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Course Science Grade Level 8

Subject Mechanical Devices Time Frame 6 weeks

N. Mueller

Stage 1 Desired Results

Content Standard(s): By the end of this unit students will be able to understand the
reasoning behind mechanical systems design, function and how they are powered all
while considering the societal and environmental impacts.
Enduring Understandings/Big Essential Questions:
Ideas: Content specific . . .
Students will understand that . . . How could an existing mechanical machine
Mechanical systems are be critiqued in order to improve its design?
creating and evolve to fit the Why do different combinations of the same
needs of humans simple machines and components achieve
That the components of a very different tasks?
machine effect the structure How does a mechanical system use energy
and function to its advantage?
How different methods of Why should we look at mechanical
energy transmission benefit a machines through an environmental and
mechanical system societal lens?
How environmental and
societal needs impact the Prior Knowledge:
design of mechanical systems What do students already know . . .
Hydraulics and Pneumatics
Related misconceptions . . . Pressure and fluid pressure
Energy is a thing and can be P = F/A
used up Difference between structure and function
Energy and force are equal Simple machines
Work = Labor and Pressure =
Force Unit Emphasis: STS
An object at rest has no energy

Knowledge objectives (general Skills/Attitudes objectives (general

outcomes): outcomes):
Students will know . . . Students will be able to . . .
Illustrate the development of Ask questions about the relationships
science and technology by between and among observable variables,
describing, comparing and
and plan investigations to address those
interpreting mechanical devices
that have been improved over questions
time Conduct investigations into the
Analyze machines by describing relationships between and among
function and structures of the observations, and gather and record
overall system, subsystems, and
qualitative and quantitative data
component parts
Investigate and describe Analyze qualitative and quantitative data,
transmission of force and every and develop and assess possible
between parts of a mechanical explanations
Work collaboratively on problems; and use
Analyze social and
environmental context of science appropriate language and formats to
and technology as they apply to communicate ideas, procedures and
the development of mechanical results
Stage 2 Assessment Evidence
Performance Task(s):
Mousetrap Car
Design Your Own Test
Design Thinking Bridge Challenge
Unit Final
Mousetrap Car (LT1) Simple machines, forces, and work wrap up
G - Students will design and construct a vehicle which uses a single mousetrap as its
sole source of propulsion. The vehicle should be designed for distance. In doing so, the
students must manipulate simple machines to achieve a reasonable product.
R Students will take on the role of the designer and engineer of the car
A Students will present this to the teacher and their classmates
S Students will be provided with the challenge of making a car that can go the furthers
distance using only one mouse trap and what they know about simple machines.
P Students will produce a car, a rational for their design, and a self-evaluation
S Students will be evaluated based on the attached rubric

Student Designed Quiz (LT2)

G Students will understand specific details about topics and concepts covered in class
by evaluating their understanding and creating quiz questions for a collective class test.
R Students will take on the role of the teacher to create a test for the class
A The audience of this learning task will be the teacher and their classmates
S Students will be challenged with creating real questions for a topic quiz. They have
the opportunity to have their questions on an actual quiz. There is incentive for students
to design quality questions as they can make it onto an actual quiz given in class,
otherwise the teacher will provide questions for the quiz
P Students will produce five questions to be considered for a quiz and a brief rational
for their choice
S Students will be assessed based on the attached rubric

Design Thinking Challenge (LT3)

G- Students will create and test a prototype based on the problem they identified in their
Design Thinking process based upon this situation:
R Students will be taking on the role of the designer in this challenge
A Students will present their design to class, teacher, and if possible the stakeholders
S Students will be challenged with the image (above) and asked how they could make
this situation better? Students will draw upon their understandings of mechanical
systems, force, work, and social and environmental factors
P Students will produce a prototype that they designed in a showcase
S students will be evaluated based on the criteria created as a class based upon its
relevance to social and environmental needs

Unit Final (LT4)

G Students goal will be to have a full comprehensive understanding of the entire unit
and be able to demonstrate their understanding
R Students will be taking the role of themselves
A Students will be presenting their understandings to the teacher
S- Students are challenged with being able to demonstrate their understanding of their
knowledge by interpreting and applying their knowledge. *Some questions can be taken
from LT2 that were not used
P Students will perform a unit final
S Students will be evaluated based on an answer key
Student Self-Assessments Other Evidence (assessments)
321 Mechanical systems workbook
Twitter board Design Thinking Presentation
Kahoot Quizzes
KWL Group and self-evaluations
Make your own exam question Think, pair, share
Discussions Rational
Stage 3 Learning Plan
Specific Materials
# Lesson Activity Outcom Evidence Resource
es s
-KWL (Know and Want) What do
students already know about
machines, work, forces, energy
etc. This will be reviewed near the
end of the unit to compare
-What is a mechanical device?
What is a Define, examples, simple vs
1A, 1B, -KWL Chart -KWL
1 mechanica complex
1C -Tweet Me Chart
l system? -What do we use machines for?
What needs to they fulfill?
Classify what is a machine.
Examples rake, blanket,
chair, book, cash register,
tractor etc.

2 Machines -What did machines look like in 1A, 1B, - -Water

of the past the past and how has that 1C Comparison machine
changed? of Water activity
-Look at machines that Machines
satisfy basic human needs. activity
-What is the scientific method to -Exit slip
changing a machine? Does it What else
always work? would use
-What is the scientific the trial and
method? -Trial and error in error/scienti
the invention of mechanical fic method?
devices such as the plane.
Eg.) Wright brothers story
What else do you think went
through this process?

-Reviewing simple machines and

-Video -Video
Simple -Define, and provide
3 1B, 2A worksheet -
Machines examples.
-Kahoot Worksheet
-Bill Nye Simple Machines video
and worksheet
-The Bike
-Understand that a bicycle
is made of several simple
Simple machines put together to
Machines make a complex machine.
2A, 2B, -Bike
4 and Define system, subsystem,
2C Worksheet
Complex and components.
Machines -Break down diagram of bike
as a class and have
students investigate and
apply their understandings
-What are gears and how do they
-Define gear, gear train,
driver gear, follower gear,
sprocket, wheel and pinion
-Gears Interactive
-Clock Investigation
-Knowing that inside a clock 2B, 2C,
5 Gears n and
there is a gear connected to 3B
a power source (driver) and
follower gears connected to
the hour, minute, and
second hand. What is the
size of the gears between
each hand based on what
you know?
- Students will design and Mouse
construct a vehicle which uses a traps,
single mousetrap as its sole basic craft
source of propulsion. The vehicle 1C, 2A, -Materials supplies,
6 Trap Car
should be designed for distance. 2B list student
In doing so, the students must provided
manipulate simple machines to craft
achieve a reasonable product. supplies
-Work period to complete mouse
trap cars. Students should be
testing and revising their
Mouse prototype. 1C, 2A, -Rough draft
Trap Car -Students will begin to write their 2B of rational
rational to explain their design of
their car and why they think it will
travel the largest distance
Students will test their cars and
the students whose car travels
the farthest will receive a prize. -Self
Mouse Students will get an opportunity evaluation
1C, 2A,
8 Trap Car to revise their rational and add -Written
Test any additional comments based rational
on their results from their test. -Car
Students will also complete their
-What is work? How is work
related to force? What unit
is work measured in? W = F
-Work and https://ww
-Work input vs work output
and how that is related to
Work and calculation .com/watc
9 force input and force output 3D
Efficiency worksheet h?
-Exit slip - v=vAThuC
-What does it mean to be
321 mwp9I
efficient? What are different
example of efficient or
inefficient machines?
How do you calculate E? E =
Wout/Win x 100%
-Review force
-What is force? What unit is
force measured in? What is
output force? What is input
-Entry slip
Mechanica -Mechanical Advantage (force
Work and
l ratio)
Advantage -What is a ratio? MA =
10 (Force Fout/Fin 3A, 3C
-MA and SR
ratio) and -Speed Ratio
Speed -What is speed? What does
Ratio this matter with simple
machines? Do we want to
work faster with simple
-Input distance and output
distance SR = Din/Dout
-Mechanical Efficiency
What is it? How does it
compare to efficiency? What
affects efficiency? Eg.
-Entry slip
MA and SR
E = MA/SR x 100%
Mechanica -Actual vs. Theoretical Values
11 3A, 3C -Example
l Efficiency What is an ideal efficacy?
Why do we see machines
that are not 100% efficient?
Ideal MA = Din/Dout
Theoretical MA = Fout/Fin
-Example questions and work
period to complete work
-Fluid pressure
-What is a fluid? What are
the two characteristics of
fluid pressure? Equally in
-Tweet me -
every direction and fluids
#TBT what
are hard to compress
-What is pressure? P = F/A
-Hydraulics and pneumatics
Fluid about fluid
-What are these machines?
Pressure, pressure,
What makes them different?
Hydraulics 3E, 3F, hydraulic
12 -Classifications of different
, and 3G and
Pneumatic pneumatic
s review systems
-How does pressure build in
a hydraulic system?
lift example
-Hydraulic lift
How does input pressure
compare to output
Fin/Ain = Fout/Ain

13 Recap and -Recap and Review 3A, 3B, -Student

Review. -Work, Efficiency, MA, SR, 3C, 3D, made
Student ME, Fluid pressure and 3E, 3F, questions
made test hydraulics and pneumatics 3G -Self
(LT2) -Student made quiz assessment
-Students are assigned to of question
make 3 quiz questions
based on the reviewed
topics. Students should
asses the quality of their
question based on the
rubric. Students must
provide a brief (2-3
sentences) rational and
reasoning for each of their

-Students will check their 3A, 3B,

understandings based on the 3C, 3D,
14 Quiz (LT2) Quiz
questions they made with their 3E, 3F,
peers 3G
Why and how should mechanical
systems be evaluated?
-To see if and where
improvements can be made
-What criteria should
mechanical systems be
evaluated on? 4A, 4B, -Can opener
15 Mechanica
-Designing Criteria 4C worksheet
l Systems
-The Can Opener
-History of can openers and
how they have evolved
-Advantages and
What is Design Thinking? http://ww
-What is the process? What w.nydailyn
Design steps will we be taking?
Thinking Collaborative rubric and criteria news/worl
Introductio design for project -Design d/broken-
16 n and -Fill in skeleton model of a thinking bridge-
Criteria/Ru criteria (SAFE-DEE) flipbook school-
bric model -Fill in skeleton and define replaced-
design what a 1-4 would look like in article-
a skeleton rubric 1.121005
Introduction to our situation
-Show picture and give the
Introductio -Interview process -Design
n to Who are the stakeholders? What Thinking
4A, 4B,
17 Design do they need/want? How do they flipbook
Thinking think/why? -Interview
Challenge -What makes good interview questions
for the empathy phase?
-Writing a letter with
questions to students
Receive answers and feedback
from interview and begin to define
a problem
Empathy -Proposal for your problem 4A, 4B,
18 proposal
and Define with NO solutions. Do not 4C
start with a solution
- (User) needs a way to
(verb) because
Begin to brainstorm your solution
individually and collectively
-What new idea do we have
4A, 4B, (flipbook)
19 Ideate that will benefit the user?
4C -Materials
-Propose solution and
list (if
collect materials for
Students will design and create a
prototype based on their solution
to their problem
-Prototype can be a physical
model (recommended) or
4A, 4B, -Criteria
20 Prototype digital
4C check point
-Students must keep in
mind that they will need to
provide a rational for their

Same as above in addition to -Criteria

students will receive some time to 4A, 4B, check point
21 and
prepare their rational that will be 4C -Rough draft
submitted with their prototype of rational
Peer/teacher feedback walk
-Students will be assigned
several groups to evaluate
and critique in the
Test and 2A, 4A, evaluation
22 beginning of the period and
Revisit 4B, 4C -Teacher
students will then get a
change to change their
prototype and modify it
based on the feedback
Students will give a brief
(informal) presentation that
Presentati outlines their problem, solution, 2A, 4A,
23 -
ons and explain their prototype and 4B, 4C
how it was tested and designed
during the process
Students will write a unit final to
24 Unit Final test their understandings of the All -Unit final
mechanical Systems Unit