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Physics of Nanotechnology

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The Role of Nanotechnology in Everyday Life

Physics of Nanotechnology ~ 1~ The Role of Nanotechnology in Everyday Life Outlines: 1. Introduction 2.

Outlines:

  • 1. Introduction

  • 2. Global Market for Nanotechnology Products

  • 3. The Most Common Nanoscale Substance Used in Consumer Products

  • 4. Various Uses of Nanotechnology by Sector

i.

 

ii.

Cosmetics and Sunscreens Textile and Clothing

iii.

Sports, Leisure, and Household

iv.

Food and Packaging

v.

Computers and Electronics

vi.

Transport, Building and Construction

vii.

Medical

viii.

Environment

  • 5. Nanotechnology as Dual-Use Technology

  • 6. Challenges

 
  • 7. Conclusion

  • 8. References

University of Gujrat

Department of Physics M. Phil (Physics) Session: 2016-18

Physics of Nanotechnology

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Physics of Nanotechnology ~ 2~ 1. Introduction Nanotechnology is referred to as a general-purpose technology. Its

1. Introduction

Nanotechnology is referred to as a general-purpose technology. Its field is interdisciplinary. It is not an industry, nor a single field of research. It is blend of all the fields of science and all fields of life. From clothes to computer hard drives, nanotechnology plays an important role in the manufacture of numerous products that we use in our everyday life.

Whether we are in the office, at home or on holiday, we can't escape

nanotechnology

based

 

on

the

manipulation

of the

very

small.

Even

though, many nanotechnologies we are

using every day have been inspired by

nature, there

is still

a

lot

of

untapped

potential left. And probably, some day we

will

be

able

to apply

all

the

methods

nature has employed.

Physics of Nanotechnology ~ 2~ 1. Introduction Nanotechnology is referred to as a general-purpose technology. Its

Also, almost fully transparent nanostructures, which were found in the wings of cicada insects, were used to improve non-reflective materials. Mimicking the arrangement of molecules of the cyphochilus beetle would lead to creating a substitute of potentially toxic pigments, which are used to create white paint and paper.

Nanostructures that cover the surface of lotus leaves are able to repel water and dirt. This effect can be used to create self-cleaning windows. Beetles in the Namib

University of Gujrat

Department of Physics M. Phil (Physics) Session: 2016-18

Physics of Nanotechnology

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Desert use particular nanostructures that allow them to capture some moisture from the morning fog. Such structures can be used in buildings to trap moisture for inside use.

Physics of Nanotechnology ~ 3~ Desert use particular nanostructures that allow them to capture some moisture

2. Global Market for Nanotechnology Products

In 2010, the total market for nano-biotechnology products was $19.3 billion whereas it has reached upto $29.7 billion by 2015 with a percentage growth of 9%. Similarly the medical applications and its sales in 2010 was at $19.1 billion with a growth rate of 8.7% has reached $29 billion in 2015.

University of Gujrat

Department of Physics M. Phil (Physics) Session: 2016-18

Physics of Nanotechnology ~ 4~
Physics of Nanotechnology
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More and many more products, the consumer products are branded worldwide as “nano”.

3. The Most Common Nanoscale Substance Used in Consumer Products

The current applications of nano-scale products in consumer products around the world include the following fields:

Automotive, Clothing and textiles, Cosmetics, Electronics, Food, food additives and food packaging, Household, Personal Care/Health, Sports Equipment, Toys and Children’s Goods, Medical Applicati.ons

Yet it has not been correctly known that how many companies are using nanotechnology for their innovation and products development. By end of March 10, 2011, the nano-technology consumer products inventory contains 1317 products or product lines. It was at only 212 products by the end of 2006.

University of Gujrat

Department of Physics M. Phil (Physics) Session: 2016-18

Physics of Nanotechnology ~ 5~
Physics of Nanotechnology
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The most common nanoscale substance used in consumer products is nano- silver (anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties). Baby bottle nipples, door handles, food contact products, interiors of refrigerators and washing machines, clothing, bedding, paints, cleaning products, food storage containers, bandages, medical devices, mattresses and children’s teddy bears (Nielsen 2008). Carbon based nano-materials are the second class common nanoscale material found in consumer products because they are:

o

Light weight,

o

High strength,

o

Electrically and thermally conductive.

Sports equipment, vehicle parts, storage of power in batteries, moisturizing

effectiveness of cosmetics, drug delivery. (Maynard, 2006, Nielsen 2008)

4. Various Uses of Nanotechnology by Sector

University of Gujrat

Department of Physics M. Phil (Physics) Session: 2016-18

Physics of Nanotechnology ~ 6~
Physics of Nanotechnology
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  • i. Cosmetics and Sunscreens

The use of nanotechnology in cosmetics and sunscreens has revolutionized the showbiz industry. Some of the products in these fields are:

Nano-sized TiO 2 and ZnO-sunscreens Silver nanoparticles-antibacterial properties:

o

Soaps,

o Toothpastes,

o Deodorants, Lip products, Make-up instruments, Hair brushes, Curling tongs, Foils for electric and razors, Foot massagers, Tooth brushes, Rubber gloves, Hair dryers, Facial ionic steamers.

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

o

o Nanosomes: improves the solubility of ingredients and add shimmer

Nano emulsions and Nanosomes:

Preserve active ingredients such as vitamins and anti-oxidants Nano gold:

o

University of Gujrat

Department of Physics M. Phil (Physics) Session: 2016-18

Physics of Nanotechnology

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Healing and anti-oxidant properties e.g. sona belt an Indian product Fullerenes, Bucky balls

o

Anti-oxidant and smoothing properties in moisturizers, increased penetration into kin, Anti-aging properties Companies working on projects in nanotechnology:

o

o

o

o

L’Oreal,

o

Olay,

o

Mary Kay,

o

Estee Lauder,

o Neutrogena, Johnson & Johnson,

o

o

Avon,

o

Chanel Dior,

o Lancôme, Kara Vita. (FOE 2006, Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies)

o

ii.

Textile and Clothing

The use of nanotechnology in textile and clothing industry has brought new and modern fabrics and clothing which have very attraction for new era. These products are as follows properties:

Stain resistant,

Waterproof,

Wrinkle resistant,

Antibacterial, Radiation absorbency properties, Windproof, UV protection, Breathable and grime resistant fabrics, Companies working on it,

o

Eddie Bauer,

o

Gap,

o

Lee Jeans,

o

Old Navy,

o

Bas Tiger Woods,

o

Nike,

o

Tommy Hilfiger. (Chicago Tribune, 2004)

iii. Sports & Leisure, Household

The sports industries have changed overnight due to the application of nanotechnologies in this field. Mind blowing products with maximum strength and outstanding durability have been manufactured by applying nano-science. Some of these products are named as bellow:

University of Gujrat

Department of Physics M. Phil (Physics) Session: 2016-18

Physics of Nanotechnology ~ 8~
Physics of Nanotechnology
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Tennis rackets, Skis and snowboards, Golf balls, Nano-bike, Baseball bats, Sports clothing, Nano-ceramic, o Smooth and heat resistant household equipment e.g. flat iron Nano-particles:

o Household appliances to kill bacterial and odors e.g. refrigerators, shoe

protection nano-sprays, etc.

iv.

Food and Packaging

The involvement of nanotechnology in the food industries has brought a revolutionary and outstanding change in the preserving methods of foods. The packing and persevering techniques have been improved now. The following are the outcomes in this field:

University of Gujrat

Department of Physics M. Phil (Physics) Session: 2016-18

Physics of Nanotechnology ~ 9~  Natural and engineered nonmaterial in the  food, additives and
Physics of Nanotechnology
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 Natural and engineered nonmaterial in the
food, additives and packaging.
New flavors and textures, less use of fat,
enhanced absorption of nutrients, blockage
of ingredients that contribute to elevated
blood cholesterol
Smart
packaging
identifying
contaminated
food nanoscale sensors identifying the
presence of bacteria and releasing chemicals
as food spoils
Nano-material preventing adhesion of the
microbes to the surface and equipment
Nanosilver-food
contact
utensils
and
containers
  • v. Computer and Electronics

The advancement in the field of computer and electronics is no doubt due to the development in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. The new and best prices faster and smallest computers and mobile phones are its products. Some of the facts and figures are as follows:

Physics of Nanotechnology ~ 9~  Natural and engineered nonmaterial in the  food, additives and
Physics of Nanotechnology ~ 9~  Natural and engineered nonmaterial in the  food, additives and

Computer technologies like:

 

o

Mobile phones, digital cameras

o

And other high technology equipment

Moore’s law:

 

o

“Decrease in size and increase in density”.

Faster and smaller non-silicon based chipsets:

o

Memory and processors

o

New materials for semiconductor that increase processing speeds

o

Advanced microscopy

o

Faster and smaller telecom switches

o

Higher-speed transmission

o

New class of display using carbon nanotubes as emission device

University of Gujrat

Department of Physics M. Phil (Physics) Session: 2016-18

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o

Flat-screen TVs and computer monitors

vi. Transport, Building and Construction

The nanotechnology has produced outstanding development in the field of transport and building and construction department. The light weight, fuel efficient cars, aeroplanes and ships are the outcomes in this field:

  Lighter and stronger materials Paints with improved adhesion and anti-mildew properties,   
Lighter and stronger materials
Paints with improved adhesion and anti-mildew properties,
Insulation with increased insulation properties
Concrete and steel with increased strength and durability
Glass that acts as a fire barrier
Self-cleaning sheet glass based on a layer of TiO2 nano scale particles
Nano titanium dioxide is fixed in layers onto glass which enables suglight
to break down any dirt making it easy for the rain to wash the dirt away
on ships and tankers.
o

University of Gujrat

Department of Physics M. Phil (Physics) Session: 2016-18

Physics of Nanotechnology

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Physics of Nanotechnology ~ 11 ~ vii. Medical University of Gujrat Department of Physics M. Phil
Physics of Nanotechnology ~ 11 ~ vii. Medical University of Gujrat Department of Physics M. Phil

vii. Medical

University of Gujrat

Department of Physics M. Phil (Physics) Session: 2016-18

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Physics of Nanotechnology
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Diagnostic devices, Contrast agents, analytical tools, physical therapy applications and drug delivery vehicles Cancer diagnosis – “molecular imaging” intended to improve diagnostic accuracy. Targeting and localized delivery of drugs - delivering drugs specifically to cancer cells using nanoparticles that can be loaded with drugs The US Food and Drug Administration has already approved first generation nanodrugs such as Abraxane, a nanoformulation of the anti-cancer chemotherapy paclitaxel (T.Vines, T. Faunce 2009). An anti-cancer drug approved by Health Canada containing a nanomaterial designed to find cancer cells, which attaches itself to the cells and then releases a chemical that kills them (Health Canada, 2008). The drug is only released when attached to the cancer cell, the toxic side effects associated with many drugs used for chemotherapy are thereby reduced(Nielsen 2008).

viii. Environment

Nanotechnology is being used in several applications to improve the environment. This includes cleaning up existing pollution, improving manufacturing methods to reduce the generation of new pollution, and making alternative energy sources more cost effective. Potential applications include:

University of Gujrat

Department of Physics M. Phil (Physics) Session: 2016-18

Physics of Nanotechnology ~ 13 ~
Physics of Nanotechnology
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Cleaning up organic chemicals polluting groundwater. Researchers have shown that iron nanoparticles can be effective in cleaning up organic solvents that are polluting groundwater. The iron nanoparticles disperse throughout the body of water and decompose the organic solvent in place. This method can be more effective and cost significantly less than treatment methods that require the water to be pumped out of the ground.

Generating less pollution during the manufacture of materials. Researchers have demonstrated that the use of silver nano-clusters as catalysys can significantly reduce the polluting byproducts generated in the process used to manufacture propylene oxide. Propylene oxide is used to produce common materials such as plastics, paint, detergents and brake fluid.

Increasing the electricity generated by windmills. Epoxy containing carbon nano-tubes is being used to make windmill blades. The resulting blades are stronger and lower weight and therefore the amount of electricity generated by each windmill is greater.

Producing solar cells that generate electricity at a competitive cost. Researchers have demonstrated that an array silicon nano-wires embedded in a

University of Gujrat

Department of Physics M. Phil (Physics) Session: 2016-18

Physics of Nanotechnology

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polymer results in low-cost but high-efficiency solar cells. This may result in solar cells that generate electricity as cost effectively as coal or oil.

5. Nanotechnology as Dual-Use Technology

As a general-purpose technology, nanotechnology will be dual-use (more powerful weapons and tools of surveillance).

The

Physics of Nanotechnology ~ 14 ~ polymer results in low-cost but high-efficiency solar cells. This may

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) hosts the US Army Institute of Soldier Nanotechnologies (ISN). Investigating smart materials able to be responsive to the conditions of their environment, sensors able to detect chemical or biological warfare agents and lightweight bulletproof materials. According to MIT's Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies Future Warrior of 2025 will be equipped with an integrated technology system that provides:

o

ballistic protection,

o communications/information, chem/bio protection, power, climate control, strength augmentation, and Physiological monitoring.

o

o

o

o

o

Near-term projects, nanocomposites and engineered nanoparticles for high- energy munitions (ICB), nanometallics for armaments (ARL), nanowires and carbon nanotubes for nanoelectronics (NRL), Neural-electronic interfaces for visual, auditory and motor prostheses implanted into the body (DARPA, NRL), etc. More visionary applications and materials such as performance- enhancing nanoengineered prostheses and bio-engineered weapons are conceptually feasible.

University of Gujrat

Department of Physics M. Phil (Physics) Session: 2016-18

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6. Challenges

The exact usage and quantity of nanomaterials is not known. It is difficult to determine how and where nanomaterials are used in since many manufacturers do not reveal it. More and more consumer products are branded with the buzzword “nano” (advertisement strategy). Research is mainly motivated by immediate profitable return generated by high value commercial products. What number of announced inventions can become commercialized products necessary for the society? Are nanotechnology inventions wanted by the society? How to regulate nano-enabled products?

7. Conclusion

There was an era in near past when “centi” and “mili” were the very common words when people and researchers used these words for their discoveries and researches. Then the “micro” era started and new devices started to be developed like microscopes etc, and we started to write in micro-meters, micro-seconds, and micro- farads etc. Now this is an era of “nano” in which we are talking about nano-particles, nano-materials, nano-wires, nano-tubes, nano-medicines, and many more. We are talking in nano-meters, nano-seconds etc. I think the next few decades will be of “Pico” and then so on. The future will pull us towards positive and negative infinities where we will go farther in the universe and similarly deeper into the materials from mili to micro and from micro to nano and then nano to pico scales and then son on. This journey will get going….!!!

University of Gujrat

Department of Physics M. Phil (Physics) Session: 2016-18

Physics of Nanotechnology

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References:

University of Gujrat

Department of Physics M. Phil (Physics) Session: 2016-18