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ENGLISH

for
MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING
compiled by:
Uray Endang Kusumajaya, S.Pd

Djoko santoso
Turini
Noviza Muchtar
Bima Purwoko
Budiono

Mechanical
Engineering
Department

Pontianak
State
Polytechnic
2009
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UNIT 1

Before reading this passage, answer these questions.


1. Do you still find an old fashioned vehicle?
2. What does it look like?
3. Mention the characteristics of the above vehicle.

THE HISTORY OF THE AUTOMOBILE

The automobile has been around for more than 100 years. The first automobiles were
basically horse-drawn buggies and carriages powered by gasoline-fueled engines
instead of horses. They were called gas buggies and horseless carriages: The early
engines had one cylinder that could produce only one or two horsepower. A
horsepower is roughly the power of one horse.

The first automobile was a gas buggy built by Karl Benz in Germany in 1885 and
1886. It has three wheels, one in the front and two in the rear. That year another
German, Gottlieb Daimler, mounted an engine in a wooden bicycle. The next year he
also built a four-wheel gas buggy. Two brothers, Charles and Frank Duryea, built the
first automobile in the United States in 1895. Henry Ford, Ransom Olds, and others
were building cars in this country. Figure 1.4 shows a car built by Ford in 1896. The
early cars were crude compared to today's cars. But they run-most the time.

By 1900, several factories in Detroit and elsewhere were making automobiles. Most
manufacturers were building cars that kept getting bigger and more expensive. Ford
wanted to make cars as cheaply as possible so more people could buy them. By 1908,
he had the car in production that pat America on wheels. This was dc. Model T Ford,
manufactured on the first modern assembly line. During the next 20 years, 15 million
Model T Ford were sold.

Today, the automobile industry is one of the biggest in the world. In the United
States, about 12 million people wark in the automotive industry and its related
businesses. This is one out of every seven workers.The job of about a million of these
men and women is to service automotive vehicles and keep them running.

WII.LIAM CROUSE, DONALD L. ANGLIN Automotive Mechanics

Glossary
assembly line (n) : alur produksi atau perakitan
buggy (n) : kereta beroda empat (sejenis andong)
carriage (n) : kereta yang biasanya ditarik oleh kuda
crude (adj) : sederhana
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mount (v) : mernasang
wooden bicycle (n) : sepeda kayu

Exercise 1
Answer the following questions briefly.
What did the people usually use for early transportation
Mention the excess and shortcoming of a gas buggy and horseless carriage.
What kind of engine was applied in the previous vehicle?
When did Karl Bentz create his first automobile?
What creation did Daimler have on his work?
Compare the previous and modern cars.
How did the entrepreneurs develop their business?
Why did Ford create the cars with low price?
Nowadays, what plant has a great progress?
In the U.S.A., what sector usually gives job opportunities to people

Exercise 2
In some countries, some people become the collectors of old fashioned goods. What
motivates them and what benefits do they get from their activities?

Exercise 3
Fill in the blanks with the most appropriate words provided.

properly jobs parts technician automotive


skilled shop employee engineering employment

Career Opportunities in Automotive Service


A variety of (1) are available in automotive service. To get your first
job, you should know the basics. This includes how automotive (2)
work and how to service them when they do not work (3).

The automotive mechanic or(4) is respected well-paid worker. He or


she may earn as much as workers in other (5) jobs. Many service
managers, dealers, and independent garage owners were once(6)
mechanics. Walter Chrysler, Henry Ford, and Ransom Olds all started as automotive
mechanics.

Learn all you can from studying, this book. In the (7), learn what to do
and how to do it. Complete the course in automotive mechanics. Take any other
automotive courses you can. They all provide you with knowledge and skill. And they
become important entries on your (8) application.

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LANGUAGE WORK
GERUND

A gerund is the-ing form of a verb used as a noun. A gerund is used in the same ways
as a noun, i.e. as a subject or an object.
And there are some verbs that are followed by gerund. They are:
enjoy quit avoid keep sugges
apprecia finish postpone consid tMind
te
stop delay mention er
discuss

Examples:
Most car manufacturers keep getting bigger.
The job of about a million of these men and women is to se-vice automotive vehicles
and keep them running.
His hobby is repairing a motor vehicle.
Riding a bicycle will make him fresh.

Exercise 5
Fill the blanks with the '-ing ' form of the verbs in brackets.
l .________ (hunt) down criminals is his main task
2. .________ (sail) in this weather is dangerous.
3. .________ (travel) by night is very comfortable.
4. .________ (race) is his career.
5. .________ (climb) the stairs makes her tired. She prefers to make use of lifts.
6. .________ (drive) at 60 km. per hour is forbidden in this area.
7. .________ (repair) radios and other electrical appliances is the work of the
electrician.

Exercise 6
Complete the following sentences by using gerund.
When Beth got tired, she stopped working / studying.
Would you mind___________the door?
The weather will get better soon. We can leave as soon as it quits ___________
The police officer told him to stop, but the thief kept ___________
I enjoy___________a long walk every morning.
He told a really funny joke. We couldn't stop ___________
Sometimes I put off___________my homework.
You have to decide where you want to go to school next year. You
can't postpone that decision much longer.
Tommy mentioned___________the bus to school instead of walking.
I appreciate___________able to study in peace and quiet.

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LET'S TALK

Early Friendship

Probably you already know some of the members in your class. Usually you will not
know all of them and, sometimes, even you and the students you know by name
actually know very little about each other. Your first opportunity to talk to your
friends in your class should give you a chance to introduce yourself:
What are some o: the facts and ideas that your friends want to know about you? Some
of the most important items about yourself are:
Your name
Your place of birth
Your address and interesting details about community
Members of your family
Your hobbies and interests
Your pets
The schools you have attended, etc.

Possible ideas to develop your main interest are:


What is it?
How you got started?
What equipment is required and how much it costs?
Whether you pursue this hobby by yourself or with a group.
Famous people who are interested in the same hobby.

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UNIT 2

Before reading the passage, answer these questions.


In your house, you may find equipment which is rusty. Can you mention the
characteristics of the tool!
Why aren't we allowed to use the rusty tool?

CORROSION

Corrosion attacks all engineering materials, especially metals. Corrosion is any


chemical action which harms the properties of material. It reduces the life of a
material and increases the cost of a structure. For example, a steel bridge must be
repainted regularly to protect it from rust. Various metal (s) have therefore been
developed to resist corrosion. Among them are the stainless steel. These metals
contain from 12 to 25% chromium which forms a very thin layer of film of chromium
oxide on the surface of the metal. This film protects the metal from corrosion. Alloys
made from copper and nickel are also corrosion resistant. For example monel metal,
which contains roughly 60% nickel and 30% copper, is resistant to both fresh and salt
water corrosion. It is therefore used for marine engine parts, and for other surfaces like
a ship's propellers which are in contact with sea water. Cupronickels, which contain a
smaller proportion of nickel, have a similar resistance to fresh and sea water. They
are mainly used to make tubes:

When two different metal touch each other in the presence of moisture, corrosion
occurs. This type of corrosion is known as galvanic or electrolytic corrosion because it
has an electrical capes. The metal and the moisture act like a weak battery and the
chemical action which result as corrodes one of the metals. If, for example, aluminum
sheets are riveted with copper civets, the aluminum near the rivets will corrode in
damp conditions.

No material can be completely corrosion-resistant. Even stainless steels will corrode.


Engineers can, however, fight corrosion. For example, they can use high-purity metals
because these metals are more resistant than alloys. They can also make sure that two
dissimilar metals are not allowed to touch each other. Finally engineers can protect
the surfaces of the metals in many different ways. One of the most common methods
is to paint them:
ERICH H. GLENUINNING English in Mechanical Engineering

Glossary
alloy (n) : logam campuran
chromium (n) ; khrom (Cr)
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cupronickel (n) : campuran antara tembaga dan nikel.
galvanic corrosion (n) : terjadinya karat karena adanya affran listrik.
moisture. (n) : keadaan lembab.
rivet (v) : mengeling

Exercise 1
Answer the following questions briefly!
What material is commonly attacked by corrosion?
How can corrosion make the material less qualified?
How can stainless steels resist corrosion?
What are the characteristics of metals used for marine engine parts?
When can the electrolytic corrosion occur?
How can the condition have great influence on corrosion?
What are the advantages of using metals which are still pure?
How can corrosion be controlled?

Exercise 2
Choose the most correct answer!
1. The following materials-can be easily attacked by corrosion.
a, metals c. wood
b. rubber d. clay
2. What kind of metals which has high resistance to corrosion?
a. iron c. nickel
b. stainless steels d. gold
3. What does monel metal contain?
a . 12 to 25 nickel c. 60 % nickel and 30 % copper
b. 30 % nickel and 60% copper d. 12 % to 25 % copper

4. In what condition do the two different metals easily corrode?


a. in a dry condition c. in wet condition
b. in the moisture d. in humid condition

5. Most of marine engine parts are made up of monel. Why?


a. monel metal is strong
b. monel metal is resistant to fresh and salt water corrosion.
c. monel metal is light enough in the sea water.
b. monel metal is made from copper and nickel..

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Exercise 4
Complete these paragraphs with the suitable words provided!

narrow frames broad scraper


rags pot carry cloths
turpentine stepladder walls angled
roller tray

First, you need paint_________. There are three main types: broad, narrow,
and_________. Use the broad brush for broad flat areas such as_________. Use
the_________ one for corners. And use the angled one for window frames and
difficult angles.
Next you need a_________ for painting flat surfaces smoothly. Use a long extension
on the handle for reaching high places, such as ceilings. You will also need
_________for holding the paint and the roller.
Next, you need a paint_________for holding the paint and the brush. Make sure that
the mouth of the pot is wide enough for the widest brush, and that it is small enough
to_________.
Next, you need a_________for climbing up to the job, a_________for scrapping off
old paint and paper from the walls,_________for covering the furniture,
and_________for cleaning paint off the floor. Finally, you need_________for
cleaning the paint brushes and rollers.

Exercise 5
Match the words below with their definitions indicated in the text!

tube a. not thoroughly dry


moisture b. state of being pure
purity c. power of resisting
chromium d. long hollow cylinder
galvanic e. mineral substance (tin, iron)
cupronickels f. element to prevent rust
damp g. resists rust
resistance h. condensed vapor (on a surface)
metal i. sudden corrosion
stainless steel j. alloy for making coins

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LANGUAGE- WORK

SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

We use the Simple Present Tense to talk about things in general. We are not thinking
only about the present. We use it to say that something happens all the time or
repeatedly, or that something is true in general. It is not important whether the action
is happening at the time of speaking.

Exercise 6
Answer the following questions. Example:
What kind of action is corrosion? (chemical action).
Corrosion is a chemical action.

1. What is the famous metal which has been developed to resist corrosion? (stainless
steels)
What do stainless steels contain from? (12% to 25% chromium)
What are the substances of alloys? (copper and nickel)
What is monel metal resistant to? (fresh and salt water corrosion)
What might occur when two different metals touch each other in the presence of
moisture? (corrosion)
What do the metals and the moisture act like? (a weak battery)
Is there any material completely corrosion - resistant? (no)
Who usually fights corrosion? (engineers)
How do usually engineers avoid corrosion? (high-purity metals)
What is the common method to protect the surfaces of the metals? (paint)

Exercise 7
In this exercise you have to into their correct forms.
Examples:
- Water boils (boil) at 100 degrees centigrade.
- George doesn't go (not/go) to the cinema very often.
- How many languages do you speak (you/speak)

The swimming bath_______(open) at 9.00 and_______(close) at 1$.30 everyday.


What time _______(the banks/close) in Britain?
I have a car but I_______(not/use) it very often.
How many cigarettes_______(you/smoke) a day?
What_______(you/do)?"I am an electrical engineer".
Where_______(your father/come) from? He _______ (come) from England.
If you need money, why_______you/not/get) a job?
I don't understand the word "deceive". What_______ (deceive/mean)?

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Exercise 8
Now you have to use these sentences to make questions. Begin your questions with
the word(s) in brackets:

Example:
Tom plays tennis. (How often)
How often does Tom play tennis?

Ann watches television. (What)


I write to my parents: (Every month)
I have dinner in the evening. (What time/usually)
Tom works in the morning. (When)
I go to Merdeka theatre on Sunday.
(Where) People do stupid thing,: (Why)
The car breaks down. (What happens)
I like the blue shirt. (Which)

LET'S TALK: Daily Activities


a. Use these expressions to talk about your daily activity with youi partner.
get up
get dressed
have juice, cereal, coffee
get to work
work hard
finishing work
have take a bath
leave the house
go to school
go out
go home

b. Here are some vocabularies that will help you to describe the missing person.
blond hair
thin
slender
fat
tall
small
cheerful
quiet
pessimistic
talkative
aggressive
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bad-temper
calm, cold
emotional
generous
kind
straight, wavy, curly

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UNIT 3
Before reading this passage, answer these questions.
When one thing gets pressure, will it move or be static?
What happens to the pump while you are pumping something?

PRESSURE

Gases are made up of atoms and molecules, which are in constant and rapid motion.
The atoms and molecules are constantly hitting the walls of the gases container. In
doing so they exert pressure on the walls.

Gases have no definite shape or volume. The shape and volume of a gas depend on its
container. Compared with solids and liquids, the molecules of a gas are relatively far
apart.

Hence they can be compressed, or forced into a smaller space. But if the volume of a
gas is decreased, its pressure increases, because the molecules hit the walls more often
and more rapidly. Thus pressure is in inverse proportion to volume.

A liquid, or. the other hand, cannot be compressed. If we try to force a liquid into a
smaller space, it seeks a way out of the container. The pressure which a liquid exerts
on the walls of container is equal in all directions. This is why liquids are used in
different directions, in hydraulic brakes and lifts.

The more gas is compressed, the greater its resistance to compression. If a large
amount of gas is forced into a small space, it becomes difficult to compress further.
Under very high pressure, compressed gas can be used for transmitting power.

As gas pressure is increased, the molecules are forced closer together. If this
continues, the molecules eventually become attached to one another. At this point,
the gas changes into a liquid.

The pressure of a gas varies with temperature. Pressure is in direct proportion to


absolute temperature. The higher the temperature, the more rapid the motion of the
molecules, and consequently the greater the pressure exerted on the walls of the
container. Conversely, the higher the pressure of a gas, the higher its temperature.
When gas is compressed, it becomes hotter.

ERIC H. GLENDINNING> English in Mechanical Engineering

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Glossary
brakes (n) : rem
compress (v) : menekan, memampatkan
conversely (adv) : berlawanan
eventually (adv) : akhirnya
exert (v) : menggunakan
far apart (adj) : berjauhan satu sama lain
motion (n) : gerakan
shape (n) : bentuk

Exercise 1
Answer these questions briefly.

What are gases made of?


Why do gases exert pressure on their container?
Why can gases change their volume, unlike liquids and solids?
Why can't a liquid be compressed?
What happens when gases are compressed?
What happens when gases are heated?.
What is the main idea of the second paragraph?

Exercise 2
Complete the following sentences with the most suitable words given in the box.

(column, density, equivalent, mercury, sea-level)

Atmospheric Pressure

The average atmospheric pressure at_________ is approximately 1 kg/crn2: This is


pressure which will support a _________ of _________ (Hg) 75 mm high, and it is
called `one atmosphere'. It is_________ to the pressure of a column of air
approximately 8 km high, if the _________ of this is constant and equal to the
pressure at sea level.

(nozzle, generated, flame, cylinders, brittleness, blowpipe, adjusted acetylene)

Methods of Welding

When oxygen and_________gases are mixed correctly they give a _________which


reaches a temperature of approximately 3,300C. In high-pressure system, the oxygen
and acetylene are used from high-pressure_________. The acetylene should be to

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working pressure first and then the oxygen: In low-pressure system the acetylene
is_________in low-pressure generator.
The oxygen and acetylene are carried by hose to the_________. Nozzles with
different sizes are used to change the heat of the flame. These are marked to show the
gas consumption. It is important to use_________of the correct size, depending on the
thickness of the metal. A small flame from a large nozzle must never be used. The
flame must be adjusted correctly for good welds. Too much oxygen
causes_________.

LANGUAGE WORK
SIMPLE AND PLURAL FORMS

Notice the irregular


nouns.
Singular plural
Man men
Gentleman gentlemen
police policemen
Policeman
Woman women
child children
Wife wives
Knife knives
Loaf loaves
Foot feet
Tooth teeth
Mouse mice
Sheep sheep
Fish fish

COMMENTS:
The nouns people, police, and clothes do not have singular forms. There is no
difference in the pronunciation of the final syllables of `gentleman' and `gentlemen',
`policeman' and `policemen', etc. Thus the singular and plural forms of these words
are pronounced the same.
The difference in the pronunciation of woman and women is in the first vowel. The
difference in the final vowel is an orthographic change only.

Note:
The noun news is non count. When it is the subject of a sentence, it requires a singular
form of the verb.

Example: The news is good.


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Exercise 5
Practice irregular plurals. I see a man.

I see a man. I see two men


I see a gentleman. I see two gentlemen.
I see a woman. I see two women.

child
knife
foot
tooth
loaf
mouse
sheep
fish
salesman
goose

Exercise 6
Read the following sentences. Give the plural forms of the nouns In parentheses.

Example : Study the next three (chapter).


Read : Study the next three chapters.

Can you recommend some good (oil)?


There are several (student) waiting to see you.
I had to have two (tooth) pulled the other day.
The weather forecast is for the blue (sky).
How many (service station) are there in this town.
Two of my (brother) are (lawyer).
The (roof) of these houses are tile.
Get me two (lamp).
My (foot) really hurt!
You can always hear (echo) in these mountains.
They are proud of their (son in law).
Are (postmen) the employees of the federal government?
Did you raise these (tomato) in your garden?
There are twelve (month) in a year.
I think we need two (engine).

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Exercise 7
LET'S TALK:

Aerosol Spray Can

When the button is pressed it forces the valve down, uncovering a small hole. The
product is forced up the dip tube by the pressure in the can. The propellant and the
product leave the nozzle together and the propellant evaporates as soon as it reaches
the air; breaking the product into tiny droplets. The same idea, used with a thicker
liquid and a wider nozzle, results in foam.

Retell in front of the class the process that gas pressure forces liquid down the can up
the dip tube to the nozzle when the pushbutton valve is opened.

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UNIT 4
Before reading this passage, answer these questions.
1. What do you know about aerodynamics?
2. Why does car design need aerodynamics?

AERODYNAMICS

When you walk against a strong wind you become very aware that air can hold you
back. Aerodynamics is the study of the way in which air moves around objects.
Scientists use aerodynamics chiefly when designing airplanes, but the same laws
apply io automobiles, ships, bridges and ski-scrapers.

The main purpose of aerodynamics is the design of shapes that will offer the least
resistance to the flow of air. This is called streamlining. The air offers great resistance
to any object moving faster than about 20 mph (30 km/h), but the air resistance at any
speed depends on the shape of that object.

In the flight of airplanes, the resistance of air used to give the "lift" that takes the plane
up. If there were no air, ordinary aircraft could not take off. However, this does not
apply to spaceships. The downward thrust of their rocket motors can safely lift them
off the moon, where there is no air at all. They do not rely on the airfoil shape of
wings to lift them from the ground.

The airfoil shape


The upper surface of an aircraft wing is curved, and the bottom surface is almost flat.
This is an airfoil shape. The curved top allows the air to move faster across the top
across the bottom of the wing. Because the pressure of any gas such as air gets less the
faster it goes, the air pressure on top of the wing is less than the pressure beneath it. So
the wing is lifted up as the air flows across it.
Engineers are always looking for ways to increase the lift of airplanes and at the same
time reduce the resistance (drag) of the air This is very important to the airlines
because nearly 'half of their costs are spent on buying fuel to feed their thirsty jets.
Therefore, the better the streamlining of an airplanes, the less fuel it will use.

Wind tunnels
To study the aerodynamics of objects, scientists make great use of wind tunnels. In a
wind tunnel, an even flow of air at a controlled speed is blown along by powerful
fans.

Scale models of airplanes, automobiles or any thing else being studied are hung in the
air stream: They are connected to instruments which measure the forces on different

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parts of them. Complicated math is needed to work out the result of wind tunnel tests.
Special photographs are also used.
DF.IVIPSEY MICHAEL Growing Up with Science

Glossary
skyscraper (n) : gedung pencakar langit
spaceship (n) : pesawat ruang angkasa
streamlining (n) : bentuk aerodinamis yang memilikti nilai hambat rendah
terhadap terpaan angin
thrust (n) : day a dorong
wind tunnels (n) : terowongan angin

Exercise 1
Answer the following questions briefly.

What is aerodynamics?
What is the function of aerodynamics in designing the shape of vehicles?
What is the correlation between the flight of airplanes and the resistance of air?
How can a spaceship lift itself off the earth?
What is meant by airfoil shape? Explain it.
What are engineers trying to do to improve the airplanes?
How can streamlining influence the fuel used?
What is the wind tunnel for?
What is the main topic of the passage?

Exercise 2
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate answers from the list.

Nose shape faster tail


Water through air

The Best Shape


The best________(1) for an object moving________ (2) air at a speed slower than the
speed of sound is that of a falling drop of________ (3). This drop shape, rounded at
the front and pointed at the________ (4), gives less air drag than any other.
But this drop-of-water shape does not work with objects traveling ________ (5) than
the speed of sound. Supersonic airplanes have sharply-pointed noses. This is because
the________ (6) of these planes has continually to pierce a wall of undisturbed air.

LANGUAGE WORK: MODAL AUXILIARY


Moda1 auxiliaries can express that a speaker feels something necessary; advisable,
permissible, possible, or probable.

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Example:
will future time (be going to)

can ability (be able to)

may permission (be permitted to, have permission to)

might possibility (it is possible that.)

should obligation (ought to)


desirability
must inference (conclude that.)
conclusion
probability (It is very probable that..)
necessity (have to)

Comments
The modal auxiliaries do not change their forms when their subjects are the third
person singular such as: he/she/it. That is, there is no s form for the third person
singular.
The normal position for the modal in a sentence is after the subject and before the rest
of the sentence.

Exercise 2
Rephrase the following sentences by using the modal.
Examples:

Ronny is going to buy a new carburetor.


--- Ronny will buy a new carburetor.
When you walk against a strong wind, you become very aware that air is able to hold
you back.
--- When you walk against a strong wind, you become very aware that air can hold
you back.

Yudi and Budi are going to play tennis tomorrow.


It is possible that Ali is a very good mechanic.
Jono is able to drive a car well.
We have toget up at six tomorrow morning.
It is possible that Jono will go to the service station.
It is possible that Mary is home now.
Paul is able to repair his fathers car.
You have permission to buy a new motorcycle.
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Joni is going to study at the library tonight.
My brother is in y tour class. In conclude that you know him.
Mary is able to do he test well.
Tony has to get a new passport soon.
It is possible that Harry is going to study at London University.
Jack outh to see a manual book before reapairing a car.
Every student ought to read one good book evevry week.

LETS TALK
Role Play
Make a dialogue with your friends. Five students have role as airplane passengers.
One student will be a pilot while the three others will be the stewardesses. There is a
trouble during their flight. The passengers feel very terrible. Some of them are
shouting and crying. The pilot and the stewardess try to keep them calm.

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UNIT 5
Before reading this passage, answer these questions.
1. Where do you usually find a piston?
2. What is the function of a piston?

THE WANKEL ENGINE

The Wankel engine is a form of heat engine which has a rotary piston. In other words,
instead of going up and down the Wankel piston rotates in a cylinder. Both the
cylinder and piston are quite different in shape from those of conventional engines.
The Wankel piston is triangularwith curved sides and the cylinder is roughly oval in
shape. The piston has an inner bore which is linked through an eccentric gear to the
output shaft. The other end of the bore is toothed and engages with a stationary gear
fixed to the cylinder end. This arrangement ensures that the piston follows an elliptical
path round the cylinder so that the apexes of the piston, which carry gas tight seals, are
always in contact with the inside surface of the cylinder.

The piston thus forms three crescent-shaped spaces between itself and the cylinder
wall, which vary in size as the piston rotates. Fuel enters the cylinder through the
inletpon when one of these spaces is increasing in size. The fuel is trapped in this
section then compressed by the turning piston and ignited by the sparking plug. The
expanding gases subject the piston to a twisting moment which makes the piston
revolve further until the exhaust gases escape through the exhaust poit A fresii charge
is then induced into the cylinder. meanwhile the same process is being repeated in the
other two spaces between the piston and the cylinder. '

The Wankle engine has many advantages over the reciprocating piston engine. Fewer
moving parts are necessary because it produces a rotary movement it has no
vibration. In addition, it has no valves, it is smaller and lighter than conventional
engines of the same power, and it runs economically on diesel and several other fuels.
ERICH H. GLENDINNIIVG, English in Focus

Glossary
apex (n) : puncak
crankshaft (n) : poros engkol
piston (n) : pelantak
port (n) : sisi kiri
reciprocating engine (n) : mesin yang pistonnya bergerak maju-mundur triangular
triangular (adj) : berbentuk segitiga
valve (n) : katup
vibration (n) : getaran
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Exercise 1
Choose the most correct option.

1. The Wankel engine________


a. has a heat engine
b. does not have a heat engine
c. does not have a rotary piston

2. The cylinder and piston of Wankel engine are________in shape as of those of


conventional engines.
a. not the same
b. almost thesame
c. the same

3. The piston thus forms three crescent-shaped spaces between itself and the cylinder
wall, which vary i n si z e as the piston rotates. The word itself refers to________.
a the piston
b. three crescent-shaped spaces
c. thecylinderwall

4. The fresh charge is then________the cylinder


a. break into
b. lead to
c. come into

5. The word it in the last paragraph means ________


a. the Wankel engine
b. the piston engine
c. the conventional engine

Exercise 2
Answer the following questions briefly.
How is the output shaft connected to the piston?
What happens to a Wankel engine when the fuel mixture is ignited?
Why does the Wankel engine not vibrate?
How does the Wankel piston work?
What is the function of an inner bore in the piston?
How can the cylinder get the fuel?
Compare the Wankel engine with the conventional engine.

Exercise 3
Answer the questions briefly.
1. Have you ever found a Wankel engine in your environment?
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2. If you have, when and where?
3. If you have not, find the information about it.

Exercise 4
Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words provided below.

Adjust Loud petrol pump spark


tank plug
Car Start fault fuel pipe gap

Finding a fault in a car


If your car doesn't start in the morning, you should check three things. First, the
battery, the fuel level and the ______(l). It is easy to repair these______(2). If the
battery is flat, you should recharge it. If this doesn't work, you should replace it. If
the______ (3) is empty, fill it up. If the spark plugs are dirty, clean them, and if
the______ (4) in a spark plug is too narrow or too wide, ______ (5) it to the correct
width.
If your (6) still doesn't start, the petrol pump may be broken, or the______ (7)
may be blocked. If the ______ (8) is broken, it must be repaired or replaced. If the
fuel pipe is blocked, take it off and un blocked it.
If there is a______ (9) click when you turn the key, the starter motor may be jammed.
If it is, you can try to release it by pushing the car forwards and backwards (in 2nd
gear). If the car still doesnt______ (10), the starter motor should be repaired or
replaced.

LANGUAGE WORK: CLAUSE


A clause is a group of words containing a subject and a verb.

Independent clause:
An independent clause is a complete sentence. It contains the main subject and verb of
a sentence

Dependent clause:
A dependent clause is an incomplete sentence. It must be connected to an independent
clause.

Adjective clause:
An adjective clause is a dependent clause that modifies a noun. It describes, identifies,
or gives further information about a noun.

Examples:
The Wankel engine is a form of heat engine which has a rotary piston.

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The piston has an inner bore which is linked through an eccentric gear to the output
shaft.

Exercise 6
Find in the passage, other sentences having the same pattern as the above example.
1. __________________________________________________
2. __________________________________________________
3. __________________________________________________
4. __________________________________________________
5. __________________________________________________
6. __________________________________________________

Complete the following sentences wlth who, whom; which, or that.

Was it Jennifer_______said that?


Was it Jennifer who said that?
This is the report_______the president wanted.
The girl_______are in my class are all good students.
Our teacher, _______ is an American, speaks English perfectly.
The car _______Fernando used belongs to his uncle.
The teacher with_______I studiedEnglish last year died last week.
To_______did you sell your furniture?
Is this the program_______you always watch on TV?
The movies_______we saw this summer were all good.
These are the kinds of exercise_______help us learn English.

Exercise 8
Combine the following sentences to coristruct relative clause. Example:
Mr. Leon succeeded in modifying a new type of engine.
Mr. Leon had studied abroad.
=> Mr. Leon who had studied abroad in 1980 succeeded in modifying a new type of
engine.

1. The company provides incentives.


Incentives will motivate the workers to work.

2. Workers will not be driven out of the competition.


Workers master science and technology.

3. The man repairs intricate machinery.


The machinery is usually used in the modern technology.

4. The engineer explains the work system of the equipment.


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The engineer has finished his research.
5. I must thank to her.
She has just helped me finishing my duty.

6. A young man will be easy to get employment.


A young man was born into inheritance.

7. The man is standing over there.


I told you about him.

8. The meeting was very interesting.


Many young engineers came into the meeting.

9. He changed the spare part of his motorcycle.


He bought a motorcycle two years ago.

10. The student looks gloomy.


His car lost a month ago.

Exercise 9
Complete the following sentences using relative clause.
Examples:
1. Do you see the man over there? He is the one
____________________________________
He is the one who rode a bicycle from Jakarta to Bali.
2. Okabawes is the company____________________________________
Okabawes is the company that produces springbeds for health and safety.

I spoke to one of the reporters.


I'm looking for the shop
I'd like to :peak to someone
I've bought a watch
A caretaker is a person
A thermometer is a device
I dislike people
The firmproduces robots
A kangaroo is an animal
He was one of the astronouts
I' m not the one
Is he the boy
I know a motorcycle
She was the pilot
The Wankel engine is a form of heat engine
Carbon steel is a steel
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A diesel engine is an engine
A foot brake is a brake
A concrete bridge is a bridge
A hard pump is a pump

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Unit 6
Before reading the text, answer the following questions.
1. What do you know about robot?
2. Mention the types of industrial factory using the robots.

INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS

The present industrial robots are actually mechanical handling devices that can be
manipulated under computer control. The mechanical handling device, or the
manipulator, emulates one arm of a human being, and similarly has joints, denoted
sometimes as a shoulder; elbow, and wrist. The wrist contains pitch, yaw role
orientations. The joints are driven by electric, pneumatic or hydraulic actuators, which
give robots more potential power than humans.

The computer, which is an integral part of every robot system, contains a control
program and task program. The control program is provided by the robot
manufacturer and enables the control of each joint of the robot manipulator. The task
program is provided by the user and specifies the manipulators motion required to
complete a specific job. Task programs are generated either by leading the robot
through the required job or by using on-line programming languages. When a
programming language is used, the robot computer also contains a language processor
which interprets the task programs and provides the data required by the control
program to direct the robot's motions. The control programs use the task program as
data and therefore, for every job a new task program must be generated by the user.
The industrial robot can do a humans work much more effectively. Industrial robots
are particularly useful in a wide variety of industrial applications, such as material
handling, painting, welding and assembly

YORAAM KOREN, Robotics for Engineers

actuator (n) : penggerak.


emulate (v) : menyerupai
generate (n) : membangkitkan,menghasilkan
hydraulic (adj) : hidrolis.
joint (n) : sambungan
processor (n) : alat pemroses.
task (n) : tugas.
specify (v) : menetapkan, menentukan.

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Exercise 1
Answer the following questions based on the text
What is the industrial robot actually?
How are the joints driven?
What is the content of the computer in the robot system?
How is the control program of the robot provided?
How is the task program generated?
What parts of the robots interpret the task program?
Why must a new task program be generated by the user?
In what parts of industrial life do the robots have big contributions?

Exercise 2
Look at the terms in the left-hand column and find the correct synonyms or definitions
in the right hand column.
1. device a. examination

2. joints b. a person that use it

3. electric c. operates with skill

4. manipulator d. manner of moving

5. motions e. means for special purposes

6. data f. structure by which things are


joined together
7. user g. fill or put together

8. welding h. Information

9. assemble i. charged with electricity

10. inspection j. joining pieces of metals by


pressure

LANGUAGE WORK:
COORDINATORS Study the following Sentences.
Both my mother and my sister are working women.
I repair both my car and my motorcycle.
We are now learning both English and Germany.
The girl has both beauty and kindness.
You can use both pencil and pen.
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Exercise 3
Use both ..and ....like the example below.

Example: He has painted the wall. Has he painted the door?


Yes, he has painted both the wall and the door.

Bondan is able to drive a car. Is Beny able to drive a car?


Chinese food is delicious. Is Padang food delicious?.
You have breakfast with your friends. Did you have lunch with than?
You like Yana Who song. Do you like Bimbo song?
The great poet writes poetry very well. Can he write the novel?

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