ,t o f i l l i n t h e . i first two or three gaps from memory before you pray t h e r e c o r d i n g a g a i n t h i s t i m e w i t h p a u s e ss o t h a t , s t u d e n t s c a n c h e c k a n d f i l l i n t h e m i s s i n gw o r d s . D o t h i s t w o o r t h r e e g a p sa t a t i m e u n t i l t h e e n d . P l a yt n e r e c o r d i n gt h r o u g h o n e m o r e t i m e w i r h s t u d e n t s following the text. lf you wanr studencsto read the d i a l o g u e o r p a r t s o f i t , i n p a i r s ,u s e t h e t a p e s c r i p to n , p a g e 1 5 9 .T h e m i s s i n gw o r d s a r e h i g h l i g h t e d n c o l o u r . i E n c o u r a g es t u d e n t s t o f i n d a n y i n t e r e s t i n gc o l l o c a c i o n s o r e x p r e s s i o n si n t h e d i a l o g u et o a s l < b o u t a n d r e c o r d a i n t h e i r n o t e b o o l < sF i n i s hu p b y d i s c u s s i n gh e q u e s t i o n s . t a t t h e e n d a s a c l a s so r i n o a i r s .

Asl< students if they can mal<esome more sentences about other situations with these patterns. For example: lwent ond sow my teacherond she told me to keeb i,h rhF good work.

"

::.... ... ' -'

:

.,.1

Givingadvice
R e v i e w t h e e x p r e s s i o n s o r g i v i n ga d v i c e a n d w r i t e t h e m f on the board: M o y b ey o u s h o u l d . . . W h y d o n ' ty o u . . . ? Y o uc o u l dt r y . . . - i n g Hoveyou tried ... -tng? l f I w e r e y o u ,l ' d . . . Remind students that they can soften advice by adding the phrase or something (like that). Explain the tasl<, d e m o n s r r a t et h e m e a n i n go f b u r p , a n d t h e n g e t s t u d e n t s in pairs to do the firsr tasl<. You could then have them change parrners for the second part. Encouragerhem to l<eepthe conversation going. Point out some of the p h r a s a lv e r b s a n d p r e p o s i t i o n a l e r b e x p r e s s i o n s : v put (the rent) up put on (ten kilos) look in (the chemists) cut (sugoi) out of (your diet) report (him) to (the council)

Answers
L

wasnt rt

2 . bad weel<
was sweating 4 . was gorng to
A

7. 8. 9. t0. |. t2.

apPorntments don't need to hardly move by herself lool<edher over on top of all that tal<e it easy cutting down on

1't8

20 lea th

A l s o ,a s l < o m ef o l l o w - u p u e s t i o n s .o r e x a m p l e : s q F Whot ore somethingsthe government the council or (toxes, con DutuD? rent) Whot'sthe opposite 'put on ten ki/os'? (/ose kilos) of ten Whot elsecouldpeople out of theirdiet?(fottyfoods) cut

Whot kind of 1obis the person opplying do for?Why you thinkhelshe wcntsto hovea portyif helshe getsit? Whot wouldmoke yousoy'theportyshould good'? be Whct is hoppening 2o ond 2b? in How could you rnoke /essons moreinterestrng? Whot lecture yousoy'thotshould topicwouldmoke be nteresting'? Answers I a. I b. 2a. 2b. 3a. 3b. 4a. 4b. suggestion the future the future suggestion suggestion the future the future suggestion

S h o u l d,h a ve to
Students have lool<edat the difference between must and h o v e t o i n p r e v i o u s u n i t s .R e m i n d t h e m t h a t h d v e t o t e n d s to express an external obligation,whereas must tends to e x p r e s s a p e r s o n a lo b l i g a t i o n S i m i l a r l yi,n c o m p a r i s o n c o . hove to, the modal auxiliary shou/dreflects a more p e r s o n a lf e e l i n ga b o u t t h e a d v i c e . H a v e s t u d e n t s l o o l <a t t h e e x a m o l e sa n d e x o l a n a t i o na n d answer any questions they might have.Then have them a p p l y t h e s e g u i d e l i n e s o c o m p l e t e t h e s e n t e n c e sT h e y t . c a n w o r l < i n d i v i d u a l l y n d t h e n c o m p a r e t h e i r a n s w e r si n a p a i r s .A s y o u c h e c l < h e i r a n s w e r s , s l < h e m t o e x p l a i n t a t t h e i r c h o i c e s . Y o um a y n e e d t o e x p l a i nu p f r o n t .l t y o u p o y up for something front.you pay for it in advance.For examPre: You hove to poy up front to rent o cor in some ploces. P o i n t o u t t h e c o m m o n p a t t e r n h o v et o . . . f r s t . A l s o , e n c o u r a g es t u d e n t s t o g o b a c l < n d L r n d e r l i n eh e a t c o m p l e t e p h r a s e si n c h e e x e r c i s ea n d t r a n s f e r s o m e o f them to cheir notebool<s.

Point out some of the common expressions ere for the h future use of shouldand encourage the students to record them in their notebool<s: ... shouldbe goodlinteresting this shouldn't hurt it shouldn't toke thot long I should be finished by nine

i Answers
l . h a v e( g o t ) t o 2. should 3. have (goc) to 4. should 5. have (got) to 5. have (got) to 7. have (got) to 8. have to 9. should

}g,:uls
T h i s e x e r c i s eg i v e s s t u d e n t ss o m e m o r e c o m m o n e x a m p l e so f t h i s u s e o f s h o u l dH a v e t h e m c o m p l e c er h e . m a t c h i n gt a s l < i r s t a n d c h e c l < h e i r a n s w e r s .M o d e l a n d f t p r a c t i s et h e p r o n u n c i a t i o no f t h e c o m p l e t e p h r a s e s , f o c u s i n go n t h e w a y s h o u l d l s h o u l d n st s a i d .T h e n h a v e i' p a i r s o f s t u d e n t st e s t e a c h o t h e r ,w i t h o n e p e r s o n r e a d i n gt h e f i r s t p a r t a n d t h e i r p a r t n e r t r y i n g t o complete it from memory.

Answers h. 3 .d .

4.a. s.b. 6.c. z.e

8.g.

l

the ___lihrrld for talkiry_ab_out future
S h o u / d a n a l s o b e u s e d t o e x p r e s sw h a ! w e e x p e c t t o c h a o p e n o r t o b e t r u e . R e m i r r ds t u d e n t s o f t h e f i r s t c o n d i t i o n a s t r u c t u r eb y w r i t i n s t h i s s e n t e n c e r o m U n i t l f |5 on the board: wtn. lf they ploy the woy they norntallydo, they sLtould A g a i n ,g e t s t u d e n t s t o l o o k : r t t h e e x a m p l e sa n d explanations nd answerany questions. ext, have a N s t u d e n t sd o t h e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n a s l <A s l <t h e m t o e x p l a i n t . t h e i r c h o i c e s Y o u m i g h t w a n t t o e x t e n d t h e e x e r c i s eb y . a s l < i n gh e m q u e s t i o n sa b o u t s o m e o f t h e s e n t e n c e s F o r t . example:

F o r t h e n e x t t a s l <h a v e s t u d e n t sw o r l < i n p a i r s a n d t h e n p r a c t i s e r e a d i n gt h e c o n v e r s a t i o nY o u m a y n e e d t o . e x p l a i nt h a t i f s o m e t h i n gh a s h a d r o v er e v i e w s , l o t o f a c r i t c s h a v es a i d i t i s v e r y g o o d . W e c a n a l s o u s e t h e e x p r e s s i o n/ t h o s n ' th o d v e r yg o o d r e v i e w s . o i n t o u t P s e v e r a lc o l l o c a t i o n sa n d e x p r e s s i o n sF o r e x a m p l e : . l'll hove to conftrmit with nty boss. I know o good lplumberldentistlmechonic). moke o reollyquicklimportontphone coll D o y o u t h i n k i t t w o r t h m e . . . - i n g. . . ? fill in these forms A l s o , i n t h e s h o u / d x p r e s s i o n sd r a w s t u d e n t s 'a t t e n t i o n e , t o t h e e x p r e s s i o no r s o .T h i s m a l < e sh e n u m b e r t a p p r o x i m a t e . A s ks t u d e n t ss o m e q u e s t i o n st o e l i c i t a n s w e r sw i t h . . . o r s o . F o r e x a m p l e :

" 1" 1

How much do you pay for o cup of coffee? How longo breokshouldwe hove? How many expressions you recorded your notebook hove in todoy?

Next, play the recording again and asl<students to listen to how thot is emphasisedby the higher pitch. play the r e c o r d i n go n e m o r e t i m e , p a u s i n g f t e r e a c h d i a r o g u e o a s that students can repeat it. Then have pairs pracrise ir p a i r s .E n c o u r a g er h e p e r s o n r e s p o n d i n gt o t r y s a y i n gi t from memory.

Answers T h e r e s h o u l d n ' tb e a n y p r o b l e m w i t h t h a t . lt should be worth seeing. lt should be good. lt should only cost you ren poundsor so. l t s h o u l d o n l y t a l < em e a m r n u t e o r s o . 5. There should be guite a few peoplethere. 7 . Y o u s h o u l d h a v eq u i t e a g o o d c h a n c e . 8. They shouldn't tal<ethat long. |. 2. 3. 4. 5. Follow-up Have students role-play the conversation between tne doctor and Ken's mum, referring to the dialogue on page l 4 l . H o w e v e r ,t h i s t i m e t h e d o c t o r i s r e a l l y h e l p f u la n d has lots of time to chat. Have students write the dialogue and practise reading it before acting ir out for another group. Alternatively,asl<students to wrice a letter of complaint from Ken to the local newspaper about the stare of the NHS.

P r o n u n c i a ti o n : n te n ce se stre ss
The pattern practised here is used to say rhat we don't expect something to be as bad as another person thinlcs it will be. Have students match the responses to the c o m m e n r s a n d t h e n p l a y t h e r e c o r d i n gs o t h e y c a n c h e c k their answers.Ask what they thinl< is being referred to in number I to checl<they understand the meaning of cost o fortune.Point out the expression well belowzero. Explain that we can use we//to mean o lot in expressions lil<ewe// below, well over,well under.Ask students to guess how many pages there are in their Coursebool< usins wel/ oyer or well under.

Answers l.b. 2.d
? r

120

The exercises here can be usedas a test.However, 4 L o o k b a c k a n d c h e c k a n d8 W h a t c a n y o u r e m e m b e r ? a r e b e t t e rd o n e a s a d i s c u s s i oin D a i r s n

Ver b collocations
Answers l . e . 2 . i . 3 .a . 4 . f 9.d. t0.h. 5 .g . 6.j 7 . b . 8 .c .

G r a m m a rre vi e w
Answers l. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
-I t .

I ' v e l < n o w nh i m can't be I usedto I never used to I would've come I'd done
.^ LU ,^1,^ LdKE i. tL ^^^., Ed>/

Answers l. 2. 3. 4. 5. dull nasty harsh Typicall slight 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. commercial two-faced exact sporty snobbish

g 8. youshould o 9 . l ' l lb e a l l r i g h t 10. lt shouldn'r

and answer s Questions
Answers Answers l . D o y o u h o n e s r l y e l i e v eh a t ? b t 2 . L i s t e nw e ' r eo b v i o u s l y e v e rg o i n gt o a g r e e , n
? | e - '_ j r r _ r- r o r p o _,r < i_< tn / i c s o rg r e e . _l ea aa

l . c . 2 . i . 3 .h . 4 .g 9.e. 10.f.

5.d. 5.b

8.a

4. ljust needan aspirrn r something o 5. He always wants to know where I am. I hate it. 5 . O h , c o m e o n l J u s t b e c a u s ey o u ' r e E n g l i s hi,t d o e s n ' t m e a n y o u h a v et o b e c o l d a n d d i s t a n t . 7 . H e c a n ' t b e m o r e t h a n a b o u t t w e n t y - o n e .H e ' s s t i l l in his secondyear ar university. 8 . H e ' s a n i c e g u y ,b u t I ' d n e v e r g o o u t w i t h h i m .

r emember ?
] ]

Answerswill vary.

Com m onexpr essions
Answers |. 2. 3. 4. 5. lightly asl< die court sees

W h a t ' sth e mi ssi n gw o rd ?
Answers l. 2. 3. 4. a.used a.That a.other a .w h o g. mind b. ran c. would b.was c.be b. and c. fell b. industry c. would h.Tend d, as d.go d. next d. who e. my f. have e.as f.but e. had e. way f. used

6 . eventually 7 . wronS 8 . not 9. nolirp t 0 . say

Answersor I l-14 will vary. f

] L o o k b a cka n d ch e ck
Answerswill vary.

121

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r l

Revision uiz q
Answers l. A holf-brother the son of one of your parenrs is (eitheryour mother or your father). stepbrother A i s y o u r b r o t h e rb y m a r r i a g e . o r e x a m p l ei , y o u r F f m o t h e r m a r r i e s n o t h e rm a na n d t h a t m a n h a sa a son,the son becomes your stepbrother.
t.

A girl. Possibleanswers:move in together, get married

A a.

No. You tal<egrear care when choosing the clorhes you buy and wear. ears, eyebrow, etc.

q

6 . I n t h i s d a y a n d a g e ,n e a r l y e v e r y t h i n g y o u r n o s e , :

7.

P o s s i b l e n s w e r s : m a r c h i n gb a n d ,f l o a t s ,p e o p l e a a In costumes

8. No. 9 . W h e n y o u ' r e r r y i n g t o c o m m u n i c a t ew i t h s o m e o n e w h o d o e s n ' t l < n o wy o u r l a n g u a g e n d a y o u d o n ' t l < n o wt h e i r s . 10. Answers will vary.Yes nd no. Stereotypes a wouldn't exist if there weren't some truth to

them. | | . They damage property. 1 2 . P o s s i b la n s w e r s : r e a t h e e e p l yd r i n l < g l a s s f e b d , a o
water 1 3 . P o s s i b l e n s w e r s : T h e y o u l d r a i d a b a n l <p o s t a c , office, etc. 14. Possible nswers:You ould be stabbed, otsoneo, a c p s h o t , s t r a n g l e de t c . , | 5. lf you had a deep cut. 1 5 . P o s s i b l e n s w e r s : a v ea f i l l i n g , a v ea t o o t h o u t , a h h h a v ey o u r t e e r h p o l i s h e d . 17. Yes. 18. A lotionor cream. 1 9 . P o s s i b l e n s w e r s : w e d d i n g ,a b i r t h , a b i r t h d a y , a a a p r o m o t t o n , a n a n n i v e r s a r ye t c . , 2 0 . l t c a n b e u s e d r o d e s c r i b eb o t h . l t i s f a i r l v common to hear it usedfor both sexes.
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by Hugh Dellor elnd Andrew Wolkley

lnnovotions o new generolEnglish is coursefor closses lookingfor new moteriol withq freshopprooch. Bqsedon o longuoge-rich, lexicol/ grommoticol syllobus, storts it fromthe kindsof noturol conversotions thot wqnt to hove leorners . Presents proctises ond vocobulory, collocotions, fixed expressions, ond moreidiomotic longuoge. Motivqtes leqrners presenting by interesting ond unusuol texts Emphosizes sound-chunking orol fluency ond Covers productive ond receptive pronunciotion work Includes in-built leorner-troining pogesthqt offertipsond odvice qnd spokenlonguoge foundin Teoches monyospects grommor of not othercoursebooks

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fhe lnnovotions Teocher's Book includes step-by-step teochingnotes os wellos explonotions culturol of ond linguistic itemspresented the in Coursebook.

Innovotons iniermed i iote: Coursebook 593-9841O O-7 WorkbookO-7593-9845-3 Teocher's Book O 2593 -9843 7 Teocher's Resource Book(Phoiocopioble) 593-9842-9 O-7 Audio CDs O-7593-9839-9 Audio TopesO-7593-9840-2 ExomView'- TestBonk I -4 I 30-05I9-5 Pro I S B N O - /5-ll
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THOT\/ISON HEINLE

Visit Hein e online ot: www.heinle.com F o .y c u . e o . r - : > l - ' : ^ : w - w . t h o m s c n l e o r n i n g . c o m

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