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Shell Sulphur Technology Platform

Consultancy and technologies to help take control of the sulphur paradox

Shell Global Solutions

This sulphur paradox, namely that more sulphur is coming
into the refinery (as the availability of sweet crudes
diminishes) but less must leave the refinery within the
finished products or as harmful emissions. There is never a
silver bullet solution: a flexible and tailored approach is
necessary to account for individual circumstances such as

n seasonal product demand shifts;

n changes in crude slate;

n the availability of capital;

n local market conditions; and

n individual unit design differences.

Intelligently applied, leading-edge technology, and a
robust sulphur management strategy is imperative.

About the technology
AT A GLANCE Shell Global Solutions provides a comprehensive solution
to help refiners to meet their specific short- and long-term
Customer driver: Legislative constraints (permits/licence to
business goals. Initial consultancy and extended services
operate, fuel specifications); margin improvement (optimised
throughout the project life cycle may include:
production, efficiency and availability); changing feedstock
slate (heavy/sour/high TAN/syn crudes) n  arket studies, such as scenario planning and
Solution: A comprehensive portfolio of integrated, best-in- masterplanning to help take a view of the future market
class technologies customised to meet a refiner’s specific and to enable more robust decision making regarding
business objectives location, feedstock, logistics, process configuration and
hardware requirements;
Value delivered: Enhanced yield of high-value
products; ability to process sourer crudes; optimised n front-end development to optimise process design and
environmental footprint. technology selection;
Proof point: Over 100 years of experience as one of the n implementation support, such as project management
technology pioneers support and contractor management to ensure budgets
and schedules are met; and
The reduced availability of light and sweet crudes, and the
consequential increase in the cost of such feedstocks, makes it n s tart-up and commissioning services to reduce the time
more and more attractive for refiners to take in heavier and to reach optimal operations, and organisational
sourer feeds. effectiveness reviews.

However, there are consequences. Refiners that use higher-
sulphur crudes can find it extremely challenging to respond to
Today’s feedstocks typically
trends such as:
contain increasing levels of
increasingly stringent fuel specifications
sulphur, but fuel specifications
n diminishing fuel oil market are tightening – This is the
n tightening emissions regulations sulphur paradox.

and produces minimal effluent. and n sulphur in crude. n Sandvik’s sulphur solidification and handling systems. Figure 1: The Shell Sulphur Technology Platform. Merichem liquid treating technologies offer key n integrated. short. and improve the relative volume activity of Criterion’s n solid sulphur. and require n c ustomised. Inc. including high-performance impurity optimised across the refinery. Criterion and Cansolv are wholly owned by Shell. We n Praxair. Through our Sulphur Technology Platform strategy. thereby helping facilities to meet even the most stringent environmental limits. n s ulphur in all products. comprehensive dioxide (CO2) removal technologies. carefully selected companies.and long-term business goals. We have a wide range of catalysts and including World Bank standards. n c omprehensive. from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) to residue. Various characteristics set Shell Global Solutions apart from other licensors in this area.’s CONOx technology. n sulphur dioxide (SO2). This enables the process configuration to be advantages. removal and smaller processing vessels. depending on the design technologies from key.8%. technology solutions to meet your specific needs. CANSOLV SO2 scrubbing technology can achieve SO2 The Shell Global Solutions licensing portfolio includes emissions as low as 10 ppmv. crucial front-end development phase – where decisions n Zeolyst International’s hydrocracking catalysts. market-leading desulphurisation catalysts by a factor of five. project value. The Shell Sulphur The SCOT process enhances sulphur recovery from Technology Platform is: Claus plants to over 99. For instance. Solutions can be tailored to meet a refiner’s reduced capital expenditures.’s SO2 scrubbing and carbon can provide a portfolio of integrated. are critical and have a strong influence on the overall n Merichem Company’s liquid treating technologies. n hydrogen sulphide (H2S). parameters. We bring our experience and . Performance data Continuous research and development has helped to n mercaptans. These are: n CDTECH’s fluidised catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline selective hydrodesulphurisation technology. CDTECH and Zeolyst are Shell joint ventures. technologies. solutions may incorporate: Business value n Criterion Catalysts & Technologies’ hydroprocessing Shell Global Solutions supports customers through the catalysts. we n Cansolv Technologies Inc. license a suite of technologies that can deal with sulphur in various forms (Figure 1).

AQUAFINING™: Water extraction of soluble organic and inorganic impurities from liquid and gas hydrocarbon streams. including: Catalysts Criterion. MERICAT™ and MERICAT C: A caustic/catalyst/air mixture removes hydrogen sulphide and sweetens mercaptan compounds in gasoline. MERICON™: On-site solutions for the processing of spent caustics to reduce their biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand. NAPFINING™ and NAPFINING HiTAN: Caustic extraction of naphthenic acid compounds from jet fuel. REGEN ULS and THIOLEX CANSOLV is a trademark of Cansolv Technologies Inc. CHLOREX™: Alkaline water extraction of inorganic chloride compounds from reformer gas and liquid product streams. sulphur plants and spent acid regeneration units CANSOLV® CO2 removal Cansolv For the bulk removal of CO2 from post combustion flue gas streams. technology Sulphur solidification and Sandvik Complete turnkey project solutions for sulphur pastillation and handling systems handling plants are available ‡ ADIP and SCOT are Shell trademarks. n hydrocracking. REGEN ULS: Regeneration of mercaptide-rich caustic. naphtha. are service marks of Merichem. MERICAT II: A caustic/catalyst/air mixture removes hydrogen sulphide and sweetens mercaptan compounds in jet fuel. Gas/liquid treatment Shell Global Solutions The ADIP‡ process removes H2S from refinery gases and the SCOT‡ and sulphur recovery process enhances sulphur recovery from Claus plants to over 99. The sulphur degassing process is used to remove H2S from the liquid sulphur produced in Claus sulphur recovery units. When integrated with the CANSOLV SO2 scrubbing system. and selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) from furnaces.Process description Technologies Technology developer Application Hydroprocessing and Shell Global Solutions. MERICAT. n diesel hydrotreating and. boilers and turbines.8%. Hydroprocessing applications. control odour and adjust acidity. n  kerosene hydrotreating. MERICAT II. condensate and crude oil streams. . In addition we offer catalysts for residue hydrotreating fixed and ebullating bed. CRI. heaters. kerosene. Liquid treating Merichem THIOLEX™: Caustic extraction of acid gas and mercaptan compounds technologies from liquid and gas hydrocarbon streams. Zeolyst n  naphtha hydrotreating. MERICON. EXOMER. EXOMER™: A proprietary treating reagent removes the recombinant mercaptans that form in selectively hydrotreated FCC gasoline or heavier molecular weight mercaptans from liquid hydrocarbon streams. THIOLEX COS: Caustic/catalyst extraction of acid gas and carbonyl sulphide (COS) compounds from liquid and gas hydrocarbon streams. this reduces parasitic energy consumption. process heaters. kerosene and gasoline and naphtha streams. REGEN®: Regeneration of rich caustic streams to improve caustic utilisation. diesel. NAPFINING. REGEN is a trademark of Merichem Company. MERICAT J: A special solution mixed with air oxidises heavy mercaptans in jet fuel and middle distillate streams without the need for a fixed carbon bed. condensate and crude oil streams. Praxair CONOx Praxair An innovative solution for controlling carbon monoxide (CO) and Technology NOx emissions from FCC units FCC gasoline selective CDTECH Catalytic distillation technology that processes FCC gasoline streams hydrodesulphurisation to produce a stream that is essentially free of mercaptans. technologies thereby helping facilities to meet even the most stringent environmental limits. AMINEX™ and AMINEX COS: A special amine removes acid gas and COS compounds from LPG-type and gas streams. CANSOLV® SO2 Cansolv For the control of emissions and to capture additional by-product scrubbing value from flue gas streams generated by FCC units.

n reduce the sulphur levels of their products. the company was also looking ahead to the requirement to meet Euro V in 2015.000 ppmv. This involved capital expenditure of about $10–15 million (excluding the first catalyst fill) and could be worth $8 million in annual margin to the refiner. Furthermore. and have not been implementation and remain with customers until they see independently verified by Shell Global Solutions. The Cansolv SO2 scrubbing system has consistently n  rocess opportunity crudes. which represent an p met SO2 emissions of 20 ppmv or less while treating acid plant tail gas with SO2 content as high as additional revenue opportunity. so that value is built in from the start. that can be customised to meet your specific business needs. has decoupled the operation of the acid plant from its SO2 emissions by exploiting the technology’s n remove H2S. SO2. recording or information storage and retrieval system. and 6. without permission in writing from Shell Global Solutions International BV. such as scenario planning and regeneration plant. their affiliates and their products are based solely on information provided by Merichem Company and Praxair. The information contained in this material is intended to be general in nature and must not be relied on as specific advice in connection with any decisions you may make. We then work with customers to provide optimised A Cansolv SO2 scrubbing system was selected to technical solutions that can help them to: replace the existing ammonium sulphate system. their environmental mandate. Shell Global Solutions is a network of independent technology companies in the Shell Group. We also spearhead their All statements regarding Merichem Company and Praxair. please visit our website at GS33331110 En(A) . and CO2 from their off-gases to meet ability to treat a range of inlet SO2 concentrations. these materials do not in n react as the marine fuels specifications tighten? any way constitute an offer to provide specific services. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means. All rights reserved. n increase the capacity of your sulphur recovery unit? Copyright © 2010 Shell Global Solutions International BV. The application of Shell’s wash-water design helped to combat fouling and corrosion issues. needed to find an alternative solution to treat the tail gas of its alkylation spent acid techniques. Some services may not be available in certain countries or political subdivisions thereof. from Since the unit’s start-up in 2002. A comprehensive portfolio of integrated technologies. as the existing ammonium masterplanning. material. Inc. performance has gasoline and diesel through to LPG and jet. the expressions “Shell” and “Shell Global Solutions” are sometimes used for convenience where reference is made to these companies in general. Moreover. electronic or mechanical n maximise the use of high-sulphur residue fuels? including by photocopy. In this the benefits. USA. Shell Global Solutions is not HAvE yOu CONsidErEd HOw yOu CAN liable for any action you may take as a result of you relying on such material or for any loss or damage suffered by you as a result of you taking this action. our support does not end with the delivery of For more information. The solution involved expanding the volume of catalyst and replacing the catalyst with a more active ULSD catalyst and a new dewaxing catalyst to improve the diesel’s cold flow properties. derived from and fine-tuned using real business a set of recommendations. sulphate process was troublesome and did not integrate well with the refinery sulphur product chain. The refiner product specifications. US refiner meets stricter SO2 regulations Faced with stricter SO2 regulations. a refinery in California. or where no useful purpose is served by identifying a particular company. to meet exceeded the targeted design conditions. To achieve a no-regret investment. pRoof poINTs CIS refiner revamps for ultra-low-sulphur diesel (ULSD) A CIS refiner was producing 350-ppm diesel but needed to adapt in order to produce 50-ppm diesel (Euro IV product specifications) in 2012. n reduce the production of residue and fuel oil.