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Preliminary Chemistry Topic 4

ENERGY
What is this topic about?
To keep it as simple as possible, (K.I.S.S.) this topic involves the study of:
1. HIGH ENERGY COMPOUNDS & FUELS
2. CARBON & CARBON COMPOUNDS
3. THE CHEMISTRY OF COMBUSTION
4. RATE OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS
...all in the context of societys use of fuels.

but first, an introduction...


Energy To understand the Chemistry of Combustion
you need to learn about the element
includes heat, light, sound, the kinetic energy of a
moving object, and Potential Energy which is stored in
various ways. Carbon
This topic is all about Chemical Potential Energy
which is stored in the chemical bonds within many
compounds and released during chemical reactions,
especially

Combustion
Photo by Alex M

and its many and varied compounds.

You will learn more about

Exothermic &
From the humble match to a
rocket launch, Combustion is Endothermic
the chemical reaction that chemical changes,
releases the energy of the
and then extend your chemical
Photo www.broken-arts.com

Fuels knowledge to include

upon which our entire


Rate
civilization is dependent for
Photo: Russian Soyez lift-off,
of
transport, industry, heating &
cooking.
courtesy Ali Cimen, senior
reporter, Zaman Daily,
Istanbul.
Reaction
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CONCEPT DIAGRAM (Mind Map) OF TOPIC
Some students find that memorizing the OUTLINE of a topic helps them learn and remember the concepts and
important facts. As you proceed through the topic, come back to this page regularly to see how each bit fits the
whole. At the end of the notes you will find a blank version of this Mind Map to practise on.

The Variety
Origin of
of Allotropes Possible Carbon
Fossil Fuels of Compounds
Carbon
Natural Gas
Alkanes & Alkenes
Significance
of Names
Photosynthesis Formulas
Structures

Carbon Properties
High Energy Compounds of
& & Alkanes & Alkenes
Fuels Carbon Compounds

Safety Issues

Refining
of Petroleum

ENERGY The
Combustion
Reaction

Chemistry
of Bond Breaking,
Rate of Bond Making
Combustion
Chemical
Reactions

Activation
Slow, Fast Energy
&
Explosive
Factors Combustions.
that Effect
Safety Issues
Reaction Rate
Exothermic
Pollution from &
Temperature Fuel Combustion Endothermic
Concentration Temperature
Size of solid &
particles Kinetic Energy
Catalysts of Particles
Incomplete
Combustion
Models of
Catalysts Catalyst
& Action
Activation Energy

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1. HIGH ENERGY COMPOUNDS & FUELS

Chemical Potential Energy The Origin of the Fossil Fuels


is the energy stored within chemical compounds. It is Coal, Petroleum and Natural Gas are the main fuels which
stored in the bonds between the atoms, and every chemical power our industries, our homes and vehicles, and generate
reaction results in the release, or absorption, of energy as our electricity.
bonds are broken and formed.
They are all mixtures of high-energy compounds because
Some bonds store more energy than others. Many of the they are the fossil remnants of life-forms which lived
complex compounds of carbon are especially important as millions of years ago. They have been chemically altered by
high-energy compounds. the fossilization process, but are basically derived from
carbohydrates originally made by photosynthesis.
Photosynthesis
is the process by which plants make food. Photosynthesis Therefore, whenever coal, petroleum or natural gas are
is the most important Biological process on Earth, because burned as fuels, the energy released is energy which came
it makes all the FOOD and OXYGEN for all living things. originally from the Sun and was captured by
photosynthesis in some ancient plant cell.

green pigment
Composition of Natural Gas
in chloroplasts As an example of just which high-energy compounds are
of plant cells
ligh
t en
present in a fossil fuel, the following table summarizes the
ergy composition of Natural Gas which is chemically the
simplest of the fossil fuels. (K.I.S.S. Principle!)
chlorophyll
WATER + CARBON GLUCOSE + OXYGEN
DIOXIDE Compound Formula Typical % in
Name Natural Gas
to
high-energy air
from from sugar (food) Methane CH4 90%
soil air Ethane C2H6 5%
Propane C3H8 2%
Butane C4H10 1%
6H2O + 6CO2 C6H12O6 + 6O2 Other gases CO2, SO2, H2 2%

Location of Australian Deposits of Natural Gas


This essential process captures the energy of the Sun, and Natural Gas, or Petroleum Gas is usually associated with
stores it in the chemical bonds in the glucose molecule, Oil Fields where petroleum (crude oil) is found. The
C6H12O6. major Australian deposits are marked on this map:

Glucose is just one of many compounds known as


carbohydrates... the sugars and starches. All are high
energy compounds made from or derived from glucose,
which in turn is made from the low energy compounds
North West
carbon dioxide and water. Shelf
Oil-ffield Mereenie, NT
Plants make their own carbohydrates; animals get theirs by
Moonie, QLD
eating their food via the food chains.
Moomba, SA
Glucose
molecule
C6H12O6
Bass Strait
Oil-ffield

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2. CARBON & CARBON COMPOUNDS

The Element Carbon Diamond is also a covalent lattice of carbon atoms, but
Carbon is element number 6 in the Periodic Table. the atoms are arranged in a tetrahedral pattern, forming a
huge 3-D crystal lattice.

6 Therefore, each atom has 6


electrons. Diamond has
extremely high m.p.
Electron & b.p., and is the

C
Carbon
Configuration = 2.4 hardest natural
substance known.

The beauty of its


12.01 sparkling crystals
has made diamond
treasured (literally)
for jewellery
throughout history.

In modern times, its extreme hardness has resulted in the


widespread use of industrial diamonds for drill bits
(e.g. for oil-drilling equipment to bore through solid rock)
and high-speed saw blades.

Allotropes Bucky Balls


Carbon can exist in several different physical forms called Discovered much more recently is a third allotrope of
allotropes. Each allotrope is the same element, carbon... the Buckminster-Fullerenes. Named after the
containing exactly the same atoms, but the atoms are architect who invented the geodesic dome structure,
arranged differently, giving each form quite different Bucky Balls and Bucky Tubes come in a variety of shapes
physical properties. and sizes.

Some other elements that have allotropes include sulfur, The best known has the formula C60, in which the carbon
phosphorus, oxygen and tin. atoms are arranged to form a sphere resembling a soccer ball.

C
Allotropes of Carbon
In Graphite, the atoms are arranged in hexagonal rings
60
which connect to form flat sheets.
The atoms in
each sheet are
strongly bonded,
(m.p. & b.p. are
high) but the
bonds between
the sheets are
very weak. They
can easily slide
past each other,
so graphite is
slippery.
The Bucky Balls have not yet found a practical use, but
Because of its slipperiness, graphite is an excellent they have potential for use as high temperature lubricants,
lubricant, used for example, in door locks. Its most familiar for making super-conducting polymers or even as
use is the lead in a lead pencil. specialized capsules for administering medicines.
Unusually for a non-metal and covalent lattice, graphite is a ALLOTROPES:
good conductor of electricity and is used in electric motors Same element, same atoms.
in the rotating contacts called brushes; in this role it both Different atomic arrangements,
conducts electricity and helps lubricate the rotating axle. different physical properties.

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Carbon Compounds The Hydrocarbons
All life on Earth is based on carbon compounds, operating With so much variety of carbon compounds, where do you
within an aqueous (water) environment. We have good start?
reason to believe that, if there is life elsewhere in the
Universe, it will also be carbon and water based, although It turns out that many of our important fuels are composed
the details of E.T.s Chemistry, Biology and appearance of mixtures of the very simplest carbon compounds... the
cannot be predicted. Hydrocarbons. These are compounds containing only
carbon and hydrogen.
Water is the solvent without equal, and carbon is the only
element capable of forming the variety of intricate and Names & Formulas for the Alkanes
complex molecules needed to make a living organism.
Methane Molecular
Carbon rarely forms ions. The immense scope of carbons Model
Chemistry is based on covalent bonding, and the key is that Molecular Formula CH4
a carbon atom can readily form bonds with other carbon
H
atoms, as well as (notably) hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen Structural Formula
atoms. H C H
H

C C Ethane Molecular
Model
Molecular Formula C2H6
Single Bond
Structural Formula
A single C-C bond involves sharing one pair of electrons.
Each carbon atom has 3 other bond positions available, H H
allowing the formation of chains, rings and networks.
H C C H
Condensed

C C
H H Structural Formula CH3CH3

Propane Molecular
Double Bonds (sharing 2 pairs of electrons) Model
and Molecular Formula
Triple Bonds (sharing 3 pairs) create even more possibilities. C3H8

C C Structural Formula
H H H
H C C C H
The result is that carbon can form more possible
compounds than all the other elements put together. H H H Condensed
Structural Formula CH3CH2CH3

See the pattern beginning to emerge?


The Syllabus requires that you learn the first 8 compounds
in this series... the Alkanes

The ALKANES
are HYDROCARBONS
containing only SINGLE C-C Bonds.

The Molecular Formulas form a pattern

CnH2n+2
where n = number of carbon atoms

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How to Name the Alkanes The Alkenes
The Alkanes are just one of many Homologous Series of To name, just add -ENE
are another, similar
carbon compounds. An Homologous Series means a group to the appropriate prefix.
Homologous Series.
of chemicals which form a logical series or pattern, in The Alkenes contain one C=C double bond.
terms of their molecular structure. As youll learn, they
have similar properties which also follow patterns. Since there have to be at least 2 carbon atoms to have a
double bond, the series begins with
You must learn the following rules for naming:
Ethene
Number of Prefix
Carbon Atoms Molecular Formula C2H4
Double C=C Bond

1 Meth-
2 Eth- Structural Formula

3 Prop- H H

4 But- C C Condensed
Structural Formula CH2CH2
5 Pent- H H
6 Hex-
7 Hept- Propene Double C=C Bond

8 Oct- Molecular Formula


...there are many more, C3H6
but this is as far as the Syllabus expects you to learn.
Structural Formula
To name any ALKANE,
H H H
just add -ANE Condensed
to the appropriate prefix above. C C C H Structural Formula CH2CHCH3
H H
The first 3 were on the previous page. We now continue...
Butene
Butane Double C=C
Molecular Formula Bond
Molecular Formula C4H8
C4H10
Structural Formula
Structural Formula H H H H
Condensed
H H H H C C C C H Structural Formula
Condensed
Structural Formula H H CH2CHCH2CH3
H C C C C H H
CH3(CH2)2CH3
H H H H
Pentene C5H10 CH2CH(CH2)2CH3
Pentane
Hexene C6H12 CH2CH(CH2)3CH3
Molecular Formula
C5H12 Heptene C7H14 CH2CH(CH2)4CH3
Structural Formula
H H H H H Octene C8H16 CH2CH(CH2)5CH3
Condensed
H C C C C C H Structural Formula
CH3(CH2)3CH3
H H H H H The ALKENES
are HYDROCARBONS
Hexane C6H14 CH3(CH2)4CH3 containing one DOUBLE C=C Bond.

Heptane C7H16 CH3(CH2)5CH3 The Molecular Formulas form a pattern

Octane C8H18 CH3(CH2)6CH3 CnH2n


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Properties of the Alkanes and Alkenes Another Important Physical Property:
As you know by now, the properties of any chemical Volatility
substance are determined by the bonding within. A substance is said to be volatile if, at room temperature, it
vaporizes readily. A simple indicator of volatility is the
Alkanes and alkenes contain only 3 types of bond within boiling point, but its not the only factor.
the molecules:

}
Obviously, the alkanes and alkenes with 4 or less carbon
Single C-C bonds all atoms are already gases at room temperature, but even
Double C=C bonds non-polar those which are liquids are highly volatile.
C-H bonds covalent
Consider octane, a component of petrol. Its boiling point
Therefore, you would expect these compounds to: is a little above that of water, but it is much more volatile.
At room temperature, octane (petrol) in an open container
have relatively low m.p. & b.p.s and youd vaporizes rapidly compared to water under the same
be insoluble in water be correct ! conditions.
be non-conductors of electricity
The explanation is, again, all about bonding. Water
To keep it simple, (K.I.S.S. principle) consider just the molecules tend to cling together because of the dipole-
boiling points: dipole attractions of hydrogen bonding. Octane molecules
have only the weak Dispersion Forces holding them, and
Alkane b.p. State Alkene b.p. State many molecules have enough energy to escape into the gas
(oC) 25oC (oC) 25oC state, even at temperatures well below the boiling point.
Methane -162 gas
Ethane -89 gas Ethene -104 gas The volatility of the alkanes and alkene has important...
Propane -42 gas Propene -48 gas
Butane -1 gas Butene -6 gas Safety Consequences.
Pentane 36 liquid Pentene 30 liquid We havent yet looked at the Chemical Properties of
Hexane 69 liquid Hexene 64 liquid alkanes and alkenes, but dont forget that these are fuel
Heptane 98 liquid Heptene 94 liquid compounds... they contain a lot of energy, are highly
Octane 126 liquid Octene 121 liquid inflammable, and now we find out they are highly volatile
as well! DANGER, DANGER!
When these values are graphed the pattern becomes
obvious, and also the great similarity between the alkanes
and alkenes (at least for this property). Natural Gas
is mostly methane.
100

It must be stored in
high pressure cylinders,
es es outdoors and kept
en
Boiling Point (oC)

lkan Alk
A cool.
0

Propane & Butane


are used as bottled
100

BBQ gas. They are


-1

stored as pressurized
liquids in pressure
200

cylinders and used


-2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 outdoors, or in well-
No. of Carbon Atoms ventilated areas only.

Inter-molecular Forces? Small amounts of smelly chemicals are added to gas fuels
Inside each molecule are strong, non-polar, covalent bonds. so that leaks are easily detected by smell.
However, the only forces between the molecules are the
Petrol, Kerosene & Diesel
very weak Dispersion Forces, so m.p. & b.p. are
generally low. are highly volatile liquid fuels. They must be stored in sealed
drums or tanks, and all sparks or flames (even mobile
Dispersion forces become stronger as the size and mass of phones) kept well away. All transfer of fuel from tank to
the molecule increases, which explains the pattern of the tank (e.g. filling the car) must be done outdoors.
graph. SAFETY IS CHEMICAL COMMON SENSE

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The Refining of Petroleum Prac Work; Fractional Distillation
Petroleum deposits (including Natural Gas) are the You may have done a laboratory exercise to separate a
fossilized chemical remnants of ancient sea creatures. mixture by fractional distillation. A common mixture used
Petroleum is a complex mixture containing alkanes, alkenes is water and ethanol, a vastly simpler mixture than
and many other carbon compounds, trapped in petroleum, but the principle is the same.
sedimentary rocks.
Fractional Distillation
To obtain the fuels we need, the first step is, of course, to thermometer monitors
locate the petroleum and pump it to the surface. temp. of vapours.

Oil Well Pump, Mixture


Alberta, Condenser
Canada

Heat
er

Photo by Diana

The next step is to separate the petroleum mixture into Ethanols b.p. = 78oC. Waters b.p. = 100oC.
more useful fractions. This is achieved by...
The mixture is heated gently until the vapour temperature
Fractional Distillation is about 80oC. At this temperature the distillate collected
which separates the mixture according to differences in from the condenser is relatively pure ethanol, perhaps
boiling point. about 90%. Once all the ethanol has evaporated from the
mixture, the vapour temperature will rise to around 100oC,
indicating that now water is being collected.
Fractionating Tower in a Refinery
Simplified By watching the thermometer, and changing collection
Schematic beakers at the right time, it is possible to collect 2 separate
Diagram fractions from the original mixture.
Gas fraction
L.P.G.

Oil Refinery
Fractionating Towers

Petrol
Vapours condense on
collection trays...
Temperature decreases

Diesel &
at different levels... Kerosene
up the tower

Photo: Nick Fletcher


Heating &
according to boiling point Fuel Oil In an Oil Refinery the same basic process separates crude
petroleum into many fractions... petrol, diesel, kerosene, etc.
based upon different boiling points.
Lubricationg
Vapours Oils
Each fraction is still a mixture. For example, petrol contains
rise through
dozens of individual compounds, and the exact
the tower
composition varies from place to place, and from time to
Vaporized time. It depends on which crude oil source is being refined,
Crude Residue: and on any adjustments made by the chemical engineers at
Oil Grease & the refinery.
injected Bitumen

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Worksheet 1 p)................................ bonds. Carbon atoms readily bond


with each other forming q).........................., rings or
Fill in the blank spaces networks. They can form single, r)......................... or
Chemical a).................................. Energy is the energy stored ............................ bonds.
in the b)........................................................... within a
compound. Biologically, all high-energy compounds are The simplest carbon compounds, containing only carbon
compounds of c).................................... and hydrogen, are collectively called the
s)............................................., of which the t)............................
In all living things, chemical energy came originally from and the u)........................................ are 2 types. Hydrocarbons
the d)....................... The plants capture the energy during are named by using a prefix for the number of v)...................
e)......................................................... and store it initially in .........................., and adding an ending to identify which
the compound f)......................................, a member of the precise type it is.
g)................................................. group which includes all the
h)................................... and ......................................... The Alkanes have names ending in w)........................ They
all contain x)............................... C-C bonds and have a
Photosynthesis is the most important Biological process on general formula y).................................... Alkanes are
Earth because it produces all the i)..................................... z)............................................. in water and have relatively
and j)..................................... for all living things. aa)....................... melting and boiling points. Their
properties relate to their molecules being non-
Coal, k)................................... and Natural Gas are all ab)......................... The only inter-molecular forces are the
l)................................... fuels because they are the very weak ac)............................................ forces. Melting and
fossilized remains of ancient living things. When these boiling points show a very regular pattern of rising steadily
fuels are burned, the energy released came originally from as molecular size ad).....................................
the m).................... via the process of n)...................................
in plants. The Alkenes have very ae)................................ properties to
the alkanes. Alkenes contain one af)........................................
Natural Gas is associated with o)....................................... bond, and have general formula ag)....................................
deposits. Its composition is about 90% p)..............................
Each of these types form an ah)........................................
Worksheet 2 Series, with the same general formula and similar
Part A Fill in the blank spaces. properties.

Carbon is element No.6 and therefore has electron Another property of alkanes and alkenes is that they are
configuration a)...................... Carbon has 3 allotropes; highly volatile. This means that they tend to ai).......................
b)......................................., ........................................... and the readily. This has important safety consequences for these
so-called buckyballs. Allotropes are different physical highly inflammable, aj)......................-energy compounds.
forms of the same element. Allotropes are composed of
c).............................. atoms, but they are d)................................ Crude petroleum is a complex ak)............................ of many
differently, giving each allotrope different e).......................... compounds. At a refinery, it is separated into useful
..................................... al)............................. by the process of am)............................
................................................... The crude mixture is
Carbons 2 main allotropes have different properties which vaporized and as the vapours rise and the temperature
determine their uses: an)............................., each fraction ao)...................................
In Graphite, the atoms are arranged in f).............................. at a different level in the tower.
which can slide easily, so it is used as a g)...............................
It is also a good electrical h)..........................................., it is Part B Practice Questions
used in the rotating contacts in i)............................................. 1. There are other Homologous Series which have different
Its soft, slipperiness and black colour make it suitable for name endings, but the prefixes follow the same rules.
its major use, as the j)......................... in a pencil. How many carbon atoms in:
a) pentanone? b) butanal?
In k).................................. the atoms are arranged in a 3-D c) propanal? d) octanone?
l)......................................... (shape) pattern, producing a hard e) methanoic acid? f) hexanol?
crystal which has been prized for m).................................
throughout history. Its extreme hardness makes it useful 2. What is the molecular formula, structural formula and
for n).............................................................................................. condensed structural formula for nonene and decane,
given that the prefixes non = 9 and dec = 10.
The huge variety of carbon compounds is due to the ability
of carbon atoms to each form o)................. (number) of

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3. THE CHEMISTRY OF COMBUSTION

Indications of a Chemical Change Changes of State During Combustion


By now you should be aware that when any chemical Notice that in both the previous examples all the reactants
reaction occurs, one or more of the following will be and products are shown as being in the gas state. We are
observed: used to water being a liquid, but due to the heat produced
by combustion, the water always forms as water vapour,
reactant substance(s) will disappear or be eaten away. H2O(g).
new substance(s) will appear.
colour changes may occur.
precipitates may occur in a solution. Also, notice that octane (a liquid at room temperature) is
a gas may be evolved (bubbles, if in a liquid). shown as a gas because the liquid vapourizes before the
there will be significant energy changes, observed as combustion reaction begins.
changes of temperature, or in the case of combustion
reactions, as visible flames. Combustion generally involves
reactants and products in the gas state.
Combustion Reactions
occur when something burns. Combustion always involves
A Burning Candle
a fuel compound combining with oxygen to form oxide
You may have done a simple practical exercise to
compound(s) of whatever elements are present in the fuel.
examine carefully a burning candle to study the changes
of state occurring.
An example is a reaction you studied in an earlier topic:
The wax melts, soaks up
magnesium + oxygen magnesium oxide
into the absorbent wick,
2Mg(s) + O2(g) 2MgO(s)
and vaporizes before it
actually burns.
Fuel + Oxygen Oxide compound
Some fuels, just like wax,
will not burn easily unless
Combustion reactions are always exothermic, releasing
a wick is provided to allow easy vaporization so the fuel
chemical energy. In many cases, there is a visible flame
vapour can ignite. Kerosene and heating oils are like
which is a region of gas (in which the reaction is occurring)
this. Visible flame is the
heated up by the energy release so that it glows.
zone where
combustion is
Our most common and important fuels are mixtures of occurring
hydrocarbons.

Natural Gas and L.P.G. (Liquified Petroleum Gas) contain


Methane: Molten, liquid zone of
wax vaporization
methane + oxygen carbon dioxide + water
CH4(g) + 2O2(g) CO2(g) + 2H2O(g) Solid wax Wick absorbs
liquid
Fuel + Oxygen Oxide compounds of
the elements Change of Mass in a Combustion
in the fuel If combustion occurs in the
open, the gas products (often
Petrol is a mixture of many hydrocarbons, but we can use carbon dioxide and water
Octane as an example: vapour) escape and disperse
into the surroundings.
octane + oxygen carbon dioxide + water You may have done a simple
C8H18(g) + 25 O2(g) 8CO2(g) + 9H2O(g) practical experiment involving weighing a match before,
2
and after burning. You would have found that it lost mass,
Note: When necessary, it is usual to balance the equation due to the escape of the reaction products.
with a fractional mole quantity of oxygen so that the
equation shows 1 mole of fuel. (Simply add total oxygen If carried out in a sealed container, there is no mass
atoms on the right side. If an odd number, write this change, since the same atoms are still present, but simply
number over 2, as the coefficient for O2(g)) rearranged to form the reaction products.
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Break Bonds, Make Bonds Endothermic & Exothermic Reactions
All chemical reactions involve rearranging the atoms of the These concepts have been introduced in previous topics.
reactant molecules. This must involve 2 stages:
Now you must learn more detail about the shape of the
Breaking the bonds in the reactant molecules, so the energy profile diagrams introduced previously.
atoms can be rearranged, and
Making new bonds to create the product molecules. Exothermic Reactions release energy because the
products contain less Chemical Potential Energy than the
For example, in the combustion of methane: reactants. Because the chemicals lose energy, the energy
change (H) is negative.
CH4(g) + 2O2(g) CO2(g) + 2H2O(g)
Here is the Energy Profile Diagram as youve seen it
the reactants are methane and oxygen molecules: before:
Reactants Energy
Level
Energy
Bonds released by = H

Energy Content
must be chemicals
negative
during
broken... reaction
Energy
needed
Products have
LESS energy
Energy must be supplied to break these bonds.

Once the atoms are freed from the reactant molecules, they Now we must add the idea of Activation Energy:
can begin combining into new molecules to form the
products.
Ea Ea = Activation
Reactants Energy
The making of these new bonds always releases energy.
Energy Content

Products
New bonds
are made.
Energy
released
The Activation Energy is like a hill or energy barrier
which must be overcome before the chemicals can turn
Activation Energy into products. The Ea is the energy needed to break some
The reaction cannot begin until some energy is supplied to bonds in reactant molecules so the atoms can begin to
break some bonds in reactant molecules. This energy rearrange themselves. Remember, that this is connected to
requirement is called the Activation Energy. the value of the Ignition Temperature of a fuel.
Once a combustion reaction gets started, the energy
released by the exothermic reaction provides the activation
energy for other molecules, so the reaction continues. Ea

It is this activation energy requirement that explains why Ea


fuels, like petrol, do not just spontaneously burst into flame
when exposed to oxygen in the air. There has to be a spark
Energy Content
Energy Content

or flame to ignite them. H H


The temperature at which a fuel-air mixture will ignite is
called the Ignition Temperature. Its value is related to the
Activation Energy required to get the combustion started.
These 2 fuels release the same amount of energy (H is the
Fuel Ignition Temperature (oC)
same). The one on the left has a lower Ea and therefore a
Petrol 500 approx
Diesel 250 lower Ignition Temperature than that on the right.
Methane (Natural Gas) 540
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Endothermic Reactions Incomplete Combustion
are those that require energy to proceed. The products Earlier, you learned about the combustion of typical fuel
have more Chemical Potential Energy than the reactants. compounds like octane, a component of petrol:
Since the chemicals have gained energy, H is considered
positive. octane + oxygen carbon dioxide + water
C8H18(g) + 25 O2(g) 8CO2(g) + 9H2O(g)
These reactions also have an Activation Energy 2
requirement.
This reaction describes complete combustion.

Ea = Activation In many real situations however, there is not enough


Energy oxygen available, or the fuel and oxygen do not get mixed
thoroughly enough for all the molecules to find each
Products
Ea other in the time available. In these cases, the combustion
Energy Content

may be incomplete:
H less
octane + oxygen carbon monoxide + water
positive C8H18(g) + 17 O2(g) 8CO(g) + 9H2O(g)
Reactants
2

If there is even less oxygen, or really poor mixing of


molecules, the reaction can be even more incomplete:
Practical Work less
octane + oxygen carbon + water
You may have carried out experiments to observe and
C8H18(g) + 9 O2(g) 8C(s) + 9H2O(g)
describe various exothermic and endothermic reactions. 2

In this topic, you have seen combustions, while back in In this case, the solid carbon formed is soot, often
topic 2 you saw active metals react with observed from diesel exhausts, burning candles, and
water or acids. In topic 3 you measured bunsen burners set to a yellow flame.
the heat released
during dissolving

These were all Exothermic.

Way back in topic 1, you studied


and observed electrolysis causing water to decompose
when electrical energy was added. In
topic 2 you decomposed carbonates by In real situations, the total result of burning a fuel can be
heat and studied the Endothermic some combination of all the 3 situations above... some
extraction of metals from ores. molecules burn completely forming CO2, and some burn
incompletely to CO or even soot.

Incomplete Combustion
of carbon-based fuels
results in the formation of
Carbon Monoxide and/or soot
Endothermic
Reactions Try the Worksheet at the end of this section

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Pollution from Combustion of Fuels Photo: Ken Kiser
When pure hydrocarbon fuel compounds burn completely
the products are carbon dioxide and water vapour. Neither
of these can be considered as pollution since they are
part of the natural chemical cycles on Earth.

Carbon Dioxide
However, the release of billions of tonnes of CO2 from
fossil fuel combustion is believed to be leading to a
Greenhouse Effect, and causing global warming. This
may be leading to (is leading to?) major environmental
changes, such as alterations to climates and weather
patterns.

The Greenhouse Effect can be minimized by reducing the Carbon Monoxide


usage of fossil fuels, and switching to fuels which do not is produced in all petrol engines due to incomplete
increase CO2 levels, such as ethanol from plant sources. combustion of the fuel. It does not cause any large-scale
environmental damage, but is very toxic to people.
Toxic pollution results from either incomplete combustion,
or from impurities in the fuels. Oxides of Nitrogen
Oxygen and nitrogen in the air do not normally react with
Photo: Daniel West each other. However, at the high temperatures inside an
engine, they react:

nitrogen + oxygen nitric oxide


N2(g) + O2(g) 2 NO(g)

Nitric oxide (or nitrogen monoxide) reacts further to form


toxic nitrogen dioxide, NO2(g), and is involved in the
formation of petrochemical smog which causes a toxic
and serious pollution problem in cities.

To avoid the problems caused by both carbon monoxide


and the oxides of nitrogen, modern cars are fitted with
catalytic converters on their exhaust systems. These
promote the reaction:

2NO(g) + 2CO(g) N2(g) + CO2(g)


Sulfur Dioxide
Fossil fuels, especially coal, contain small amounts of sulfur Modern car engines also have advanced fuel-air control
compounds. When these are burnt with the fuel: systems to ensure the most efficient, complete combustion
possible. These measures have been very successful in
sulfur + oxygen sulfur dioxide reducing air pollution problems in some cities.
S + O2 SO2(g)
The final solution to the problems associated with burning
This gas is a serious pollutant because it reacts with water fossil fuels may be solved for us when petroleum supplies
in the environment to form a strong acid. This can lead to run out. Petroleum is a non-renewable resource, and many
Acid Rain which can destroy natural environments such estimates suggest that world supplies will only last about 30
as forest and lake ecosystems. years, at current usage rates.

Emission of SO2 is minimized by In 2005, the world economies were shocked by a sudden
removing sulfur impurities during the refining of liquid spike in the price of petroleum. It is highly probable that
and gas fuels. such events will continue to happen (for both political and
economic reasons). This is certain to encourage research
scrubbing the exhaust emissions from coal-burning
and development of alternative, sustainable fuels. Its
power stations and sulfide-ore metal smelters. The SO2 already happening...
can be collected and used to make sulfuric acid for
industry. Now theres a career idea
for todays Chemistry students!
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Worksheet 3 Large scale burning of fossil fuels has added so


Part A Fill in the Blank Spaces much extra x)................................................. to the
atmosphere that this has resulted in
The indications that a chemical change has y)................................. warming due to the
occurred are: z)........................................... Effect. Fuels
reactants a).......................................... containing sulfur will produce
b)..................................... appear. aa)........................................... when burned, and
c)................................. changes may occur. this can cause ab)........................ Rain. Petrol
in a solution, a d)................................ may appear. engines produce ac)..................................... gas
a e)............................ may be evolved. from incomplete combustion, and
there may be significant f)............................. ad)................................................ gas from the high
changes. temperature reaction of ae).................................
and ........................................ NO(g) is involved in
Combustion reactions always involve 2 reactants: the production of af).............................. in cities.
the g)............................... and ...............................
The product(s) of the reaction are always the Part B Practice Questions
h)........................... compound(s) of the elements
in the fuel. For all the common hydrocarbon 1. Equations for Combustion
fuels, the products of complete combustion are Write a balanced equation for the complete
i)............................................. and .............................. combustion of
In general, hydrocarbon fuels need to be in the
j)............................ state before they will ignite. a) calcium metal
Many fuels, such as k).................................... need a b) hydrogen gas
wick to help them vaporize. c) ethane
d) ethene
For a reaction to get started, energy must be e) pentane
supplied to l).............................. some of the f) pentene
bonds in m)........................... molecules. This g) propane
energy requirement is called the
n)............................................... Energy. The 2. Equations for Incomplete Combustion
atoms can then form new bonds to form the Write a balanced equation for the incomplete
o)...................................... of the reaction. Making burning of
new bonds always p)......................... energy which
can provide the activation energy for further a) hexane, if all the carbon atoms form
bond breaking so the reaction becomes carbon monoxide.
q).............................. ................................... b) hexane, if the carbon atoms form CO2 & CO
in equal proportions.
On an Energy Profile Diagram, activation c) hexane, if CO and soot are formed in equal
energy is like an energy r)..................................... proportions.
which must be overcome before the reaction can d) butane, if CO2 & CO are formed equally.
proceed. For fuels, the activation energy is related
to the value for s)........................ 3. Energy Profile Diagrams
......................................, which is the temperature Label each diagram to show H and Ea.
at which a fuel-air mixture will ignite. Sketch diagrams to represent:

Incomplete Combustion occurs when there is a) an exothermic reaction with large H and
insufficient t)............................................ available, small Ea.
or when the fuel and air are not b) an exothermic reaction with small H and
u)............................................. thoroughly. In large Ea.
hydrocarbon fuels, incomplete combustion leads c) an endothermic reaction.
to the production of v)............................................. d) Which diagram (a, b or c) could describe a fuel
gas, or even particles of solid with a high ignition temperature? Explain your
w)..................................... answer.

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4. RATE OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS

Slow, Fast and Explosive Combustions Explosive Reactions


Combustion reactions can occur at different rates, occur when fuel molecules are well mixed with air, and
depending on conditions. there is no limit on the flow of fuel to the combustion area.
For example, if a gas leak fills a room with a fuel gas mixed
In a camp fire, or slow combustion stove, large pieces of with air, any spark or flame can start a reaction that
solid fuel (e.g. wood) burn slowly and steadily. Theres accelerates so fast that the heat release and gas pressure
plenty of fuel, so why is the reaction slow? creates a shock wave... it explodes!

Although there is a large piece of fuel available, it can only


burn at the surface where oxygen can get to it. The reaction
rate is limited by the surface area available. If the wood had
been chopped into small chips, there would be a greater
surface area and it would burn faster, assuming plenty of
air could get to it. (Solid fuel heating stoves are often
slowed right down by limiting the amount of air getting in.)

Fast Combustions
In a gas stove or bunsen burner,
the fuel is mixed with air before
ignition. The fuel and oxygen
molecules are intimately mixed
together, then ignited as they
reach the burner nozzle.

The reaction is fast, and limited


only by the flow of fuel-air
mixture to the burner. Its not just gas molecules that can mix with air to form
explosive mixtures. Fine dust particles suspended in air can
explode too, if the particles are at all capable of
combustion.

Explosions have occurred with wheat dust, coal dust,


cotton fibres and even custard powder, in factories where
dust or fibre was allowed to mix with air.
The point is that the rate of a combustion reaction
depends on the fuel and oxygen molecules colliding with The safety consequences are obvious. Any work
each other environments where dust can be produced need to ensure
dust supression, good ventilation, air filters, or whatever is
CH4 necessary to prevent explosive mixtures forming in the air.
O2
collision
The RATE of a Chemical Reaction
depends on the reactant molecules
energy COLLIDING
Reaction released
Any situation which increases the
Rate of Collisions
will increase the
REACTION RATE

CO2 H2O

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Temperature & Kinetic Energy of Particles The Effect of Concentration
According to the Kinetic Theory of Matter, all matter is If a chemical reaction is occurring in solution, the
composed of particles (molecules, atoms or ions) which are concentration of the reactant(s) can affect the chances of a
constantly moving. collision, and control the reaction rate.

In solids, the particles can only vibrate in one place.


In liquids, they are close together, but move around. Concentration Low,
In gases, they are far apart and flying in all directions. collisions less likely,
Rate of Reaction
As temperature increases, the movement increases. Slow
Increased heat energy causes an increase in the kinetic
energy of the particles.

TEMPERATURE
is a measure of the average
At higher concentration, the chances of reactants colliding
KINETIC ENERGY
is increased, so reaction rate is higher.
of the particles

Therefore, at higher temperatures the particles move faster


and are more likely to collide with enough activation
Product
energy for the reaction to proceed. The result is that:

The RATE of Chemical Reactions


Increases with TEMPERATURE Product
Product

Practical Work: In reactions involving gases, higher gas pressure increases


Temperature & Rate of Reaction the concentration of the particles, by forcing them closer
You may have done experiments in the laboratory to together. So gas pressure also increases reaction rates.
observe and measure this relationship.
The RATE of Chemical Reactions
Many reactions are suitable for study; a simple one is: Increases with CONCENTRATION
or with GAS PRESSURE
Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) H2(g) + MgCl2(aq)

Three identical test tubes of More Practical Work:


the same acid solution can be Effect of Concentration
set up at different Using the same reaction as on the left, you could set up
temperatures. three test tubes of acid at different concentrations by using
the same acid, but diluting the solution in each tube:
Different temperatures are
achieved by immersing each Tube 1 Tube 2 Tube 3
tube in a beaker containing Vol. of acid (mL) 10 10 10
Vol. of water (mL) 20 10 0
ice and water
30 20 10
tap water
hot water Note that the amount of acid is the same in each tube, but
the concentrations are different.
Identical pieces of magnesium
are dropped into each tube. Identical pieces of magnesium could then be dropped
The rate of the reaction can into each tube, and the
be observed by the rate of bubbling (of H2 gas). To rate of reaction
measure the rate, the time taken for the magnesium to observed or measured
disappear could be measured. (For graphing purposes, as before.
the reciprocal (1/time taken) can be used as a value for rate
of reaction.) You would find that
Tube 3 would react
You would find that the fastest.
higher temperature faster rate of reaction
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How Catalysts Work
Effect of Surface Area on Reaction Rate There is no single, simple model to explain how a catalyst
You may have done a simple experiment as suggested by
speeds up reactions by reducing the Activation Energy.
the diagram:
There may be dozens of ways that various catalysts work;
Same quantity of solid calcium carbonate here are just two.
on each spoon
Lumps
Powder
Model 1: Surface Adsorption
Both lumps Some catalysts work by holding the reactant(s) in such a
and powder
react with way that collision and reaction become more likely. In some
acid in cases too, the bonds within a reactant molecule are placed
exactly the
same way, under strain so that less energy is required to break
but you bonds to start the reaction process.
would
observe that
the powder
Reactant
reacts faster.
molecules Product
molecule
Same quantity of same strength acid

The reaction occurring is

Reactant Collision
CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) CO2(g) + H2O(l) + CaCl2(aq) &
molecule(s)
adsorb to Reaction
You would have found that the reaction occurs faster with surface
the powdered solid than with larger lumps. This is because Bond placed under
the smaller solid pieces in the powder add up to a larger
strain by adsorption CATALYST
to catalyst
total surface area for the acid to react with. Collisions
between reactants occur more often, so the reaction
Many Industrial processes rely on catalysts of this type:
proceeds faster.
In the manufacture of Ammonia
Catalysts N2(g) + 3H2(g)
Fe catalyst
2NH3(g)
A Catalyst is a chemical substance which increases the
rate of a reaction, without being consumed or permanently
the reaction rate is speeded up using an iron catalyst, finely
changed by the reaction.
divided to provide greater surface area.
Catalysts are widely used in Industrial Chemistry (examples In the Catalytic Cracking of petroleum compounds at
at right) but perhaps the most notable example of catalysts an oil refinery (to be studied in a later topic) larger
is in Biology. All living cells carry out thousands of hydrocarbon molecules are broken up to increase the yield
chemical reactions which would occur far too slowly for life of the valuable petrol fraction. The reaction is speeded up
to function if not for catalysts. In every cell, every reaction by a catalyst of Zeolite; a natural clay mineral with a large
is made possible by protein catalysts called Enzymes. surface area, and an affinity for hydrocarbon molecules.

Catalysts Lower Activation Energy Model 2: Alternative Chemical Pathways


The effect of catalysts is to reduce the Activation Energy Some catalysts work by providing an alternative chemical
pathway which has a lower Activation Energy. In these
requirement for the reaction.
cases, the catalyst might be a reactant in a series of
Without Catalyst
reactions which then regenerate the catalyst at the end.
Ea
For example, the reaction
Reactants
2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g)
Energy Content

H With Catalyst.
Activation Energy is very slow, but if a small amount of NO2(g) is added to the
reduced mixture, 2 faster reactions occur in sequence:
Products
Reaction 1: SO2(g) + NO2(g) SO3(g) + NO(g)
Note that H is NOT affected
Reaction 2: 2NO(g) + O2(g) 2NO2(g)
If the Activation Energy requirement is lower, then at any The NO2 is regenerated at the end, and has not been
given temperature there will be more reactant molecules consumed... it is a catalyst for the reaction, and each NO2
having the energy to react... so the reaction goes faster. molecule can be recycled over and over.
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Practical Work: Catalysts Another Example
You may have carried out a practical experiment to see the of an experiment on catalysts uses the following reaction:
effect of a catalyst on a reaction rate.
hydrogen + iodide + hydrogen iodine + water
A popular experiment is to use the familar reaction peroxide ions ions
H2O2(aq) + 2I-(aq) + 2H+(aq) I2(aq) + 2H2O(l)
Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) H2(g) + MgCl2(aq)
The reaction is quite slow, but can be followed visually over
with, and without a catalyst. several minutes because while the reactants are colourless,
the iodine product is a yellow-brown colour.
The catalyst used is a small
piece of copper metal, which a
strip of magnesium ribbon is Solution
wrapped around. (The metals darkens as
must be in contact.) Product I2
Colourless forms
In contact with the copper, it Reactants
will be found that the
magnesium reacts much faster
than an identical experiment
without the copper.

At the end of the reaction, the copper is totally If a few drops of a dilute solution of sodium molybdate
unchanged... it speeds the reaction up, but is not (NaMoO4) is added to another identical mixture, the
consumed or changed itself; it is a catalyst. reaction proceeds to completion much faster... a few
seconds compared to many minutes.
The method by which the copper catalyses the reaction -
does not fit either of the models described on the The molybdate ion (MoO4 , a polyatomic ion) acts as a
previous page. catalyst and remains in the solution unchanged at the end.

It works by providing an alternative sequence of lower-


activation energy reactions, which regenerate the molybdate
ion at the end.

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Worksheet 4
Fill in the Blank Spaces

The rate of a combustion reaction depends on If solid substances are involved, then reaction
the reactant molecules a)................................. with rate can be increased by increasing the
each other. In a slow combustion, such as the u).................................................... of the solid, such
burning of b)............................... .............................., as by v).......................................................... .............
the reaction only occurs at the surface where
c)..................................... can reach the fuel. In a A catalyst is a substance which
gas stove or bunsen burner the fuel and air are w)..................................... the rate of a reaction,
mixed before d)......................................... The rate without x)............................................... or
of reaction is limited only by the flow of ............................................ by the reaction. In
e).................... & ................................ to the burner living things, all chemical reactions are controlled
nozzle. by catalytic proteins called y).....................................
Catalysts effect the energy profile of a reaction;
If a fuel-air mixture is allowed to build up, a spark they have no effect on the value of
or flame can result in an z)......................, but reduce the
f).......................................... Any combustible gas aa).............................. .................................. This
or even g)............................ can become an means that, at any given temperature, there are
explosive mixture if allowed to mix with air. This more reactant molecules with enough
has important h)........................................... ab)............................................ to commence the
implications for workplaces which produce dust reaction, so the ac).................................................
or fibres, such as i)................................., increases.
.................................., etc. (examples)
Some catalysts work by ad).......................................
According to the j)................................. Theory of reactant molecules to their surface in such a way
Matter, all substances contain particles which that collisions become more
are constantly k)................................... Adding heat ae)..................................... Chemical bonds may
energy causes the particles to l)................ also be placed under af)......................................
......................................... Temperature is a measure which makes it more likely that they can be
of the average m).................................................. of ag)................................... to begin the reaction.
the particles. This type of catalyst is common in industry, such
as the use of ah).................................. catalyst in
An increase in temperature causes all chemical the production of ammonia, and the use of the
reactions to n)............................................................. clay mineral ai)......................................... in the
This is because the particles will move aj).......................... Cracking in petroleum
o)......................................, and the chances of refining.
p)........................................... increases. Also, the
reactant molecules are more likely to have the Other catalysts work by providing an
necessary q).................................. energy at higher ak)................................ ......................................
temperatures. pathway from reactants to products. In these
cases, the catalyst actually takes part in the
Higher r)......................................... also increases reactions, but is al).......................................
reaction rates, by making it more likely that unchanged at the end.
s)...................................... will occur. In gases, the
t)............................................. of the gas is
equivalent to the concentration. WHEN COMPLETED, WORKSHEETS
BECOME SECTION SUMMARIES

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CONCEPT DIAGRAM (Mind Map) OF TOPIC


Some students find that memorizing the OUTLINE of a topic
helps them learn and remember the concepts and important facts.
Practise on this blank version.

ENERGY

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Practice Questions 8.
These are not intended to be "HSC style" questions, but to If the compound hydrogen sulfide (H2S) underwent
challenge your basic knowledge and understanding of the combustion, you would expect the products to be:
topic, and remind you of what you NEED to know at the A. carbon dioxide and water
K.I.S.S. Principle level. B. water and oxygen
C. sulfur dioxide and water
When you have confidently mastered this level, it is
strongly recommended you work on questions from past D. hydrogen and sulfur dioxide
exam papers.
9.
Part A Multiple Choice The correctly balanced combustion equation is:
A. CH4(g) + 3O2(g) CO2(g) + H2O(g)
1. 2
The chemical raw materials for photosynthesis are B. CH4(g) + 3O2(g) CO2(g) + 2H2O(g)
A. water & oxygen
B. glucose & oxygen
C. carbon dioxide & glucose C. CH4(g) + 2O2(g) CO2(g) + 2H2O(g)
D. water & carbon dioxide
D. CH4(g) + 3O2(g) 2CO2(g) + 2H2O(g)
2.
When a fuel such as coal is burned, large amounts of 10.
energy are released. This energy was previously in the form During a chemical reaction, some chemical bonds are
of broken and others are formed. The correct statement is:
A. low energy compounds such as CO2 and water.
B. chemical energy stored in carbohydrates. A. energy is released by both making & breaking of bonds.
C. geothermal energy from mineral formation. B. energy is released when bonds are made, and absorbed
D. chlorophyll used in photosynthesis in ancient plants. when bonds are broken.
C. energy is released when bonds are broken, and absorbed
3. when bonds are made.
Allotropes of an element: D. energy is absorbed by both making & breaking bonds.
A. contain identical atoms in different arrangements.
B. are different atoms arranged in the same way.
C. have the same physical properties as each other. 11.

40
D. have the same appearance and uses. The diagram shows an energy
profile for a chemical
4. reaction. It would be true to Energy Content (kJ/mol)
The molecular model say that the reaction is: 30
shown is A. exothermic,
20

A. pentene and Ea = +20kJ/mol.


B. butene
C. propane B. endothermic,
10

D. butane and Ea = +40kJ/mol.


C. exothermic,
5. and Ea = +40kJ/mol.
The compound with molecula formula C15H32 is likely to:
0

D. endothermic,
A. be a member of the alkene homologous series. and H = -10kJ/mol.
B. contain a triple carbon-carbon bond.
C. have a name ending in -ANE.
D. have polar molecules. 12.
A major problem associated with large scale use of fossil
6. fuels is:
Which of the following is NOT a property of the alkanes? A. the toxic effects of CO2 gas.
A. soluble in water B. SO2 gas release which causes petrochemical smog.
B. relatively low melting & boiling points C. carbon monoxide destruction of the ozone layer.
C. non-conductors of electricity D. global climate change due to CO2 gas release.
D. hydrophobic

7. 13.
In petroleum refining, Fractional Distillation separates the The risk of an explosive combustion is increased by:
mixture according to differences in: A. increasing the particle size of solid fuels.
A. melting point B. decreasing the collision rate of reactant molecules.
B. density C. storing liquid fuel in larger tanks or drums.
C. solubility D. allowing build-up of dust or fibres in the air.
D. boiling point

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14. 19. (continued)
The rate of a chemical reaction could NOT be increased by The boiling points (oC)for some alkenes:
A. increasing the temperature. ethene -104
B. reducing the pressure of a reactant gas. propene -48
C. adding a catalyst. hexene 64
D. increasing the concentration of a reactant solution. heptene 94
a) Plot the data as points on the grid provided.
15. b) Use the graph to estimate b.p.s for butene and pentene.
Catalysts can: c) Account for the fact that the alkenes have low b.p.s
A. decrease H of a reaction by providing alternative relative to some other similar sized molecules.
chemical pathways.
B. speed reactions up by increasing Ea. 20. (5 marks)
C. lower Ea by increasing reactant collisions. a) What is meant by the property of volatility?
D. cause different products to form, via different pathways. b) Octane, a compound found in petrol, has a boiling point
comparable to that of water, but is much more volatile.
Longer Response Questions Explain why.
Mark values shown are suggestions only, and are to give c) Outline any safety concerns and precautions arising from
you an idea of how detailed an answer is appropriate. the volatility of octane and associated compounds in
petrol.
16. (6 marks)
Using a named fossil fuel as an example: 21. (5 marks)
a) give the name, and formula for a significant compound Give an outline of the key process in the refining of
within the fuel. petroleum, including a list of some of the main products of
b) justify the use of the term fossil fuel. the process.
c) explain how the fuel comes to have energy stored within
it, including mention of the origin of that energy. 22. (4 marks)
In an experiment, a student burnt 2 identical pieces of coal;
17. (6 marks) one in an open container, the other in a sealed container
For each of the 2 main allotropes of carbon: which had an adequate supply of air within it.
a) list the significant physical properties of the substance.
b) explain how a named use of the allotrope is linked to its The containers (including pieces of coal) were weighed
physical properties. before and after burning. One was found to lose mass, the
other did not change.
18. (6 marks)
a) Write the molecular formula for hexane. Identify which container lost mass and account for the
b) Draw the structural formula for pentene. different results between the 2 containers.
c) Write the condensed structural formula for heptane.
d) Name the following compounds: 23. (9 marks)
i) CH2CH(CH2)5CH3 H H H Write a balanced equation to describe:
ii) a) the complete combustion of butane gas.
C C C H
b) the complete combustion of ethene gas.
iii) C2H6 H H c) the incomplete combustion of hexane, assuming that 2
different oxides of carbon are formed in equal molar
19. (5 marks) Use this grid to help answer the question quantities.
following.
100

24. (4 marks)
During the combustion of petrol and diesel fuels both
release approximately the same amount of energy (per unit
Boiling Point (oC)

of mass). However, petrol has a significantly higher ignition


0

temperature.

Sketch an energy profile diagram to compare these two


100

fuels. No values are required, but the diagrams should be


-1

labelled to emphasize any important comparisons.


200
-2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

No. of Carbon Atoms

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25. (5 marks) 27. (5 marks)
a) Name a toxic pollutant associated with the use of a In the upper atmosphere is a region called the ozone
named fossil fuel. layer where the gas ozone (O3) protects the Earth by
b) Write a balanced symbol equation to describe the absorbing dangerous U.V. radiation from the Sun. Certain
production of this pollutant during the use of the fuel. human-made chemicals can release single chlorine atoms
c) Describe the steps that can be, or have been, taken to which react with ozone as follows:
minimize the release of this pollutant into the environment.
Cl(g) + O3(g) ClO(g) + O2(g)
26. (5 marks)
During your study of this topic you have carried out a Then the ClO(g) reacts with the occasional single oxygen
hands-on practical exercise to observe the effect of atoms that occur at this altitude:
certain factors on the rate of a chemical reaction.
ClO(g) + O(g) Cl(g) + O2(g)
Describe the experiment you did to investigate the effect of
either temperature or concentration on reaction rate. Overall, the result is the destruction of the ozone allowing
more U.V. radiation to penetrate to the surface of the
Include Earth.
a) a brief outline of the method used.
b) description of exactly what observation/measurement a) In what sense can the chlorine atom (Cl(g)) be considered
was used to get a result. as a catalyst in the overall reaction?
c) what general conclusion was reached.
b) The diagram shows
the energy profile for
the overall reaction
which can occur without
the presence of chlorine.

Energy Content
Products
i) Describe this reaction
as endo- or exo-
thermic, and state the sign
of the value for H. Reactants

ii) Alter the diagram to show the expected change when


chlorine atoms are present.

Preliminary Chemistry Topic 4 23 www.keepitsimplescience.com.au


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