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M (ASCP) EXAM

Question Answer
Is widely distributed in the external environment. It may be found in 20 to 40% of the anterior nares of
Staphylococcus aureus
human adults. It also colonizes the skin, particularly in intertriginous areas such as the groin and axilla, and
epidemiology
may be found in the vaginal canal

Was discovered more than 100 years ago by Hans Christian Gram. Crystal violet-primary stain. Gram's
iodine-mordant to fix the dye. GP Bacteria retain the dye in cell wall. Acid alcohol-decolorizer. GN The Gram stain
bacteria stain red Safranin-counterstain.

Is a basic fluorochrome dye that binds nonspecifically to nucleic acids, proteins, polysaccharides, and
glycosaminoglycans. AO is useful in demonstrating bacteria in specimens where concentrations may be Acridine orange
low.

Catalase, Coagulase, Dnase, PYR, Nonmotile, Salt tolerance all + Staphylococcus aureus
Drug of choice for Staphylococcus
Penicillin and cephalosporin (1st generation)
aureus, Strep pneumo

Is the most frequently isolated coagulase-negative staphylococci from human sources. Staphylococcus epidermidis

Does not ferment mannitol, produces alkaline phosphatase, produces positive reactions for acetoin (Voges
Proskauer), reduces nitrates to nitrites, and hydrolyzes urea. Acid is produced from maltose, fructose, S. epidermidis
sucrose, and mannose.

Drug of choice for Staphylococcus


Penicillin
epidermidis
Has a particular predilection for causing urinary tract infections in young, healthy, sexually active females. Staphylococcus saprophyticus
Has its natural habitat as part of the normal nasal and skin flora of various domestic animals, including
dogs, cats, and horses. It is the most common coagulase-positive Staphylococcus species recovered from Staphylococcus intermedius
the skin of dogs.

Resistance to novobiocin is a key feature used in the presumptive identification of S. saprophyticus

Is among the most commonly recovered bacterial species in the clinical laboratory. It is the cause of classic
Streptococcus pyogenes
streptococcal pharyngitis, colloquially known as "strep throat."
Diseases include scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, endocarditis, and nephritis. Poststreptococcal

Small transparent colonies/wide zone of beta hemolysis. ID-Low conc of bacitracin (0.04 g)/PYR +. Group A streptococci

Group B-specific antigen. Metabolism is fermentative with lactic acid produced as the chief end product.
Streptococcus agalactiae
Narrow zone of beta hemolysis. + cAMP reaction/ hydrolyzes NA hippurate

Infections include meningitis, pneumonia, polynephritis, sepsis including endocarditis/in women, puerperal
Streptococcus agalactiae
infection assctd w/ abortion and premature labor. Neonatal sepsis and meningitis
Penicillin, ampicillin, cephalosporin 1st gen, erythromycin S. pyo

Penicillin, ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalosporin 1st gen, erythromycin S. agalactiae

2 species: S. bovis and S. equi. ID by + esculin hydrolysis in bile-esculin agar and by the inability to grow
Group D streptococci
in 6.5% sodium chloride

Can be divided into one of 83 different capsular serotypes(Latex agg, coagg, or the Neufeld quellung rxn)3,
4, 14, and 19, are particularly virulent. The capsular material prevents phagocytosis and killing by the host Strep pnuemo
phagocytic cells.
Alpha hemolytic and smooth, moist, or mucoid/"checker piece" appearance/ susceptibile to either bile or
Strep pnuemo
ethylhydrocupreine hydrochloride (Optochin)

Lobar type pneumonia and bacterial meningitis in adults, infants, and toddlers. Diabetes and alcoholism are
Strep pnuemo
common conditions predisposing to serious pneumococcal infections.

Is the most important agent of diarrheal disease in humans. C. jejuni

1."campy" agar to inhibit the overgrowth of the normal intestinal flora. 2.42C, the optimum temperature
for growth of this organism. 3.incubation atmosphere, consisting of 5% oxygen, 10% CO2, and 85% C. jejuni
nitrogen.
Is infrequently recovered from human sources but is an important cause of infective abortion in cattle and C. fetus
sheep. It can be recovered from the placentas and stomach contents of the fetuses of aborted sheep and
cattle.
Human infections that have been reported virtually always affect an individual who is debilitated, has
compromised immune function, has a neoplastic disease, or has a chronic underlying disorder such as renal C. fetus
or hepatic failure.

Does not hydrolyze indoxyl acetate or sodium hippurate. It is susceptible to cephalothin but resistant to
nalidixic acid, profiles opposite to that of C. jejuni. Will not grow on campy selective media containing C. fetus
cephalothin. Does not grow at 42C

Drug of choice for C. fetus and C.


Erythromycin
jejuni

Is one of several spiral-shaped bacteria that have been observed in gastric secretions. Can be recovered
Helicobacter pylori
from the GI tract of humans and a variety of domestic and wild animals, including several species of birds.
Diagnosis: visualize the thin, curved bacterial cells in histologic sections of gastric biopsy material or by
Helicobacter pylori
demonstrating the rapid conversion of urea agar after implantation with a small portion of the biopsy.

+ rxns may be observed in as little as 1 hour. Cultures are not frequently attempted to establish a diagnosis. Helicobacter pylori

Incubation environments with reduced O (5-10%), increased CO2 (5-10%), and increased H (5-10%) at
37C are the optimum conditions. Although selective "campy" agar may be used, a formulation devoid of Helicobacter pylori
cephalothin is necessary.

Can be suspected when GNDC or D-CB are observed in Gram stains. MacConkey growth (pinkish tinge).
Lack of motility, absence of cytochrome oxidase activity, inability to reduce nitrates to nitrites, and Acinetobacter baumannii
resistance to penicillin.
Nosocomial infections most commonly involve the respiratory tract, the urinary tract, the genital tract,
Acinetobacter baumannii
peritonitis in patients receiving continuous peritoneal dialysis, and postsurgical wounds.

Carbenicillin, Cephalosporin 2nd or 3rd, Gentamicin, Tetracycline, SXT Acinetobacter baumannii

GN nonfermenters that grow on Mac, oxidase +, and motile via peritrichous flagella. Synonymous with A.
Alcaligenes faecalis
odorans/ apple odor/ green discoloration. asaccharolytic

Exist in soil and water/ Blood, sputum, and urine are the most common sources and are often associated
Alcaligenes faecalis
with nosocomial infections, nebulizers, respirators, and lavage fluids.
Exist in soil and water/ Blood, sputum, and urine are the most common sources and are often associated
Alcaligenes faecalis
with nosocomial infections, nebulizers, respirators, and lavage fluids.

Drug of choice for Alcaligenes


Pipericillin and tircarcillin clavulanate
faecalis

Inhabiting the epithelial cells in the upper respiratory tract only of man, to which the bacterial cells attach,
invade, and survive. Highly contagious, transmitted from human to human via contaminated airborne Bordetella pertussis
respiratory droplets.
Apple-green fluorescing using the direct Ab fluorescent test. Potato-based Bordet Gengou (BG) agar; or,
Bordetella pertussis
charcoal horse blood agar of Regan Lowe.
Each neutralize the effects of the fatty acids, metalic ions, and peroxidases also contained in the media.
Growth require 2 - 4 days/ 35o C. 1-2 mm in diameter, entire, dome-shaped, gray and shiny, resembling Bordetella pertussis
drops of mercury. GNCB/ pleomorphic in older c

Produces cytochrome oxidase and catalase (weakly), is non-motile (possesses no flagella) Bordetella pertussis

cephalosporin 3rd generation, ciprofloxacin, erythromicin Drug of choice Bordetella pertussis

is the most common cause of human infections and is the most virulent. It is found in the Mediterranean
Brucella melitensis (sheep, goats)
region, Latin America, and Asia.
Is worldwide in distribution, and its virulence is mild to moderate. B. abortus (cattle)

is endemic in the southern United States, Southeast Asia, and Latin America, and its virulence is moderate. B. suis (swine)

Cause undulant fever (Bang's disease)/grow slowly in culture/brucella agar or chocolate agar. Recovery in
Brucella
blood cultures is slow. Very small GNCB/ rapid urease reaction (1 hour on Christensen's urea agar).

Ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, streptomycin Drug of choice Brucella melitensis


Produces yellow-green colonies/ fruity odor,Mac agar, is oxidase +, and asaccharolytic, hydrolysis of
Flavobacterium odoratum
DNA, gelatin, and urea, and (-) reactions for indole, nitrate reduction, and hydrolysis of esculin and ONPG/
resistant to polymyxin B.
Isolates have been reported from wounds, sputum, blood, and commonly from urine. necrotizing fasciitis
Flavobacterium odoratum
and septicemia

Is the species causing human infections, including 2 biovars, ss tularensis (North America), and ss
palaearctica (Europe). Reservoirs of this bacterium include rabbits, rodents, squirrels, beavers, deer, and Francisella tularensis
domestic animals

Transmission between animals is via ticks and biting flies. Humans acquire infection via the bites of
infected ticks or deerflies or by direct contact with the tissues of infected animals, as can occur during the Francisella tularensis
skinning and evisceration of game animals.

Growth on buffered charcoal yeast extract agar (BCYE) and no growth on blood agar is a presumptive clue
Legionella species
that an isolate may be
Hydrolysis of NA hippurate is useful in separating __________ (+) from other Legionella species (-).
L. pneumophila
Phenotypic characterization less than satisfactory. ID: serologically using immunofluorescent ab testing.

Is the species most commonly associated with classic legionellosis.The most common manifestation is
pneumonia. A milder form of the disease, Pontiac fever, presents as an influenza-like syndrome w/out L. pneumophila
sequelae and with few complications.

Gray-white, smooth, opaque on BAP and choc, appear as small GNCBPR/ catalase and oxidase +.
Asaccharolytic, strong DNase actvty, and the prodtn of beta lactamase/ separated from Neisseria species by Moraxella catarrhalis
hydrolysis of ester-linked butyrate groups (tributyrin)
Contains supplements rich in cysteine, other aa, vit, hematin, and purines that are required for growth. It
also contains antibiotics such as vancomycin, trimethoprim, and nystatin among others to enable recovery MTM
of N. gonorrhoeae from mixed cultures.
Gram-negative diplococci with flattened opposing margins. In direct smears, the cells are seen
intracellularly in segmented neutrophils. The identification can be confirmed if acid is produced from N. gonorrhoeae
glucose, but not from maltose, sucrose, or lactose.

Glucose (+) Maltose (+)(Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome Neisseria meningitidis

Glucose(+) Maltose (+) Lactose (+) N. lactamica

Is most commonly isolated from urethral specimens, where it exists as a commensal/ similar to Moraxella
species in being oxidase (+), nonmotile, and coccobacillary. Most strains grow on Mac, Oligella urethralis
and(asaccharolytic).
The reduction of nitrite (but not nitrate) and + phenylalanine deaminase activity are two characteristics that,
Oligella urethralis
when taken together, separate __________ from Moraxella species.

Phenotypically resemble nonsaccharolytic Alcaligenes species, Bordetella bronchiseptica, n CDC group


O. ureolytica
IVc-2, being motile via peritrichous flagella, oxidase (+), and(asaccharolytic).

It differs from Alcaligenes species by rapidly hydrolyzin urea n from Bordetella bronchiseptica by reducin
O. ureolytica
nitrates n nitrites n failin to hydrolyze malonate.

The reduction of nitrates n nitrites (most strains) n + phenylalanine deaminase activity separates from CDC
group IVc-2. Most human isolates have been from the urine, specifically in patients with long-term in- O. ureolytica
dwellin catheters
Is a plant pathogen primarily causing onion bulb rot. It can be recovered from a wide variety of water
sources, and in the hospital environment may be found on wet surfaces or where water accumulates, such B. cepacia
as in nebulizer and bronchoscopy tubing, in irrig

Survives in various disinfectants, including povidone-iodine n quaternary ammonium complbs, n in fluids


containin cycloheximide. Nosocomial infections pneumonia, septicemia, endocarditis, n septic arthritis, B. cepacia
cystic fibrosis.

Trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole is the drug of choice for the treatment of infections with this organism. B. cepacia

Can be recovered from H2O n soil sources n often is found in various moist hospital environments,
tracheostomies, in-dwelling catheters, burns, and weeping cutaneous wounds. The exudation of blue pus Pseudomonas aeruginosa
with a grape-like odor is characteristic.
Straight or slightly curved, slender, GNR. They are motile via polar flagella, r strict aerobes, n utilize carbs
oxidatvly n never fermentatively. The temp range of growth for various strains extends from 4-43 deg Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Celsius. The cytochrome oxidase rxn is +.

Produce H@S, a characteristic helpful in diffn it from C. koseri, which is H2S (-). differentiated from Citrobacter freundii
certain closely related Salmonella species by failure to decarboxylate lysine decarboxylase, hydrolyzing
ONPG, and the ability to grow in KCN.
decarboxylates ornithine and produces acid from adonitol and malonate, both of which are negative
reactions for C. freundii. In contrast, C. freundii produces acid from melibiose and sucrose, both of which C. koseri
are negative for most strains of C. koseri.

Growth observed on HE after 36 hrs incubation at 35C. The colonies r entire, convex, smooth to shiny,
and distinctly green, showing no evidence of the yellow pigmentn indicatin lactose fermentation. Some Edwardsiella tarda
have black central pigmentn indicatn H2S prodctn.

GNe sepsis and endotoxin-induced shock are serious complications. Urinary tract and wound infections,
pneumonia in debilitated and immunocompromised patients, and neonatal meningitis are common Escherichia coli
infections.

"dirty" gray on bap/produce a + spot indole test and dry pink-red colonies on Mac. The id confirmed by
demonstrtin an acid slant/acid butt rxn on Kligler iron agar (fermenter), a + methyl red rxn, - Voges Escherichia coli
Proskauer, and - citrate utilizatn test results.
heat-labile or heat-stable enterotoxins are produced, resulting in a watery diarrhea similar to that produced
Enterotoxigenic strains
by Vibrios cholerae.

produce an illness characterized by fever, malaise, vomiting and diarrhea, primarily in children. Enteropathogenic strains

penetration of the intestinal mucosa by the bacterial cells results in an inflammatory diarrhea similar to that
Enteroinvasive strains
produced by Shigella species. Blood, mucous, and segmented neutrophils are observed in fecal smears.
chiefly serogroup 0157:H7, produce a toxin that has a cytotoxic effect on Vero cells (called a verotoxin),
Enterohemorrhagic strains:
producin in vivo effects similar to that produced by Shiga toxin.
Hemorrhagic colitis results, manifest as abdominal cramps n watery diarrhea, followed by hemorrhagic
Enterohemorrhagic strains:
discharge simulating a lower intestinal bleed.

is the cause of a necrotizing lobar type pneumonia in which there is considerable hemorrhagic necrosis,
leading to expectoratn of a "brick red" sputum that, when mixed with mucin, has a "currant jelly" K. pneumoniae
appearance.

Infectns r most severe in persons with underlying diseases such as alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, n chronic
K. pneumoniae
obstructive pulmonary disease. Pleuritis, Urinary tract infections, meningitis(in infants), n septicemia

Can be suspected in culture when large, mucoid colonies are recovered on 1. isolatn media. On Mac
colonies are large, distinctly mucoid, n have a red pigmentatn that diffuses into the surroundin med. This K. pneumoniae
pigment productn is abundant acid from lactose.
Two key characteristics separating species from certain closely related Enterobacter species are the lack of
Klebsiella
motility and the inability to decarboxylate ornithine.

An indole-positive variant of K. pneumoniae, is found primarily in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and
Klebsiella oxytoca
animals but also may be recovered from vegetative matter and aquatic environments

Morganella morganii can be found in the feces of humans, dogs, other mammals, and reptiles. It serves as a
Morganella morganii
secondary pathogen in cases of urinary tract, respiratory tract, and wound infections.

The combination characteristics of citrate negative, failure to produce hydrogen sulfide, and
Morganella morganii
decarboxylation of ornithine
recovered from soil, water, and any environment polluted with fecal material. part of the commensal flora
of the LI of man and other animals. Most freq agent of uti and wound infectns, intestinal trauma and post Proteus mirabilis
colon surgery.

- spot indole test, using a small inoculum from a well-isolated colony. strong urease activity, the production
of hydrogen sulfide, a positive reaction for ornithine decarboxylase, and the failure to hydrolyze esculin or Proteus mirabilis
ferment salicin

swarming colonies growing on bap/ odor-burned chocolate. id + spot indole test, using a small subculture.
strong urease activity, H2S, - rxn for ornithine decarboxylase, and hydrolysis of esculin and the P. vulgaris
fermentation of salicin

primarily recovered from the feces of humans, both with and without a diarrheal syndrome, with secondary
Providencia
spread to the urinary tract, wounds, and burns, where they cause infrequent infections.
Needs >100,000 for infection, H2S +, Lysine +, Indole -, Urea - Salmonella
May cause septicemia S. cholerasius
Typhoid fever. Blood + early (1st wk)/ stool + in 2nd/3rd wk S. typhi
ONPG + (others neg) S. arizona

Red pigment/ DNase, gelatinase + Serratia marcescens

(D) Most common/ has its natural habitat in the fecal content of humans. Infections occur following
Shigella sonnei
ingestion of contaminated food or water/ Lactose -, nonmotile, anaerogenic

Group A most severe S. dysenteriae


Group B S. flexneri

Group C S. boydii

The spread of black/ bubonic plague is via rodents to fleas, fleas to rodents. Yersinia pestis

acute mesenteric lymphadenitis and "pseudotubercules Y. pseudotuberculosis


Growth room temp and cold enrichment Y. enterocolitica

Motile by polar flagella, most are indole +, growth on mac, cellulitis, wound infections and diarrhea Aeromonas

6.5-7.5 pH Bacteria

5.0-6.0 pH Fungi
Enzyme synthesis and cell elongation Lag phase

Active reproduction Log Phase

Exhaustion of nutrients, less viability Stationary phase

Dead cells exced new cells Death phase


"Chinese Letters"; Metachromatic granules (Loeffler's Slants); tellurite hydrolysis (tinsdale agar); elek test
Corynebacterium
determines toxin prod

Tumbling motility at 25C, but not 37C; cold enrichment, neonatal menigitis and sepsis, sepsis in
Listeria
immunocomp hosts

Test tube brush in gelatin, infection in fisherman, butchers, veterinarians Erysipelothrix

Ground glass hemolytic colonies; non hemolytic, nonmotile, medusa head colonies, long bamboo shoots Bacillus anthracis
Ground glass hemolytic colonies; food poisioning, enterotoxin, beta hemolytic B. cereus

Long filamentous GNR w/ pleomorphic/ puffball or string of pearl colonies in thio broth/ rate bite fever
Streptobacillus moniliformis
haverhill fever/ acitic sample needed/ sps inhibits

Peridontal and jaw abscesses; high number in plague, center of colony has 4-6 pointed star actinobacillus

bleachy odor, pits agar, 3 zones of growth, peridontal and jaw abscesses eikenella
needs 5-10% co2 or anaerobic conditions, gliding motility, fusiform shape; bacteremia capnocytophaga

similar to actinobacillus, endocarditis haemophilus aprophilus

cause endocarditis, can gicve false + gram rxn cardiobacterium

clue cells; 10% koh added to discharge= fishy odor gardenella vaginalis
require x and v factors haemophilus

schoolof fish, genital ulcers h. ducreyi

growth on BCYE, legionaires disease legionella pneumophilia

inverted fried egg, dienes stain not gram stain mycoplasma/ureaplasma


causes primary atypical pneumonia, cold agglutinin titer m. pneumoniae

GN Ana, catalase +, black colonies on BBE bacteroides fragilis

gn ana pits agar, urease + bacteroides ureolyticus

gn ana, thin, fusiform rod, speckled col fusobacterium nucleatum


gn ana, rods variable in length and width fusobacterium necrophorum
gn ana, highly pleomorphic fusobacterium mortiferum
gp ana, pseudomembranous colitis, CCFA agar, horse stable odor, spore former c. dificile

gp ana, double zone of hemolysis, lecthinase +, gas gangrene, spores seldom observed c. perfringens

gp ana,terminal spores, racquet shaped, tetanus c. tetani

gp ana, molar tooth, branching, lumpy jaw, sulphur granules actinomyces israelii
gp ana, sensitive to sps p. anaaerobius

rickettsial pox, house mites r. akari

q fever, inhaled coxiella burnetti

typhus fever, louse r. prowazekii


rocky mt. spoted fever, tick r. rickettsiae

murine typhus, rat flea r. typhi

may infect 1/3 pop., res to drying, cauliflower colonies on LJ, mdr variants, id by nucleic acid probes, skin
mycobacterium tuberculosis
test for screening in US

environmental org, cause pulmonary disease, disseminated disease, infect immunocomp patients,
m. avium complex
nonpigmented on LJ, id by nucleic acid probes
causes leprosy (hansen disease), infects skin, mucous membranes, nerves, causes a progressive disease that
m. leprae
is treatable, grows best in armadillo footpads

Prescence of viral ab of ag EIA

Molecular cloning of a specific DNA sequence/ if viral ab unknown matches clone, the viral id is
DNA probes
confirmed

Method in which nucleic acid seq can be amplified in vitro/ carried out in cycles, each doubling the amount
PCR
of desired nucleic acid product
yellow fever, dengue, st. louis encephalitis, mosquito vector flavivirus

pulmonary syndrome, hemorrhagic fever, rodent-borne hantavirus

assoc w/ shellfish; one of most stable viruses infectings humans Hepatitis A virus (HAV)

formerly non-a, non b hepatitis Hepatitis c Virus (HAC)


measles, more serious in adults than in children morbillivirus

poliomyelitis, aseptic meningitis, occurs naturally only in humans poliovirus

seriuos respiratory infection in young children, giant multinucleated cells due to fusion of infected cells respiratory syncytial virus (rsv)

rabies, negri bodies in brain tissue of infected animals, rod or bullet shaped, wildlife- reservoir rhabdovirus
common cold rhinovirus

acute infectious infantile diarrhea, can cause death in infants rotavirus

rubella, vaccine available, contraindicated in pregnancy, spread by respiratory secretiions, seriuos


rubivirus
congenital abnormalties

respiratory infections adenovirus


infection mononucleosis, chronic failure syndrome, assc w. burkett's lymphoma,heterophile ab epstein-barr virus

ribbon-like aseptate hyphae; sexual and asexual zygomycota

septate, sexual and asexual, produce asci ascomycota

septate; sexual, mushrooms,club fungi basidiomycota


fungi imperfecti, no sexual stage, many common pathogens deuteromycota

simialar to SAB, inhibits some candida and crytococcus, aspergilluis fumigatus and pseudallescheria mycosel
cryoptococcus neoformans (brown colonies) bird seed agar

candida albicans (chlamydoconidia) corn meal agar


tinea (mostly in children), hair and skin, hair fluoresces, microconidia (small club-shaped), macroconidia
microsporum
(many, rough, spindle-shaped (except m.audouinii)
rare distorted macroconidia, terminal chlamydoconidia microsporum audouinii

thick walled macroconidia; knobby end microsporum canis

thin walled macroconidia microsporum gypseum

mostly in adults; hair skin and nails; no fluorescing hairs trichophyton


urease +. rose-brown reverse trichophyton mentagrophytes

urease -, red reverse trichophyton rubrum

black dot ringworm, balloon forms, yellow red reverse trichophyton tonsurans

feet, hands, and groin; macroconidia (large, smooth, club-shaped, found in singles or clusters at end of
epidermophyton floccosum
hyphae, 2-4 septa), olive green or khaki color
bat and bird droppings; oh and ms river valley; infects RES (Bone marrow), yeast(very small), mycelial
histoplasma capsulatum
(tuberculate n macroconidia)

along oh, ms valley n appalachia, may cause skin lesions, yeast (broad based bud, double-contoured wall),
blastomyces dermatitidis
mycelial (lollipop forms)
desert southwest and semiarid regions, yeast (spherules containing endospores), mycelial (alternatively
coccidioides immitis
staining arthroconidia)

south american blastomycosis, simulates tb, cutaneous lesions, yeast (multiple buds "mariner wheel"), mold
paracoccidioides brasiliensis
(similar to lollipop forms)
found in dirt and on plants (rose gardener's mycosis), yeast (cigar bodies), mold (delicate hyphae with
sporothrix schenckii
ovoid conidia along side or in rosettte heads)

germ tube +, urease -, may be isolated in blood of immunosuppressed candida albicans

germ tube -, forms structure between tube and spore candida tropicalis

hockey stick bud on one corner of arthroconidia geotrichum


budding from both corners of arthroconidia urease + trichosporon

assimilates only glucose and trehalose, no pseudohyphae candida (torulopsis) glabrata

urease +, brown colonies on birdseed agar, india ink cryptococcus neoformans

small extracellular yeast candida sp. or sporothrix schenckii


small intracellular yeast histoplasma capsulatum

yeast with pseudoyphae candida sp.

large yeast with broad based buds blastomyces dermatiditis

large yeast with multiple buds paracoccidioides brasiliensis


endospherules and endospores coccidioides immitis

green or blue-green colonies; branching or penicillus head, sterigmata blunt penicillium

delicate hyphae, elippticak conidia with appearance of brain surface acremonium

colonies lavendar to purple; banana shaped macroconidia fusarium


conidiophore ends in swelling which carries sterigmata and chains of conidia, farmer's lung aspergillus

green conidia aspergillus fumigatus

yellow conidia aspergillus flavus

black colonies aspergillus niger


Dog hookworm ancylostoma caninum

old world hookworm ancylostoma duodenale


large intestinal roundworm ascaris lumbricoides
oriental/chinese liverfluke clonorchis sinensis
broad fish tapeworm diphyllobothrium latum

hydatid tapeworm echinococcus granulosus

pinworm enterobius vermicularis

large intestinal fluke fasciolopsis buski


sheep liver fluke fasciola hepatica

rate tapeworm hymenolepis diminuta

dwarf tapeworm hymenolepsis nana

eyeworm loa loa


new world hookworm necator americanus

blinding worm onchocerca volvulus

oriental lung fluke paragonimus westermani

bladder fluke schistosoma haematobium


oriental blood fluke schistosoma japonicum

manson's blood fluke schistosoma mansoni


threadworm stronglyloides stercoralis

beef tapeworm taenia saginata


pork tapeworm taenia solium

dog/cat ascarid toxocara canis/cati

whipworm trichuris trichiura