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GRAVITY PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS:

1. Calculate the force of gravity between two 3-kilogram ball bearings separated by
a distance of 10 centimeters. Round your answer to two significant digits.

Solution:

Before you can substitute all the given values into the law of universal gravitation, you
need to convert the distance between the ball bearings into meters to match the units in
the gravitational constant, G:

2. A 9,000-kilogram starship is pulled toward Planet X, a

behemoth with a radius of 65,000 kilometers. When the starship is 2,500


kilometers from the planets surface, what is the starships acceleration (providing
that its engines are turned off)? Round your answer to two significant digits.

Solution:

With its engines off, the only force that the starship feels is the gravitational force
attracting it to Planet X. Therefore, the net force on the starship
must be equal to the force of gravity between the ship and the planet,

r represents the distance between the centers of the two objects: The distance from the
center of Planet X to its surface is 65,000 kilometers, and the distance from the surface
to the starship is another 2,500 kilometers, making the total distance between the planet
and the starship 67,500 kilometers or, more importantly, given the units situation,
67,500,000 meters

Substituting all the data into the equations leaves you with:

(You can save yourself a little handwriting by noticing that because

appears on both sides of the equation in the second line, you can divide it from both
sides to leave you with

an equation with the unknown already separated and only three substitutions to enter.)
VAM PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

1. Lets reconsider a balanced transportation problem that has 3 supply


sources (silos) and 4 demand sources (mills). The numerical values in
the upper right-hand corner of each box, from now on , represent the
per unit transportation cost from silo i to mill j. For example, is the
per unit transportation cost from silo 1 to mill 1.

Based on what we previously described, the first step consists of calculating


the penalty cost for each row and column of the tableau that represents the
previous transportation problem. For example, in row 1 the lowest cost is $2
and the next lowest unit cost is $10. Thus the penalty cost for that row is $8
($10-$2). The same calculation is replicated for each row and column of the
tableau, which is trivial, and gets the following results (the penalty costs of
the respective rows and columns have been marked in orange for clarity):

Since row 3 has the highest penalty cost ($10) and the cell corresponding
to has the lowest unit cost of that row, 5 units are allocated to (it is
unnecessary to do more even when the capacity of silo 3 would allow it
given that the demand for mill 1 is only 5 units). In doing so column 1
should be crossed out (we have marked it in yellow) and next comes the
calculation of the new penalty costs as shown below:

Now the highest penalty cost is $9 ($11-$2), which is found in row 1. As a


result the highest quantity possible is allocated to the variable , thus
obtaining , at the same time row 1 and row 2 are satisfied. Column 2
is arbitrarily crossed out and the supply of row 1 is adjusted to zero.

Continuing on in the same manner, row 2 now has the highest penalty cost
that corresponds to $11 ($20-$9), therefore is allocated, so that
column 3 is crossed out and there are 10 units left in row 2. Only column 4
is left and it has 15 positive supply units. By applying the Minimum Cell Cost
Method to this column, we successively allocate , , (it is
recommended to confirm these results). Also note that there are other
possible solutions that depend on how the ties are broken.

The value of the objective function associated with this initial feasible
solution is Z=15(2)+0(11)+15(9)+10(20)+5(4)+5(18)=$475 which is
similar to what was reached using the Minimum Cell Cost Method,
nevertheless, the Vogel Approximation Method generally gives a better initial
solution.

2. PROBLEM 2
TRAJECTORY PROBLEMS

1. Problem 1. An object is launched at a velocity of 20 m/s in a direction making an angle of


25 upward with the horizontal.

a) What is the maximum height reached by the object?

b) What is the total flight time (between launch and touching the ground) of the object?

c) What is the horizontal range (maximum x above ground) of the object?


d) What is the magnitude of the velocity of the object just before it hits the ground?
Solution to Problem 1:

1.
a) The formulas for the components Vx and Vy of the velocity and components x and y of
the displacement are given by

Vx = V0 cos() Vy = V0 sin() - g t

x = V0 cos() t y = V0 sin() t - (1/2) g t2

In the problem V0 = 20 m/s, = 25 and g = 9.8 m/s2.

The height of the projectile is given by the component y, and it reaches its maximum
value when the component Vy is equal to zero. That is when the projectile changes from
moving upward to moving downward.(see figure above) and also the animation of the
projectile.

Vy = V0 sin() - g t = 0

solve for t

t = V0 sin() / g = 20 sin(25) / 9.8 = 0.86 seconds

Find the maximum height by substituting t by 0.86 seconds in the formula for y

maximum height y (0.86) = 20 sin(25)(0.86) - (1/2) (9.8) (0.86) 2 = 3.64 meters

b) The time of flight is the interval of time between when projectile is launched: t1 and
when the projectile touches the ground: t2. At t = t1 and t = t2, y = 0 (ground). Hence

V0 sin() t - (1/2) g t2 = 0

Solve for t

t(V0 sin() - (1/2) g t) = 0

two solutions

t = t1 = 0 and t = t2 = 2 V0 sin() / g
Time of flight = t2 - t1 = 2 (20) sin() / g = 1.72 seconds.

c) In part c) above we found the time of flight t2 = 2 V0 sin() / g. The horizontal range is
the horizontal distance given by x at t = t2.

range = x(t2) = V0 cos() t2 = 2 V0 cos() V0 sin() / g = V02 sin(2) / g = 202 sin (2(25)) /
9.8 = 31.26 meters

d) The object hits the ground at t = t2 = 2 V0 sin() / g (found in part b above)

The components of the velocity at t are given by

Vx = V0 cos() Vy = V0 sin() - g t

The components of the velocity at t = 2 V0 sin() / g are given by

Vx = V0 cos() = 20 cos(25) Vy = V0 sin(25) - g (2 V0 sin(25) / g) = - V0 sin(25)

The magitude V of the velocity is given by

V = [ Vx2 + Vy2 ] = [ (20 cos(25))2 + (- V0 sin(25))2 ] = V0 = 20 m/s

2. Problem 2: A projectile is launched from point O at an angle of 22 with an initial velocity


of 15 m/s up an incline plane that makes an angle of 10 with the horizontal. The
projectile hits the incline plane at point M.

a) Find the time it takes for the projectile to hit the incline plane.

b)Find the distance OM.

Solution to Problem 2:
a) The x and y components of the displacement are given by

x = V0 cos() t y = V0 sin() t - (1/2) g t2

with = 22 + 10 = 32 and V0 = 15 m/s

The relationship between the coordinate x and y on the incline is given by

tan(10) = y / x

Substitute x and y by their expressions above to obtain

tan(10) = ( V0 sin() t - (1/2) g t2) / V0 cos() t

Simplify to obtain the equation in t

(1/2) g t + V0 cos() tan(10) - V0 sin() = 0

Solve for t

V0 sin() - V0 cos() tan(10) 15 sin(32) - 15 cos(32) tan(10)


t= = = 1.16 s
0.5 g 0.5 (9.8)

b)

OM = [ (V0 cos() t)2 + ( V0 sin() t - (1/2) g t2)2 ]

OM (t=1.16)= [ (15 cos(32) 1.16)2 + ( 15 sin(32) 1.16 - (1/2) 9.8 (1.16)2)2 ] = 15 meters