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Physical Activity of Adults Aged 18 to 59 Years

Physical Activity
of Adults Aged 18 to 59 Years
MANS 2003
Volume 6

Volume 6
Ministry of Health Malaysia
First Published in Malaysia 2008
Copyright Nutrition Section, Family Health Development Division
Ministry of Health Malaysia, 2008
ISBN 978-983-44156-3-1

Published by:
Nutrition Section
Family Health Development Division
Ministry of Health Malaysia
Level 7, Block E10
Federal Government Administrative Centre
62590 Putrajaya, Malaysia
Tel. : 603-88834086
Fax : 603-88884647
Website : www.nutrition.moh.gov.my

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a


retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey was funded by the Ministry of Health through the
operating budget of three Divisions, the Family Health Development Division, the Food
Safety and Quality Division and the Health Education and Communication Division. This
survey was coordinated by the Nutrition Section of the Family Health Development Division.

The completion and success of this survey was due to the hard work and dedication of the
scouting team, survey team and the Technical Committee for the Malaysian Adult Nutrition
Survey. The latter was responsible for the development of the survey design and the survey
questionnaire, monitoring the quality of the survey data, analyzing the data and preparing
this report. Throughout this period the survey team and the Technical Committee members
showed a high level of professionalism and team spirit.

The Technical Committee comprised of members from several divisions in the Ministry of
Health, the Health Departments of the states of Johor and Selangor, the Public Health
Institute, the Institute of Medical Research, the Institute for Health Systems Research, as
well as academicians from the local universities. Their commitment and contribution is
highly acknowledged. We would like to acknowledge support from the Directors of the State
Health Department, Director of the Institute for Public Health, Director of the Institute of
Medical Research, Director of the Institute for Health Systems Research, Heads of
Departments of Nutrition and Dietetic, of the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and Universiti
Putra Malaysia and the Dean, School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia for their
support and cooperation.

Special thanks are due to the staff at the Nutrition Laboratory, Institute for Medical
Research for their help in the nutrient analysis of 41 food samples to supplement the data in
the current Malaysian Food Composition Tables, which was used in the analysis of certain
food items not in the database. This survey would not have been possible without the
understanding, commitment and participation of our respondents. We offer our deepest
gratitude to the nearly 7000 Malaysians who welcomed us into their homes and made this
Adult Nutrition Survey a success.

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The report of this survey has been written in nine volumes which are:

Volume 1: Methodology

Volume 2: General Findings

Volume 3: Nutritional Status of Adults Aged 18 to 59 Years

Volume 4: Meal Pattern of Adults Aged 18 to 59 Years

Volume 5: Dietary Intake of Adults Aged 18 to 59 Years

Volume 6: Physical Activity of Adults Aged 18 to 59 Years

Volume 7: Habitual Food Intake of Adults Aged 18 to 59 Years

Volume 8: Dietary Supplement Use among Adults Aged 18 to 59 Years

Volume 9: The Field Survey and Data Support Team

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VOLUME 6

Physical Activity of Adults Aged 18 to 59 Years

Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey 2003

Authors

Poh Bee Koon


Department of Nutrition and Dietetics
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur

Safiah Mohd Yusof


Family Health Development Division
Ministry of Health Malaysia

Tahir Aris
Institute for Health Systems Research (IHSR)
Ministry of Health Malaysia

Siti Haslinda Mohd Din


Department of Statistics, Malaysia

Siti Norazlin Mohd Ngadikin


Family Health Development Division
Ministry of Health Malaysia

Farina Zulkernain
State Department of Health, Pahang

Mohd Hasyami Saihun


Family Health Development Division
Ministry of Health Malaysia

v
Technical Committee Members

Ahmad Ali Zainuddin


Institute for Public Health
Ministry of Health Malaysia

Ahmad Mahir Razali


Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi

Azmi Md. Yusof


State Department of Health, Johore

Fatimah Salim
Family Health Development Division
Ministry of Health Malaysia

Fatimah Sulong
State Department of Health, Negeri Sembilan

Jamal Khair Hashim


State Department of Health, Selangor

Khairul Zarina Mohd Yusop


Family Health Development Division
Ministry of Health Malaysia

Mirnalini Kandiah
Department of nutrition and dietetics
Universiti Putra Malaysia

Nor Azliana Mohamat Nor


Family Health Development Division
Ministry of Health Malaysia

Norlela Mohd. Hussin


State Department of Health, Selangor

Norimah A. Karim
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur
Department of nutrition and dietetics

Poh Bee Koon


Department of nutrition and dietetics
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur

Safiah Mohd. Yusof (Principal Investigator)


Family Health Development Division
Ministry of Health Malaysia

Siti Haslinda Mohd. Din


Department of Statistics, Malaysia

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Technical Committee Members

Sabtuah Royali
Health Education Division
Ministry of Health Malaysia

Tahir Aris
Institute for Health Systems Research (IHSR)
Ministry of Health Malaysia

Wan Abdul Manan Wan Muda


Universiti Sains Malaysia

Zalilah Mohd Shariff


Department of nutrition and dietetics
Universiti Putra Malaysia

vii
Research Officers

Aida Azna Abu Hassan


(from April 2002 until October 2003)
Family Health Development Division
Ministry of Health Malaysia

Asnah Laile Abdul Latif


(from July 2004 until January 2006)
Family Health Development Division
Ministry of Health Malaysia

Fasiah Wahad
(from November 2006)
Family Health Development Division
Ministry of Health Malaysia

Fatimah Zurina Mohamad


(from April 2002 until October 2003)
Family Health Development Division
Ministry of Health Malaysia

Mohd Hasyami Saihun


(from July 2004 until November 2007)
Family Health Development Division
Ministry of Health Malaysia

Norhasniza Yaacob
(from September 2007)
Family Health Development Division
Ministry of Health Malaysia

Normah Haron
(from February 2006 to April 2007)
Family Health Development Division
Ministry of Health Malaysia

Siti Fatimah Ahmad


(from October 2003 until November 2007)
Family Health Development Division
Ministry of Health Malaysia

Siti Norazlin Mohd Ngadikin


(from April 2002 until November 2007)
Family Health Development Division
Ministry of Health Malaysia

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Research Assistants

Anim Zakiah Mokhter


(from March 2007)
Family Health Development Division
Ministry of Health Malaysia

Azlina Aliyah
(from August 2004 until April 2005)
Family Health Development Division
Ministry of Health Malaysia

Nik Fazlina Nik Mustafa


(from October 2003 until July 2004)
Family Health Development Division
Ministry of Health Malaysia

Nor Ismawan Othman


(from October 2003 until September 2004)
Family Health Development Division
Ministry of Health Malaysia

Siti Rohana Mohd Yunus


(from October 2003 until April 2005)
Family Health Development Division
Ministry of Health Malaysia

Zanarita Ariffin
(from January 2004 until September 2006)
Family Health Development Division
Ministry of Health Malaysia

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Volume 6: Physical Activity Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey 2003

FOREWORD BY DIRECTOR GENERAL OF HEALTH MALAYSIA

This report and the results of the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey 2003 mark the outcome of five
years of planning, development, field work and analysis. This was brought about by a successful
collaboration between the Ministry of Health and the local universities.

This report provides definitive information on the nutritional status of Malaysian adults. For the first
time, a detailed food and nutrient intake information of the adult population in various parts of the
country, whether urban or rural, and of the various ethnic groups. Findings from this survey of a
representative sample of the population indicate the magnitude of the nutrition problems in this
country, for example, the estimated number of adults who are overweight and obese, those who are
sedentary, not consuming adequate energy or over consuming calories from fats.

This report is timely, as it coincides with our 9th Malaysia Plan mid-term review, and thus provides
useful guidance in the development of policies regarding health, nutrition, food safety, agriculture and
trade. This will place Malaysia at par with the developed countries, an important milestone in our
quest for standard setting and evidence-based planning of programmes.

The information obtained from this survey is essential in keeping up with the changing eating habits
due to globalisation and urbanisation. I, therefore, hope similar surveys will be continued on a
regular basis, and that future surveys cover other age groups such as infants, children, adolescents
and the elderly.

The Ministry of Health Malaysia would like to congratulate the Family Health Development Division,
Ministry of Health Malaysia and everyone involved in making this study a success. Special thanks to
the Technical Committee for the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey, all State Health Departments and
universities for their commendable effort in coming up with this extremely important document for
planning of Public Health programmes.

Thank you.

Tan Sri Dato Seri Dr. Hj Mohd. Ismail Merican


Director General of Health Malaysia

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Volume 6: Physical Activity Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey 2003

FOREWORD BY DEPUTY DIRECTOR GENERAL OF HEALTH (PUBLIC HEALTH)

The increase in diet-related diseases during the last few decades in Malaysia has prompted the
government to recognize the important role that nutrition plays in the promotion of good health. To
achieve the goal of healthy population, Malaysians must have access to a nutritionally adequate diet,
safe foods and a sustainable healthy living environment.

The publication of the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) 2003 would generate much interest
amongst all health and nutrition care stakeholders in the country. Data and information gathered by
these surveys are extremely valuable to all decision makers at the national, state and district level as
well as those interested in the nutritional status of the Malaysian population.

Results of the MANS 2003 can be utilised as indicators to evaluate the achievements of the targets
in the National Plan of Action for Nutrition (2006-2015). The outcome of this survey can also be used
to measure the impact of current nutrition intervention programmes as well as to plan future activities
to cater for the unique needs of the various target population. This report will serve as a useful
reference for future research and helps in improving the availability of local data sources.

I would like to take this opportunity to congratulate and thank the Director of Family Health
Development Division and the Principal Investigator MANS 2003, all those directly involved in the
conduct of the survey, the Technical Committee Members and research field survey teams for their
dedication and tenacious efforts in completing this survey and publishing this invaluable report.

Dato Dr. Hj. Ramlee Hj. Rahmat


Deputy Director General of Health (Public Health)
Ministry of Health Malaysia

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Volume 6: Physical Activity Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey 2003

FOREWORD BY DIRECTOR OF FAMILY HEALTH DEVELOPMENT DIVISION

I am very happy with the successful completion of this report of the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey
(MANS) 2003. I appreciate the concerted effort, persistence and endurance of the officers who have
been involved in this survey. I am extra proud of the report which is the first National Adult Survey of
its kind conducted in this country.

This survey provides the data for action and policies, as well as the direction for further research
efforts towards improving the nutritional well-being of the population in line with the objectives of the
National Nutrition Policy of Malaysia.

I believe this survey report is an important document to provide guidance in the implementation and
evaluation of nutrition programmes and activities in the country under the Ninth and Tenth Malaysia
Plans.

The results of this study have given us a more comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the
nutritional status, dietary intake and physical activity of the adult population as well as their use of
food supplements. The report will also be valuable in assisting with the decision making for research,
services or training.

I would like to take this opportunity to thank the immediate past Director of Family Health
Development Division Dato Dr Narimah Awin, whose support was instrumental in making this study
a success. I must congratulate Datin Dr Safiah Mohd Yusof the Principal Investigator and the
research team members whom with passion, dedication and hardwork, have successfully undertaken
and completed this study. I would also like to thank all individuals and agencies who have directly or
indirectly, contributed towards the completion of this study.

Dr. Hjh Safurah Hj. Jaafar


Director of Family Health Development Division
Ministry of Health Malaysia

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Volume 6: Physical Activity Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey 2003

FOREWORD BY PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

A nutrition survey involves measuring multiple variables that are interrelated. Moreover, a persons
food intake or physical activity can change from time to time. However, this type of information and
others to asses the nutritional status of the Malaysian population is urgently needed to develop food
and nutrition policies, intervention and educational programmes as well as to monitor the countrys
nutrition situation.

This is the first time that a cross-sectional nutrition survey has been conducted nationwide, covering
Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak. The main objective of this survey is to determine the
nutritional status, food consumption and physical activity pattern of Malaysian adults from 18 to 59
years old.

It is my sincere wish that the results of this study be maximally utilized by all stakeholders of nutrition
and health services in the country, including programme managers of the Ministry of Health
Malaysia, academicians, food manufacturers, private health institutions and individuals concerned.
The results should be used for the betterment of the nation, directly or indirectly in nutrition planning,
prioritisation, research or training.

I would like to take this opportunity to thank the Director General of Health Malaysia, Tan Sri Dato
Seri Dr. Hj Mohd Ismail Merican for giving valuable support in this survey.

A note of gratitude goes to the Deputy Director General of Health Malaysia (Public Health), Dato Dr.
Hj. Ramlee Hj. Rahmat as an advisor to Technical Committee for this survey for his patience,
understanding and guidance to ensure the success of this survey.

I would like to acknowledge support from the Director of the Family Health Development Division,
Directors of all the State Health Departments, Director of the Institute for Public Health, Director of
the Institute of Medical Research, Director of the Institute for Health Systems Research, Heads of
Nutrition Departments of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and Universiti Putra Malaysia and the
Dean, School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia for their support and cooperation. Their
commitment and contribution is highly appreciated.

The completion and success of this survey was due to the hard work and dedication of the scouting
team, survey team and the Technical Committee for the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey. The latter
was responsible for the development of the survey design and the survey questionnaire, monitoring
the quality of the survey data, analyzing the data and preparing this report. Throughout this period
the survey team and the Technical Committee members showed a high level of professionalism and
team spirit.

This survey would not have been possible without the understanding, commitment and participation
of our respondents. I offer my deepest gratitude to the nearly 7000 Malaysians who welcomed us into
their homes and made this Adult Nutrition Survey a success.

Datin Dr. Safiah Mohd Yusof


Principal Investigator
Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey 2003
Family Health Development Division
Ministry of Health Malaysia
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Volume 6: Physical Activity Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey 2003

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents Page

Foreword by Director General of Health Malaysia x

Foreword by Deputy Director General of Health (Public Health) xi

Foreword by Director of Family Health Development Division xii

Foreword by Principal Investigator xiii

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF APPENDICES

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY xxi

6.1 INTRODUCTION 1

6.2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2

6.3 OBJECTIVE 5

6.3.1 General Objective 5

6.3.2 Specific Objectives 5

6.4 METHODOLOGY 5

6.4.1 Physical activity assessment 6

6.4.1.1 Questionnaire on habitual physical activity 6

6.4.1.2 The 24-hour physical activity recall form 7

6.4.2 Data analysis 8

6.4.3 The 95% Confidence Interval (CI) charts 8

6.5 FINDINGS 8

6.5.1 General Findings 8

6.5.2 Findings on habitual physical activity 8

6.5.2.1 Transportation for travelling to and from work or school 9

6.5.2.2 Time spent travelling to and from work or school 11

6.5.2.3 Prevalence of ever-exercised 11

6.5.2.4 Prevalence of adequate exercise 16

6.5.2.5 Comparison of adequate exercise with NHMS II findings 20

6.5.2.6 Most popular types of sports and exercise activities 21


Volume 6: Physical Activity Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey 2003

Contents Page

6.5.2.7 Time spent on each type of sports and exercise activity 27

6.5.2.8 Habitual usage of stairs 28

6.5.3 Findings on habitual physical activity 28

6.5.3.1 Physical activity pattern based on types of daily activity 28

6.5.3.2 Physical activity pattern based on body position 36

6.5.3.3 Proportion of time spent on light, moderate and vigorous 41


activity

6.6 DISCUSSION 45

6.7 CONCLUSIONS 49

6.8 REFERENCES 50

6.9 APPENDICES 54
Volume 6: Physical Activity Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey 2003

LIST OF FIGURES

Figures Title of Figures Page

6.5.1 Prevalence of subjects using various types of transportation for travelling to and 9
from work/school by sex

6.5.2 Prevalence of subjects using various types of transportation for travelling to and 10
from work/school by ethnicity

6.5.3 Prevalence of subjects using various types of transportation for travelling to and 10
from work/school by strata

6.5.4 Prevalence of subjects using various types of transportation for travelling to and 11
from work/school by age groups

6.5.5 Prevalence of ever-exercised among Malaysian adults by sex 12

6.5.6 Prevalence of ever-exercised among Malaysian adults by zones 13

6.5.7 Prevalence of ever-exercised among men and women by zone 13

6.5.8 Prevalence of ever-exercised among Malaysian adults by strata 14

6.5.9 Prevalence of ever-exercised among men and women by strata 14

6.5.10 Prevalence of ever-exercised among Malaysian adults by age groups 15

6.5.11 Prevalence of ever-exercised among men and women by age groups 15

6.5.12 Prevalence of adequate exercise among Malaysian adults by sex 16

6.5.13 Prevalence of adequate exercise among Malaysian adults by zones 17

6.5.14 Prevalence of adequate exercise among men and women by zones 17

6.5.15 Prevalence of adequate exercise among Malaysian adults by strata 18

6.5.16 Prevalence of adequate exercise among men and women by strata 18

6.5.17 Prevalence of adequate exercise among Malaysian adults by age groups 19

6.5.18 Prevalence of adequate exercise among men and women by age groups 19

6.5.19 Proportion of top ten types of sports and exercise activities among Malaysian 21
adults

6.5.20 Proportion of top ten types of sports and exercise activities among Malaysian 22
adults by sex

6.5.21 Proportion of top ten types of sports and exercise activities among Malaysian 23
adults by strata

6.5.22 Proportion of top ten types of sports and exercise activities among Malaysian 24
adults by zones

6.5.23 Proportion of top ten types of sports and exercise activities among Malaysian 25
adults by ethnicity
Volume 6: Physical Activity Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey 2003

Figures Title of Figures Page

6.5.24 Proportion of top ten types of sports and exercise activities among Malaysian 26
adults by age groups

6.5.25 Mean time spent at a session of sports / exercise activity for the top ten most 27
popular types of sports / exercise

6.5.26 Physical activity pattern of Malaysian adults 29

6.5.27 Physical activity pattern of Malaysian adults by sex 30

6.5.28 Physical activity pattern of Malaysian adults by zones 31

6.5.29 Physical activity pattern of Malaysian adults by strata 32

6.5.30 Physical activity pattern of Malaysian adults by ethnicity 33

6.5.31 Physical activity pattern of Malaysian adults by age groups 34

6.5.32 Physical activity pattern of Malaysian adults by BMI status 35

6.5.33 Physical activity pattern based on body position of Malaysian adults 36

6.5.34 Physical activity pattern based on body position by sex 37

6.5.35 Physical activity pattern based on body position by zones 38

6.5.36 Physical activity pattern based on body position by strata 38

6.5.37 Physical activity pattern based on body position by ethnicity 39

6.5.38 Physical activity pattern based on body position by age groups 40

6.5.39 Physical activity pattern based on body position by BMI status 40

6.5.40 Percent of day Malaysians spent on light, moderate and vigorous activity 41

6.5.41 Percent of day Malaysians spent on light, moderate and vigorous activity by sex 42

6.5.42 Percent of day Malaysians spent on light, moderate and vigorous activity by 42
zones

6.5.43 Percent of day Malaysians spent on light, moderate and vigorous activity by 43
strata

6.5.44 Percent of day Malaysians spent on light, moderate and vigorous activity by eth- 44
nicity

6.5.45 Percent of day Malaysians spent on light, moderate and vigorous activity by age 44
groups

6.5.46 Percent of day spent on light, moderate and vigorous activity by BMI status 45
Volume 6: Physical Activity Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey 2003

LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix Title of Appendices Page

A The questionnaire forms 56

B1 List of physical activities carried out by subjects 61

B2 List of activities grouped into light, moderate and vigorous-intensity activity 64


categories

1a Prevalence of transport for travelling to and from work / school 66


(bicycling and walking)

1b Prevalence of transport for travelling to and from work / school 68


(car/driving and bus/LRT/commuter)

1c Prevalence of transport for travelling to and from work / school 70


(motorcycle and others)

2a Mean time in minutes spent on travelling to and from work / school 72


(bicycling and walking)

2b Mean time in minutes spent on travelling to and from work / school 74


(car/driving and bus/LRT/commuter)

2c Mean time in minutes spent on traveling to and from work / school 76


(motorcycle and others)

3 Prevalence of ever-exercised 78
(sports or exercise activities involvement in previous two weeks)

4 Prevalence of adequate exercise by socio-demography 80


(at least 3 times a week for 20 minutes or more each time)

5 Prevalence of adequate exercise by socio-demography 82


(at least 3 times a week for 15 minutes or more each time)

6a Types of sports / exercise by sex 84

6b Types of sports / exercise by strata 85

6c Types of sports / exercise by zone 86

6d Types of sports / exercise by ethnicity 88

6e Types of sports / exercise by age group 91

6f Types of sports / exercise by household income 93

6g Types of sports / exercise by BMI group 94

6h Types of sports / exercise by marital status 96

6i Types of sports / exercise by educational level 98

7a Mean time (in minutes) spent on each session of sports / exercise activities 100

7b Mean time (in minutes) spent on each session of sports / exercise activities 101
by strata
Volume 6: Physical Activity Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey 2003

Appendix Title of Appendices Page

7c Mean time (in minutes) spent on each session of sports / exercise activities 102
by zone

7d Mean time (in minutes) spent on each session of sports / exercise activities 104
by ethnicity

7e Mean time (in minutes) spent on each session of sports / exercise activities 107
by age group

7f Mean time (in minutes) spent on each session of sports / exercise activities 109
by household income

7g Mean time (in minutes) spent on each session of sports / exercise activities 110
by BMI status

7h Mean time (in minutes) spent on each session of sports / exercise activities 112
by marital status

7i Mean time (in minutes) spent on each session of sports / exercise activities 114
by educational level

8 Habitual usage of stairs 116

9 Total time spent sleeping 118

10 Total time spent working 120

11 Total time spent watching television 122

12 Total time spent on resting activity 124

13 Total time spent on housework 126

14 Total time spent eating 128

15 Total time spent on transportation-related activities 130

16 Total time spent on personal care activities 132

17 Total time spent on activities related to moving about 134

18 Total time spent on social activities 136

19 Total time spent on child care activities 138

20 Total time spent on recreational activities 140

21 Total time spent on miscellaneous activities 142

22 Total time spent praying 144

23 Total time spent on village type activities 146

24 Total time spent on religious activities 148

25 Total time spent on personal errands 150

26 Total time spent on heavy-intensity sports activities 152

27 Total time spent on moderate-intensity sports activities 154


Volume 6: Physical Activity Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey 2003

Appendix Title of Appendices Page

28 Total time spent on light-intensity sports activities 156

29 Total time spent on activities based on body position 158


(sleeping and lying down)

30 Total time spent on activities based on body position (sitting) 160

31 Total time spent on activities based on body position (standing) 162

32 Total time spent on activities based on body position (walking) 164

33 Total time spent on activities based on body position 166


(personal care activities)

34 Total time spent on activities based on body position (climbing stairs) 168

35 Total time spent on activities based on body position (sports) 170

36 Total time spent on activities based on body position (Other activities) 172

37 Total time spent on light activities 174

38 Total time spent on moderate activities 176

39 Total time spent on vigorous activities 178


Volume 6: Physical Activity Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey 2003

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Physical activity is known to be of utmost importance not only for reducing the risk of
various non-communicable chronic diseases but also for the enhancement of an individuals
health. Physical activity has been defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal
muscles that result in energy expenditure. On the other hand, exercise refers to any
planned, structured and repetitive bodily movements that are performed to improve physical
fitness. Both physical activity and exercise can be described by four parameters: type,
frequency, duration and intensity. Studies have shown that individuals who engage in
regular physical activity have a tendency to be healthier than their physically inactive peers.
However, the lack of physical activity is now a global health hazard and is increasing rapidly
in both developed and developing countries.

With this background in mind, this study was aimed at assessing the habitual physical
activity and physical activity pattern of Malaysian adults aged from 18 to 59 years old. It
includes determining the modes of transportation used, whether active or inactive; the types
of exercise or sports that Malaysian adults engage in; as well as the daily physical activity
pattern, and classification of physical activities into light, moderate or vigorous intensity
categories.

The physical activity data of the Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey (MANS) was collected
between October 2002 and July 2003, involving 6,926 respondents from six zones. Physical
activity data was collected using a set of physical activity questionnaire and 24-hour
physical activity recall. The physical activity questionnaire provides information on habitual
physical activity including exercise, sports and types of transportation. The 24-hour recall
provides data on daily physical activity pattern.

The results showed that Malaysian adults were generally a sedentary lot. Only 14.43% had
adequate exercise, corresponding to 19.54% among men and a mere 9.13% among
women. The highest proportion of adults with adequate exercise was from Sabah (19.0%),
while the lowest was from the East Coast (8.5%). Significant urban-rural differences were
also seen in the proportion having adequate exercise; where the urban population (15.8%)
tended to be more active compared to their rural counterparts (12.4%). The five most
popular types of sports among Malaysians were jogging, football, badminton, brisk walking
and aerobic exercise. There were similarities as well as differences in the types of sports
between the sexes. The common popular sports for both sexes were jogging, badminton
and brisk walking. Besides that, the men also preferred football and sepak takraw, while the
women preferred aerobic exercise and swimming.

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Volume 6: Physical Activity Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey 2003

Most Malaysians also travel by the most inactive of transport, that is by car (39.98%) and
motorcycle (34.16%). Only a small percentage used public transport (9.65%) such as bus,
LRT or commuter. Prevalence of transportation mode which involves moderately active
physical activity was low, that is only 2.9% cycled and 17.7% walked to work. Differences in
the modes of transportation used by men and women can be seen, in that almost three
times as many men (44.3%) uses the motorcycle as compared to their female counterparts
(16.8%), while more women walked (24.1% vs 14.0%) or used public transportation (17.0%
vs 5.4%). There were also differences in the modes of transportation used in urban and
rural areas, where a higher proportion of the urban population travelled by car (47.0% vs
28.1%), while a higher proportion of their rural counterparts use the motorcycle (43.8% vs
28.0%), walked (22.5% vs 14.7%), or cycled (3.9% vs 2.3%).

The 24-hour physical activity recall data showed that Malaysian adults spent 89.31% of their
day on light activities (that is 1286 1.30 minutes), and only 10.33% on moderate activities
(148.68 1.31 minutes) and 0.36% on vigorous activities (5.12 0.26 minutes). Among the
sedentary activities, Malaysians spent an average of 7 hours 40 minutes sleeping, 2 hours
36 minutes watching television, and 1 hour 55 minutes resting.

It is interesting to note that while men (4 hours 41 minutes) spent twice as much time
working as compared to women (2 hours 21 minutes), women (3 hours 10 minutes) spent
seven times as much time doing housework as compared to men (25 minutes). Comparing
between ethnics, Orang asli Semenanjung appeared to spend significantly more time
sleeping, resting and involved in social activities as compared to all other ethnicities in
Malaysia. As expected, the oldest group (aged 50 to 59 years) spent the most time resting
compared to other age groups.

It may be concluded that Malaysian adults are generally sedentary, with only a small
percentage involved in regular and adequate exercise. This lack of physical activity may
lead to problems in overweight and obesity if combined with unhealthy dietary habits.

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Volume 6: Physical Activity Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey 2003

Physical Activity of Adults Aged 18 to 59 Years

VOLUME 6

6.1 INTRODUCTION

The physical activity pattern among the adult population in Malaysia was last studied on a
large scale in 1996 as part of the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS II) by the
Ministry of Health (MOH 1999). The NHMS II gave an overview of the physical activity or
lack thereof among adult men and women, focussing on the prevalence of ever-exercised
and adequate exercise. Since then, the Healthy Lifestyle Campaign had been carried out
to improve the lifestyle, including leading a more physically active life, of Malaysians.
However, adult obesity levels have been escalating, leading to intimations of increasing
dietary intakes in conjunction with decreasing physical activity levels parallel to rapid
socioeconomic development and urbanization.

The importance of physical activity to enhance health and to reduce risk of various chronic
diseases is well-known and has been widely documented (DHHS 1996). Individuals who
engage in regular physical activity have a tendency to be healthier than their physically
inactive peers: they experience less health problems, such as obesity, cardiovascular
disease, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis and cancer particularly colon, breast and prostate
cancer (Powell & Blair 1994; Friedenreich 2001; Rastogi et al. 2004).

Lack of physical activity is now a global health hazard and is increasing rapidly in both
developed and developing countries (WHO 2003a). General physical inactivity is estimated
to cause 1.9 million deaths globally. People who do not achieve the minimum physical
activity recommendation may increase their risk of getting cardiovascular disease up to 1.5
times. About 22% of ischemic heart disease and about 10 to 16% of diabetes mellitus and
cancer death cases reported yearly are caused by physical inactivity (WHO 2003b).

A report from the Nurses Health Study (Whang et al. 2006), using self-reported data,
shows a substantial decrease in the age-adjusted hazard ratio for sudden cardiac death
among women who spend more than 3.9 hours per week in moderate to vigorous physical
activity. This is one of the first reports to show a relationship between physical activity and a
lower risk of sudden cardiac death in women (Blair 2007). A study in China showed that
metabolic syndrome is also related to physical activity levels. Those with physical activity
level below 1.6 are at an increased risk of the metabolic syndrome (Yao et al. 2003), and it
is likely that similar results would probably apply to obesity risk.

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In line with these research findings, many policies, recommendations and programmes
designed to increase physical activity has been developed and implemented at international
as well as national levels (WHO 2004). Recommendations to increase physical activity have
been made for individuals, clinical settings as well as community settings (CDC 2002),
including in Malaysia (MASO 2005). However, implementation and monitoring of
recommendations and programmes have been more sluggish, and need to be more driven
in order to halt the decline in physical activity and increasing physical inactivity, which will in
turn impact on the health status of the population.

It is thus crucial that the physical activity pattern of adults in Malaysia be studied and
characterised so as to identify the extent of the problem of declining physical activity in the
country. The findings will provide direction for the formulation of health policy of the country
as well as in the provision of adequate resources, infrastructure and trained manpower
under the Ninth Malaysia Plan (2006 to 2010), particularly in the planning of physical activity
intervention programmes as part of the strategies to control, prevent and treat obesity.

With this background in mind, the present study focussed on the assessment of the
physical activity pattern of Malaysian adults aged 18 to 59 years, carried out between
October 2002 and July 2003. It is one of five studies that formed the first comprehensive
national nutrition survey, the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS), which included
assessment of nutritional status, dietary intakes, meal patterns, and supplement intake.

6.2 LITERATURE REVIEW

Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that
result in energy expenditure (Pate et al. 1995). It is closely related to, but distinct from,
exercise and physical fitness. Physical activity is a complex behaviour that involves many
aspects. It can be described by four parameters: type, frequency, duration and intensity
(Carron et al. 2003). On the other hand, exercise means any planned, structured and
repetitive bodily movements that are performed to improve physical fitness (DHHS 1996).

Frequency represents the number of times a person engages in an activity over a


predetermined period, for example jogging four times a week. Duration represents the
temporal length of the activity and is often quantified in minutes, for example: swimming for
30 minutes. Intensity refers to the degree of overload an activity imposes on physiological
systems compared to resting states (Carron et al. 2003).

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The intensity of physical activity may be described as light, moderate and strenuous or
vigorous. These terms can be correlated to the absolute amount of energy expenditure or
oxygen consumption associated with specific types of physical activity. Oxygen
consumption is expressed in metabolic equivalents (METs); that is METs are multiples of
the resting rates of oxygen consumption during physical activity (Ainsworth et al. 2000). In
general, an activity carried out at 1.0 to less than 3.0 METs is categorized as light intensity
activity (e.g. sitting, bowling); 3.0 to 6.0 METs is categorized as moderate intensity activity
(e.g. brisk walking, sweeping/mopping); and more than 6.0 METs is categorized as
strenuous/vigorous intensity activity (e.g. running, jogging).

The percentages of individuals in the United States who, by self-report, engaged either in
30 minutes per day of moderate-intensity activity on 5 or more days per week or in 20
minutes per day of vigorous-intensity activity on 3 or more days per week, was reported in
the 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). The percentage of persons
meeting the standard decreases from about 60 percent in the youngest group to less than
40 percent in the oldest group (Macera et al. 2005). Rates of physical activity vary by racial
or ethnic background, sex, and age. Insufficient energy expenditure due to sedentary
lifestyle is one of the causes of energy imbalance (Bauman et al. 2008) leading to the
increasing trends in obesity prevalence in most western countries, occurring most rapidly in
the USA (CDC 2007).

However, in some European countries, the increase in obesity was delayed by up to a


decade, notably the Netherlands and Scandinavian countries (IOTF 2007). It was
hypothesized that this might have been due to high population prevalence rates of active
commuting, especially cycling, as nutritional differences were not apparent compared with
other western European countries (Bauman et al. 2008).

Increasing trends in leisure time physical activity had been seen in several countries,
particularly Finland and Canada over the past 25 years, and Singapore over about 10 years
(Barengo et al. 2006; Craig et al. 2004). Despite increases in leisure time physical activity,
all of these countries also showed increases in obesity rates that were similar to
demographically matched countries that did not have increases in leisure time physical
activity (Bauman et al. 2008).

Similarly in China, data from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey indicated
an increase of 40% in obesity rates since 1992 (Wu 2006). Part of the explanation for this
epidemic in overweight and obesity rates was the decline in energy expenditure due to rapid
urbanization resulting in reductions in active transport (commuting) and a decline in

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occupational physical activity (Bell et al. 2002; Monda et al. 2007). For example, in a
population study in Tianjin, over two thirds of adults had no leisure time physical
activity at all, whereas 40% still reported at least half an hour of active commuting daily
(Hu et al. 2002).

In Malaysia, there has been no large scale study on the physical activity pattern of the
population, with the exception of the NHMS II carried out in 1996. The NHMS II study
reported that only 11.6% of 32,936 adults surveyed were doing regular physical activity or
adequate exercise (MOH 1999). There were twice as many men (16.2%) who had adequate
exercise as compared to women (7.7%). There were no significant differences observed
between rural (11.0%) and urban (12.1%) populations. However, the NHMS only reported
data on exercise and did not discuss physical activity pattern or levels.

Smaller studies in Malaysia have reported data on adolescents and older women. Amongst
adolescents, Dan et al. (2007) reported that only 4.8% males and 1.7% females had high
physical activity levels as assessed by the physical activity questionnaire for older children
(PAQ-C), while Pon et al. (2004) reported that adolescents spent an average of 2.63 2.44
hours a day watching television during weekdays, and double that amount of time during
weekends (4.91 1.84 hours/day). Similarly, a decade earlier, Poh et al. (1996) reported
that adolescents spent very little time on moderate-intensity activities, with girls (24 20
minutes) spending only half the amount of time boys (51 40 minutes) do on these
activities.

An intervention study reported that 60 to 65% of pre- and post-menopausal women


participated in regular physical exercises at baseline (Noor Aini et al. 2006). Another study
by Foo & Zaitun (2000) on post-menopausal Chinese women reported that the majority
participated in activities such as tai chi (89.3%), walking (62.5%) and dancing (42.9%).

More recently, the WHO global infobase reported Malaysian data collected using the
International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) in the World Health Survey (WHO
2003c). Malaysian adult men (5,172 median MET-minutes per week) were found to be more
physically active compared with their female counterparts (1,878 median MET-minutes per
week). Prevalence of inactivity were also found to be higher amongst women (23.2%)
compared with men (16.0%).

A study carried out in Kota Bharu reported a higher prevalence of overweight and
obesity amongst sedentary men (47.5%) compared with those who exercised regularly
(29.9%), while athletes had the lowest prevalence (21.7%) (Wan Nudri et al. 2003).

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This study indicates that physical inactivity led to positive energy balance thus resulting in
body weight gain, which is a risk factor for other non-communicable lifestyle diseases.

With this background in mind, the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey was planned to include
a study on the physical activity pattern of the Malaysian adult population.

6.3 OBJECTIVE

6.3.1 General Objective

To assess the habitual physical activity and physical activity pattern of Malaysian adults
aged from 18 to 59 years old.

6.3.2 Specific Objectives

i. To determine the types of transportation used with respect to prevalence and


duration of travel.

ii. To determine the proportion of adequate health maintenance exercise with


respect to of prevalence and duration among the socio-demographic sub-groups.

iii. To determine the types of exercise or sports practiced by Malaysian adults in


terms of prevalence and duration.

iv. To evaluate the habitual usage of stairs by Malaysian adults, in terms of number
of times and number of flights of stairs in a day.

v. To evaluate the daily physical activity pattern of the community, in terms of daily
physical activity, physical activity based on body position, and physical activity
based on three categories, namely light, moderate and vigorous activities.

6.4 METHODOLOGY

The Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) was a cross-sectional population survey,
being conducted nationwide for the first time between 2002 and 2003 covering Peninsular
Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak.

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A stratified random sampling was used for this survey which covered six zones in Malaysia.
They were the Southern, Central, East Coast and Northern zones of Peninsular Malaysia,
Sabah and Sarawak. The sampling units were the Enumeration Blocks (EB) and Living
Quarters (LQ). The number of units sampled was determined based on proportionate to
population size. The EBs and LQs were provided by the Department of Statistics, Malaysia.
The eligible respondents were Malaysian adults aged 18 to 59 years. One adult was
chosen from each household.

A detailed description of the methodology is described in Volume 1 Methodology of this


report series.

6.4.1 Physical Activity Assessment

The information on physical activity was collected using face-to-face interview techniques
as part of the main survey. Section C of the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey questionnaire
was dedicated to questions on physical activity. This section was divided into two parts,
namely: Part 1 comprising a brief habitual physical activity questionnaire, and Part 2
comprising a 24-hour physical activity recall form.

The physical activity questionnaire (Form C1) was used to obtain general information on
habitual physical activities carried out daily. The 24-hour recall (Form C2) was used to
obtain information on daily physical activity pattern and amount of time spent on each
activity. The questionnaire forms are presented in Appendix A.

6.4.1.1 Questionnaire on habitual physical activity

The physical activity questionnaire (Form C1) was designed to complement the physical
activity recall and to provide information on transportation for going to or from work or
school, climbing stairs, and also habitual exercise or sports activities. Transportation
includes those that are light namely public transportation, driving and riding a motorcycle
and those that are moderately active namely cycling and walking. Information on climbing
stairs include number of flights (15 steps = 1 flight; 7 steps = flight) climbed at home, at
work, in school and other places.

Exercise was defined as physical activity undertaken for the purpose of recreation, sport or
health and fitness during the two weeks prior to the interview. The questions on exercise
was designed to obtain information on the types, frequency and duration of the three
most frequent exercises carried out in the last two weeks prior to the day of the survey.

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For the purpose of analysis, a person was considered to have ever-exercised if he or she
answered Yes to the question whether he or she had ever carried out any type of exercise
in the last two weeks prior to the day or interview.

An exercise was considered adequate if he or she had performed any of the following types
of exercise: jogging, brisk walking, cycling, mountain or rock climbing, swimming, aerobics,
team sports, racquet sports and callisthenics sports such as taichi, silat, etc., for more than
three times a week, each of which lasting at least 20 minutes. For the purpose of
comparison with the National Health and Morbidity Survey 1996, the data was also
analysed based on exercise performed for more than three times a week, each lasting at
least 15 minutes.

6.4.1.2 The 24-hour physical activity recall form

The 24-hour physical activity recall form (Form C2) was designed in a table format with five
minute-intervals to obtain information on physical activity and body position during the
activity carried out. The recall was carried out via face-to-face interview lasting about 20 to
30 minutes per respondent. Respondents were asked to recall all activities done the day
before, starting from 12 midnight the previous day until 12 midnight the day before the
interview. Activities were recorded at 5 minute-intervals to obtain a full 1-day physical
activity pattern.

The physical activities reported by the respondents were entered into Excel worksheets and
tabulated for each type of physical activity carried out, and totalling 1440 minutes for all
activities carried out in a day. The list of physical activities reported by respondents is
shown in Appendix B1. The activities were also grouped into the following categories:
sleeping, resting, working, household chores, village-type activities, child care activities,
personal care activities, praying, religious activities, social activities, transportation-related
activities, activities related to moving about, watching television, recreational activities, light-
intensity sports, moderate-intensity sports, heavy-intensity sports, eating, personal errands,
and miscellaneous activities.

Each physical activity was then grouped into three categories, namely light, moderate, or
vigourous-intensity activities as described by Ainsworth et al. (2000). Appendix B2 shows
the list of activities that were regrouped into these categories.

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6.4.2 Data analysis

This survey was carried out based on a multistage sampling design. Data analysis for this
survey took into account the complexity of the survey design. Thus sample weights were
used to produce correct population estimates. The calculated sample weights compensated
for unequal probabilities of selection, adjustment for non-response and post stratification
(stratum, age and sex). The data analysis was done using SPSS version 14.0 with complex
sample module.

6.4.3 The 95% confidence interval (CI) charts

The CI charts represent in graphical form the mean and the upper and lower limits of a
particular continuous variable measured. The mean is shown as a dot in the middle of a
vertical line. The upper and lower limits of the 95% confidence interval are shown as
horizontal bars on the lower and upper ends of the vertical line respectively. The CI charts
give excellent graphic representation of whether the mean of a group is significantly
different from the others. A CI chart which does not overlap with the others indicates that
the mean of that group is significantly different from the mean of the other groups.

6.5 FINDINGS

6.5.1 General Findings

The total number of respondents who took part in this survey was 6,928. The number of
respondent who completed the physical activity section was 6,926 (99.97%). The results are
summarised in the form of bar charts and CI charts and presented in Figures 6.5.1 to 6.5.46.
The detailed findings of the survey are presented in Tables 1 to 39 in the Appendix C.

6.5.2 Findings on Habitual Physical Activity

The findings on habitual physical activity are based on the habitual physical activity
questionnaire (Part 1).

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6.5.2.1 Transportation for travelling to and from work or school

Tables 1a to 1c on pages 63 to 68 show the data on percentage of respondents using


various types of transportation for travelling to and from work or school. The majority of
Malaysians travelled by private transport, which is car [39.98% (CI: 38.29%, 41.69%)] or
motorcycle [34.16% (CI: 32.57%, 35.78%)]. Only a small percentage used public transport,
such as bus, LRT or commuter [9.65% (CI: 8.53%, 10.90%)].

Figure 6.5.1 shows that prevalence of women using public transport was about three times
more than men (17.01% vs. 5.36%), while the opposite was true for motorcycle (16.80% vs.
44.24%). Percentage of women [24.14% (CI: 22.01%, 26.40%)] who walked was also
higher than men [14.01% (CI: 12.38%, 15.83%)].

Figure 6.5.1: Prevalence of subjects using various types of transportation for


travelling to and from work / school by sex

Figure 6.5.2 shows that prevalence of walking was three times higher among Orang asli
and all bumiputera groups as compared to Malays, Chinese and Indians. Prevalence of
cycling was highest among Orang asli [10.76% (CI: 2.18%, 29.41%)], while prevalence
of car / driving, motorcycling and public transport are highest among Chinese [54.83%
(CI: 51.15%, 58.46%)], Malays [41.33% (CI: 39.12%, 43.57%)], and Indians [18.31% (CI:
13.37%, 24.55%)], respectively.

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Figure 6.5.2: Prevalence of subjects using various types of transportation for travelling
to and from work / school by ethnicity

Comparison between urban and rural areas showed that prevalence of walking, cycling, and
motorcycling was higher among the rural population, whereas prevalence of driving or riding
in a car and using public transport was higher in their urban counterparts (Figure 6.5.3).

Figure 6.5.3: Prevalence of subjects using various types of transportation for travelling
to and from work / school by strata

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Figure 6.5.4 shows that prevalence of walking [28.75% (CI: 22.01%, 36.58%)] and use of
public transport [(27.76% (CI: 21.21%, 35.44%)] was highest among the youngest age
group, namely 18 to 19 years old. Prevalence of motorcycling was highest among 20 to 29
year olds [38.45% (CI: 35.46%, 41.53%)], whereas driving was highest among 30 to 39
years [46.17% (CI: 43.35%, 49.01%)] and 40 to 49 year olds [45.48% (CI: 42.28%,
48.71%)].

Figure 6.5.4: Prevalence of subjects using various types of transportation for


travelling to and from work / school by age groups

6.5.2.2 Time spent travelling to and from work or school

Tables 2a to 2c on pages 69 to 74 show the mean time spent on travelling to and from
work / school. On average, public transport users spent 66.52 1.96(3.37) minutes a day
travelling to and from work or school. Average time spent driving was 45.79 1.96(1.42)
minutes, motorcycling 33.27 1.96(0.98) minutes, bicycling 28.37 1.96(3.46) minutes and
walking 23.98 1.96(1.14) minutes.

6.5.2.3 Prevalence of ever-exercised

Table 3 on pages 75 and 76 shows the prevalence of ever-exercised, which refers to


involvement in sports or exercise activities carried out in the two weeks prior to the survey
interview. This table also shows the comparison between men and women who ever-
exercised. The results are reported according to zone, strata, age groups, ethnicity,
education level, marital status, household income and BMI status.

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Prevalence of ever-exercised was [31.49% (CI: 30.11%, 32.90%)] among the population.
Comparison between men and women shows that there were twice as many men
[40.50% (CI: 38.41%, 42.61%)] as women [22.16% (CI: 20.51%, 23.91%)] who
ever-exercised (Figure 6.5.5).

Figure 6.5.5: Prevalence of ever-exercised among Malaysian adults by sex

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Comparison among zones showed that the population in the East Coast had the lowest
prevalence of ever-exercised at [18.85% (CI: 15.96%, 22.12%)] compared to other zones
having prevalence of above 30% (Figure 6.5.6). In all zones, prevalence of women who had
ever-exercised was significantly lower that their male counterparts in the respective zones
(Figure 6.5.7).

Figure 6.5.6: Prevalence of ever-exercised among Malaysian adults by zones

Figure 6.5.7: Prevalence of ever-exercised among men and women by zones

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Prevalence of ever-exercise was significantly higher among urban [35.36% (CI: 33.45%,
37.31%)] as compared to rural [25.78% (CI: 23.91%, 27.75%] population (Figure 6.5.8).
Figure 6.5.9 shows that prevalence of ever-exercise was significantly higher in men from
both urban and rural areas as compared to women from both strata.

Figure 6.5.8: Prevalence of ever-exercised among Malaysian adults by strata

Figure 6.5.9: Prevalence of ever-exercised among men and women by strata

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Comparison among age groups shows that prevalence of ever-exercise was highest
among the 18 to 19 years age group [41.10% (CI: 24.59%, 47.93%)], decreased to the
lowest among the 30 to 39 years age group [28.90% (CI: 26.74%, 31.16%)] and increases
slightly thereafter (Figure 6.5.10). Figure 6.5.11 shows that women in all age groups had
significantly lower prevalence of ever-exercise as compared to their male counterparts in
the same age group.

Figure 6.5.10: Prevalence of ever-exercised among Malaysian adults by age groups

Figure 6.5.11: Prevalence of ever-exercised among men and women by age groups

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6.5.2.4 Prevalence of adequate exercise

Table 4 on pages 77 and 78 shows the prevalence of adequate exercise, that is each
exercise or sports activity was performed at least three sessions a week, and at least 20
minutes each session.

The prevalence of adequate exercise among Malaysians was 14.43% (CI: 13.39%,
15.53%). Figure 6.5.12 shows that there prevalence was twice as high in men [19.54%
(CI: 17.89%, 21.32%)] as compared to women [9.13% (CI: 7.89%, 10.42%)].

Figure 6.5.12: Prevalence of adequate exercise among Malaysian adults by sex

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Comparison among zones showed that Sabah [19.00% (CI: 14.93%, 23.87%)] had the
highest prevalence of adequate exercise, and East Coast [8.48% (CI: 6.54%, 10.92%)] had
the lowest. Figure 6.5.13 showed that East Coast was significantly lower than all the other
zones except Southern. In all zones, the prevalence of women who had adequate exercise
was significantly lower than the men in their respective zones (Figure 6.5.14).

Figure 6.5.13: Prevalence of adequate exercise among Malaysian adults by zones

Figure 6.5.14: Prevalence of adequate exercise among men and women by zones

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Prevalence of adequate exercise was significantly higher among urban [15.77% (CI:
14.34%, 17.32%)] as compared to rural [12.44% (CI: 11.03%, 14.00%)] population (Figure
6.5.15). Figure 6.5.16 shows that prevalence of rural women who had adequate exercise
was significantly lower than urban, whereas there was no difference between urban and
rural men.

Figure 6.5.15: Prevalence of adequate exercise among Malaysian adults by strata

Figure 6.5.16: Prevalence of adequate exercise among men and women by strata

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Comparison among age groups shows that prevalence of adequate exercise was highest
among the 18 to 19 years age group [21.46% (CI: 16.20%, 27.85%)], decreases to the
lowest among the 30 to 39 years age group [11.25% (CI: 9.82%, 12.85%)] and increases
slightly thereafter (Figure 6.5.17). Figure 6.5.18 shows that women in all age groups had
significantly lower prevalence of adequate exercise as compared to their male counterparts
in the same age groups.

Figure 6.5.17: Prevalence of adequate exercise among Malaysian adults by age groups

Figure 6.5.18: Prevalence of adequate exercise among men and women by age groups

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6.5.2.5 Comparison of adequate exercise with NHMS II findings

For the purpose of comparison with the results of NHMS II (1996), Table 5 on pages 79 to
80 presents the prevalence of adequate exercise as defined by at least three exercise
sessions a week, and at least 15 minutes each session. Presenting the data for adequate
exercise as at least 3 times a week for 15 minutes or more each time increases the
prevalence by only 1.15% for the overall study population, that is from 14.43% (using 20
minutes or more criteria) to 15.58% (using 15 minutes or more criteria).

Compared to NHMS II (1996), where the prevalence of adequate exercise was 11.6%, the
current dataset shows that over a period of 6 years, the prevalence had increased by 4% to
the current 15.6%. Amongst men, the increase is 4.6%, that is from 16.2% in 1996 to the
present 20.8%; whilst among women, the increase is only 2.5%, from 7.7% in 1996 to
10.2% presently.

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6.5.2.6 Most popular types of sports and exercise activities

Tables 6a to 6i on pages 81 to 96 present the types of sports and exercise activities most
commonly performed by the adult Malaysian population according to sex, strata, zone,
ethnicity, age group, household income, BMI group, marital status, and educational level.

The ten most popular types of sports and exercise activities carried out among Malaysian
adults as shown in Figure 6.5.19 were: jogging [7.81% (CI: 7.00%, 8.71%)], followed by
football [5.55% (CI: 4.84%, 6.35%)], badminton [4.81% (CI: 4.19%, 5.51%)], brisk walking
[2.56% (CI: 2.13%, 3.08%)], aerobic exercise [2.37% (CI: 2.00%, 2.81%)], sepak takraw
[1.97% (CI: 1.63%, 2.37%)], cycling [1.28% (CI: 0.97%, 1.65%)], swimming [1.28%
(CI: 0.97%, 1.68%)], working out in the gymnasium [1.16% (CI: 0.86%, 1.56%)], and tai chi
[0.69% (CI: 0.46%, 1.02%)].

Figure 6.5.19: Proportion of top ten types of sports and exercise activities among
Malaysian adults

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Figure 6.5.20 shows the types of sports and exercise activities most commonly performed
by Malaysian men and women. The top five sports amongst men were: football [10.85% (CI:
9.52%, 12.35%)], jogging [10.20% (CI: 8.87%, 11.71%)], badminton [7.51% (CI: 6.43%,
8.76%)], sepak takraw [3.87% (CI: 3.21%, 4.66%)], and brisk walking [2.14% (CI: 1.55%,
2.96%)]. The five most popular sports among women were: jogging [5.34% (CI: 4.52%,
6.31%)], aerobic exercise [3.18% (CI: 2.61%, 3.88%)], brisk walking [3.00% (CI: 2.42%,
3.69%)], badminton [2.01% (CI: 1.52%, 2.64%)], and swimming [1.06% (CI: 0.66%, 1.70%)].

Figure 6.5.20: Proportion of top ten types of sports and exercise activities among
Malaysian adults by sex

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Figure 6.5.21 shows that favourite types of sports played by urban and rural populations are
rather similar. Among the urban population, the top five sports were jogging [9.14% (CI:
8.05%, 10.37%)], badminton [4.97% (CI: 4.12%, 5.99%)}, football [4.40% (CI: 3.61%,
5.35%)], brisk walking [3.34% (CI: 2.69%, 4.15%)] and aerobic exercise [2.69% (CI: 2.17%,
3.34)]; while among the rural population, the five most popular sports were football [7.23%
(CI: 5.99%, 8.70%)], jogging [5.86% (CI: 4.74%, 7.22%)], badminton [4.57% (CI:3.78%,
5.51%)], sepak takraw [2.81% (CI:2.23%, 3.53%)] and aerobic exercise [1.89% (CI:1.44%,
2.49%)].

Figure 6.5.21: Proportion of top ten types of sports and exercise activities among
Malaysian adults by strata

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Figure 6.5.22 shows the types of sports by zone. The top five sports in the Southern zone
were jogging [8.64% (CI: 6.96%, 10.67%)], football [6.07% (CI: 4.41%, 8.29%)], badminton
[4.81% (CI: 3.66%, 6.30%)], aerobic exercise [4.07% (CI: 3.02%, 5.47%)] and sepak takraw
[1.82% (CI: 1.12%, 2.96%)]; while in the Central zone were jogging [7.48% (CI: 6.25%,
8.93%)], football [5.05% (CI: 4.08%, 6.23%)], brisk walking [4.64% (CI: 3.69%, 5.84%)],
badminton [4.21% (CI: 3.41%, 5.19%)] and aerobic exercise [1.97% (CI: 1.45%, 2.67%)]. In
the East Coast the top five sports were jogging [3.53% (CI: 2.35%, 5.26%)], badminton
[3.30% (CI: 2.24%, 4.82%)], football [3.12% (CI: 2.10%, 4.60%)], sepak takraw [1.44% (CI:
0.70%, 2.94%)] and cycling [0.98% (CI: 0.53%, 1.81%)]; while in the Northern zone were
jogging [8.04% (CI: 6.23%, 10.31%)], football [6.36% (CI: 4.50%, 8.91%)], badminton
[4.43% (CI: 2.85%, 6.83%)], sepak takraw [3.27% (CI: 2.18%, 4.88%)] and aerobic exercise
[2.36% (CI: 1.46%, 3.81%)]. In Sabah, the top five sports were jogging [11.00% (CI: 7.42%,
16.00%)], football [8.62% (CI: 5.29%, 13.74%)], badminton [7.58% (CI: 5.64%, 10.12%)],
sepak takraw [4.07% (CI: 2.77%, 5.94%)] and brisk walking [2.78% (CI: 1.62%, 4.69%)],
while in Sarawak were jogging [9.74% (CI: 6.59%, 14.17%)], badminton [7.54% (CI: 4.37%,
12.72%)], football [5.62% (CI: 4.08%, 7.70%)], aerobic exercise [3.15% (CI: 1.94%, 5.08%)]
and brisk walking [2.79% (CI: 1.58%, 4.86)].

Figure 6.5.22: Proportion of top ten types of sports and exercise activities among
Malaysian adults by zones

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Figure 6.5.23 shows types of sports by ethnicity. The top five sports among Malays were
football [6.91% (CI:5.91%, 8.07%)], jogging [6.54% (CI: 5.58%, 7.64%)], badminton [4.63%
(CI: 3.87%, 5.52%)], aerobic exercise [3.06% (CI:2.47%, 3.78%)] and sepak takraw [2.66%
(CI: 2.12%, 3.33%)]. Among Chinese the top five sports were jogging [9.83% (CI: 8.02%,
11.99%)], badminton [5.64% (CI: 4.16%, 7.59%)], brisk walking [4.73% (CI: 3.49%, 6.38%)],
swimming [3.06% (CI: 2.19%, 4.25%)], and tai chi [2.35% (CI: 1.53%, 3.60%)]; while among
Indians were jogging [7.57% (CI: 5.55%, 10.20%)], football [6.13% (CI: 3.90%, 9.52%)],
brisk walking [5.40% (CI: 3.72%, 7.76%)], badminton [3.39% (CI: 2.20%, 5.19%)] and
working out in the gymnasium [2.17% (CI: 1.02%, 4.56%)]. Orang asli were involved in
only two types of sports: sepak takraw [9.46% (CI: 2.23%, 32.39%)] and jogging
[7.11% (CI: 1.56%, 27.05)]. The top five sports were jogging [8.22% (CI: 5.68%, 11.75%)],
football [7.95% (CI: 5.56%, 11.25%)], badminton [7.63% (CI: 4.93%, 11.62%)], sepak
takraw [5.72% (CI: 3.72%, 8.69%)] and volleyball [4.26% (CI: 1.92%, 9.17%)] among Sabah
Bumiputera ; jogging [9.86% (CI: 7.14%, 13.46%)], football [8.87% (CI: 6.21%, 12.53%)],
badminton [4.19% (CI: 2.63%, 6.60%)], sepak takraw [3.70% (CI: 2.08%, 6.47%)] and
aerobic exercise [2.08% (CI: 1.02%, 4.19%)] among Sarawak Bumiputera; jogging [13.64%
(CI: 4.44%, 34.93%)], football [11.68% (CI: 3.14%, 35.04%)], cycling [5.24% (CI: 1.33%,
18.50%)], badminton [2.99% (CI: 1.32%, 6.66%)], and brisk walking [2.47% (CI: 0.72%,
8.10%)] among other Bumiputera.

Figure 6.5.23: Proportion of top ten types of sports and exercise activities among
Malaysian adults by ethnicity

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Figure 6.5.24 shows the types of sports according to age groups. Among 18 to 19 year
olds, the top five sports were football [15.61% (CI: 11.07%, 21.57%)], jogging [8.82% (CI:
4.96%, 15.20)], badminton [8.18% (CI: 4.88%, 13.39%)], sepak takraw [2.53% (CI: 1.43%,
4.46%)], and cycling [1.95% (CI: 0.82%, 4.55%)]; while among 20 to 29 year olds were
jogging [7.57% (CI: 6.28%, 9.10%)], football [7.55% CI: 6.36%, 8.94%)], badminton [5.58%
(CI: 4.60%, 6.75%)], sepak takraw [3.14% CI: 2.36%, 4.16%)] and brisk walking [2.01%
(CI: 1.43%, 2.84%)]. Among 30 to 39 year olds, the top five sports were jogging [6.89%
(CI: 5.77%, 8.22%)], football [5.20% (CI: 4.22%, 6.40%)], badminton [5.19% (CI: 4.23%,
6.35%)], aerobic exercise [2.75% (CI: 2.06%, 3.66%)] and sepak takraw [2.35% (CI: 1.72%,
3.21%)]; while among 40 to 49 year olds were jogging [8.39% (CI: 6.93%, 10.13%)], aerobic
exercise [3.65% (CI: 2.70%, 4.92%)], brisk walking [3.62% (CI: 2.66%, 4.92%)], badminton
[3.59% (CI: 2.74%, 4.71%)] and football [1.50% (CI: 0.98%, 2.28%)]; while among 50 to 59
year olds were jogging [8.49% (CI: 6.49%, 11.03%)], brisk walking [4.72% (CI: 3.30%,
6.71%)], tai chi [2.46% (CI: 1.33%, 4.51%)], aerobic exercise [1.89% (CI: 1.01%, 3.50%)]
and badminton [1.67% (CI: 0.81%, 3.40%)].

Figure 6.5.24: Proportion of top ten types of sports and exercise activities among
Malaysian adults by age groups

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6.5.2.7 Time spent on each type of sports and exercise activity

Tables 7a to 7i on pages 97 to 112 present the mean time spent on each type of sports per
session as performed by the adult Malaysian population according to sex, strata, zone,
ethnicity, age group, household income, BMI group, marital status, and educational level.

Table 7a shows the types of sports with the longest sessions in descending order: golf (3
hours 18 minutes), silat (2 hours 27 minutes), taekwando (2 hours 3 minutes), bowling (1
hour 53 minutes), rugby (1 hour 42 minutes), basketball (1 hour 28 minutes), badminton (1
hour 25 minutes), volleyball (1 hour 19 minutes), tennis (1 hour 14 minutes), and hockey (1
hour 12 minutes).

Figure 6.5.25 shows the mean time spent for a session of sports / exercise activity for the
top ten most popular types of sports as reported in Section 6.5.2.6. Mean time spent on
group sports such as badminton, football and sepak takraw was higher than on individual
sports or exercise such as jogging, brisk walking and cycling.

Figure 6.5.25: Mean time spent at a session of sports / exercise activity for
the top ten most popular types of sports / exercise

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6.5.2.8 Habitual usage of stairs

Table 8 on pages 113 and 114 show the results in relation to stair climbing, that is the
average number of times per day, number of flights climbed each time, and total number of
flights climbed in a day. The findings show that Malaysians climb stairs an average of 3.67
times a day (CI: 3.51, 3.83). The average total number of flights climbed each day was 5.51
flights (CI: 5.18, 5.83).

6.5.3 Findings On Physical Activity Pattern From 24-Hour Physical Activity Recall

This section reports the 24-hour physical activity pattern of Malaysian adults. Tables 9 to 39
in the Appendix C present the mean time spent on each type of activity reported by the
respondents. The findings are reported in three sections, namely physical activity pattern
based on types of daily activity, physical activity pattern based on body position, and
physical activity pattern grouped into three categories, that are light, moderate and vigorous
activities.

6.5.3.1 Physical activity pattern based on types of daily activity

Tables 9 to 28 on pages 115 to 154 show the mean time spent on each type of daily activity
reported by the respondents according to socio-demographic characteristics. Daily activities
reported are sleeping, resting, working, household chores, village-type activities, child care
activities, personal care activities, praying, religious activities, social activities, transportation
-related activities, activities related to moving about, watching television, recreational
activities, light-intensity sports, moderate-intensity sports, heavy-intensity sports, eating,
personal errands, and miscellaneous activities. Appendix B1 shows the list of activities that
were included in each of type of activity mentioned above.

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Figure 6.5.26 shows the ten activities Malaysians spent the most time on, arranged in
descending order according to the proportion of the day spent on each activity. The highest
amount of time was spent sleeping 460.29 1.96(1.69) minutes [7 hours 40 minutes, or
31.96% of the day], followed by working 212.49 1.96(3.32) minutes [3 hours 33 minutes,
or 14.75% of the day], watching television 156.15 1.96(2.02) minutes [2 hours 36 minutes,
or 10.84% of the day], resting 115.01 1.96(1.47) minutes [1 hour 55 minutes, or 7.99% of
the day], and household chores 105.86 1.96(1.94) minutes [1 hour 46 minutes, or 7.35%
of the day].

Figure 6.5.26: Physical activity pattern of Malaysian adults

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Figure 6.5.27 shows the comparison of physical activity pattern between men and women.
Men [281.02 1.96(4.95) minutes] spent twice as much time at work than women [141.51
1.96(4.14) minutes], whereas women [189.97 1.96(2.84) minutes] spent more than seven
times as much time doing household chores than men [24.64 1.96(1.14) minutes].

Figure 6.5.27: Physical activity pattern of Malaysian adults by sex

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Figure 6.5.28 shows the physical activity pattern of Malaysian adults living in various zones.
The physical activity pattern appears to be very similar for adults in all zones. However,
there are slight differences observed. For example, Sarawakians appear to spend slightly
more time working [233.67 1.96(10.41) minutes] than people living in other zones [mean
191.37 to 217.42 minutes]. On the other hand, people living in the East Coast [139.37
1.96(4.85) minutes] and Northern zone [136.66 1.96(4.40) minutes] spent the most time
resting, while people in the Southern zone spent the least [89.15 1.96(2.72) minutes]. It is
also clearly seen that adults from the Central [73.09 1.96(2.15) minutes] and Southern
zones [70.06 1.96(2.52) minutes] spent more time on transportation-related activities than
in other zones [mean 48.90 to 55.65 minutes].

Figure 6.5.28: Physical activity pattern of Malaysian adults by zones

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Figure 6.5.29 presents the physical activity pattern results for urban and rural areas. While it
is clear that mean time spent sleeping was the same for both urban [460.29 1.96(2.30)
minutes] and rural areas [460.29 1.96(2.40) minutes], the time spent on other activities
differ. Malaysian adults living in urban areas spent more time working [204.38 1.96(4.70)
minutes vs 217.99 1.96(4.55) minutes], watching television [162.69 1.96(2.79) minutes
vs 146.53 1.96(2.85) minutes], on eating [69.60 1.96(0.71) minutes vs 63.21 1.96
(0.60) minutes] and on transportation-related activities [67.20 1.96(1.52) minutes vs 57.56
1.96(1.68) minutes] compared to their rural counterparts. On the other hand, those living
in rural areas spent more time doing household chores [111.25 1.96(2.76) minutes vs
102.20 1.96(2.64) minutes] and resting [128.83 1.96(2.32) minutes vs 105.62 1.96
(1.89) minutes] compared to their urban counterparts.

Figure 6.5.29: Physical activity pattern of Malaysian adults by strata

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Figure 6.5.30 shows that the physical activity pattern was very similar across all ethnicities,
with the only exception being the Orang Asli (Peninsular Malaysia) group. The Orang Asli
(PM) group spent more time sleeping [612.31 1.96(38.12) minutes], resting [240.71 1.96
(29.84) minutes], and on social activities [81.96 1.96(17.20) minutes] compared to the
other ethnicities who spent less time sleeping (mean 441.90 to 491.04 minutes), resting
(mean 98.59 to 130.98 minutes), and on social activities (mean 38.05 to 48.29 minutes).

Figure 6.5.30: Physical activity pattern of Malaysian adults by ethnicity

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Figure 6.5.31 shows the comparison of physical activity pattern between the different age
groups. It is clear that the younger age groups spent more time sleeping [488.50 1.96
(8.41) minutes] and on social activities [59.12 1.96(4.87) minutes], while the older age
groups spent more time working [230.74 1.96(6.67) minutes] and doing household chores
[37.06 1.96(3.52) minutes]. Watching television is an activity that takes up more time
among the youngest [162.80 1.96(9.19) minutes] and oldest age groups [154.70 1.96
(5.16) minutes], while those in the middle age groups [145.58 1.96(2.98) minutes] spent
the least time watching television. The oldest age group, namely those aged 50 to 59 years
spent the least time working [169.84 1.96(8.22) minutes] and the most time resting
[152.07 1.96(5.16) minutes].

Figure 6.5.31: Physical activity pattern of Malaysian adults by age groups

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Figure 6.5.32 shows the comparison of physical activity pattern between adults with
different BMI status. It can be seen that time spent sleeping was highest in the underweight
group [490.13 1.96(5.96) minutes], and lowest in obese group [441.37 1.96(4.64)
minutes]. On the other hand time spent doing household chores was highest in the obese
group [133.42 1.96(5.58) minutes] and lowest in the underweight group [80.64 1.96
(5.52) minutes]. Mean time spent working was highest in the normal weight [225.49 1.96
(4.73) minutes] and overweight [208.93 1.96(6.35) minutes] groups and lowest in the
underweight [191.31 1.96(10.63) minutes] and obese [188.44 1.96(8.68) minutes]
groups. On the other hand, the opposite is true for mean time spent watching television.

Figure 6.5.32: Physical activity pattern of Malaysian adults by BMI status

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6.5.3.2 Physical activity pattern based on body position

Tables 29 to 36 on pages 155 to 170 show the mean time spent on each type of physical
activity based on body position as reported by the respondents according to socio-
demographic characteristics. Physical activities based on body position are reported as
sleeping and lying down, sitting, standing, walking, personal-care activities, climbing stairs,
sports activities, and other activities.

Figure 6.5.33 shows that Malaysian adults spent the most time in the sitting position 588.23
1.96(2.66) minutes [9 hours 42 minutes, or 40.85% of the day], followed by sleeping or
lying down position 475.25 1.96(1.75) minutes [7 hours 55 minutes, or 33.00% of the day],
standing 170.69 1.96(1.94) minutes [2 hours 31 minutes, or 11.85% of the day], walking
138.25 1.96(1.19) minutes [2 hours 18 minutes, or 9.60% of the day], personal-care
activities 50.47 1.96(0.35) minutes [or 3.50% of the day]. Vigorous intensity activities,
such as stair-climbing 2.11 1.96(0.10) minutes [or 0.15% of the day] and sports 8.16
1.96(0.46) minutes [or 0.54% of the day], as well as other activities 7.50 1.96(0.53)
minutes [or 0.49% of the day], are minimal.

Figure 6.5.33: Physical activity pattern based on body position of Malaysian adults

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Figure 6.5.34 shows the comparison of the physical activities based on body position
between men and women. Generally, the physical activity pattern of both the men and
women are similar. However, slight differences can be seen, whereby men spent more time
sitting [615.03 1.96(4.16) minutes vs 560.49 1.96(3.10) minutes], while women spent
more time standing [194.44 1.96(2.43) minutes vs 147.75 1.96(2.84) minutes] and
walking [142.21 1.96(1.54) minutes vs 134.44 1.96(1.80) minutes].

Figure 6.5.34: Physical activity pattern based on body position by sex

Figure 6.5.35 shows the comparison of physical activity pattern based on body position
between the different zones. It can be seen that the physical activity pattern of Malaysian
adults are very similar in all zones. The only obvious difference is the mean time spent
sitting was highest for Central zone [611.11 1.96(4.43) minutes] compared to other zones
(mean 541.76 to 585.62 minutes).

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Figure 6.5.35: Physical activity pattern based on body position by zones

Figure 6.5.36 shows the comparison of the physical activities based on body position
between urban and rural adults. Generally, the physical activity pattern both strata are
similar. However, slight differences can be seen, whereby people living in urban areas
spent more time sitting [603.74 1.96(3.64) minutes vs 565.42 1.96(3.58) minutes], while
their rural counterparts spent more time standing [160.87 1.96(2.64) minutes vs 185.13
1.96(2.73) minutes] and walking [141.42 1.96(1.75) minutes vs 136.10 1.96(1.60)
minutes].

Figure 6.5.36: Physical activity pattern based on body position by strata

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Figure 6.5.37 shows that the physical activity pattern based on body position is similar for all
ethnic groups, with the exception of Orang asli (PM). The Orang asli (PM) spent more time
sleeping or lying down [623.40 1.96(39.20) minutes], and less time sitting [515.25 1.96
(34.35) minutes] and standing [98.66 1.96(32.90) minutes], as compared to other
ethnicities in Malaysia who spent less time sleeping or lying down (mean 459.54 to 501.29),
and more time sitting (mean 537.68 to 593.36) and standing (mean 143.53 to 182.40).

Figure 6.5.37: Physical activity pattern based on body position by ethnicity

Figure 6.5.38 shows the physical activity pattern based on body position for the different
age groups. It can be seen that the middle age groups (30 to 39 years and 40 to 49 years)
spent the least time sleeping or lying down, and sitting, and the most time standing and
walking.

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Figure 6.5.38: Physical activity pattern based on body position by age groups

Figure 6.5.39 shows the comparison of physical activity pattern based on body position
between BMI groups. Mean time spent sleeping or lying down was lowest among the obese
[459.94 1.96(4.83) minutes] and highest among the underweight group [504.64 1.96
(6.05) minutes]. On the other hand, mean time spent standing [145.76 1.96(5.97) minutes
vs 179.51 1.96(4.80) minutes] and walking [125.31 1.96(4.11) minutes vs 143.31 1.96
(3.25) minutes] was lower among the underweight and higher among the obese group.

Figure 6.5.39: Physical activity pattern based on body position by BMI status

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6.5.3.3 Proportion of time spent on light, moderate and vigorous activity

Tables 37 to 39 on pages 171 to 176 show the mean time spent on light, moderate and
vigorous physical activities reported by the respondents according to socio-demographic
characteristics. Appendix B2 shows the list of activities that are grouped into each of the
above categories.

Figure 6.5.40 shows clearly that Malaysian adults spent minimal time on vigorous
activities [5.12 1.96(0.26) minutes, or 0.35% of the day]. Almost 90% of the day was
spent on light-intensity activities [1286.20 1.96(1.30) minutes, or 21 hours 26 minutes].
The remainder of the day was spent on moderate physical activity, that is 148.86 1.96
(1.31) minutes [2 hours 29 minutes, or 10.34% of the day].

Figure 6.5.40: Percent of day Malaysians spent on light, moderate and vigorous
activity

Figure 6.5.41 shows the comparison on time spent on light, moderate and vigorous physical
activities between men and women. The results show that there were no differences
between the two sexes.

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Figure 6.5.41: Percent of day spent on light, moderate and vigorous activity by sex

Figure 6.5.42 shows the comparison across zones on light, moderate and vigorous physical
activities. Mean time spent on each of the three categories of physical activities were very
similar across all zones.

Figure 6.5.42: Percent of day spent on light, moderate and vigorous activity by zones

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Figure 6.5.43 shows the comparison between strata. It can be seen that there were very
slight differences in the time spent on light, moderate and vigorous physical activities
between urban and rural areas.

Figure 6.5.43: Percent of day spent on light, moderate and vigorous activity by strata

Figure 6.5.44 compares the amount of time spent on light, moderate and vigorous activities
between the different ethnicities living in Malaysia. The pattern is very similar across all
ethnicities, however, it can be seen that the Bumiputeras and Orang asli (PM) spent slightly
less time on light-intensity activities and more time on moderate-intensity activities
compared to the other ethnicities.

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Figure 6.5.44: Percent of day spent on light, moderate and vigorous activity by ethnicity

Figure 6.5.45 shows the comparison between different age groups. Although the general
pattern is very similar across all age groups, it can be seen that people in the middle age
groups of 30 to 39 years and 40 to 49 years spent less time on light-intensity physical
activities and more time on moderate-intensity physical activities compared to the other age
groups.

Figure 6.5.45: Percent of day spent on light, moderate and vigorous activity by age
groups

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Figure 6.5.46 shows the comparison between different BMI status groups. Although the
general pattern is very similar across BMI groups, it can be seen that the normal BMI group
spent almost double the time on vigorous-intensity physical activities compared with the
obese group.

Figure 6.5.46: Percent of day spent on light, moderate and vigorous activity by BMI
status

6.6 DISCUSSION

The survey found that the majority of Malaysian adults travelled to and from work or school
by private transport, namely by car (39.98%) and motorcycle (34.16%), and only a small
percentage travelled by public transport (9.65%). An even smaller percentage used active
transportation, namely bicycle (2.90%), with a slightly larger percentage that walked
(17.74%). Inactive forms of travel appear to be the most popular, while active transportation
appears to be less popular amongst adult Malaysians.

This is in contrast to our closest neighbour, Singapore, where public transport is used by
52.4% of the population to travel to work, and only 23.7% travelled by car and 4.8% by
motorcycle (Singapore Department of Statistics 2001). A total of 6.1% of Singaporean walk
to work. On the other hand, Americans and Canadians appear to lean even more towards
the use of private transport as the main mode of transport to work. Data from Canada
showed that 80.7% travelled by car, truck or van, while 10.1% used public transport, and
only 7.0% walked (Statistics Canada 1996). In Washington State, a massive 84.1%
travelled by car, truck or van; and only 3.8% walked to work or school (Gardner 2005).
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Declines in active transport are known to contribute to obesity. In China, increases in


motorized forms of transport (cars, buses and motorcycles) contributed to a doubling of
the risk of becoming overweight or obese in a 7-year follow-up of a Chinese adult cohort
(Bell et al. 2002). Thus, the high prevalence of private transport use which involves minimal
levels of physical activity is of concern, and more active mode of transportation should be
encouraged. This includes more efficient public transport systems that are easily available
and convenient. The use of public transport involves walking and should be promoted as a
viable, as well as more healthful, way of travelling to work. Availability of cycling and walking
lanes will also encourage the use of more active modes of transport for travelling.

The study also found that participation in planned exercise or sports activities was relatively
low. The proportion of the population who had ever-exercised, or involved in sports or
exercise activities carried out in the two weeks prior to the interview, was only 31.49%, with
women (22.16%) being less likely to have ever-exercised compared to men (40.50%). In
comparison, the NHMS II (MOH 1999) reported a slightly higher proportion of women (25%)
and a slightly lower proportion of men (38%) who had ever-exercised.

On the other hand, the proportion of adult Malaysians who had adequate exercise
(20 minutes 3 times a week) was even lower at 14.43%, again with double the number of
men (19.54%) having adequate exercise as compared to women (9.13%). The proportion of
those having adequate exercise appears to be higher among the urban population (15.77%)
compared to their rural counterparts. The trend appears to show that higher proportions of
those in the youngest (18 to 19 years) and oldest age groups (50 to 59 years) have
adequate exercise compared with those in the most productive age groups, namely those in
their thirties and forties. Comparison between zones on the other hand, showed that those
in the East Coast appeared to be least likely to have adequate exercise, while those in
Sabah and Sarawak the most likely to do so.

As explained in the methodology section, data for adequate exercise was also re-analysed
using the definition of at least 3 times a week at 15 minutes per session as for the NHMS
II (MOH 1999) study, in order to enable comparisons between the said survey and the
present survey. The proportion of adult Malaysians who had adequate exercise using this
criterion, was 15.6%. Compared to NHMS II where prevalence of adequate exercise was
11.6%, the current dataset showed an increase of only 4.0% over a period of 6 years.
Amongst men, the increase was 4.6%, that is from 16.2% in 1996 to the present 20.8%;
whilst among women, the increase was only 2.5%, from 7.7% in 1996 to 10.2% presently.

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Among Malaysian adults, it was found that the five most popular sports and exercise
activities that men participated in were football, jogging, badminton, sepak takraw and brisk
walking; while among women the top five activities were jogging, aerobic exercise, brisk
walking, badminton and swimming. Chinese adults in this survey reported jogging,
badminton and brisk walking as the most popular activities. In contrast, among post-
menopausal women of Chinese ethnicity the top three activities were taichi, walking and
dancing (Foo & Zaitun 2000). On the other hand, the top three activities reported by primary
schoolchildren, namely cycling, badminton, and running/jogging, appears to be more similar
to adult activities (Ismail et al. 2001).

We also found that the amount of time spent playing group sports such as badminton,
football and sepak takraw was longer than the amount of time spent exercising or doing
individual sports activities, such as jogging, brisk walking and cycling. On average, among
the top ten most popular types of sports, aerobic exercise had the lowest mean time (37.6
minutes) while badminton had the highest mean (84.3 minutes). It would appear that the
small section of population involved in these activities regularly would meet the
recommendations from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the
American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) suggest that adults accumulate at least 30
minutes a day of moderate intensity activity on most days, and preferably all days of the
week (Pate et al. 1995).

The analysis of the 24-hour physical activity recall data showed that adult Malaysian
population spent the highest proportion of a day sleeping (32.0%), followed by working
(14.8%), watching television (10.8%), resting (8.0%), doing housework (7.4%), eating and
drinking (4.7%), and transport-related activities (4.4%). This list describes the activities
carried out for more than 80% of a day, or almost 20 hours in a day. Comparison of time
spent on various activities was very similar between the sexes, with the exception of time
spent at work (men twice as much time as women) and time spent doing housework
(women seven times longer than men). There are not many studies that report time spent
on work and housework. One such study by Ismail et al. (1996) reported that Malaysian
soldiers spent 59 minutes (approximately 4.1% of the day) doing household chores, and
three times longer on military activities (186 minute, or 12.9% of the day).

Comparison between rural and urban populations also showed very similar pattern of daily
physical activity except for several minor differences, whereby the urban adult population
spent slightly more time working, and relaxing in from of the television, while their rural
counterparts spent somewhat more time doing housework and resting. The various
ethnicities across the various zones in Malaysia also did not differ in their daily physical
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activity pattern, with the exception of the Orang asli in Peninsular Malaysia who spent
significantly more time sleeping and resting as compared to all the other groups. This could
be due to lack of development, infrastructure and facilities in their communities, and hence
the rather slower pace of life.

Comparison between BMI groups showed that those within the normal weight range tended
to spent more time at work and less time watching television, whereas those who are
overweight or obese spent more time doing housework and resting. Surprisingly, the
underweight reported spending the most amount of time sleeping, while those who were
overweight and obese spent comparatively less time doing so.

The 24-hour physical activity recall data was also analysed based on the body position of
activities, such as sleeping or lying down, sitting, standing, walking and others. Analysis in
this manner showed that slightly more than 40% of the day was spent sitting, while 33% of
the time was spent sleeping/lying down. Less time was spent standing (11.9% of the day)
and walking (9.6% of the day), and even less time on personal activities (3.5% of the day).
The least amount of time was spent climbing stairs (0.2% of the day), doing sports (0.54%
of the day) and other (0.49% of the day) activities. On average, Malaysian adults appear to
be very sedentary and spending only minimal time participating in vigorous intensity
activities, such as sports and stair-climbing.

Overall, Malaysian men spent more time sitting and less time standing compared to women.
Similarly, the urban population sat more and stood less than their rural counterparts. These
differences could be due to the differing nature of the occupations of men and women, as
well as urban and rural populations.

In comparison, Malaysian soldiers spent only 21.3% of the day sitting (Ismail et al. 1996).
However, they reported a similar amount of time sleeping/lying down (31.6% of the day).
Similarly, Malaysian sportsmen also slept for approximately 34.5% of the day sleeping, and
only 24.0% of the day sitting. This shows that the Malaysian adult population were generally
more inactive compared to soldiers and sportsmen.

When the daily physical activities were grouped into light, moderate and
vigorous-intensity activities, it can be seen clearly that the Malaysian adult population
spent the most amount of time (on average almost 90% of the day) on light-
intensity physical activities, such as sleeping, lying down, sitting, and standing.

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Volume 6: Physical Activity Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey 2003

Malaysian adults spent only approximately 10% of a day on moderate intensity physical
activities, such as walking, cycling, or rowing; and a mere 0.4% of the day on vigorous-
intensity physical activities, such as running, climbing and heavy-intensity sports. In
comparison, Ismail et al. (1995) reported that sportsmen spent 80% of the day doing light
activities, and approximately 20% of the day on moderate to vigorous activities. In another
study on national athletes, it was found that athletes spent only 64 to 76% of the day was
spent on light-intensity activities, while 12 to 19 % was spent on moderate activities, and 11
to 20% on active activities (Ismail et al. 1997).

6.7 CONCLUSION

The findings from this survey provide strong evidence that Malaysian adults are generally
sedentary. Only 14.43% had adequate exercise, corresponding to 19.54% among men and
a mere 9.13% among women. The five most favourite types of sports among Malaysians
were jogging, football, badminton, brisk walking and aerobic exercise. Most Malaysians also
travel by the most inactive of transport, that is by car (39.98%) and motorcycle (34.16%).
Only a small percentage used public transport (9.65%) such as bus, LRT or commuter.
Prevalence of active transportation was low, that is only 2.90% cycled and 17.74% walked
to work.

The 24-hour physical activity recall data showed that Malaysian adults spent 89.31% of their
day on light activities (1286 1.30 minutes), and only 10.33% on moderate activities
(148.68 1.31 minutes) and 0.36% on vigorous activities (5.12 0.26 minutes). Among the
sedentary activities, Malaysians spent an average of 7 hours 40 minutes sleeping, 2 hours
36 minutes watching television, and 1 hour 55 minutes resting.

It is interesting to note that while men (4 hours 41 minutes) spent twice as much time
working as compared to women (2 hours 21 minutes), women (3 hours 10 minutes) spent
seven times as much time doing household chores as compared to men (25 minutes).
Comparing between ethnics, Peninsular Orang asli appeared to spend significantly more
time sleeping, resting and involved in social activities as compared to all other ethnicities in
Malaysia.

These findings suggest that Malaysian adults aged 18 to 59 years old are generally very
sedentary, which if combined with unhealthy dietary habits may lead to problems in
overweight and obesity.

49
Volume 6: Physical Activity Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey 2003

6.8 REFERENCES

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DR, Schmitz KH, Emplaincourt PO, Jacobs DR & Leon AS. (2000). Compendium of
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activity alone may not be a sufficient public health approach to prevent obesity a
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Foo LH & Zaitun Y. (2000). Relationship of calcium intake and lifestyle factors with bone
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Gardner E. (2005). Transport to work or school. Washington State Population Survey 2004.
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Ismail MN, Norimah AK, Poh BK, Ruzita AT, Mazlan NM, Nik Shanita S, Roslee R & Nur
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Peninsular Malaysia. Final report for UKM-Nestle Research Project. Department of
Nutrition & Dietetics, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan
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Ismail MN, Wan Nudri WD and Zawiah H. (1995). Daily energy intake, energy expenditure
and activity patterns of selected Malaysian sportsmen. Mal J Nutr. 1: 141-149.

Ismail MN, Wan Nudri WD and Zawiah H. (1997). Energy expenditure studies to predict
requirements of selected national athletes. Mal J Nutr. 1: 141-149.

Macera CA, Ham SA, Yore MM, Jones DA, Ainsworth BE, Kimsey CD & Kohl HW. (2005).
Prevalence of physical activity in the United States: Behavioral Risk Factor
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MASO. (2005). Strategy for the prevention of obesity Malaysia. Ismail MN, Poh BK &
Zawiah H (Eds.). Kuala Lumpur: Technical Committee on Strategies for the Prevention
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of rapid urbanization on adult occupational physical activity. Soc Sci Med. 64:858-870.

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N, Mokhtar A & Wan HWH. (2006). Lifestyle intervention improved nutritional
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Pate R, Pratt M, Blair S, Haskell W, Macera CA, Bouchard C, Buncher D, Ettinger W,


Health GW, King AC, Kriska A, Leon A, Marcus B, Morris J, Paffenbarger RS, Patrick
K, Pollock ML, Rippe JM, Sallis J, Wilmore JH. (1995). Physical activity and public
health: a recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and
the American College of Sports Medicine. JAMA. 273:402-407.

Poh BK, Zawiah H, Ismail MN & Henry CJK. (1996). Changes in body weight, dietary intake
and activity pattern of adolescents during Ramadan. Mal J Nutr. 2(1):1-10.

Pon LW, Mirnalini K & Mohd Nasir MT. (2004). Body image perception, dietary practices
and physical activity of overweight and normal weight Malaysian female adolescents.
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theoretical but realistic estimates. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 26:851-856.

Rastogi T, Vaz M, Spiegelman D, Reddy KS, Bharathi AV, Stampfer MN, Willet WC &
Ascherio A. (2004). Physical activity and risk of coronary heart disease in India. Int. J.
Epid. 33(4):759-767.

Singapore Department of Statistics. (2001). Singapore Census of Population, 2000 Mode


of Transport. Singapore: Department of Statistics.

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June 2008).

Wan Nudri WD, Mohamed Rusli A, Wan Abdul manan WM, Mohd Rafi M, Naing L, Kmarul
Imran M & Julia O. A study on the nutritional status of physically active men in Kota
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Whang W, Manson JE, Hu FB, Chae CU, Rexrode KM, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ & Albert
CM. (2006). Physical exertion, exercise, and sudden cardiac death in women. J Am
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WHO. (2003a). Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Report of a Joint
WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series 916. Geneva: World
Health Organization.

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communicable diseases and mental health. Report of WHO Expert Committee on non-
communicable disease prevention and health promotion. Geneva: World Health
Organization.

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WHO. (2003c). WHO Global Infobase on Physical Activity data from the World Health
Survey 2003. [WWW document]. URL http://www.who.int/infobase (accessed 29 May
2008).

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(Accessed 16 June 2006).

Wu Y. (2006). Overweight and obesity in China. BMJ. 333:362363.

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Relative influence of diet and physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in urban
Chinese adults. Int J Obes. 27:920932.

53
APPENDIX 6

Physical Activity of Adults Aged 18 to 59 Years

Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey 2003


APPENDIX A
BORANG C

KAJIAN PENGAMBILAN MAKANAN


MALAYSIA 2002/2003
AKTIVITI FIZIKAL

ID Peserta Negeri Daerah Banci BP TK No. Isirumah

BAHAGIAN 1 AKTIVITI FIZIKAL LAZIM RUANGAN KOD

1. Adakah Encik/Puan pergi ke sekolah / bekerja di luar rumah?

a) Ya (sila ke soalan 2) 1. (sila rujuk buku kod)


b) Tidak (sila ke soalan 4)

2. Bagaimana Encik/Puan pergi dan balik ke sekolah/tempat kerja setiap hari?


3. Berapa jumlah tempoh masa untuk pergi dan balik untuk setiap
pengangkutan? (silla isikan jawapan dalam kotak dibawah)

2. Aktivtti Tandakan 3. Jumlah masa diambil


() pergi-balik (minit)
a. Menaiki bas/LRT/ 2a. 3a.
Komuter
b. Menaiki kereta/ 2b. 3b.
memandu
c. Menunggang motosikal 2c. 3c.
d. Menaiki basikal 2d. 3d.
e. Berjalan kaki
2e. 3e.
f. Lain-lain, nyatakan

4. Biasanya, berapa kali Encik/Puan naik tangga dalam sehari? 2f. 3f.

5. Berapa tingkat setiap kali?

Tempat 4. Berapa kali 5. Berapa tingkat


a. Rumah 4a. 5a. .
b. Tempat belajar
4b. 5b. .
c. Tempat kerja
d. Tempat-tempat lain 4c. 5c. .

6. Dalam dua minggu yang tepas, adakah Encik/Puan bermain sukan 4d. 5d. .
atau melakukan senaman?
a. Ya (sila ke soalan 7)
6. (sila rujuk buku kod)
b. Tidak (sila ke Bahagian 2)

Kajian Pengambilan Makanan Malaysia 2002/2003


[C-1]
BORANG C

BAHAGIAN 1 AKTIVITI FIZIKAL LAZIM RUANGAN KOD

7. Apakah aktiviti sukan/senaman yang dilakukan itu?


(3 jenis aktiviti yang utama sahaja berdasarkan jadual di bawah)

8. Berapa kali dalam seminggu untuk setiap aktiviti?

9. Berapa lamakah setiap kali Encik/Puan bermain sukan/senaman


tersebut? (sila isikan jawapan dalam kotak di bawah)

7. Aktiviti sukan 8. Kekerapan 9. Tempoh masa


seminggu setiap kali (minit)

a. 7a. 8a. 9a.

b.
7b. 8b. 9b.
c.
7c. 8c. 9c.

Jenis aktiviti fizikal / senaman

Aktiviti Kod Aktiviti Kod

Badminton 01 Joging 14
Berbasikal 02 Ping Pong 15
Berenang 03 Mendaki gunung 16
Berjalan pantas 04 Qi Gong 17
Bola jaring 05 Ragbi 18
Bola keranjang 06 Senamrobik 19
Bola lisut 07 Sepak takraw 20
Bola sepak 08 Silat 21
Bola tampar 09 Skuasy 22
Bowling 10 Taekwando 23
Gimnasium 11 Tai Chi 24
Golf 12 Tenis 25
Hoki 13 Lain-lain 26

Kajian Pengambilan Makanan Malaysia 2002/2003


[C-2]
BORANG C

Daerah No.
Negeri BP TK
ID Peserta Banci Isirumah

BAHAGIAN 2 BORANG INGATAN AKTIVITI FIZIKAL 24 JAM

Tarikh temubual: Nama peserta:


Hari ingatan: 1. Isnin 2. Selasa 3. Rabu 4. Khamis 5. Jumaat 6. Sabtu 7. Ahad (Bulatkan hari ingatan)
Kod hari ingatan:
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
12.00 tgh
malam
posisi
1.00 pagi
posisi
2.00 pagi
posisi
3.00 pagi
posisi

[C-3]
4.00 pagi
posisi
5.00 pagi
posisi
6.00 pagi
posisi
7.00 pagi
posisi
8.00 pagi
posisi
9.00 pagi
posisi
10.00 pagi
posisi
11.00 pagi
posisi

Petunjuk : T = tidur D = duduk / naik kereta / pandu kereta J = Jalan AP = aktiviti peribadi (mandi, gosok gigi, buang air dll) B = baring BD = berdiri
L = berlari TNT = Turun naik tangga S = Sembanyang BK = Menunggang basikal C = mencangkung

Kajian Pengambilan Makanan Malaysia 2002/2003


BORANG C

BAHAGIAN 2 BORANG INGATAN AKTIVITI FIZIKAL 24 JAM

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
12.00 tgh
hari
posisi
1.00 petang
posisi
2.00 petang
posisi
3.00 petang
posisi
4.00 petang
posisi

[C-4]
5.00 petang
posisi
6.00 petang
posisi
7.00 malam
posisi
8.00 malam
posisi
9.00 malam
posisi
10.00 malam
posisi
11.00 malam
posisi

Petunjuk : T = tidur D = duduk / naik kereta / pandu kereta J = Jalan AP = aktiviti peribadi (mandi, gosok gigi, buang air dll) B = baring BD = berdiri
L = berlari TNT = Turun naik tangga S = Sembanyang BK = Menunggang basikal C = mencangkung

Kajian Pengambilan Makanan Malaysia 2002/2003


APPENDIX B
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

APPENDIX B1
List of physical activities carried out by subjects

No. Activity category Position Example

1. Sleeping Sleeping Sleeping


Lying down
2. Resting Lying down supine or Resting, reading, listening radio, patting a
on the front child to sleep
Sitting Singing (karaoke), resting at work, playing
PC games at home, patting a child to sleep,
caring for a child
3. Working Lying down Mechanic working under a car
Sitting Tailoring, sewing, typing, teaching extra
class, giving tuition, cleaning boat engine,
attending lecture, writing
Standing Cooking, farming, fishing, assembly,
queueing, packing tools, watering plants
Walking Walking on the beat (policeman)
Squat Gardening
Lifting Lifting boxes and other things
Climbing Climbing trees to pick coconuts, or other
fruits
Diving Diving
Rowing Rowing a boat
Working Light-intensity sports Yoga, taichi, qi-gong
(athletes, sports Moderate-intensity Golfer, bowling, walking competition
trainers) sports
Heavy sports Playing football, tennis, squash, weight lifting
4. Personal activity Personal activity showering, brushing teeth, defecating,
dressing, cleaning up
5. Housework Sitting Washing clothes, ironing clothes, baking
cookies, cleaning store room, cleaning prayer
room, sewing, cutting cloth, knitting, caring
for older or sick relative
Standing Cooking, washing car, making bed, helping
out in the kitchen, cleaning up backyard,
showering disabled relative, burning rubbish
Walking Sweeping, tidying up the house, carrying
water
Lifting objects Shopping, marketing, lifting flower pots,
carrying basket
Squat Scrubbing the floor, painting

61
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

No. Activity category Position Example

6. Praying Muslim / Friday prayer Solat


Sitting Praying while sitting
Standing Praying while standing
Kneeling Praying while kneeling
Walking Attending to guests at kenduri, attending to
husband, gotong-royong, walking on the beat
(rukun tetangga)
9. Child care Sitting Breastfeeding, playing with baby, massaging
babys feet, caring for children, accompanying
child on first day of school, feeding child,
teaching a child
Standing Waiting for school bus with child, preparing
childs milk, waking up child, waiting for child
to come home
Walking Carrying child
Running Playing with child
10. Village work Sitting Chopping coconuts, sharpening the cleaver,
molding cleaver handles, carving wood,
plucking vegetables
Standing Plucking coconuts, sawing trees, chopping
trees, stacking wood, hoeing, feeding
livestock, building fences, gardening,
mending nets, shooting squirrels, fixing
house, cleaning aquarium, mixing cement
Walking Herding cows, plucking vegetables, chopping
rattan/wood, lifting rattan/wood, stacking
rattan/wood, shoveling, picking fruits
Climbing Climbing tree
Stooping Looking for snails at the river
11. Transportation Sitting Waiting for public transport, sitting inside
vehicles
Standing Standing in bus/commuter, waiting for public
transport
Cycling
Rowing

62
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

No. Activity category Position Example

12. Moving about Standing Getting from one place to another : around
the house, from the kitchen to living room,
from office desk to toilet, etc.
Walking Getting from one place to another : around
the house, from the kitchen to living room,
from office desk to toilet, etc.
Running Getting from one place to another : around
the house, from the kitchen to living room,
from office desk to toilet, etc.
Climbing up and down Getting from one place to another : around
stairs the house, from the kitchen to living room,
from office desk to toilet, etc.
13. Watching Lying down Watching TV while lying down or sitting
television Sitting
14. Recreation/hobby Lying down Lying down at the park
(leisure activity-
out door)
Sitting Playing computer games, chess, refereeing a
competition, watching people play football or
badminton
Sitting Relaxing by the beach or at the park, fishing,
picnicking at the waterfall, sunbathing, sight-
seeing with motorcycle, making a kite
Standing Taking photographs, playing snooker,
photostatting

63
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

APPENDIX B2
List of activities grouped into light, moderate and vigorous-intensity activity categories.
Category Activities
Light- Sleeping Moderate- Working - walking
intensity Resting - lying down intensity Working - lifting objects
activity Resting - sitting activity Working - rowing a boat
Working - lying down Working - moderate intensity sports
Working - sitting Household chores - walking
Working - standing Household chores - lifting objects
Working - light intensity sports Household chores - walking
Working - squatting Household chores - stooping
Household chores - sitting Child care activities - walking
Household chores - standing Religious activities - walking
Household chores - squatting Social activities - walking
Village-type activities - sitting Transportation - cycling bicycle
Village-type activities - standing Activities related to moving about - walking
Pray - solat Moderate-intensity sports
Pray - sitting Recreational activities - walking
Pray - standing Meal time - walking
Pray - kneeling Miscellaneous - walking
Child care activities - sitting Village-type activities - sitting
Child care activities - standing Vigorous- Working - climbing
Personal activities intensity Working - diving
Religious activities - sitting activity Working - heavy-intensity sports
Religious activities - standing Child care activities - running
Social activities - sitting Activities related to moving about - running
Social activities- standing Activities related to moving about - climbing
Transportation - sitting up and down stairs
Transportation - standing Recreational activities - running
Watching television/video Heavy intensity sports
Recreational activities - lying down
Recreational activities - sitting
playing games
Recreational activities - sitting
recreation
Recreational activities - squatting
Recreational activities - standing
Light intensity sports
Meal time - sitting
Meal time - standing
Personal errand - sitting
Personal errand - standing
Miscellaneous - sitting
Miscellaneous - walking

64
APPENDIX C
Table 1a : Prevalence of transport for travelling to and from work / school (bicycling and walking)

66
Bicycling Walking
Characteristics Prevalence 95% CI Total Estimated Prevalence 95% CI Total Estimated
(%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population

Malaysia 2.90 2.37 3.54 137 297,799 17.74 16.45 19.11 956 1,822,546
Zone
Southern 2.88 1.83 4.51 24 65,000 15.13 12.46 18.27 148 341,383
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 2.69 1.94 3.73 48 108,527 10.81 9.08 12.83 202 435,833
East Coast 2.33 1.34 4.02 15 24,591 19.16 15.13 23.96 112 202,565
Northern 4.28 2.37 7.58 19 53,053 10.14 7.68 13.28 60 125,661
Sabah 1.60 0.75 3.39 8 12,646 48.23 42.53 53.97 226 383,171
Sarawak 3.79 2.42 5.90 23 33,982 37.25 32.27 42.51 208 333,932
Strata
Urban 2.29 1.72 3.03 62 143,351 14.71 13.10 16.48 429 922,291
Rural 3.86 2.90 5.13 75 154,448 22.49 20.37 24.76 527 900,255
Sex
Men 2.35 1.75 3.16 64 152,652 14.01 12.38 15.82 440 909,386
Women 3.84 2.92 5.04 73 145,147 24.14 22.01 26.40 516 913,160
Age group (Years)
18 19 3.63 1.74 7.40 10 39,464 28.75 22.01 36.58 91 312,589
20 29 2.31 1.51 3.51 31 72,192 15.75 13.79 17.93 251 492,212
30 39 1.86 1.22 2.82 26 51,388 16.09 14.23 18.13 274 444,428
40 49 3.56 2.60 4.86 43 77,134 15.72 13.63 18.06 212 341,309
50 59 5.11 3.09 8.33 27 57,621 20.61 16.76 25.06 128 232,007
Ethnic group
Malay 2.43 1.81 3.25 62 134,460 14.98 13.43 16.68 409 828,354
Chinese 3.20 2.18 4.69 35 83,993 11.01 8.83 13.64 141 288,821
Indian 4.08 2.10 7.79 16 40,879 14.32 10.54 19.17 71 143,838
Orang Asli PM 10.76 2.18 39.41 3 4,850 63.24 28.14 88.31 8 28,517
Sabah Bumiputera 1.55 0.52 4.51 4 6,125 50.89 43.79 57.95 133 202,501
Sarawak Bumiputera 5.45 3.22 9.09 16 26,011 48.99 42.41 55.60 153 234,967
Other Bumiputera 0.76 0.11 5.31 1 1,480 49.24 34.20 64.41 41 95,548
Table 1a : continue

Bicycling Walking
Characteristics Prevalence 95% CI Total Estimated Prevalence 95% CI Total Estimated
(%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Educational level
Primary school 3.10 2.25 4.25 47 83,622 15.04 13.11 17.19 242 405,633
Lower secondary school (PMR) 2.38 1.65 3.41 33 68,463 11.69 10.02 13.60 202 336,783
Upper secondary school (SPM) 1.36 0.86 2.15 31 66,872 9.30 7.79 11.07 226 455,757
Matriculation/Form 6 1.93 0.75 4.87 6 15,210 13.41 9.97 17.81 51 105,526
College/University 1.26 0.52 3.01 7 27,638 14.96 12.02 18.47 133 328,492
Others 5.21 2.59 10.19 13 35,994 27.31 21.24 34.36 101 188,853
Marital status
Unmarried 2.46 1.67 3.60 38 108,608 16.81 14.49 19.41 311 742,050
Married 1.71 1.34 2.17 85 156,676 10.45 9.59 11.38 591 958,935
Divorced 3.00 0.94 9.16 3 6,382 29.56 18.66 43.45 23 62,921
Widow 7.17 3.34 14.70 11 26,133 15.61 10.42 22.72 30 56,894
Household income (per month)
Less than RM1500 2.83 2.24 3.58 94 202,885 16.64 15.15 18.24 633 1,191,195
RM1500 - RM3500 1.24 0.85 1.81 34 61,440 9.68 8.33 11.21 252 480,103
More than RM3500 1.63 0.69 3.79 9 33,474 7.36 5.16 10.39 71 151,249
BMI Status
Underweight 3.22 1.79 5.70 21 44,375 16.07 13.03 19.67 110 221,769
Normal 2.28 1.76 2.97 73 161,793 13.96 12.44 15.63 506 988,381
Overweight 1.79 1.16 2.73 33 68,925 11.11 9.50 12.95 234 35,785
Obese 1.27 0.54 2.93 10 22,705 9.77 7.87 12.06 100 175,201

67
68
Table 1b: Prevalence of transport for travelling to and from work / school (car/driving and bus/LRT/commuter)

Car / driving Bus / LRT / commuter


Characteristics Prevalence 95% CI Total Estimated Prevalence 95% CI Total Estimated
(%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population

Malaysia 39.98 38.29 41.69 1,986 4,107,177 9.65 8.53 10.90 427 990,617
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Zone
Southern 39.18 35.32 43.18 398 883,108 11.38 9.34 13.79 120 256,505
Central 44.75 41.88 47.66 779 1,810,822 12.26 10.04 14.89 169 494,287
East Coast 33.67 29.37 38.26 203 354,663 4.65 2.76 7.72 26 49,044
Northern 31.23 27.29 35.45 192 386,921 6.90 4.72 10.00 39 85,823
Sabah 38.83 33.73 44.20 220 305,470 7.96 5.80 10.83 46 62,748
Sarawak 40.92 35.45 46.61 194 366,193 4.72 3.05 7.22 27 42,212
Strata
Urban 47.55 45.12 50.00 1,348 2,986,525 11.13 9.56 12.92 278 697,633
Rural 28.06 25.95 30.27 638 1,120,651 7.32 5.95 8.99 149 292,984
Sex
Men 38.20 36.04 40.41 1,175 2,479,135 5.36 4.27 6.70 148 347,586
Women 43.02 40.38 45.69 811 1,628,041 17.01 14.79 19.50 279 643,032
Age group (Years)
18 19 21.43 16.12 27.90 82 232,584 27.76 21.21 35.44 78 301,894
20 29 37.45 34.34 40.66 559 1,171,813 11.31 9.55 13.35 177 353,657
30 39 46.17 43.35 49.01 660 1,280,292 5.33 4.23 6.71 83 147,567
40 49 45.48 42.28 48.71 501 982,513 5.69 4.27 7.56 57 123,068
50 59 39.07 34.05 44.34 184 439,974 5.72 3.63 8.90 32 64,431
Ethnic group
Malay 36.52 34.31 38.79 977 2,022,689 8.89 7.62 10.36 222 491,920
Chinese 54.83 51.15 58.46 651 1,438,704 9.16 6.78 12.26 89 240,545
Indian 31.23 26.35 36.57 140 313,342 18.31 13.37 24.55 63 183,265
Orang Asli PM 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 10.44 1.92 41.00 2 4,707
Table 1b : continue

Car / driving Bus / LRT / commuter


Characteristics Prevalence 95% CI Total Estimated Prevalence 95% CI Total Estimated
(%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population

Sabah Bumiputera 37.22 30.85 44.08 107 146,141 6.32 3.92 10.01 20 24,914
Sarawak Bumiputera 27.06 21.49 33.45 74 129,083 6.86 4.38 10.57 22 32,704
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Other Bumiputera 29.48 19.62 41.74 37 57,218 6.47 2.89 13.87 9 12,562
Educational level
Primary school 16.06 13.93 18.45 209 433,183 6.53 4.87 8.70 55 109,768
Lower secondary school (PMR) 24.33 21.78 27.07 339 700,721 6.69 5.19 8.58 73 135,215
Upper secondary school (SPM) 29.16 27.01 31.41 712 1,429,164 11.12 9.09 13.53 161 392,850
Matriculation/Form 6 33.01 27.82 38.66 131 259,758 15.08 9.71 22.67 33 97,818
College/University 54.60 49.82 59.30 555 1,198,536 11.12 8.35 14.68 92 221,018
Others 11.94 8.40 16.70 38 82,535 7.92 3.58 16.59 12 29,873
Marital status
Unmarried 26.07 23.55 28.76 503 1,151,102 16.50 13.89 19.48 233 603,145
Married 31.38 29.91 32.89 1,448 2,878,158 5.10 4.32 6.00 171 318,708
Divorced 17.68 10.11 29.07 16 37,626 18.67 9.70 32.90 10 29,981
Widow 9.46 5.56 15.64 16 34,483 21.00 11.23 35.85 13 38,782
Household income (per month)
Less than RM1500 15.17 13.86 16.58 551 1,085,990 9.34 7.88 11.03 201 441,124
RM1500 - RM3500 35.66 33.37 38.02 841 1,769,085 10.27 8.47 12.39 166 391,889
More than RM3500 60.92 56.73 64.95 594 1,252,102 9.14 6.14 13.40 60 157,605
BMI Status
Underweight 24.65 20.76 29.01 148 340,103 15.70 11.64 20.85 64 158,613
Normal 29.13 27.30 31.03 995 2,063,202 10.35 8.76 12.19 237 555,112
Overweight 31.44 29.11 33.88 603 1,213,734 7.12 5.24 9.59 79 195,244
Obese 26.67 23.46 30.15 234 478,363 6.98 5.12 9.45 45 77,877

69
Table 1c: Prevalence of transport for travelling to and from work / school (motorcycle and others)

70
Motorcycle Others
Characteristics Prevalence 95% CI Total Estimated Prevalence 95% CI Total Estimated
(%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population

Malaysia 34.16 32.57 35.78 1,675 3,514,971 2.37 1.93 2.90 133 243,087
Zone
Southern 37.26 33.49 41.19 376 840,521 0.76 0.34 1.69 8 17,180
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 32.15 29.69 34.73 577 1,299,046 1.95 1.27 2.96 33 78,327
East Coast 41.54 36.88 46.37 259 441,942 2.94 1.63 5.25 15 31,041
Northern 49.82 45.25 54.39 277 619,113 2.58 1.58 4.19 18 32,131
Sabah 10.92 7.99 14.73 52 86,257 4.64 2.92 7.29 23 36,573
Sarawak 25.42 20.84 30.63 134 228,092 5.34 3.73 7.60 36 47,836
Strata
Urban 27.99 25.92 30.17 743 1,758,895 1.53 1.07 2.20 45 96,129
Rural 43.82 41.37 46.31 932 1,756,076 3.67 2.90 4.65 88 146,958
Sex
Men 44.24 42.10 46.39 1,336 2,879,855 2.35 1.84 2.99 83 152,051
Women 16.80 14.95 18.83 339 635,116 2.41 1.68 3.43 50 91,036
Age group (Years)
18 19 28.26 22.33 35.05 106 307,620 2.31 0.89 5.85 8 25,106
20 29 38.45 35.46 41.53 557 1,205,060 2.00 1.36 2.92 34 62,344
30 39 32.58 29.90 35.37 459 903,404 2.86 2.06 3.95 44 78,980
40 49 33.40 30.41 36.53 365 724,303 2.21 1.50 3.25 31 47,910
50 59 33.27 28.76 38.10 188 374,583 2.56 1.41 4.60 16 28,746
Ethnic group
Malay 41.33 39.12 43.57 1,085 2,291,598 2.13 1.55 2.93 58 118,109
Chinese 24.78 21.87 27.95 282 651,302 1.26 0.72 2.20 16 33,098
Indian 35.48 30.51 40.78 180 355,188 2.49 1.42 4.33 14 24,896
Orang Asli PM 18.37 4.92 49.47 4 8,285 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0
Sabah Bumiputera 13.50 8.97 19.84 29 53,505 5.60 3.18 9.65 15 22,076
Sarawak Bumiputera 25.91 20.18 32.59 73 124,159 7.06 4.60 10.69 25 33,587
Other Bumiputera 15.85 9.53 25.18 22 30,933 5.90 2.23 14.66 5 11,321
Table 1c : continue

Motorcycle Others
Characteristics Prevalence 95% CI Total Estimated Prevalence 95% CI Total Estimated
(%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Educational level
Primary school 25.31 22.85 27.95 362 682,804 3.22 2.32 4.46 49 86,930
Lower secondary school (PMR) 28.61 25.95 31.42 398 824,046 0.94 0.58 1.53 18 27,052
Upper secondary school (SPM) 27.50 25.37 29.73 620 1,347,597 1.61 1.08 2.39 40 78,677
Matriculation/Form 6 25.53 20.48 31.34 89 200,898 2.62 1.24 5.47 8 20,609
College/University 17.54 14.33 21.29 169 384,991 2.62 1.24 5.47 8 20,609
Others 9.55 6.56 13.71 36 66,021 2.80 1.50 5.17 12 19,377
Marital status
Unmarried 29.32 26.62 32.18 569 1,294,624 1.84 1.20 2.79 34 81,053
Married 23.32 22.00 24.69 1,075 2,138,876 1.58 1.26 1.98 93 145,211
Divorced 21.00 12.91 32.29 18 44,694 4.16 1.17 13.74 3 8,858
Widow 8.42 4.30 15.83 10 30,683 1.60 0.37 6.68 2 5,829
Household income (per month)
Less than RM1500 28.02 26.20 29.92 969 2,006,580 2.20 1.73 2.78 90 157,325
RM1500 - RM3500 25.80 23.75 27.96 604 1,279,772 1.53 1.02 2.29 38 75,702
More than RM3500 11.12 8.83 13.92 102 228,618 0.49 0.17 1.41 5 10,059
BMI Status
Underweight 22.62 19.14 26.52 161 312,039 1.41 0.70 2.80 10 19,447
Normal 26.17 24.25 28.19 853 1,853,436 2.04 1.53 2.71 75 144,459
Overweight 24.23 22.11 26.49 460 935,342 1.54 1.07 2.20 34 59,316
Obese 22.52 19.49 25.88 194 403,970 1.11 0.64 1.92 14 19,866

71
Table 2a: Mean time in minutes spent on travelling to and from work / school (bicycling and walking)

72
Bicycling Walking
Characteristics 95% CI Total Estimated 95% CI Total Estimated
Mean Std Error Mean Std Error
Lower Upper Respondents population Lower Upper Respondents population

Malaysia 28.37 3.46 21.52 35.22 137 297,799 23.98 1.14 21.74 26.22 956 1,822,546
Zone
Southern 19.29 2.76 13.83 24.76 24 65,000 16.37 0.93 14.55 18.20 148 341,383
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 24.64 3.85 17.02 32.25 48 108,527 19.45 1.42 16.65 22.24 202 435,833
East Coast 23.98 3.86 16.34 31.62 15 24,591 23.63 3.44 16.88 30.39 112 202,565
Northern 47.27 13.50 20.58 73.97 19 53,053 20.40 3.08 14.35 26.45 60 125,660
Sabah 31.84 5.24 21.46 42.21 8 12,646 27.71 3.64 20.58 34.85 226 383,171
Sarawak 30.05 5.08 19.99 40.10 23 33,982 34.94 3.26 28.53 41.34 208 333,932
Strata
Urban 24.33 2.95 18.50 30.17 62 143,351 20.46 1.26 17.98 22.93 429 922,291
Rural 32.12 5.87 20.51 43.72 75 154,448 27.58 1.87 23.91 31.26 527 900,255
Sex
Men 38.31 5.92 26.61 50.01 64 152,652 25.28 2.01 21.33 29.23 440 909,386
Women 17.92 1.36 15.22 20.61 73 145,147 22.68 1.10 20.52 24.85 516 913,160
Age group (Years)
18 19 42.25 16.79 9.04 75.45 10 39,464 24.04 3.42 17.33 30.75 91 312,589
20 29 18.43 2.87 12.76 24.10 31 72,192 18.94 1.40 16.19 21.69 251 492,212
30 39 26.97 4.76 17.56 36.39 26 51,388 24.56 2.00 20.64 28.48 274 444,428
40 49 24.90 3.53 17.91 31.88 43 77,134 27.76 2.48 22.90 32.62 212 341,309
50 59 37.22 8.26 20.88 53.56 27 57,621 27.89 4.81 18.45 37.33 128 232,007
Ethnic group
Malay 26.15 4.61 17.02 35.27 62 134,460 19.72 1.19 17.39 22.05 409 828,354
Chinese 21.17 2.89 15.46 26.88 35 83,993 19.99 1.70 16.65 23.33 141 288,821
Indian 48.85 14.22 20.71 76.98 16 40,879 21.05 1.47 18.17 23.92 71 143,838
Orang Asli PM 20.40 4.03 12.42 28.38 3 4,850 37.89 16.14 6.22 69.55 8 28,517
Sabah Bumiputera 35.79 6.30 23.32 48.26 4 6,125 28.41 5.26 18.09 38.74 133 202,501
Sarawak Bumiputera 29.46 4.95 19.66 39.26 16 26,011 37.11 4.11 29.05 45.17 153 234,967
Other Bumiputera 50.00 0.00 50.00 50.00 1 1,480 31.49 8.34 15.13 47.86 41 95,548
Table 2a : continue

Bicycling Walking
Characteristics 95% CI Total Estimated 95% CI Total Estimated
Mean Std Error Mean Std Error
Lower Upper Respondents population Lower Upper Respondents population
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Educational level
Primary school 27.56 3.51 20.63 34.50 47 83,622 29.62 2.45 24.82 34.42 242 405,633
Lower secondary school (PMR) 24.55 3.83 16.97 32.14 33 68,463 23.11 2.26 18.68 27.54 202 336,783

Upper secondary school (SPM) 38.37 10.60 17.39 59.34 31 66,872 20.12 2.37 15.47 24.77 226 455,757
Matriculation/Form 6 19.40 7.98 3.61 35.19 6 15,210 16.40 1.89 12.70 20.11 51 105,526
College/University 15.10 4.85 5.50 24.71 7 27,638 19.43 1.96 15.58 23.28 133 328,492
Others 32.92 12.78 7.65 58.19 13 35,994 34.09 6.15 22.01 46.16 101 188,853
Marital status
Unmarried 30.56 7.76 15.22 45.91 38 108,608 22.04 1.77 18.57 25.52 311 742,050
Married 28.62 3.77 21.16 36.09 85 156,676 24.14 1.28 21.64 26.64 591 958,935
Divorced 27.93 10.29 7.57 48.30 3 6,382 19.02 4.42 10.35 27.69 23 62,921
Widow 17.87 1.78 14.35 21.38 11 26,133 52.38 17.70 17.64 87.12 30 56,894
Household income (per month)
Less than RM1500 26.13 3.22 19.76 32.50 94 202,885 26.28 1.58 23.17 29.38 633 1,191,195
RM1500 - RM3500 25.23 4.24 16.84 33.61 34 61,440 20.37 1.66 17.11 23.63 252 480,103
More than RM3500 47.73 19.40 9.35 86.11 9 33,474 17.33 1.89 13.63 21.03 71 151,249
BMI Status
Underweight 44.25 13.84 16.88 71.63 21 44,375 20.06 1.78 16.56 23.55 110 221,769
Normal 24.66 2.76 19.19 30.12 73 161,793 26.22 1.71 22.87 29.57 506 988,381
Overweight 29.81 7.63 14.72 44.90 33 68,925 18.99 1.18 16.66 21.31 234 428,880
Obese 19.44 2.52 14.44 24.43 10 22,705 27.43 5.89 15.87 38.98 100 175,201

73
Table 2b: Mean time in minutes spent on travelling to and from work / school (car/driving and bus/LRT/commuter)

74
Bus / LRT / commuter Car / driving
Characteristics 95% CI Total Estimated 95% CI Total Estimated
Mean Std Error Mean Std Error
Lower Upper Respondents population Lower Upper Respondents population

Malaysia 66.52 3.37 59.89 73.14 427 990,442 45.79 1.42 43.00 48.57 1,974 4,086,443
Zone
Southern 75.12 6.18 62.98 87.26 120 256,505 40.27 2.30 35.76 44.78 395 874,041
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 68.68 5.50 57.87 79.48 170 495,651 51.43 2.62 46.30 56.56 779 1,810,822
East Coast 38.21 5.72 26.97 49.46 25 47,503 41.88 3.86 34.32 49.45 197 347,439
Northern 65.48 10.08 45.66 85.30 39 85,823 40.17 2.62 35.04 45.31 190 383,731
Sabah 43.17 4.87 33.59 52.75 46 62,748 38.52 3.71 31.25 45.79 219 304,217
Sarawak 57.47 10.86 36.13 78.81 27 42,212 46.64 4.81 37.22 56.07 194 366,193
Strata
Urban 64.08 4.13 55.97 72.20 278 697,633 45.75 1.75 42.32 49.19 1,342 2,976,865
Rural 72.31 5.53 61.43 83.18 149 292,808 45.87 2.29 41.38 50.37 632 1,109,578
Sex
Men 64.38 5.97 52.65 76.10 147 346,045 51.45 2.18 47.17 55.73 1,165 2,459,978
Women 67.66 4.06 59.68 75.64 280 644,396 37.22 1.29 34.69 39.75 809 1,626,465
Age group (Years)
18 19 65.97 7.41 51.41 80.53 78 301,894 39.16 5.23 28.90 49.42 82 232,584
20 29 64.98 5.14 54.88 75.08 177 353,657 43.80 2.41 39.08 48.52 557 1,164,780
30 39 71.48 6.88 57.94 85.02 82 146,027 45.24 2.34 40.66 49.83 655 1,272,467
40 49 71.55 7.14 57.52 85.58 58 124,434 51.01 3.72 43.73 58.30 498 979,734
50 59 56.53 9.57 37.71 75.34 32 64,431 44.46 3.41 37.78 51.14 182 436,877
Ethnic group
Malay 60.49 4.13 52.36 68.61 222 491,920 44.29 2.07 40.24 48.34 970 2,014,176
Chinese 76.45 8.63 59.49 93.41 88 239,005 46.46 2.47 41.61 51.32 647 1,427,736
Indian 78.51 8.16 62.47 94.56 64 184,629 53.79 4.59 44.78 62.80 140 313,342
Orang Asli PM 31.93 8.37 15.49 48.38 2 4,707 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Sabah Bumiputera 46.75 7.15 32.70 60.81 20 24,914 42.04 3.64 34.91 49.17 106 144,889
Sarawak Bumiputera 49.06 6.86 35.58 62.53 22 32,704 51.21 9.47 32.65 69.78 74 129,083
Other Bumiputera 34.95 8.16 18.91 51.00 9 12,562 34.92 3.67 27.71 42.12 37 57,218
Table 2b : continue

Bus / LRT / commuter Car / driving


Characteristics 95% CI Total Estimated 95% CI Total Estimated
Mean Std Error Mean Std Error
Lower Upper Respondents population Lower Upper Respondents population
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Educational level
Primary school 73.96 8.31 57.62 90.29 56 111,133 48.97 3.70 41.72 56.22 208 432,740
Lower secondary school (PMR) 81.06 7.61 66.11 96.02 73 135,215 55.00 4.64 45.90 64.09 336 691,657
Upper secondary school (SPM) 61.87 5.20 51.65 72.09 160 391,310 42.51 2.58 37.46 47.56 707 1,422,476
Matriculation/Form 6 63.27 10.75 42.13 84.40 33 97,818 43.02 7.74 27.85 58.20 130 257,387
College/University 67.61 8.80 50.31 84.92 92 221,018 43.73 1.48 40.83 46.63 554 1,197,283
Others 42.66 12.38 18.33 66.99 12 29,873 47.92 5.84 36.47 59.38 37 81,621
Marital status
Unmarried 62.70 4.77 53.32 72.07 233 603,145 44.29 2.13 40.11 48.48 501 1,144,069
Married 75.34 4.70 66.11 84.57 171 318,533 46.38 1.82 42.80 49.96 1,438 2,864,458

Divorced 76.82 16.99 43.42 110.22 10 29,981 58.50 12.91 33.18 83.81 16 37,626
Widow 45.44 9.62 26.54 64.34 13 38,782 32.37 3.79 24.93 39.81 16 34,483
Household income (per month)
Less than RM1500 66.21 4.86 56.66 75.75 201 441,124 43.93 2.53 38.97 48.89 546 1,079,202
RM1500 - RM3500 68.32 4.93 58.63 78.02 167 393,253 46.63 2.70 41.34 51.92 839 1,762,147
More than RM3500 62.83 10.54 42.11 83.56 59 156,065 46.19 1.55 43.15 49.24 589 1,245,094
BMI Status
Underweight 58.01 6.85 44.54 71.48 64 158,613 48.56 5.16 38.45 58.67 147 339,188
Normal 65.01 4.43 56.30 73.72 238 556,477 45.53 1.89 41.83 49.23 990 2,051,067
Overweight 79.17 8.64 62.17 96.16 79 195,244 47.58 3.10 41.51 53.66 600 1,209,214
Obese 65.33 9.16 47.32 83.34 44 76,337 40.61 2.71 35.29 45.92 231 475,198

75
Table 2c: Mean time in minutes spent on travelling to and from work / school (motorcycle and others)

76
Motorcycle Others
Characteristics 95% CI Total Estimated 95% CI Total Estimated
Mean Std Error Mean Std Error
Lower Upper Respondents population Lower Upper Respondents population

Malaysia 33.27 0.98 31.36 35.18 1,673 3,514,337 84.88 11.01 63.08 106.67 130 240,857
Zone
Southern 33.80 2.05 29.79 37.81 376 840,521 86.53 34.53 18.18 154.87 8 17,180
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 33.75 1.89 30.03 37.46 578 1,301,170 57.91 10.41 37.31 78.52 32 78,470
East Coast 28.72 1.43 25.92 31.51 256 438,152 96.50 25.48 46.07 146.94 14 29,528
Northern 33.97 2.04 29.97 37.97 277 620,145 125.35 41.02 44.17 206.53 18 32,131
Sabah 23.26 2.96 17.45 29.07 52 86,257 81.49 31.13 19.88 143.10 23 36,573
Sarawak 39.22 3.58 32.19 46.24 134 228,092 96.96 32.12 33.37 160.54 35 46,975
Strata
Urban 35.35 1.62 32.18 38.51 743 1,759,375 63.66 10.67 42.53 84.78 43 94,759
Rural 31.19 1.10 29.03 33.34 930 1,754,962 98.64 16.59 65.80 131.48 87 146,098
Sex
Men 35.19 1.15 32.93 37.45 1,334 2,879,222 106.09 16.52 73.39 138.78 80 148,311
Women 24.56 1.28 22.05 27.06 339 635,116 50.88 7.36 36.32 65.45 50 92,545
Age group (Years)
18 19 26.70 2.55 21.69 31.70 106 307,620 29.77 9.29 11.37 48.17 8 25,106
20 29 30.88 1.39 28.16 33.61 558 1,207,833 96.29 30.39 36.15 156.43 32 59,994
30 39 35.25 1.67 31.97 38.53 457 900,122 82.49 12.71 57.33 107.66 43 78,120
40 49 38.21 3.11 32.11 44.31 366 726,428 82.52 22.71 37.56 127.47 31 47,910
50 59 32.01 2.28 27.54 36.48 186 372,334 118.44 27.76 63.50 173.39 16 29,727
Ethnic group
Malay 31.68 1.32 29.26 34.09 1,084 2,292,707 80.90 14.82 51.57 110.22 56 115,612
Chinese 33.08 1.96 29.23 36.93 281 649,560 75.98 11.34 53.53 98.43 17 35,591
Indian 42.98 3.29 36.54 49.43 180 355,188 82.86 25.76 31.87 133.84 13 23,530
Orang Asli PM 10.87 3.18 4.63 17.11 4 8,285 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Sabah Bumiputera 24.20 4.27 15.84 32.57 29 53,505 47.70 10.01 27.90 67.51 15 22,076
Sarawak Bumiputera 41.65 5.22 31.40 51.89 73 124,159 111.55 45.17 22.16 200.95 24 32,726
Other Bumiputera 31.58 5.67 20.46 42.70 22 30,933 153.06 96.02 -37.00 343.12 5 11,321
Table 2c : continue

Motorcycle Others
Characteristics 95% CI Total Estimated 95% CI Total Estimated
Mean Std Error Mean Std Error
Lower Upper Respondents population Lower Upper Respondents population
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Educational level
Primary school 33.79 1.75 30.36 37.22 360 680,659 103.84 23.64 57.04 150.63 49 86,930
Lower secondary school (PMR) 36.26 1.68 32.97 39.55 398 824,046 75.74 21.45 33.29 118.20 18 27,052
Upper secondary school (SPM) 32.03 1.43 29.23 34.84 620 1,348,628 82.18 19.44 43.70 120.67 38 76,450
Matriculation/Form 6 29.64 3.39 22.98 36.29 89 200,898 64.67 14.31 36.34 93.00 8 20,609
College/University 33.50 5.16 23.39 43.61 170 387,115 28.75 6.25 16.37 41.13 5 9,459
Others 27.15 4.41 18.51 35.79 35 64,376 69.01 13.50 42.29 95.74 11 17,864
Marital status
Unmarried 29.47 1.21 27.10 31.85 570 1,297,397 65.96 20.70 24.98 106.94 32 78,703
Married 35.56 1.39 32.83 38.29 1,072 2,135,470 95.15 13.66 68.12 122.19 91 142,837
Divorced 36.31 5.52 25.48 47.13 18 44,694 57.04 18.54 20.34 93.75 3 8,858
Widow 33.13 9.49 14.51 51.74 10 30,683 128.50 30.24 68.65 188.36 3 8,323
Household income (per month)
Less than RM1500 30.80 0.98 28.87 32.73 967 2,005,564 92.94 14.20 64.83 121.05 89 155,812
RM1500 - RM3500 36.40 2.05 32.37 40.43 604 1,280,155 68.90 18.88 31.52 106.27 35 72,492
More than RM3500 37.39 3.91 29.71 45.06 102 228,618 77.10 20.27 36.98 117.22 6 12,553
BMI Status
Underweight 33.55 2.71 28.23 38.87 161 312,039 87.17 24.72 38.23 136.11 9 18,463
Normal 33.26 1.17 30.96 35.56 851 1,851,283 73.76 12.23 49.56 97.97 75 144,459
Overweight 32.74 2.40 28.03 37.44 461 937,466 122.95 32.02 59.58 186.33 32 57,089
Obese 34.05 2.78 28.59 39.51 194 403,970 49.68 13.30 23.36 76.01 13 18,353

77
Table 3: Prevalence of ever-exercised (sports or exercise activities involvement in previous two weeks)

78
Total Men Women
Characteristics Prevalence Std 95% CI Total Estimated Prevalence Std 95% CI Total Estimated Prevalence Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(%) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Malaysia 31.49 0.71 30.11 32.90 2,040 4,465,207 40.50 1.07 38.42 42.61 1,314 2,920,879 22.16 0.87 20.51 23.91 726 1,544,328
Zone
Southern 33.36 1.62 30.26 36.61 418 992,612 41.78 2.44 37.09 46.62 251 636,089 24.50 1.86 21.04 28.33 166 354,788
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 34.18 1.23 31.81 36.62 765 1,841,781 41.71 1.78 38.27 45.23 475 1,149,919 26.29 1.63 23.22 29.60 290 691,862
East Coast 18.85 1.57 15.96 22.12 166 304,732 25.57 2.38 21.18 30.51 117 212,665 11.73 2.03 8.30 16.32 49 92,067
Northern 30.59 1.84 27.10 34.32 260 577,231 43.54 2.80 38.15 49.07 176 400,035 18.30 2.17 14.42 22.95 84 177,197
Sabah 34.02 2.46 29.39 38.99 230 381,656 48.48 3.62 41.46 55.56 162 275,693 19.16 2.47 14.78 24.47 68 105,963
Sarawak 30.82 2.37 26.37 35.65 201 367,194 40.15 3.78 33.01 47.73 132 244,743 21.04 2.52 16.53 26.40 69 122,451
Strata
Urban 35.36 0.99 33.45 37.31 1,252 2,984,698 43.53 1.45 40.71 46.39 778 1,866,147 26.93 1.26 24.53 29.46 474 1,118,552
Rural 25.78 0.98 23.91 27.75 788 1,480,509 36.04 1.55 33.06 39.14 535 1,052,997 15.13 1.02 13.23 17.25 252 425,777
Sex
Men 40.50 1.07 38.42 42.61 1,314 2,920,879
Women 22.16 0.87 20.51 23.91 726 1,544,328
Age group (Years)
18 19 41.10 3.42 34.59 47.93 180 595,499 56.54 5.28 46.06 66.48 121 415,577 25.20 3.69 18.67 33.08 59 179,922
20 29 33.26 1.29 30.79 35.83 670 1,413,322 45.78 1.87 42.14 49.46 465 988,551 20.26 1.49 17.49 23.34 204 423,036
30 39 28.90 1.13 26.74 31.16 552 1,056,293 37.13 1.74 33.79 40.60 340 687,444 20.45 1.37 17.90 23.25 212 368,849
40 49 28.90 1.30 26.42 31.51 421 838,845 33.47 1.86 29.93 37.22 252 495,883 24.13 1.81 20.77 27.85 169 342,962
50 59 29.20 1.92 25.58 33.10 217 561,249 33.80 2.69 28.74 39.26 135 331,690 24.40 2.75 19.41 30.18 82 229,559
Ethnic group
Malay 29.99 0.94 28.19 31.86 1,032 2,315,210 40.77 1.39 38.08 43.52 710 1,621,574 18.52 1.09 16.47 20.76 321 691,901
Chinese 35.80 1.55 32.82 38.89 541 1,267,339 39.11 2.35 34.61 43.80 293 696,553 32.45 2.00 28.65 36.48 248 570,786
Indian 31.81 2.28 27.52 36.44 198 436,613 39.36 3.43 32.87 46.24 113 263,477 24.63 2.90 19.39 30.74 85 173,136
Orang Asli PM 11.92 7.17 3.43 34.03 3 8,251 21.62 14.51 4.90 59.63 3 8,251
Sabah Bumiputera 31.19 2.80 25.98 36.93 123 181,258 49.32 4.30 40.98 57.70 90 136,054 14.81 3.13 9.65 22.04 33 45,204
Sarawak Bumiputera 26.33 2.47 21.79 31.44 102 163,157 38.91 3.97 31.47 46.90 77 123,693 13.08 2.62 8.74 19.13 25 39,465
Other Bumiputera 33.30 6.88 21.39 47.81 41 93,380 46.75 10.17 28.27 66.17 27 69,542 18.10 4.75 10.55 29.30 14 23,837
Table 3 : continue

Total Men Women


Characteristics Prevalence Std 95% CI Total Estimated Prevalence Std 95% CI Total Estimated Prevalence Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(%) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 19.66 1.25 17.32 22.22 261 530,221 24.89 1.95 21.28 28.90 150 303,114 15.35 1.59 12.49 18.72 111 227,107
Lower secondary
school (PMR) 24.40 1.31 21.93 27.05 354 702,952 28.10 1.80 24.71 31.76 238 464,842 19.42 1.92 15.93 23.46 116 238,109
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 35.13 1.27 32.69 37.65 772 1,721,713 45.18 1.88 41.53 48.88 494 1,135,686 24.55 1.52 21.69 27.66 278 586,027
Matriculation/Form 6 39.92 3.10 34.03 46.12 136 314,099 58.39 4.81 48.76 67.42 80 180,126 28.01 3.72 21.32 35.83 56 133,973
College/University 49.26 2.01 45.33 53.20 470 1,081,370 60.38 2.62 55.15 65.39 328 781,219 33.30 2.73 28.18 38.84 142 300,150
Others 14.17 2.57 9.84 19.98 42 97,983 22.63 5.44 13.72 34.99 21 48,579 10.36 2.86 5.94 17.47 21 49,404
Marital status
Unmarried 39.23 1.56 36.23 42.32 723 1,732,234 47.05 2.04 43.07 51.06 535 1,290,260 26.42 2.06 22.59 30.65 188 441,973
Married 27.98 0.75 26.55 29.47 1,262 2,566,755 36.72 1.16 34.48 39.02 769 1,602,670 20.05 0.93 18.29 21.93 493 964,086
Divorced 33.89 6.53 22.45 47.58 24 72,130 25.02 12.65 8.17 55.58 4 9,930 35.92 7.35 23.06 51.19 20 62,200
Widow 24.87 4.57 17.01 34.83 29 90,640 31.38 12.70 12.58 59.24 5 16,284 23.79 4.88 15.55 34.60 24 74,356
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 24.89 0.97 23.05 26.83 845 1,782,247 35.23 1.56 32.24 38.34 568 1,219,694 15.21 1.00 13.35 17.29 277 562,553
RM1500 - RM3500 35.41 1.21 33.07 37.82 786 1,756,507 41.87 1.73 38.51 45.30 491 1,117,745 27.88 1.63 24.80 31.18 295 638,762
More than RM3500 44.99 2.03 41.06 48.98 408 924,718 54.03 2.83 48.46 59.51 254 581,704 35.04 2.77 29.83 40.64 154 343,013
BMI Status
Underweight 31.04 2.39 26.55 35.92 178 428,289 40.44 3.63 33.57 47.72 113 270,530 22.20 2.96 16.93 28.54 65 157,760
Normal 32.02 1.06 29.97 34.14 1,015 2,267,441 40.03 1.57 36.99 43.14 661 1,494,564 23.08 1.29 20.66 25.70 354 772,877
Overweight 33.80 1.27 31.36 36.32 621 1,304,517 42.71 1.83 39.16 46.34 407 876,048 23.69 1.65 20.60 27.08 214 428,469
Obese 24.54 1.68 21.40 27.97 214 440,105 36.76 3.14 30.85 43.09 127 265,230 16.31 1.86 12.99 20.29 87 174,876

79
Table 4: Prevalence of adequate exercise by socio-demography (at least 3 times a week for 20 minutes or more each time)

80
Total Men Women
Characteristics Prevalence 95% CI Total Estimated Prevalence 95% CI Total Estimated Prevalence 95% CI Total Estimated
(%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population

Malaysia 14.43 13.39 15.53 917 2,045,106 19.54 17.89 21.32 629 1,408,861 9.13 7.98 10.42 288 636,245
Zone
Southern 12.01 9.88 14.52 148 356,670 16.13 12.69 20.28 95 245,550 7.67 5.67 10.30 53 111,120
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 16.12 14.42 17.97 357 868,568 19.75 17.27 22.49 227 544,554 12.31 10.12 14.90 130 324,015
East Coast 8.48 6.54 10.92 71 137,056 13.23 10.09 17.16 51 100,601 7.08 4.33 11.37 20 36,455
Northern 15.30 12.52 18.56 119 288,677 24.16 19.58 29.42 94 222,029 6.88 4.22 11.03 25 66,647
Sabah 19.00 14.93 23.87 124 213,159 28.84 21.92 36.92 92 164,022 8.88 6.03 12.90 32 49,137
Sarawak 15.19 11.58 19.67 98 180,977 21.67 15.58 29.32 70 132,105 8.40 5.50 12.61 28 48,871
Strata
Urban 15.77 14.34 17.32 538 1,331,575 19.57 17.39 21.95 340 839,133 11.85 10.11 13.85 198 492,442
Rural 12.44 11.03 14.00 379 713,531 19.50 17.04 22.22 289 569,728 5.11 4.07 6.40 90 143,804
Sex
Men 19.54 17.89 21.32 629 1,408,861
Women 9.13 7.98 10.42 288 636,245
Age group (Years)
18 19 21.46 16.20 27.85 90 310,904 32.92 23.95 43.35 70 241,981 9.65 5.66 16.00 20 68,922
20 29 14.67 12.94 16.59 284 623,167 21.96 19.20 25.00 215 474,298 7.13 5.44 9.29 69 148,868
30 39 11.25 9.82 12.85 222 411,073 15.79 13.44 18.47 151 292,362 6.58 5.15 8.38 71 118,710
40 49 13.97 12.14 16.03 210 405,499 15.37 12.85 18.28 124 227,663 12.51 9.98 15.58 86 177,836
50 59 15.32 12.50 18.64 111 294,465 17.59 13.69 22.31 69 172,556 12.96 9.17 17.99 42 121,909
Ethnic group
Malay 12.70 11.41 14.12 429 979,909 19.91 17.75 22.25 339 791,654 5.04 3.96 6.39 90 188,255
Chinese 16.93 14.68 19.45 241 599,460 15.59 12.49 19.28 111 277,635 18.29 15.16 21.90 130 321,825
Indian 16.43 13.25 20.19 103 225,425 21.61 16.75 27.41 67 144,671 11.49 7.74 16.73 36 80,754
Orang Asli PM 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Sabah Bumiputera 17.04 13.16 21.77 67 98,989 29.43 22.46 37.52 53 81,176 5.84 3.09 10.75 14 17,813
Sarawak Bumiputera 14.40 11.03 18.58 57 89,209 21.87 16.20 28.84 44 69,523 6.52 3.65 11.40 13 19,686
Other Bumiputera 18.58 8.25 36.68 20 52,114 29.72 12.28 56.09 15 44,201 6.01 2.22 15.27 5 7,913
Table 4 : continue

Total Men Women


Characteristics Prevalence 95% CI Total Estimated Prevalence 95% CI Total Estimated Prevalence 95% CI Total Estimated
(%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 10.69 8.88 12.80 136 288,277 6.12 4.83 7.72 82 165,105 4.57 3.34 6.22 54 123,172
Lower secondary
school (PMR) 10.94 9.21 12.96 164 315,234 7.21 5.89 8.80 112 207,822 3.73 2.64 5.24 52 107,412
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 16.34 14.37 18.53 343 800,977 11.62 9.87 13.65 245 569,731 4.72 3.73 5.95 98 231,246
Matriculation/Form 6 17.09 12.99 22.16 59 134,495 10.89 7.59 15.40 37 85,722 6.20 3.93 9.64 22 48,773
College/University 21.28 18.31 24.59 198 467,178 16.10 13.37 19.27 143 353,401 5.18 3.82 7.00 55 113,777
Others 5.63 3.15 9.89 17 38,945 3.92 1.85 8.10 10 27,079 1.72 0.70 4.14 7 11,866
Marital status
Unmarried 18.72 16.43 21.24 345 826,459 9.09 7.84 10.51 299 650,627 3.00 2.35 3.81 97 214,556
Married 12.36 11.30 13.51 547 1,133,719 9.87 8.38 11.59 215 489,729 5.11 4.14 6.28 121 253,373
Divorced 12.47 5.98 24.18 9 26,532 13.06 10.80 15.71 115 268,505 8.19 6.19 10.76 70 168,317
Widow 16.02 9.38 26.02 16 58,396
Household income
(per month) 15.15 13.00 17.58 276 668,821 3.57 2.68 4.73 69 157,638
Less than RM1500 12.08 10.70 13.62 396 865,182 7.87 7.04 8.80 348 722,252 4.49 3.81 5.28 199 411,467
RM1500 - RM3500 14.98 13.23 16.92 336 743,102 2.22 0.31 14.08 1 4,723 10.25 4.59 21.31 8 21,809
More than RM3500 21.25 18.31 24.52 185 436,822 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
BMI Status
Underweight 10.92 8.34 14.17 69 150,640 7.28 5.37 9.81 49 100,481 3.64 2.08 6.28 20 50,158
Normal 14.84 13.25 16.58 447 1,051,013 10.49 9.09 12.08 318 742,899 4.35 3.53 5.36 129 308,114
Overweight 16.87 14.96 18.96 303 651,019 11.43 9.82 13.26 201 441,084 5.44 4.36 6.76 102 209,935
Obese 10.05 8.03 12.50 93 180,213 6.41 4.85 8.43 58 115,024 3.63 2.45 5.37 35 65,189

81
Table 5: Prevalence of adequate exercise by socio-demography (at least 3 times a week for 15 minutes or more each time)

82
Total Men Women
Characteristics Prevalence 95% CI Total Estimated Prevalence 95% CI Total Estimated Prevalence 95% CI Total Estimated
(%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population

Malaysia 15.58 14.51 16.7 1,002 2,208,093 20.77 19.08 22.56 670 1,496,867 10.21 9.01 11.54 332 711,225
Zone
Southern 12.97 10.78 15.53 158 385,283 17.09 13.57 21.30 59 260,205 8.64 6.50 11.39 99 125,078
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 17.49 15.74 19.39 394 942,493 21.31 18.76 24.12 147 587,662 13.48 11.20 16.14 247 354,831
East Coast 8.96 6.99 11.43 77 144,944 12.76 9.55 16.86 22 106,172 4.94 3.03 7.96 55 38,771
Northern 16.36 13.52 19.66 129 308,739 25.51 20.85 30.81 30 234,388 7.68 4.92 11.80 99 74,350
Sabah 20.82 16.68 25.68 138 233,586 30.72 23.75 38.70 40 174,700 10.65 7.56 14.79 98 58,886
Sarawak 16.20 12.54 20.68 106 193,049 21.94 15.84 29.57 34 133,740 10.19 7.03 14.56 72 59,309
Strata
Urban 17.10 15.63 18.67 594 1,443,298 21.08 18.85 23.50 368 903,735 12.99 11.20 15.01 226 539,563
Rural 13.34 11.89 14.92 408 764,795 20.30 17.82 23.04 302 593,132 6.10 4.95 7.50 106 171,663
Sex
Men 20.77 19.08 22.56 670 1,496,867
Women 10.21 9.01 11.54 332 711,225
Age group (Years)
18 19 21.73 16.47 28.11 92 314,881 33.47 24.46 43.86 72 245,959 9.65 5.66 16.00 20 68,922
20 29 15.90 14.11 17.88 310 675,398 23.47 20.63 26.57 229 506,844 8.07 6.26 10.36 81 168,555
30 39 12.42 10.93 14.08 247 454,120 16.31 13.92 19.02 156 302,022 8.43 6.80 10.42 91 152,099
40 49 15.39 13.48 17.51 231 446,704 16.84 14.21 19.85 135 249,464 13.88 11.23 17.03 96 197,240
50 59 16.49 13.59 19.86 122 316,989 19.63 15.54 24.48 78 192,579 13.22 9.42 18.25 44 124,410
Ethnic group
Malay 13.63 12.30 15.07 360 1,051,065 21.03 18.84 23.41 105 836,441 5.74 4.61 7.14 465 214,624
Chinese 18.23 15.92 20.78 120 645,257 16.87 13.69 20.62 143 300,496 19.60 16.40 23.24 263 344,762
Indian 18.15 14.85 22.00 70 249,158 22.52 17.58 28.37 45 150,780 13.99 9.93 19.37 115 98,377
Orang Asli PM 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Sabah Bumiputera 19.04 14.92 23.97 56 110,625 31.85 24.62 40.07 19 87,851 7.46 4.37 12.44 75 22,774
Sarawak Bumiputera 15.57 12.06 19.88 47 96,498 23.63 17.72 30.77 14 75,129 7.08 4.06 12.07 61 21,369
Other Bumiputera 19.79 9.28 37.31 17 55,489 31.04 13.42 56.65 6 46,170 7.08 2.89 16.29 23 9,319
Table 5 : continue

Total Men Women


Characteristics Prevalence 95% CI Total Estimated Prevalence 95% CI Total Estimated Prevalence 95% CI Total Estimated
(%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 11.92 10.03 14.10 153 321,439 6.71 5.36 8.38 89 181,127 5.20 3.91 6.89 64 140,312
Lower secondary
school (PMR) 11.97 10.18 14.03 181 344,846 7.80 6.43 9.43 122 224,695 4.17 3.04 5.70 59 120,151
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 17.38 15.37 19.59 371 851,773 12.09 10.31 14.12 255 592,379 5.29 4.27 6.55 116 259,394
Matriculation/Form 6 19.11 14.68 24.49 63 150,359 12.37 8.73 17.24 40 97,333 6.74 4.32 10.37 23 53,026
College/University 22.54 19.52 25.87 212 494,695 16.92 14.16 20.11 152 371,507 5.61 4.19 7.48 60 123,188
Others 6.51 3.88 10.72 22 44,980 4.31 2.16 8.44 12 29,826 2.19 1.04 4.56 10 15,155
Marital status
Unmarried 19.61 17.29 22.16 363 865,864 15.72 13.55 18.17 287 694,193 3.89 2.96 5.09 76 171,671
Married 13.66 12.56 14.85 612 1,253,279 8.56 7.68 9.52 378 784,887 5.11 4.39 5.93 234 468,392
Divorced 13.13 6.50 24.73 10 27,938 2.22 0.31 14.08 1 4,723 10.91 5.09 21.84 9 23,214
Widow 16.74 9.99 26.70 17 61,012 3.58 1.15 10.60 4 13,064 13.16 7.19 22.84 13 47,948
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 13.18 11.76 14.75 436 943,650 9.73 8.45 11.18 318 696,501 3.45 2.77 4.29 118 247,149
RM1500 - RM3500 16.18 14.38 18.16 365 802,652 10.54 9.01 12.28 231 522,780 22.15 15.31 30.93 36 68,982
More than RM3500 22.47 19.48 25.77 201 461,791 13.51 11.22 16.17 121 277,587 8.96 6.90 11.57 80 184,204
BMI Status
Underweight 11.63 8.99 14.93 74 160,519 8.00 6.00 10.60 54 110,361 3.64 2.08 6.28 20 50,158
Normal 15.92 14.30 17.68 486 1,127,195 11.19 9.76 12.80 340 792,613 4.72 3.88 5.74 146 334,582
Overweight 18.57 16.59 20.72 337 716,652 12.04 10.40 13.90 212 464,654 6.53 5.36 7.93 125 251,998
Obese 10.68 8.61 13.17 100 191,505 6.68 5.09 8.73 61 119,866 3.99 2.76 5.75 39 71,638

83
84
Table 6a: Types of sports / exercise by sex

Total Men Women


Type of activity Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated
(%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population

Jogging 7.81 7.00 8.71 495 1,107,870 10.20 8.87 11.71 316 735,561 5.34 4.52 6.31 179 372,308
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Football 5.55 4.84 6.35 355 786,125 10.85 9.52 12.35 352 782,080 0.06 0.02 0.20 3 4,045
Badminton 4.81 4.19 5.51 329 681,521 7.51 6.43 8.76 255 541,607 2.01 1.52 2.64 74 139,914
Brisk walking 2.56 2.13 3.08 169 362,773 2.14 1.55 2.96 66 154,475 3.00 2.42 3.69 103 208,298
Aerobic exercise 2.37 2.00 2.81 165 335,703 1.58 1.14 2.18 46 113,814 3.18 2.61 3.88 119 221,889
Sepak takraw 1.97 1.63 2.37 138 278,956 3.87 3.21 4.66 138 278,956 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Cycling 1.28 0.99 1.65 86 181,371 1.65 1.17 2.31 49 118,603 0.90 0.64 1.27 37 62,768
Swimming 1.28 0.97 1.68 74 181,142 1.49 1.06 2.08 43 107,167 1.06 0.66 1.70 31 73,975
Gymnasium 1.16 0.86 1.56 61 164,026 1.68 1.20 2.36 46 121,173 0.62 0.33 1.13 15 42,854
Volleyball 0.68 0.48 0.96 45 96,316 0.97 0.66 1.44 32 70,137 0.38 0.18 0.77 13 26,180
Tai chi 0.69 0.46 1.02 33 97,521 0.58 0.32 1.04 14 41,513 0.80 0.48 1.36 19 56,008
Netball 0.47 0.30 0.73 27 66,407 0.09 0.02 0.36 2 6,337 0.86 0.54 1.37 25 60,070
Table tennis 0.53 0.38 0.76 38 75,767 0.84 0.58 1.23 31 60,872 0.21 0.09 0.49 7 14,895
Basketball 0.38 0.25 0.56 30 53,442 0.56 0.37 0.86 25 40,684 0.18 0.07 0.51 5 12,758
Golf 0.44 0.29 0.64 30 61,735 0.82 0.55 1.23 28 59,015 0.04 0.01 0.16 2 2,720
Bowling 0.35 0.22 0.54 23 49,195 0.52 0.32 0.87 18 37,814 0.16 0.06 0.41 5 11,381
Tennis 0.29 0.16 0.53 13 41,481 0.42 0.21 0.84 10 30,411 0.16 0.05 0.52 3 11,070
Mountain climbing 0.24 0.14 0.41 16 33,658 0.36 0.20 0.65 13 25,695 0.11 0.03 0.38 3 7,963
Squash 0.17 0.08 0.37 8 23,580 0.23 0.09 0.61 5 16,578 0.10 0.03 0.36 3 7,002
Hockey 0.12 0.06 0.25 8 16,923 0.16 0.06 0.40 5 11,569 0.08 0.02 0.24 3 5,354
Qi gong 0.10 0.04 0.25 5 13,837 0.08 0.02 0.40 2 5,754 0.12 0.04 0.37 3 8,083
Rugby 0.08 0.03 0.23 5 11,931 0.17 0.06 0.45 5 11,931 0.0 0.00 0.00 - -
Silat 0.19 0.05 0.29 7 16,728 0.18 0.06 0.53 5 13,178 0.05 0.01 0.22 2 3,550
Taekwando 0.08 0.03 0.22 6 11,556 0.09 0.04 0.23 5 6,563 0.07 0.01 0.51 1 4,992
Others 6.42 5.70 7.22 402 909,753 6.12 5.14 7.27 192 440,801 6.73 5.71 7.91 210 468,952
Table 6b : Types of sports / exercise by strata

Urban Rural
Type of activity Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated
(%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population

Jogging 9.14 8.05 10.37 318 771,891 5.86 4.74 7.22 177 335,979
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Football 4.40 3.61 5.35 157 371,514 7.23 5.99 8.70 198 414,611
Badminton 4.97 4.12 5.99 181 419,667 4.57 3.78 5.51 148 261,854
Brisk walking 3.34 2.69 4.15 124 282,345 1.40 1.01 1.95 45 80,427
Aerobic exercise 2.69 2.17 3.34 105 227,208 1.89 1.44 2.49 60 108,495
Sepak takraw 1.40 1.02 1.90 51 117,877 2.81 2.23 3.53 87 161,079
Cycling 1.44 1.04 1.99 54 121,660 1.04 0.69 1.56 32 59,711
Swimming 1.92 1.42 2.58 63 161,818 0.34 0.18 0.62 11 19,323
Gymnasium 1.62 1.16 2.27 47 136,941 0.47 0.26 0.86 14 27,085
Volleyball 0.58 0.36 0.94 21 49,244 0.82 0.50 1.35 24 47,072
Tai chi 1.04 0.68 1.58 28 87,562 0.17 0.07 0.45 5 9,959
Netball 0.31 0.17 0.57 12 26,531 0.70 0.37 1.29 15 39,876
Table tennis 0.48 0.30 0.78 20 40,650 0.61 0.37 1.01 18 35,117
Basketball 0.42 0.26 0.67 20 35,402 0.31 0.15 0.68 10 18,039
Golf 0.58 0.37 0.91 23 48,771 0.23 0.10 0.49 7 12,964
Bowling 0.48 0.30 0.78 19 40,670 0.15 0.05 0.42 4 8,525
Tennis 0.42 0.21 0.81 10 35,069 0.11 0.03 0.38 3 6,413
Mountain climbing 0.30 0.16 0.57 11 25,561 0.14 0.06 0.36 5 8,097
Squash 0.25 0.11 0.58 7 20,807 0.05 0.01 0.34 1 2,773
Hockey 0.18 0.08 0.39 7 15,401 0.03 0.00 0.19 1 1,522
Qi gong 0.16 0.06 0.43 5 13,837 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Rugby 0.04 0.01 0.17 2 3,090 0.15 0.04 0.53 3 8,841
Silat 0.09 0.02 0.48 2 7,583 0.16 0.07 0.39 5 9,146
Taekwando 0.11 0.04 0.36 4 9,516 0.04 0.01 0.15 2 2,039
Others 7.70 6.62 8.83 256 646,094 4.60 3.75 5.63 146 263,659

85
86
Table 6c: Types of sports / exercise by zone

Southern Central East Coast


Type of activity Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated
(%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population

Jogging 8.64 6.96 10.67 105 256,542 7.48 6.25 8.93 162 403,155 3.53 2.35 5.26 30 57,019
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Football 6.07 4.41 8.29 65 180,196 5.05 4.08 6.23 115 271,870 3.12 2.10 4.60 32 50,431
Badminton 4.81 3.66 6.30 62 142,812 4.21 3.41 5.19 105 226,823 3.30 2.24 4.82 29 53,336
Brisk walking 0.91 0.48 1.72 14 26,933 4.64 3.69 5.84 109 250,265 0.76 0.29 1.98 55 12,295
Aerobic exercise 4.07 3.02 5.47 53 121,017 1.97 1.45 2.67 51 106,184 0.77 0.37 1.61 8 12,423
Sepak takraw 1.82 1.12 2.96 21 54,132 1.28 0.89 1.82 34 68,798 1.44 0.70 2.94 12 23,299
Cycling 1.13 0.66 1.95 16 33,691 1.23 0.82 1.85 29 66,270 0.98 0.53 1.81 11 15,911
Swimming 0.97 0.55 1.70 14 28,709 1.84 1.24 2.73 38 99,229 0.22 0.05 0.87 2 3,541
Gymnasium 0.81 0.44 1.47 12 23,910 1.93 1.31 2.83 35 103,809 0.07 0.01 0.46 1 1,055
Volleyball 0.32 0.13 0.78 5 9,415 0.71 0.42 1.22 15 38,343 0.58 0.19 1.81 4 9,434
Tai chi 1.08 0.51 2.28 10 32,138 0.96 0.57 1.61 17 51,718 0.33 0.05 2.31 1 5,352
Netball 0.59 0.29 1.18 9 17,495 0.46 0.24 0.90 10 24,781 0.94 0.27 3.21 4 15,202
Table tennis 0.39 0.17 0.90 6 11,465 0.57 0.32 1.02 13 30,751 0.52 0.17 1.57 5 8,468
Basketball 0.39 0.17 0.88 6 11,479 0.28 0.13 0.59 8 15,145 0.32 0.05 2.23 1 5,169
Golf 0.32 0.11 0.94 4 9,449 0.67 0.40 1.13 16 36,115 0.08 0.01 0.54 1 1,239
Bowling 0.62 0.29 1.30 8 18,394 0.33 0.16 0.71 8 18,018 0.18 0.03 1.26 1 2,898
Tennis 0.25 0.08 0.83 3 7,545 0.45 0.19 1.04 6 24,037 0.44 0.12 1.52 3 7,052
Mountain climbing 0.09 0.01 0.42 1 1,744 0.15 0.05 0.50 3 8,208 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Squash 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.39 0.16 0.90 7 20,807 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Hockey 0.06 0.01 0.45 1 1,875 0.25 0.11 0.58 6 13,526 0.09 0.01 0.67 1 1,522
Qi gong 0.07 0.01 0.53 1 2,219 0.09 0.02 0.43 2 4,921 0.13 0.02 0.93 1 2,125
Rugby 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.06 0.01 0.27 2 3,090 0.29 0.04 2.03 1 4,689
Silat 0.10 0.03 0.41 2 3,020 0.12 0.02 0.83 1 6,385 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Taekwando 0.05 0.01 0.38 1 1,610 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.31 0.04 2.15 1 4,992
Others 7.91 6.29 9.90 95 234,844 7.42 6.10 8.99 154 399,684 3.71 2.50 5.48 38 60,029
Table 6c: continue

Northern Sabah Sarawak


Type of activity Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated
(%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population

Jogging 8.04 6.23 10.31 70 151,708 11.00 7.42 16.00 66 123,362 9.74 6.59 14.17 62 116,082
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Football 6.36 4.50 8.91 51 119,968 8.62 5.29 13.74 51 96,697 5.62 4.08 7.70 41 66,963
Badminton 4.43 2.85 6.83 34 83,650 7.58 5.64 10.12 59 85,056 7.54 4.37 12.72 40 89,844
Brisk walking 0.47 0.21 1.08 6 8,940 2.78 1.63 4.69 18 31,145 2.79 1.58 4.86 17 33,194
Aerobic exercise 2.36 1.46 3.81 20 44,608 1.24 0.68 2.25 13 13,882 3.15 1.94 5.08 20 37,590
Sepak takraw 3.27 2.18 4.88 28 61,720 4.07 2.77 5.94 31 45,661 2.13 1.18 3.79 12 25,345
Cycling 1.58 0.82 3.02 13 29,763 2.14 0.84 5.39 10 24,046 0.98 0.46 2.07 7 11,689
Swimming 1.90 0.99 3.62 12 35,931 0.52 0.17 1.61 3 5,837 0.66 0.25 1.73 5 7,895
Gymnasium 1.54 0.72 3.26 9 29,098 0.55 0.19 1.56 4 6,154 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Volleyball 0.12 0.02 0.86 1 2,285 2.32 1.07 4.95 12 26,059 0.90 0.42 1.95 8 10,779
Tai chi 0.30 0.10 0.94 3 5,651 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.22 0.05 0.91 2 2,661
Netball 0.16 0.04 0.71 2 3,065 0.52 0.12 2.16 2 5,863 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Table tennis 0.59 0.26 1.35 6 11,103 0.86 0.35 2.12 5 9,659 0.36 0.11 1.21 3 4,321
Basketball 0.16 0.05 0.50 3 2,942 0.50 0.18 1.35 4 5,584 1.10 0.51 2.35 8 13,123
Golf 0.41 0.15 1.13 4 7,825 0.47 0.15 1.46 4 5,230 0.16 0.02 1.11 1 1,877
Bowling 0.24 0.08 0.77 3 4,611 0.47 0.15 1.48 3 5,274 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Tennis 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.25 0.04 1.78 1 2,848 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Mountain climbing 0.70 0.31 1.72 6 13,854 0.10 0.01 0.72 1 1,140 0.73 0.28 1.91 5 8,711
Squash 0.15 0.02 1.04 1 2,773 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Hockey 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Qi gong 0.24 0.03 1.70 1 4,573 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Rugby 0.22 0.05 0.93 2 4,153 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Silat 0.09 0.01 0.67 1 1,792 0.21 0.03 1.48 1 2,352 0.27 0.06 1.11 2 3,179
Taekwando 0.10 0.01 0.73 1 1,955 0.11 0.02 0.81 1 1,288 0.14 0.04 0.58 2 1,711
Others 5.28 3.75 7.41 48 99,705 3.55 2.24 5.60 24 39,866 6.35 4.57 8.75 43 75,625

87
88
Table 6d: Types of sports / exercise by ethnicity

Malays Chinese Indian


Type of activity Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated
(%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population

Jogging 6.54 5.58 7.64 213 504,247 9.83 8.02 11.99 146 347,888 7.57 5.55 10.20 50 103,709
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Football 6.91 5.91 8.07 232 533,165 0.98 0.61 1.59 19 34,832 6.13 3.90 9.52 31 84,171
Badminton 4.63 3.87 5.52 164 356,786 5.64 4.16 7.59 86 199,597 3.39 2.20 5.19 23 46,484
Brisk walking 1.30 0.97 1.75 51 100,405 4.73 3.49 6.38 72 167,452 5.40 3.72 7.76 35 74,060
Aerobic exercise 3.06 2.47 3.78 105 235,872 1.48 1.00 2.18 30 52,400 1.43 0.70 2.93 9 19,647
Sepak takraw 2.66 2.12 3.33 94 204,866 0.10 0.03 0.42 2 3,693 0.90 0.01 0.63 1 1,230
Cycling 1.19 0.83 1.70 44 91,868 1.39 0.90 2.13 24 49,181 1.25 0.58 2.67 8 17,200
Swimming 0.79 0.48 1.30 21 60,755 3.06 2.19 4.25 47 108,238 0.75 0.29 1.93 5 10,291
Gymnasium 1.08 0.70 1.67 29 83,171 1.30 0.79 2.13 19 45,905 2.17 1.02 4.56 10 29,806
Tai chi 0.18 0.07 0.47 5 13,636 2.35 1.53 3.60 27 83,144 0.05 0.01 0.38 1 741
Volleyball 0.68 0.46 1.05 24 52,779 0.37 0.13 1.00 5 12,965 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Netball 0.61 0.40 0.95 24 47,398 0.43 0.18 1.01 6 15,230 0.22 0.05 0.97 2 3,065
Table tennis 0.69 0.41 1.14 21 52,905 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.57 0.20 1.54 4 7,639
Basketball 0.47 0.28 0.80 16 36,230 0.50 0.25 1.00 9 17,610 0.47 0.13 1.47 3 6,126
Golf 0.07 0.02 0.30 2 5,693 1.16 0.73 1.82 24 40,894 0.17 0.02 1.18 1 2,292
Bowling 0.37 0.20 0.68 13 28,745 0.36 0.16 0.84 6 12,848 0.17 0.02 1.20 1 2,328
Tennis 0.22 0.09 0.54 6 17,252 0.60 0.25 1.44 6 21,381 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Mountain climbing 0.12 0.04 0.33 4 9,318 0.54 0.25 1.15 8 19,109 0.13 0.02 0.90 1 1,744
Squash 0.10 0.03 0.35 3 7,372 0.40 0.13 1.17 4 14,012 0.20 0.02 1.13 1 2,196
Hockey 0.11 0.04 0.31 4 8,178 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.64 0.24 1.69 4 8,744
Qi gong 0.16 0.05 0.49 5 12,395 0.06 0.01 0.40 1 1,981 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Rugby 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.39 0.15 1.01 5 13,837 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Silat 0.15 0.06 0.42 5 11,931 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Taekwando 0.11 0.03 0.40 3 8,557 0.05 0.01 0.20 2 1,711 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Others 6.27 5.31 7.37 213 483,256 7.48 5.96 9.35 103 264,895 7.43 5.17 10.56 49 101,938
Table 6d : continue

Orang Asli (PM) Sabah Bumiputera


Type of activity Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated
(%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population

Jogging 7.11 1.56 27.05 2 4,922 8.22 5.68 11.75 34 47,771


Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Football 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 7.95 5.56 11.25 32 46,212


Badminton 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 7.63 4.93 11.62 29 44,324
Brisk walking 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 1.35 0.44 4.05 5 7,846
Aerobic exercise 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 1.62 0.77 3.37 9 9,429
Sepak takraw 9.46 2.23 32.39 2 6,549 5.72 3.72 8.69 23 33,217
Cycling 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.29 0.04 2.05 1 1,698
Swimming 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.32 0.04 2.24 1 1,857
Gymnasium 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.43 0.06 2.99 1 2,497
Tai chi 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Volleyball 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 4.26 1.92 9.17 11 24,732
Netball 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 1.04 0.33 3.21 1 6,026
Table tennis 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.64 0.09 4.37 1 3,712
Basketball 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.30 0.07 1.30 2 1,768
Golf 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.32 0.04 2.24 1 1,857
Bowling 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.61 0.15 2.52 2 3,562
Tennis 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.49 0.07 3.40 1 2,848
Mountain climbing 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.20 0.03 1.38 1 1,140
Squash 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0
Hockey 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0
Qi gong 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0
Rugby 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0
Silat 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0
Taekwando 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0 0
Others 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 2.52 1.25 4.98 11 14,614

89
90
Table 6d : continue

Sarawak Bumiputera Other Bumiputera


Type of activity Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated
(%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population

Jogging 9.86 7.14 13.46 40 61,088 13.64 4.44 34.93 10 38,245


Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Football 8.87 6.21 12.53 33 54,981 11.68 3.14 35.04 8 32,764


Badminton 4.19 2.63 6.60 20 25,938 2.99 1.32 6.66 7 8,391
Brisk walking 0.98 0.24 3.91 2 6,092 2.47 0.72 8.10 4 6,918
Aerobic exercise 2.08 1.02 4.19 9 12,908 1.94 0.61 6.00 3 5,447
Sepak takraw 3.70 2.08 6.47 13 22,863 2.33 0.62 8.36 3 6,538
Cycling 1.09 0.40 2.91 4 6,742 5.24 1.33 18.50 5 14,683
Swimming 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Gymnasium 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.94 0.23 3.84 2 2,647
Tai chi 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Volleyball 0.94 0.37 2.35 5 5,840 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Netball 0.49 0.10 2.32 2 3,038 0.36 0.05 2.54 1 1,010
Table tennis 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.77 0.11 5.28 1 2,151
Basketball 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Golf 0.21 0.03 1.49 1 1,312 0.50 0.07 3.45 1 1,393
Bowling 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.61 0.09 4.24 1 1,712
Tennis 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Mountain climbing 0.38 0.09 1.51 2 2,347 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Squash 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Hockey 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Qi gong 0.38 0.05 2.64 1 2,352 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Rugby 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Silat 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Taekwando 0.21 0.03 1.46 1 1,288 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Others 5.27 3.35 8.21 20 32,652 4.42 1.78 10.58 6 12,399
Table 6e: Types of sports / exercise by age group

18 19 years 20 29 years 30 39 years


Type of activity Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated
(%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population

Jogging 8.82 4.96 15.20 25 127,825 7.57 6.28 9.10 147 321,452 6.89 5.77 8.22 136 251,913
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Football 15.61 11.07 21.57 67 226,205 7.55 6.36 8.94 165 320,838 5.20 4.22 6.40 96 190,126
Badminton 8.18 4.88 13.39 31 118,501 5.58 4.60 6.75 126 237,000 5.19 4.23 6.35 103 189,598
Brisk walking 1.21 0.28 5.05 5 17,583 2.01 1.43 2.84 37 85,560 1.74 1.24 2.44 39 63,654
Aerobic exercise 1.08 0.51 2.27 8 15,608 1.82 1.27 2.61 40 77,312 2.75 2.06 3.66 54 100,446
Sepak takraw 2.53 1.43 4.46 16 36,727 3.14 2.36 4.16 62 133,167 2.35 1.72 3.21 44 85,949
Cycling 1.95 0.82 4.55 9 28,230 0.72 0.45 1.15 19 30,443 1.43 0.90 2.26 24 52,143
Swimming 1.40 0.73 2.67 10 20,325 1.73 1.06 2.83 26 73,681 1.24 0.78 1.97 22 45,312
Gymnasium 1.64 0.60 4.41 5 23,765 1.90 1.24 2.91 31 80,769 1.05 0.62 1.78 16 38,440
Tai chi 0.07 0.01 0.52 1 1,069 0.19 0.04 0.82 2 8,066 0.59 0.26 1.34 8 21,581
Volleyball 1.27 0.49 3.22 6 18,347 1.18 0.72 1.95 20 50,207 0.42 0.22 0.81 10 15,483
Netball 1.84 0.81 4.11 9 26,685 0.49 0.25 0.95 10 20,791 0.28 0.10 0.83 4 10,398
Table tennis 0.43 0.15 1.22 4 6,186 1.02 0.64 1.63 22 43,393 0.36 0.17 0.75 7 13,037
Basketball 1.87 0.98 3.56 11 27,149 0.48 0.27 0.84 14 20,373 0.16 0.06 0.41 5 5,920
Golf 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.12 0.02 0.60 2 5,150 0.64 0.34 1.19 11 23,263
Bowling 0.31 0.07 1.45 2 4,510 0.67 0.38 1.17 14 28,458 0.32 0.14 0.74 6 11,858
Tennis 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.41 0.15 1.07 5 17,227 0.30 0.11 0.84 4 11,095
Mountain climbing 0.32 0.08 1.30 2 4,677 0.26 0.10 0.65 5 10,880 0.15 0.04 0.54 3 5,478
Squash 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.28 0.09 0.88 4 11,769 0.03 0.01 0.24 1 1,248
Hockey 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.22 0.08 0.62 4 9,462 0.11 0.03 0.43 2 3,940
Qi gong 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Rugby 0.06 0.01 0.39 1 798 0.23 0.07 0.75 3 9,668 0.04 0.01 0.28 1 1,465
Silat 0.82 0.25 2.63 4 11,917 0.11 0.04 0.35 3 4,812 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Taekwando 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.17 0.04 0.70 3 7,240 0.07 0.02 0.34 2 2,706
Others 7.97 4.97 12.56 32 115,555 5.50 4.33 6.95 101 233,475 5.45 4.41 6.72 104 199,196

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92
Table 6e : continue

40 49 years 55 59 years
Type of activity Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated
(%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population

Jogging 8.39 6.93 10.13 121 243,572 8.49 6.49 11.03 66 163,108
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Football 1.50 0.98 2.28 24 43,424 0.29 0.09 0.93 3 5,532


Badminton 3.59 2.74 4.71 59 104,332 1.67 0.81 3.40 10 32,090
Brisk walking 3.62 2.66 4.92 49 105,195 4.72 3.30 6.71 39 90,781
Aerobic exercise 3.65 2.70 4.92 50 105,994 1.89 1.01 3.50 13 36,343
Sepak takraw 0.68 0.40 1.16 14 19,686 0.18 0.04 0.73 2 3,427
Cycling 1.48 0.96 2.26 23 42,837 1.44 0.70 2.94 11 27,718
Swimming 0.82 0.44 1.51 11 23,705 0.94 0.38 2.29 5 18,118
Gymnasium 0.56 0.26 1.23 7 16,348 0.24 0.05 1.16 2 4,704
Tai chi 0.67 0.35 1.28 10 19,464 2.46 1.33 4.51 12 47,340
Volleyball 0.42 0.21 0.85 9 12,279 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Netball 0.16 0.05 0.52 3 4,699 0.20 0.03 1.40 1 3,834
Table tennis 0.24 0.08 0.76 3 7,090 0.32 0.08 1.30 2 6,061
Basketball 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Golf 0.78 0.41 1.45 12 22,573 0.56 0.22 1.40 5 10,749
Bowling 0.15 0.02 1.06 1 4,369 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Tennis 0.15 0.03 0.70 2 4,347 0.46 0.11 1.83 2 8,813
Mountain climbing 0.28 0.09 0.90 4 8,194 0.23 0.06 0.95 2 4,429
Squash 0.36 0.11 1.17 3 10,564 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Hockey 0.12 0.03 0.49 2 3,521 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Qi gong 0.19 0.06 0.61 3 5,524 0.43 0.11 1.72 2 8,313
Rugby 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Silat 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Taekwando 0.06 0.01 0.39 1 1,610 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Others 6.96 5.61 8.60 99 202,010 8.30 6.18 11.05 66 159,518
Table 6f: Types of sports / exercise by household income

Less than RM 1500 RM1500 RM3500 More than RM3500


Type of activity Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated
(%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population

Jogging 22.21 18.62 26.27 179 396,134 25.49 21.80 29.57 199 447,499 28.57 23.59 34.14 117 264,237
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Football 24.69 20.91 28.89 206 440,277 15.38 12.48 18.82 116 270,090 8.19 5.39 12.27 33 75,758
Badminton 11.90 9.50 14.81 109 1,571,239 18.79 15.39 22.73 151 329,841 15.08 11.66 19.28 69 139,442
Brisk walking 5.65 4.13 7.68 49 100,798 8.99 7.06 11.38 77 157,864 11.26 7.55 16.47 43 104,110
Aerobic exercise 7.17 5.45 9.39 66 127,922 7.21 5.48 9.44 60 126,668 8.77 6.15 12.37 39 81,114
Sepak takraw 10.74 8.62 13.32 97 191,598 4.40 3.00 6.41 34 77,425 1.07 0.49 2.30 7 9,933
Cycling 4.28 2.80 6.51 37 76,408 3.58 2.36 5.40 28 62,869 4.55 2.87 7.14 21 42,095
Swimming 1.93 1.06 3.48 14 34,336 3.98 2.49 6.30 26 69,914 8.32 5.54 12.29 34 76,892
Gymnasium 1.83 0.96 3.46 12 32,551 3.74 2.40 5.80 28 65,721 7.11 4.35 11.40 21 65,755
Tai chi 1.65 0.80 3.35 11 29,410 2.14 1.16 3.91 13 37,514 3.31 1.61 6.69 9 30,596
Volleyball 2.17 1.28 3.66 20 38,645 2.49 1.49 4.15 20 43,742 1.51 0.59 3.81 5 13,929
Netball 1.01 0.48 2.15 8 18,083 1.67 0.80 3.42 12 29,255 2.06 0.93 4.49 7 19,068
Table tennis 2.08 1.27 3.38 20 37,013 1.64 0.93 2.87 13 28,826 1.07 0.41 2.79 5 9,928
Basketball 1.25 0.65 2.40 13 22,297 1.19 0.62 2.25 11 20,816 1.12 0.49 2.51 6 10,329
Golf 0.42 0.14 1.22 4 7,506 0.99 0.48 2.03 9 17,416 3.98 2.38 6.60 17 36,813
Bowling 0.59 0.25 1.37 6 10,484 1.81 1.04 3.12 14 31,761 0.75 0.20 2.82 3 6,950
Tennis 0.06 0.01 0.45 1 1,120 0.78 0.32 1.91 5 13,723 2.88 1.31 6.23 7 26,639
Mountain climbing 0.73 0.29 1.82 6 13,061 0.76 0.34 1.69 7 13,397 0.78 0.25 2.41 3 7,199
Squash 0.29 0.09 1.01 3 5,168 1.99 0.77 5.02 5 18,412 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Hockey 0.20 0.05 0.81 2 3,586 0.63 0.25 1.58 5 11,044 0.25 0.03 1.74 1 2,292
Qi gong 0.26 0.04 1.80 1 4,573 0.19 0.05 0.82 2 3,400 0.63 0.15 2.63 2 5,865
Rugby 0.32 0.09 1.10 3 5,777 0.35 0.07 1.66 2 6,154 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Silat 0.77 0.27 2.18 5 13,739 0.17 0.04 0.70 2 2,989 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Taekwando 0.38 0.08 1.67 3 6,704 0.17 0.04 0.66 2 2,897 0.21 0.03 1.49 1 1,955
Others 21.02 17.81 24.65 174 374,961 21.21 17.78 25.11 157 372,471 17.55 13.63 22.32 71 162,321

93
94
Table 6g : Types of sports / exercise by BMI group

Underweight Normal
Type of activity Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated
(%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population

Jogging 23.70 16.05 33.55 35 101,524 25.39 21.86 29.28 246 575,201
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Football 25.48 18.12 34.57 47 109,149 19.73 16.51 23.41 201 446,919
Badminton 13.62 9.33 19.45 32 58,312 16.56 13.61 19.99 166 375,038
Brisk walking 2.52 0.98 6.35 5 10,799 7.23 5.31 9.76 69 163,681
Aerobic exercise 4.30 2.21 8.21 11 18,432 7.60 5.95 9.67 77 172,204
Sepak takraw 6.93 4.01 11.72 15 29,692 6.08 4.75 7.76 74 137,922
Cycling 2.47 0.89 6.63 5 10,558 3.77 2.54 5.55 39 85,310
Swimming 4.76 2.18 10.08 8 20,379 4.05 2.84 5.76 44 91,781
Gymnasium 3.00 0.74 11.41 2 12,857 3.82 2.52 5.74 33 86,483
Tai chi 1.39 0.38 4.97 3 5,958 2.40 1.41 4.06 17 54,384
Volleyball 3.60 1.23 10.09 5 15,415 1.64 0.96 2.80 18 37,238
Netball 4.14 1.79 9.27 6 17,734 1.07 0.57 2.01 11 24,250
Table tennis 3.90 1.74 8.51 7 16,717 1.55 0.94 2.53 19 35,074
Basketball 0.93 0.22 3.88 2 3,977 1.52 0.89 2.57 18 34,360
Golf 0.95 0.13 6.44 1 4,074 1.33 0.77 2.29 16 30,145
Bowling 1.22 0.25 5.76 2 5,218 1.24 0.70 2.17 14 28,003
Tennis 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.91 0.42 1.94 8 20,576
Mountain climbing 0.73 0.33 1.59 7 16,535 0.82 0.31 2.17 5 10,746
Squash 0.50 0.19 1.35 5 11,393 0.93 0.28 3.08 3 12,187
Hockey 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.43 0.15 1.18 4 9,694
Qi gong 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.56 0.20 1.56 4 12,656
Rugby 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.06 0.01 0.46 1 1,465
Silat 2.38 0.63 8.61 3 10,199 0.22 0.07 0.69 3 4,970
Taekwando 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.28 0.06 1.37 2 6,280
Others 21.62 13.86 32.10 32 92,594 19.86 16.97 23.12 190 449,994
Table 6g : continue

Overweight Obese
Type of activity Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated
(%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population

Jogging 26.04 22.34 30.13 164 340,080 20.49 15.16 27.10 49 90,470
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Football 13.56 10.69 17.06 81 177,118 11.99 7.97 17.66 26 52,938


Badminton 14.75 11.99 18.03 101 192,645 12.24 8.24 17.81 29 54,027
Brisk walking 9.28 7.13 11.99 64 121,183 14.01 9.51 20.16 28 61,826
Aerobic exercise 7.94 5.82 10.74 52 103,675 9.18 6.05 13.69 24 40,519
Sepak takraw 6.77 4.68 9.69 39 88,350 5.19 2.70 9.76 10 22,992
Cycling 6.05 4.20 8.64 37 78,941 1.49 0.59 3.68 5 6,563
Swimming 2.20 1.18 4.06 12 28,695 7.97 3.91 15.55 8 35,179
Gymnasium 4.00 2.45 6.48 20 52,290 2.81 1.22 6.35 6 12,395
Tai chi 1.88 0.85 4.13 9 24,575 2.42 0.72 7.88 3 10,703
Volleyball 2.25 1.25 4.04 14 29,426 3.23 1.52 6.70 8 14,237
Netball 1.01 0.44 2.29 7 13,136 2.56 0.56 10.90 3 11,286
Table tennis 1.84 1.01 3.32 12 23,977 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Basketball 0.81 0.37 1.77 7 10,538 1.03 0.33 3.21 3 4,566
Golf 1.43 0.73 2.78 9 18,681 2.00 0.68 5.72 4 8,835
Bowling 1.22 0.57 2.62 7 15,973 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Tennis 1.38 0.51 3.71 4 18,033 0.65 0.09 4.47 1 2,873
Mountain climbing 1.44 0.49 4.20 4 6,377 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Squash 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Hockey 0.40 0.13 1.24 3 5,164 0.47 0.07 3.25 1 2,065
Qi gong 0.09 0.01 0.64 1 1,181 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Rugby 0.80 0.26 2.40 4 10,466 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Silat 0.12 0.02 0.84 1 1,559 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Taekwando 0.33 0.10 1.09 3 4,316 0.22 0.03 1.53 1 960
Others 21.53 18.06 25.47 135 281,126 17.51 12.69 23.66 42 77,305

95
96
Table 6h : Types of sports / exercise by marital status

Unmarried Married
Type of activity Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated
(%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population

Jogging 23.14 18.80 28.13 147 401,070 25.96 23.39 28.71 334 666,162
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Football 28.17 23.79 33.00 202 488,252 11.52 9.79 13.51 151 295,604
Badminton 18.58 14.88 22.96 141 322,131 13.85 11.91 16.05 185 355,447
Brisk walking 5.43 3.43 8.49 38 94,063 9.95 8.25 11.95 125 255,243
Aerobic exercise 3.89 2.57 5.84 32 67,404 9.32 7.71 11.22 123 239,165
Sepak takraw 8.34 6.32 10.91 68 144,508 5.11 3.96 6.57 69 131,228
Cycling 3.65 2.26 5.83 29 63,186 4.43 3.28 5.96 54 113,702
Swimming 5.30 3.68 7.57 37 91,802 3.42 2.35 4.94 35 87,685
Gymnasium 5.39 3.59 8.02 34 93,479 2.75 1.80 4.18 27 70,548
Tai chi 0.66 0.22 1.98 4 11,412 3.27 2.14 4.96 28 83,875
Volleyball 2.81 1.70 4.61 20 48,794 1.85 1.16 2.94 25 47,522
Netball 2.08 1.07 4.01 13 36,060 1.18 0.67 2.08 14 30,347
Table tennis 1.71 1.01 2.88 17 29,716 1.79 1.13 2.83 21 46,051
Basketball 2.60 1.65 4.08 24 45,076 0.33 0.14 0.74 6 8,366
Golf 0.22 0.05 0.99 2 3,791 2.26 1.51 3.37 28 57,944
Bowling 1.18 0.63 2.21 11 20,445 1.02 0.54 1.92 11 26,170
Tennis 0.89 0.34 2.27 5 15,363 0.87 0.38 1.97 7 22,252
Mountain climbing 0.96 0.44 2.09 7 16,701 0.51 0.24 1.07 8 12,958
Squash 0.33 0.10 1.10 3 5,776 0.69 0.26 1.81 5 17,804
Hockey 0.27 0.07 1.08 2 4,680 0.48 0.20 1.11 6 12,243
Qi gong 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.54 0.21 1.40 5 13,837
Rugby 0.18 0.04 0.83 2 3,090 0.34 0.10 1.18 3 8,841
Silat 0.88 0.33 2.30 6 15,267 0.06 0.01 0.40 1 1,461
Taekwando 0.17 0.05 0.55 3 2,999 0.33 0.09 1.19 3 8,557
Others 16.82 13.39 20.90 107 291,497 21.55 19.10 24.21 280 552,893
Table 6h : continue

Divorced Widow
Type of activity Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated
(%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population

Jogging 34.86 16.50 59.18 8 25,148 17.09 7.04 35.95 6 15,490


Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Football 2.04 0.27 13.62 1 1,472 0.88 0.12 6.19 1 796


Badminton 2.21 0.45 10.10 2 1,593 2.59 0.36 16.56 1 2,350
Brisk walking 12.15 3.79 32.72 4 8,766 5.19 1.01 22.62 2 4,701
Aerobic exercise 7.33 1.55 28.49 2 5,290 24.42 11.37 44.85 7 22,131
Sepak takraw 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 3.46 0.48 21.04 1 3,220
Cycling 6.22 1.80 19.35 3 4,483 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Swimming 1.19 0.16 8.35 1 859 0.88 0.12 6.19 1 796
Gymnasium 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Tai chi 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 2.46 0.34 15.85 1 2,234
Volleyball 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Netball 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Table tennis 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Basketball 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Golf 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Bowling 3.58 0.49 21.94 1 2,580 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Tennis 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 4.27 0.59 24.93 1 3,866
Mountain climbing 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 4.41 0.62 25.61 1 3,999
Squash 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Hockey 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Qi gong 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Rugby 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Silat 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Taekwando 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Others 41.99 20.08 67.60 6 30,290 38.69 19.71 61.87 9 35,073

97
98
Table 6i: Types of sports / exercise by educational level

Primary school Lower secondary school (PMR) Upper secondary school (SPM)
Type of activity Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated
(%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population

Jogging 27.29 21.37 34.13 67 144,691 21.10 16.77 26.20 78 148,594 25.44 21.29 30.08 185 437,726
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Football 14.31 10.41 19.35 43 75,872 15.80 12.11 20.35 61 111,236 22.29 18.33 26.83 153 383,605
Badminton 9.80 6.59 14.33 26 51,959 15.17 11.33 20.03 55 106,840 17.97 14.44 22.15 135 309,255
Brisk walking 10.04 6.60 14.99 27 53,232 7.53 5.05 11.08 29 53,008 7.20 5.41 9.54 57 123,987
Aerobic exercise 6.37 3.77 10.57 18 33,800 6.85 4.35 10.62 25 48,217 7.74 5.99 9.95 67 133,164
Sepak takraw 7.63 4.84 11.82 21 40,438 6.19 4.21 9.00 28 43,565 8.84 6.82 11.38 71 152,297
Cycling 3.28 1.60 6.61 10 17,375 5.20 3.20 8.33 19 36,620 3.13 1.90 5.11 27 53,819
Swimming 0.95 0.23 3.89 2 5,032 4.47 2.46 8.01 12 31,496 2.43 1.51 3.88 21 41,804
Gymnasium 0.96 0.24 3.79 2 5,115 1.49 0.65 3.36 6 10,464 2.88 1.76 4.69 20 49,576
Tai chi 5.49 2.50 11.66 9 29,130 2.27 0.93 5.46 6 16,012 2.18 1.13 4.15 10 37,447
Volleyball 0.45 0.09 2.13 2 2,377 0.87 0.35 2.13 5 6,135 2.79 1.70 4.52 22 47,933
Netball 0.41 0.06 2.83 1 2,151 0.21 0.03 1.45 1 1,454 1.04 0.49 2.21 8 17,956
Table tennis 1.80 0.66 4.79 4 9,518 0.82 0.30 2.17 4 5,746 1.76 1.00 3.08 14 30,252
Basketball 0.55 0.14 2.18 2 2,908 0.37 0.08 1.70 2 2,630 1.81 1.03 3.15 16 31,116
Golf 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 1.05 0.33 3.25 3 7,398 0.63 0.26 1.56 7 10,914
Bowling 0.32 0.05 2.26 1 1,712 1.14 0.41 3.12 4 8,046 1.46 0.80 2.66 12 25,163
Tennis 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.54 0.18 1.59 4 9,303
Mountain climbing 0.97 0.20 4.59 2 5,139 0.99 0.29 3.32 3 6,951 0.90 0.42 1.91 8 15,473
Squash 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.07 0.01 0.47 1 1,148
Hockey 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.53 0.19 1.47 4 9,078
Qi gong 0.86 0.12 5.85 1 4,573 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.47 0.15 1.51 3 8,083
Rugby 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.16 0.02 1.10 1 2,687
Silat 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.28 0.04 1.97 1 1,981 0.08 0.01 0.60 1 1,461
Taekwando 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.18 0.03 1.29 1 1,288 0.10 0.02 0.40 2 1,711
Others 21.45 16.41 27.53 59 113,728 25.76 20.50 31.84 83 181,425 17.27 14.09 20.98 136 297,116
Table 6i: continue

Matriculation/Form 6 College/University Others


Type of activity Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated Proportion 95% CI Total Estimated
(%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population (%) Lower Upper Respondents population

Jogging 25.99 17.67 36.48 32 81,634 25.09 20.83 29.89 120 271,276 24.44 13.00 41.18 13 23,947
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Football 13.31 8.04 21.22 21 41,796 15.07 11.27 19.87 72 162,972 9.33 2.79 26.92 4 9,140
Badminton 15.87 10.37 23.51 26 49,847 14.42 11.37 18.12 83 155,942 3.68 1.07 11.90 3 3,604
Brisk walking 8.91 5.10 15.14 14 28,001 8.56 5.49 13.11 38 92,617 11.21 3.47 30.72 3 10,985
Aerobic exercise 9.86 5.10 18.24 12 30,981 7.60 5.34 10.72 38 82,211 7.48 2.72 18.97 5 7,332
Sepak takraw 4.09 1.46 10.94 5 12,855 2.34 1.16 4.65 11 25,312 4.58 1.08 17.49 2 4,489
Cycling 1.66 0.39 6.75 2 5,202 5.42 3.50 8.31 26 58,610 9.95 2.14 35.80 2 9,746
Swimming 2.73 0.92 7.76 4 8,562 8.72 5.81 12.89 35 94,247 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Gymnasium 1.53 0.33 6.77 2 4,811 8.70 5.74 12.97 31 94,059 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Tai chi 2.48 0.90 6.62 4 7,781 0.66 0.23 1.86 4 7,150 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Volleyball 4.25 1.56 11.05 6 13,354 2.45 1.26 4.71 10 26,517 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Netball 3.73 1.34 9.92 4 11,704 2.27 1.21 4.21 12 24,527 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Table tennis 2.64 0.87 7.75 4 8,303 2.03 1.08 3.77 12 21,948 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Basketball 2.21 0.75 6.33 4 6,950 0.91 0.38 2.14 6 9,838 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Golf 0.57 0.08 3.97 1 1,801 3.60 2.19 5.89 18 38,971 2.71 0.37 17.04 1 2,651
Bowling 1.07 0.15 7.21 1 3,366 1.01 0.37 2.73 5 10,908 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Tennis 1.30 0.32 5.09 2 4,093 2.60 1.20 5.54 7 28,085 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Mountain climbing 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.34 0.08 1.34 2 3,627 2.52 0.35 16.04 1 2,469
Squash 1.10 0.26 4.52 2 3,443 1.76 0.69 4.39 5 18,989 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Hockey 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.73 0.26 1.97 4 7,845 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Qi gong 0.38 0.05 2.64 1 1,181 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Rugby 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.85 0.27 2.70 4 9,244 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Silat 0.75 0.11 5.14 1 2,352 1.01 0.30 3.40 4 10,933 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Taekwando 1.59 0.22 10.38 1 4,992 0.33 0.08 1.32 2 3,564 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Others 27.03 18.57 37.56 31 84,906 18.84 14.88 23.56 82 203,720 29.45 14.05 51.61 11 28,857

99
100
Table 7a: Mean time (in minutes) spent on each session of sports / exercise activities

Total Men Women


Type of activity Std 95% CI Total Estimated Std 95% CI Total Estimated Std 95% CI Total Estimated
Mean Mean Mean
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Golf 197.56 13.61 169.48 225.64 30 61,735 197.97 13.94 169.19 226.74 28 59,015 188.82 41.51 103.15 274.49 2 2,720
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Silat 147.16 9.14 107.85 186.47 7 16,728 149.03 14.19 87.99 210.07 5 13,178 140.24 13.41 82.53 197.95 2 3,550
Taekwando 122.72 3.85 73.76 171.69 6 11,556 124.80 6.72 39.43 210.17 5 6,563 120.00 0.00 120.00 120.00 1 4,992
Bowling 112.75 14.80 81.64 143.85 23 49,195 99.86 13.07 72.41 127.32 18 37,814 155.55 33.15 85.90 225.19 5 11,381
Rugby 101.60 18.02 24.08 179.12 5 11,931 101.60 18.02 24.08 179.12 5 11,931 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Basketball 87.69 8.91 69.31 106.07 30 53,442 98.87 11.38 75.38 122.36 25 40,684 52.06 5.45 40.82 63.31 5 12,758
Badminton 84.31 3.59 77.24 91.38 328 680,197 87.46 3.89 79.81 95.12 254 540,283 72.14 8.25 55.91 88.37 74 139,914
Volleyball 78.94 8.92 60.91 96.98 45 96,316 78.33 7.71 62.73 93.94 32 70,137 80.57 26.86 26.24 134.90 13 26,180
Tennis 73.70 7.15 57.53 89.86 13 41,481 83.49 6.52 68.73 98.24 10 30,411 46.80 10.10 23.96 69.64 3 11,070
Hockey 71.95 14.36 35.03 108.87 8 16,923 90.87 13.55 56.03 125.70 5 11,569 31.08 15.09 -7.72 69.88 3 5,354
Qi gong 70.21 8.78 -41.35 181.78 5 13,837 41.92 2.45 10.83 73.01 2 5,754 90.35 0.16 88.30 92.40 3 8,083
Squash 68.76 8.35 48.32 89.20 8 23,580 68.49 6.59 52.35 84.62 5 16,578 69.39 23.49 11.91 126.87 3 7,002
Football 68.22 3.62 61.10 75.34 355 786,125 68.31 3.64 61.16 75.47 352 782,080 49.89 8.62 32.93 66.84 3 4,045
Mountain climbing 65.31 10.30 42.65 87.97 16 33,658 66.34 11.27 41.53 91.14 13 25,695 62.00 23.95 9.28 114.72 3 7,963
Table tennis 64.80 6.56 51.43 78.17 38 75,767 63.00 6.93 48.88 77.12 31 60,872 72.17 16.83 37.90 106.44 7 14,895
Netball 62.43 7.47 46.95 77.91 27 66,407 66.05 3.38 59.04 73.06 2 6,337 62.05 8.24 44.96 79.13 25 60,070
Sepak takraw 61.76 2.73 56.35 67.17 138 278,956 61.76 2.73 56.35 67.17 138 278,956 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Swimming 56.04 4.99 46.06 66.01 74 181,142 61.46 7.86 45.77 77.15 43 107,167 48.18 3.95 40.28 56.07 31 73,975
Gymnasium 49.73 6.14 37.42 62.03 61 164,026 55.43 7.95 39.50 71.36 46 121,173 33.60 6.25 21.09 46.11 15 42,854
Tai chi 51.66 5.40 40.60 62.73 33 97,521 44.12 8.42 26.88 61.36 14 41,513 57.25 5.61 45.77 68.74 19 56,008
Cycling 48.36 11.16 26.13 70.58 86 181,371 46.87 6.96 33.02 60.72 49 118,603 51.17 28.93 -6.42 108.76 37 62,768
Jogging 41.94 1.30 39.40 44.49 494 1,106,436 43.42 1.69 40.10 46.75 316 735,561 39.01 1.88 35.31 42.71 178 370,874
Brisk walking 39.13 5.61 28.05 50.20 169 362,773 35.72 4.98 25.88 45.55 66 154,475 41.66 8.95 23.98 59.33 103 208,298
Aerobic exercise 37.59 2.41 32.83 42.36 163 331,556 34.80 4.61 25.70 43.90 46 113,814 39.05 2.78 33.57 44.54 117 217,742
Others 42.60 3.69 35.35 49.86 401 904,972 54.93 7.03 41.10 68.76 192 440,801 30.90 2.43 26.11 35.68 209 464,171
Table 7b: Mean time (in minutes) spent on each session of sports / exercise activities by strata

Urban Rural
Type of activity Std 95% CI Total Estimated Std 95% CI Total Estimated
Mean Mean
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Golf 209.53 13.81 181.02 238.04 23 48,771 152.54 30.31 89.99 215.09 7 12,964
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Silat 154.74 3.99 137.57 171.90 2 7,583 140.88 22.13 45.68 236.09 5 9,146
Taekwando 123.99 0.40 118.88 129.10 4 9,516 116.83 20.94 -149.30 382.96 2 2,039
Bowling 100.20 12.21 74.54 125.86 19 40,670 172.61 44.34 79.45 265.77 4 8,525
Rugby 149.00 45.98 -48.83 346.84 2 3,090 85.03 5.66 60.68 109.38 3 8,841
Basketball 102.17 12.01 77.39 126.95 20 35,402 59.28 8.70 41.32 77.23 10 18,039
Badminton 90.28 5.13 80.18 100.38 181 419,667 74.70 3.75 67.33 82.07 147 260,530
Volleyball 97.66 13.39 70.57 124.74 21 49,244 59.36 9.90 39.33 79.39 24 47,072
Tennis 72.48 8.55 53.13 91.83 10 35,069 80.33 8.97 60.04 100.63 3 6,413
Hockey 67.20 16.24 25.46 108.95 7 15,401 120.00 0.00 120.00 120.00 1 1,522
Qi gong 70.21 8.78 -41.35 181.78 5 13,837 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Squash 69.92 9.68 46.25 93.60 7 20,807 60.00 0.00 60.00 60.00 1 2,773
Football 76.43 6.47 63.70 89.16 157 371,514 60.86 3.11 54.74 66.97 198 414,611
Mountain climbing 71.77 8.35 53.40 90.15 11 25,561 44.90 23.48 -6.77 96.58 5 8,097
Table tennis 63.03 9.75 43.17 82.88 20 40,650 66.85 8.26 50.03 83.67 18 35,117
Netball 81.77 12.28 56.30 107.23 12 26,531 49.56 6.63 35.81 63.32 15 39,876
Sepak takraw 66.00 4.67 56.77 75.23 51 117,877 58.66 3.34 52.05 65.28 87 161,079
Swimming 56.06 5.34 45.40 66.71 63 161,818 55.86 14.44 27.03 84.69 11 19,323
Gymnasium 45.66 6.12 33.41 57.91 47 136,941 70.30 17.50 35.25 105.35 14 27,085
Tai chi 49.17 5.56 37.79 60.55 28 87,562 73.60 9.92 53.28 93.93 5 9,959
Cycling 51.55 16.17 19.36 83.74 54 121,660 41.85 8.21 25.50 58.19 32 59,711
Jogging 42.69 1.34 40.06 45.32 317 770,457 40.24 2.98 34.38 46.09 177 335,979
Brisk walking 41.60 7.20 27.39 55.82 124 282,345 30.43 2.49 25.52 35.35 45 80,427
Aerobic exercise 37.06 3.14 30.86 43.25 104 225,808 38.74 3.48 31.86 45.62 59 105,749
Others 46.82 4.87 37.24 56.39 255 641,313 32.34 4.25 23.99 40.70 146 263,659

101
102
Table 7c: Mean time (in minutes) spent on each session of sports / exercise activities by zone

Southern Central East Coast


Type of activity Std 95% CI Total Estimated Std 95% CI Total Estimated Std 95% CI Total Estimated
Mean Mean Mean
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Golf 215.10 33.93 145.08 285.13 4 9,449 190.32 19.82 149.41 231.23 16 36,115 120.00 0.00 120.00 120.00 1 1,239
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Silat 104.52 14.98 40.04 168.99 2 3,020 150.00 0.00 150.00 150.00 1 6,385 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Taekwando 180.00 0.00 180.00 180.00 1 1,610 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 120.00 0.00 120.00 120.00 1 4,992
Bowling 116.88 32.39 48.83 184.94 8 18,394 114.24 18.94 74.44 154.04 8 18,018 60.00 0.00 60.00 60.00 1 2,898
Rugby 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 149.00 45.98 -48.83 346.84 2 3,090 90.00 0.00 90.00 90.00 1 4,689
Basketball 127.67 27.63 70.65 184.69 6 11,479 85.75 16.19 52.32 119.17 8 15,145 60.00 0.00 60.00 60.00 1 5,169
Badminton 94.70 5.64 83.61 105.79 62 142,812 85.87 6.10 73.87 97.88 104 225,500 60.29 7.47 45.58 74.99 29 53,336
Volleyball 58.65 27.46 3.10 114.20 5 9,415 107.48 15.41 76.32 138.65 15 38,343 67.86 20.62 26.15 109.57 4 9,434
Tennis 95.68 14.41 63.09 128.27 3 7,545 63.93 10.71 39.70 88.16 6 24,037 64.76 6.10 50.96 78.57 3 7,052
Hockey 90.00 0.00 90.00 90.00 1 1,875 64.04 18.84 15.62 112.47 6 13,526 120.00 0.00 120.00 120.00 1 1,522
Qi gong 120.00 0.00 120.00 120.00 1 2,219 75.60 21.89 -202.49 353.69 2 4,921 60.00 0.00 60.00 60.00 1 2,125
Squash 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 69.92 9.68 46.25 93.60 7 20,807 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Football 70.12 5.95 58.41 81.82 65 180,196 70.04 3.96 62.24 77.83 115 271,870 73.80 6.45 61.11 86.48 32 50,431
Mountain climbing 30.00 0.00 30.00 30.00 1 1,744 77.50 26.02 20.22 134.77 3 8,208 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Table tennis 84.27 19.12 45.32 123.21 6 11,465 66.84 11.11 44.22 89.46 13 30,751 62.20 10.73 40.34 84.06 5 8,468
Netball 64.10 6.98 49.63 78.57 9 17,495 74.19 16.64 39.68 108.70 10 24,781 40.84 9.50 21.15 60.54 4 15,202
Sepak takraw 64.91 6.51 52.03 77.78 21 54,132 74.86 5.95 63.09 86.62 34 68,798 64.68 7.29 50.25 79.11 12 23,299
Swimming 64.06 11.48 41.13 86.98 14 28,709 48.92 6.28 36.38 61.46 38 99,229 31.38 29.47 -27.47 90.22 2 3,541
Gymnasium 46.88 16.08 14.67 79.09 12 23,910 44.73 7.34 30.03 59.43 35 103,809 15.00 0.00 15.00 15.00 1 1,055
Tai chi 48.69 8.03 32.24 65.15 10 32,138 47.61 8.57 30.06 65.17 17 51,718 120.00 0.00 120.00 120.00 1 5,352
Cycling 52.63 18.88 15.03 90.22 16 33,691 54.45 28.01 -1.31 110.22 29 66,270 29.19 8.15 12.96 45.42 11 15,911
Jogging 47.28 3.00 41.38 53.18 105 256,542 38.89 2.08 34.81 42.97 162 403,155 43.91 4.37 35.32 52.51 30 57,019
Brisk walking 45.72 12.51 21.01 70.43 14 26,933 39.23 7.95 23.54 54.92 109 250,265 26.05 2.03 22.04 30.06 5 12,295
Aerobic exercise 34.45 3.76 27.03 41.87 53 121,017 38.65 5.24 28.29 49.01 51 106,184 33.72 9.93 14.11 53.33 8 12,423
Others 37.19 7.09 23.26 51.12 95 234,844 41.07 5.96 29.35 52.79 154 399,684 50.13 10.94 28.62 71.64 38 60,029
Table 7c: continue

Northern Sabah Sarawak


Type of activity Std 95% CI Total Estimated Std 95% CI Total Estimated Std 95% CI Total Estimated
Mean Mean Mean
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Golf 195.12 28.63 136.04 254.20 4 7,825 222.69 33.76 153.01 292.36 4 5,230 240.00 0.00 240.00 240.00 1 1,877
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Silat 120.00 0.00 120.00 120.00 1 1,792 120.00 0.00 120.00 120.00 1 2,352 217.40 28.18 96.17 338.63 2 3,179
Taekwando 90.00 0.00 90.00 90.00 1 1,955 150.00 0.00 150.00 150.00 1 1,288 93.65 29.56 281.91 469.20 2 1,711
Bowling 163.10 41.74 75.41 250.80 3 4,611 78.18 23.98 27.81 128.56 3 5,274 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Rugby 79.41 13.70 20.46 138.36 2 4,153 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Basketball 78.04 26.95 22.42 133.66 3 2,942 111.78 30.28 49.30 174.27 4 5,584 57.80 12.46 32.07 83.52 8 13,123
Badminton 98.72 15.08 69.05 128.40 34 83,650 69.89 6.86 56.39 83.40 59 85,056 78.38 11.00 56.73 100.03 40 89,844
Volleyball 90.00 0.00 90.00 90.00 1 2,285 53.82 14.13 25.24 82.41 12 26,059 63.21 9.04 44.92 81.49 8 10,779
Tennis 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 120.00 0.00 120.00 120.00 1 2,848 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Hockey 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Qi gong 45.00 0.00 45.00 45.00 1 4,573 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Squash 60.00 0.00 60.00 60.00 1 2,773 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Football 78.45 17.49 44.05 112.85 51 119,968 49.17 5.22 38.91 59.44 51 96,697 60.67 3.17 54.44 66.90 41 66,963
Mountain climbing 62.10 15.00 29.09 95.11 6 13,854 10.00 0.00 10.00 10.00 1 1,140 73.24 19.19 30.99 115.48 5 8,711
Table tennis 63.39 23.45 15.62 111.17 6 11,103 56.78 10.24 35.93 77.64 5 9,659 25.23 3.82 17.44 33.02 3 4,321
Netball 69.49 12.98 42.58 96.40 2 3,065 60.00 0.00 60.00 60.00 2 5,863 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Sepak takraw 59.38 6.46 46.61 72.15 28 61,720 46.93 4.81 37.41 56.45 31 45,661 49.36 7.97 33.59 65.13 12 25,345
Swimming 65.24 12.67 39.94 90.53 12 35,931 41.06 10.47 20.15 61.96 3 5,837 96.53 32.92 30.80 162.26 5 7,895
Gymnasium 59.77 13.41 32.91 86.63 9 29,098 103.50 41.67 20.03 186.96 4 6,154 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Tai chi 36.96 13.05 10.22 63.70 3 5,651 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 60.00 0.00 60.00 60.00 2 2,661
Cycling 54.64 13.19 28.39 80.90 13 29,763 33.27 5.82 21.69 44.85 10 24,046 42.61 10.70 21.30 63.92 7 11,689
Jogging 42.10 2.69 36.81 47.40 70 151,708 40.07 4.44 31.35 48.80 65 121,928 41.55 4.25 33.21 49.89 62 116,082
Brisk walking 44.35 7.86 28.83 59.86 6 8,940 33.96 4.01 26.04 41.89 18 31,145 41.31 5.41 30.63 51.99 17 33,194
Aerobic exercise 42.66 5.84 31.13 54.20 19 43,207 26.66 3.54 19.67 33.66 13 13,882 44.73 5.98 32.91 56.55 19 34,844
Others 39.80 4.76 30.44 49.17 48 99,705 42.65 10.44 22.12 63.17 24 39,866 66.74 19.37 28.67 104.82 42 70,844

103
104
Table 7d: Mean time (in minutes) spent on each session of sports / exercise activities by ethnicity

Malay Chinese Indian


Type of activity Std 95% CI Total Estimated Std 95% CI Total Estimated Std 95% CI Total Estimated
Mean Mean Mean
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Golf 203.44 14.99 172.51 234.38 16 36,230 195.56 20.49 153.28 237.85 9 17,610 167.10 66.58 29.68 304.52 3 6,126
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Silat 137.48 5.67 113.07 161.88 5 12,395 240.00 0.00 240.00 240.00 1 1,981 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Taekwando 124.43 0.00 124.43 124.43 3 8,557 93.65 29.56 -281.91 469.20 2 1,711 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Bowling 105.20 14.44 74.87 135.53 13 28,745 156.09 28.68 95.83 216.34 6 12,848 45.00 0.00 45.00 45.00 1 2,328
Rugby 101.60 18.02 24.08 179.12 5 11,931 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Basketball 77.88 31.69 12.48 143.29 2 5,693 91.36 10.52 69.64 113.07 24 40,894 60.00 0.00 60.00 60.00 1 2,292
Badminton 82.71 5.45 71.99 93.43 164 356,786 93.66 5.96 81.93 105.38 85 198,274 82.03 11.53 59.35 104.72 23 46,484
Volleyball 72.78 8.96 54.64 90.91 24 52,779 158.45 22.34 113.26 203.65 5 12,965 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Tennis 71.08 6.42 56.56 85.60 6 17,252 69.64 13.61 38.85 100.43 6 21,381 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - .
Hockey 97.35 17.02 53.61 141.09 4 8,178 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 48.19 11.42 18.85 77.54 4 8,744
Qi gong 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 70.21 8.78 -41.35 181.78 5 13,837 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Squash 79.77 16.81 38.63 120.91 3 7,372 59.63 8.39 39.11 80.16 4 14,012 90.00 0.00 90.00 90.00 1 2,196
Football 66.60 4.76 57.24 75.97 232 533,165 95.75 10.03 76.03 115.48 19 34,832 92.96 7.64 77.94 107.99 31 84,171
Mountain climbing 62.54 21.57 15.07 110.00 4 9,318 66.09 12.26 39.10 93.07 8 19,109 30.00 0.00 30.00 30.00 1 1,744
Table tennis 62.19 8.76 44.35 80.03 24 47,398 80.22 14.39 50.91 109.54 6 15,230 58.47 27.53 2.40 114.54 2 3,065
Netball 58.43 8.47 40.86 76.00 21 52,905 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 92.01 20.84 48.79 135.23 4 7,639
Sepak takraw 66.23 3.38 59.55 72.91 94 204,866 86.90 20.99 45.39 128.42 2 3,693 30.00 0.00 30.00 30.00 1 1,230
Swimming 55.19 10.38 34.46 75.91 21 60,755 53.36 5.40 42.58 64.13 47 108,238 93.91 14.51 64.94 122.89 5 10,291
Gymnasium 52.54 10.64 31.23 73.86 29 83,171 43.07 6.35 30.35 55.80 19 45,905 41.36 6.77 27.79 54.93 10 29,806
Tai chi 31.96 21.56 -12.20 76.13 5 13,636 54.55 4.83 44.65 64.45 27 83,144 90.00 0.00 90.00 90.00 1 741
Cycling 59.24 21.14 17.16 101.32 44 91,868 38.00 7.42 23.23 52.77 24 49,181 34.44 14.48 5.62 63.26 8 17,200
Jogging 41.91 2.03 37.92 45.91 213 504,247 42.55 1.91 38.78 46.31 146 347,888 45.94 4.99 36.15 55.74 50 103,709
Brisk walking 50.27 18.21 14.31 86.23 51 100,405 34.67 4.36 26.06 43.27 72 167,452 34.57 3.89 26.90 42.25 35 74,060
Aerobic exercise 36.77 2.99 30.86 42.68 104 233,126 43.41 6.22 31.12 55.69 29 51,000 41.76 9.32 23.34 60.18 9 19,647
Others 38.56 4.96 28.80 48.32 213 483,256 50.44 6.94 36.80 64.07 102 260,114 28.50 3.40 21.81 35.19 49 101,938
Table 7d: continue

Orang asli PM Sabah Bumiputera Sarawak Bumiputera


Type of activity Std 95% CI Total Estimated Std 95% CI Total Estimated Std 95% CI Total Estimated
Mean Mean Mean
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Golf 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 202.55 88.44 20.03 385.08 2 1,768 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Silat 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 120.00 0.00 120.00 120.00 1 2,352
Taekwando 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 150.00 0.00 150.00 150.00 1 1,288
Bowling 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 101.34 12.22 75.67 127.01 2 3,562 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Rugby 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Basketball 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 120.00 0.00 120.00 120.00 1 1,857 80.00 0.00 80.00 80.00 1 1,312
Badminton 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 68.79 10.58 47.97 89.61 29 44,324 76.49 10.35 56.12 96.86 20 25,938
Volleyball 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 53.49 14.83 23.50 83.49 11 24,732 65.92 16.77 31.99 99.85 5 5,840
Tennis 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 120.00 0.00 120.00 120.00 1 2,848 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Hockey 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Qi gong 60.00 0.00 60.00 60.00 2 6,549 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Squash 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Football 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 56.05 4.19 47.81 64.29 32 46,212 59.40 2.99 53.52 65.28 33 54,981
Mountain climbing 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 10.00 0.00 10.00 10.00 1 1,140 123.09 47.31 18.97 227.22 2 2,347
Table tennis 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 67.90 7.97 51.67 84.13 3 6,026 30.00 0.00 30.00 30.00 2 3,038
Netball 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 60.00 0.00 60.00 60.00 1 3,712 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Sepak takraw 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 42.39 5.34 31.82 52.96 23 33,217 51.99 7.68 36.80 67.18 13 22,863
Swimming 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 30.00 0.00 30.00 30.00 1 1,857 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Gymnasium 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 180.00 0.00 180.00 180.00 1 2,497 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Tai chi 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Cycling 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 60.00 0.00 60.00 60.00 1 1,698 29.79 10.38 9.13 50.46 4 6,742
Jogging 35.19 4.81 25.73 44.65 2 4,922 30.92 3.16 24.72 37.12 33 46,337 35.38 4.15 27.23 43.53 40 61,088
Brisk walking 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 32.34 6.76 18.99 45.69 5 7,846 60.00 0.00 60.00 60.00 2 6,092
Aerobic exercise 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 25.13 4.28 16.68 33.58 9 9,429 38.70 9.44 20.06 57.35 9 12,908
Others 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 29.85 9.35 11.47 48.23 11 14,614 86.14 38.91 9.64 162.64 20 32,652

105
106
Table 7d: continue

Other Bumiputera
Type of activity Std 95% CI Total Estimated
Mean
Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Golf 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -


Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Silat 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -


Taekwando 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Bowling 30.00 0.00 30.00 30.00 1 1,712
Rugby 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Basketball 30.00 0.00 30.00 30.00 1 1,393
Badminton 50.35 17.38 16.16 84.53 7 8,391
Volleyball 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Tennis 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Hockey 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Qi gong 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Squash 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Football 33.61 3.33 27.05 40.16 8 32,763
Mountain climbing 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Table tennis 60.00 0.00 60.00 60.00 1 1,010
Netball 60.00 0.00 60.00 60.00 1 2,151
Sepak takraw 47.97 9.12 29.93 66.00 3 6,538
Swimming 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Gymnasium 47.90 11.79 24.28 71.52 2 2,647
Tai chi 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Cycling 38.44 3.98 30.53 46.35 5 14,683
Jogging 50.75 7.47 36.08 65.42 10 38,245
Brisk walking 23.48 6.10 11.44 35.52 4 6,918
Aerobic exercise 22.43 3.52 15.47 29.39 3 5,447
Others 52.29 17.30 18.28 86.30 6 12,399
Table 7e: Mean time (in minutes) spent on each session of sports / exercise activities by age group

18-19 years 20-29 years 30-39 years


Type of activity Std 95% CI Total Estimated Std 95% CI Total Estimated Std 95% CI Total Estimated
Mean Mean Mean
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Golf 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 252.53 16.19 219.12 285.94 2 5,150 147.99 21.60 103.40 192.57 11 23,263
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Silat 162.06 11.16 114.05 210.06 4 11,917 110.28 9.52 69.31 151.25 3 4,812 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Taekwando 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 125.34 0.71 116.35 134.32 3 7,240 81.67 6.02 5.21 158.13 2 2,706
Bowling 209.56 32.13 142.05 277.06 2 4,510 95.61 13.08 68.13 123.09 14 28,458 103.33 29.58 41.20 165.47 6 11,858
Rugby 60.00 0.00 60.00 60.00 1 798 111.34 17.32 36.79 185.88 3 9,668 60.00 0.00 60.00 60.00 1 1,465
Basketball 66.60 9.86 46.25 86.96 11 27,149 120.78 15.26 89.29 152.26 14 20,373 70.55 14.24 41.17 99.93 5 5,920
Badminton 94.67 12.67 69.74 119.61 31 118,501 84.81 4.69 75.58 94.04 125 235,676 81.37 5.93 69.69 93.04 103 189,598
Volleyball 65.13 30.48 3.49 126.77 6 18,347 86.53 11.10 64.07 108.99 20 50,207 87.60 17.89 51.41 123.80 10 15,483
Tennis 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 71.87 14.48 39.12 104.63 5 17,227 81.02 13.65 50.15 111.88 4 11,095
Hockey 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 76.69 20.47 24.06 129.32 4 9,462 48.07 19.95 -3.22 99.36 2 3,940
Qi gong 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Squash 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 72.38 10.68 46.24 98.53 4 11,769 120.00 0.00 120.00 120.00 1 1,248
Football 82.55 11.02 60.87 104.22 67 226,205 66.91 3.14 60.74 73.08 165 320,838 57.57 3.22 51.23 63.90 96 190,126
Mountain climbing 70.95 31.56 1.48 140.42 2 4,677 64.05 16.95 26.73 101.36 5 10,880 49.60 5.96 36.48 62.71 3 5,478
Table tennis 55.27 14.59 25.54 84.99 4 6,186 77.09 9.55 57.63 96.55 22 43,393 49.87 8.50 32.55 67.20 7 13,037
Netball 50.79 7.64 34.93 66.64 9 26,685 72.01 18.99 32.62 111.40 10 20,791 71.19 8.22 54.14 88.24 4 10,398
Sepak takraw 61.98 8.17 45.82 78.14 16 36,727 62.33 3.88 54.65 70.01 62 133,167 61.11 5.28 50.67 71.56 44 85,949
Swimming 89.18 23.95 41.37 137.00 10 20,325 48.36 4.74 38.90 57.82 26 73,681 61.18 9.39 42.43 79.92 22 45,312
Gymnasium 46.95 23.17 0.54 93.36 5 23,765 52.98 6.69 39.57 66.38 31 80,769 54.12 15.78 22.51 85.73 16 38,440
Tai chi 60.00 0.00 60.00 60.00 1 1,069 58.78 28.54 0.32 117.25 2 8,066 51.31 13.32 24.04 78.59 8 21,581
Cycling 41.07 9.86 21.43 60.70 9 28,230 28.33 5.34 17.69 38.97 19 30,443 76.30 36.08 4.47 148.14 24 52,143
Jogging 44.46 6.56 31.57 57.35 25 127,825 42.86 2.16 38.61 47.11 147 321,452 40.58 2.18 36.29 44.87 135 250,479
Brisk walking 5.99 2.70 0.67 11.32 5 17,583 31.77 4.10 23.68 39.86 37 85,560 62.34 27.85 7.34 117.34 39 63,654
Aerobic exercise 39.76 5.84 28.23 51.29 8 15,608 39.54 5.78 28.13 50.95 39 75,912 33.47 3.33 26.88 40.05 54 100,446
Others 41.80 7.64 26.79 56.82 32 115,555 34.07 3.94 26.33 41.82 101 233,475 58.74 13.84 31.53 85.96 104 199,196

107
108
Table 7e: continue

40-49 years 50-59 years


Type of activity Std 95% CI Total Estimated Std 95% CI Total Estimated
Mean Mean
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Golf 231.46 15.46 199.55 263.37 12 22,573 207.33 18.27 169.62 245.04 5 10,749
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Silat 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -


Taekwando 180.00 0.00 180.00 180.00 1 1,610 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Bowling 150.00 0.00 150.00 150.00 1 4,369 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Rugby 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Basketball 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Badminton 69.36 5.22 59.09 79.63 59 104,332 108.42 19.41 70.23 146.61 10 32,090
Volleyball 57.61 8.60 40.21 75.02 9 12,279 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Tennis 90.00 0.00 90.00 90.00 2 4,347 60.00 0.00 60.00 60.00 2 8,813
Hockey 85.93 14.72 48.08 123.78 2 3,521 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Qi gong 77.69 10.19 -51.83 207.21 3 5,524 65.25 11.14 -76.26 206.76 2 8,313
Squash 58.66 10.40 33.23 84.10 3 10,564 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Football 52.04 5.33 41.56 62.52 24 43,424 51.06 6.12 39.03 63.09 3 5,532
Mountain climbing 93.36 11.67 67.68 119.04 4 8,194 30.00 0.00 30.00 30.00 2 4,429
Table tennis 39.24 8.04 22.87 55.62 3 7,090 48.51 10.43 27.26 69.77 2 6,061
Netball 60.58 25.73 7.22 113.93 3 4,699 70.00 0.00 70.00 70.00 1 3,834
Sepak takraw 56.58 9.22 38.34 74.83 14 19,686 83.59 13.89 56.11 111.07 2 3,427
Swimming 39.98 5.61 28.78 51.18 11 23,705 58.21 21.78 14.73 101.69 5 18,118
Gymnasium 35.38 7.68 20.00 50.75 7 16,348 21.90 13.01 -4.16 47.96 2 4,704
Tai chi 59.13 10.39 37.84 80.42 10 19,464 47.35 6.20 34.65 60.05 12 47,340
Cycling 29.61 4.12 21.40 37.81 23 42,837 54.18 13.22 27.87 80.50 11 27,718
Jogging 41.43 2.23 37.06 45.80 121 243,572 41.04 2.99 35.17 46.91 66 163,108
Brisk walking 36.26 3.12 30.10 42.42 49 105,195 39.53 4.64 30.36 48.69 39 90,781
Aerobic exercise 37.53 3.73 30.17 44.89 49 103,248 44.19 11.54 21.40 66.98 13 36,343
Others 36.84 4.10 28.78 44.90 98 197,229 42.63 6.05 30.73 54.54 66 159,518
Table 7f: Mean time (in minutes) spent on each session of sports / exercise activities by household income

Less than RM 1500 RM 1500 -RM 3500 More than RM 3500


Type of activity Std 95% CI Total Estimated Std 95% CI Total Estimated Std 95% CI Total Estimated
Mean Mean Mean
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Golf 158.17 51.97 50.91 265.43 4 7,506 215.55 16.62 181.24 249.86 9 17,416 197.09 16.47 163.10 231.07 17 36,813
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Silat 78.13 4.85 68.59 87.67 114 225,978 93.64 5.99 81.84 105.43 152 331,506 79.70 5.48 68.92 90.49 69 139,442
Taekwando 74.83 4.36 66.25 83.42 112 218,942 94.19 6.03 82.33 106.04 151 330,127 79.85 5.41 69.21 90.48 70 141,396
Bowling 114.25 22.34 67.32 161.17 6 10,484 106.54 20.71 63.03 150.04 14 31,761 138.86 8.95 120.06 157.66 3 6,950
Rugby 74.89 4.38 66.27 83.51 112 218,016 92.99 5.96 81.26 104.71 152 334,671 79.70 5.48 68.92 90.49 69 139,442
Basketball 77.49 12.02 52.69 102.30 13 22,297 101.39 18.13 63.97 138.80 11 20,816 82.12 14.68 51.82 112.41 6 10,329
Badminton 73.62 4.35 65.06 82.18 109 212,239 93.18 6.06 81.26 105.10 150 328,517 79.70 5.48 68.92 90.49 69 139,442
Volleyball 63.14 8.26 46.42 79.85 20 38,645 83.33 15.57 51.83 114.83 20 43,742 108.99 26.45 55.50 162.49 5 13,929
Tennis 73.71 4.33 65.19 82.22 110 213,358 94.20 6.02 82.37 106.04 153 337,326 79.35 5.17 69.18 89.53 74 162,609
Hockey 56.67 26.87 -12.40 125.74 2 3,586 79.39 17.05 35.56 123.23 5 11,044 60.00 0.00 60.00 60.00 1 2,292
Qi gong 73.02 4.29 64.57 81.46 110 216,811 93.13 6.01 81.32 104.95 152 331,916 79.68 5.27 69.31 90.05 71 145,306
Squash 73.62 4.35 65.06 82.18 109 212,239 93.66 6.03 81.80 105.53 151 331,290 78.02 5.07 68.05 87.99 74 157,853
Football 61.19 3.16 54.97 67.41 206 440,277 78.64 8.41 62.10 95.19 116 270,090 71.89 5.31 61.44 82.34 33 75,758
Mountain climbing 72.86 4.22 64.56 81.16 114 224,187 93.11 5.91 81.48 104.74 156 339,365 80.32 5.43 69.63 91.01 71 144,595
Table tennis 73.22 4.24 64.89 81.56 126 241,674 91.86 5.72 80.62 103.11 162 356,095 80.11 5.31 69.67 90.55 73 147,924
Netball 70.50 11.62 46.39 94.60 8 18,083 67.59 13.43 39.75 95.43 12 29,255 46.86 10.70 24.67 69.05 7 19,068
Sepak takraw 70.29 3.10 64.21 76.38 194 382,325 91.54 5.37 80.99 102.08 180 393,429 80.25 5.23 69.97 90.53 74 145,679
Swimming 3.09 0.71 1.68 4.50 14 34,336 55.21 8.73 37.78 72.65 26 69,914 53.91 7.75 38.44 69.39 34 76,892
Gymnasium 76.76 17.28 42.14 111.37 12 32,551 43.96 10.06 23.81 64.10 28 65,721 42.11 5.39 31.31 52.91 21 65,755
Tai chi 71.62 4.05 63.65 79.58 119 240,579 88.89 5.90 77.28 100.50 163 366,031 74.23 5.21 63.97 84.48 78 170,038
Cycling 35.68 6.27 23.20 48.17 37 76,408 69.06 30.50 8.35 129.77 28 62,869 40.45 6.71 27.08 53.81 21 42,095
Jogging 39.35 2.30 34.83 43.87 179 396,134 42.97 2.22 38.61 47.32 198 446,065 44.12 2.03 40.13 48.10 117 264,237
Brisk walking 32.17 3.19 25.86 38.48 49 100,798 45.97 11.68 22.91 69.03 77 157,864 35.49 6.90 21.85 49.12 43 104,110
Aerobic exercise 59.10 3.54 52.15 66.05 173 335,804 79.14 5.35 68.62 89.65 204 444,091 68.49 4.86 58.94 78.04 105 216,427
Others 54.45 4.11 46.39 62.51 277 573,229 66.85 5.33 56.38 77.32 304 696,276 62.16 4.74 52.86 71.46 135 291,909

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Table 7g: : Mean time (in minutes) spent on each session of sports / exercise activities by BMI status

Underweight Normal
Type of activity Std 95% CI Total Estimated Std 95% CI Total Estimated
Mean Mean
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Golf 240.00 0.00 240.00 240.00 1 4,074 199.99 19.24 160.29 239.70 16 30,145
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Silat 85.76 9.31 67.45 104.08 35 68,511 85.78 5.55 74.87 96.70 168 378,685
Taekwando 76.49 8.16 60.44 92.54 32 58,312 85.48 5.52 74.61 96.34 166 378,707
Bowling 73.15 14.52 42.64 103.67 2 5,218 111.83 14.96 80.39 143.26 14 28,003
Rugby 76.49 8.16 60.44 92.54 32 58,312 84.41 5.58 73.44 95.37 166 375,180
Basketball 127.48 48.27 27.85 227.10 2 3,977 82.85 8.68 64.93 100.78 18 34,360
Badminton 76.49 8.16 60.44 92.54 32 58,312 84.50 5.59 73.50 95.50 165 373,715
Volleyball 44.29 18.67 6.53 82.05 5 15,415 87.46 12.99 61.19 113.74 18 37,238
Tennis 76.49 8.16 60.44 92.54 32 58,312 85.34 5.58 74.36 96.32 169 385,905
Hockey 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 91.03 16.16 49.48 132.58 4 9,694
Qi gong 76.49 8.16 60.44 92.54 32 58,312 84.16 5.45 73.43 94.88 169 386,371
Squash 76.49 8.16 60.44 92.54 32 58,312 84.88 5.49 74.08 95.67 168 382,712
Football 77.93 6.91 64.33 91.52 47 109,149 66.75 5.69 55.55 77.94 201 446,919
Mountain climbing 76.49 8.16 60.44 92.54 32 58,312 83.83 5.43 73.15 94.51 172 390,249
Table tennis 77.79 7.26 63.52 92.07 37 71,652 83.58 5.36 73.04 94.13 181 401,893
Netball 79.11 11.76 54.72 103.51 6 17,734 61.26 6.13 48.54 73.97 11 24,250
Sepak takraw 71.29 6.59 58.35 84.24 47 88,003 81.01 4.63 71.91 90.12 227 488,238
Swimming 53.98 10.18 33.64 74.31 8 20,379 55.94 7.90 40.15 71.72 44 91,781
Gymnasium 42.04 10.19 21.62 62.46 2 12,857 39.89 7.84 24.19 55.58 33 86,483
Tai chi 74.55 8.16 58.50 90.60 34 63,201 80.46 5.27 70.09 90.84 182 428,098
Cycling 21.10 2.67 15.78 26.43 5 10,558 58.70 21.79 15.31 102.08 39 85,310
Jogging 38.40 6.50 25.62 51.17 35 101,524 42.47 1.71 39.11 45.84 246 575,201
Brisk walking 26.47 8.37 9.94 43.01 5 10,799 44.63 12.26 20.40 68.85 69 163,681
Aerobic exercise 68.89 7.00 55.14 82.64 41 74,547 71.35 4.66 62.20 80.50 236 535,856
Others 50.71 8.02 34.97 66.45 61 145,170 61.76 4.39 53.14 70.38 348 806,486
Table 7g: : continue

Overweight Obese
Type of activity Std 95% CI Total Estimated Std 95% CI Total Estimated
Mean Mean
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Golf 213.25 21.16 169.59 256.92 9 18,681 136.52 17.72 99.95 173.10 4 8,835
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Silat 86.00 4.43 77.29 94.71 102 194,204 87.07 14.83 57.90 116.23 29 54,027
Taekwando 86.67 4.43 77.97 95.38 104 196,961 87.64 14.56 58.99 116.29 30 54,987
Bowling 127.30 30.10 64.07 190.53 7 15,973 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Rugby 87.07 4.36 78.50 95.64 105 203,111 87.07 14.82 57.90 116.23 29 54,027
Basketball 67.51 14.20 38.20 96.83 7 10,538 136.04 46.03 41.04 231.04 3 4,566
Badminton 85.96 4.46 77.18 94.75 101 192,645 87.07 14.83 57.90 116.23 29 54,027
Volleyball 95.17 16.66 61.47 128.86 14 29,426 60.64 10.07 40.26 81.01 8 14,237
Tennis 85.05 4.15 76.89 93.22 105 210,678 88.73 14.11 60.97 116.49 30 56,900
Hockey 60.90 10.15 34.81 87.00 3 5,164 10.00 0.00 10.00 10.00 1 2,065
Qi gong 85.62 4.46 76.86 94.39 102 193,826 87.07 14.82 57.90 116.23 29 54,027
Squash 84.35 4.37 75.76 92.94 104 204,832 87.07 14.82 57.90 116.23 29 54,027
Football 63.72 4.94 54.00 73.44 81 177,118 75.68 7.40 61.12 90.23 26 52,938
Mountain climbing 86.34 4.33 77.83 94.85 105 201,345 87.13 14.72 58.18 116.08 31 56,742
Table tennis 84.68 4.16 76.51 92.86 113 216,622 87.07 14.82 57.92 116.21 29 54,027
Netball 60.37 23.04 12.60 108.15 7 13,136 41.12 10.75 18.83 63.42 3 11,286
Sepak takraw 84.01 3.94 76.27 91.74 134 266,673 81.83 11.11 59.99 103.67 39 77,020
Swimming 58.52 6.65 45.23 71.81 12 28,695 51.11 11.47 28.20 74.03 8 35,179
Gymnasium 50.56 8.42 33.69 67.43 20 52,290 122.83 19.62 83.52 162.13 6 12,395
Tai chi 82.04 4.29 73.61 90.47 110 217,220 79.35 13.57 52.66 106.04 32 64,730
Cycling 43.25 9.35 24.63 61.86 37 78,941 19.25 3.11 13.07 25.44 5 6,563
Jogging 41.17 2.01 37.22 45.13 163 338,646 45.15 3.76 37.76 52.54 49 90,470
Brisk walking 34.68 2.39 29.96 39.39 64 121,183 36.11 4.70 26.82 45.39 28 61,826
Aerobic exercise 69.44 4.18 61.22 77.66 151 290,511 66.84 10.34 46.52 87.16 52 93,037
Others 62.74 3.68 55.52 69.96 233 470,105 68.20 15.80 37.19 99.21 70 129,420

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Table 7h: : Mean time (in minutes) spent on each session of sports / exercise activities by marital status

Unmarried Married
Type of activity Std 95% CI Total Estimated Std 95% CI Total Estimated
Mean Mean
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Golf 171.06 51.72 64.30 277.81 2 3,791 199.30 13.95 170.50 228.09 28 57,944
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Silat 92.74 5.57 81.78 103.70 147 337,398 79.28 4.40 70.62 87.94 185 355,584
Taekwando 90.65 5.67 79.50 101.80 143 323,842 80.18 4.37 71.59 88.78 187 362,679
Bowling 113.44 25.33 60.23 166.65 11 20,445 111.49 17.51 74.71 148.27 11 26,170
Rugby 90.60 5.66 79.45 101.74 143 325,221 79.26 4.32 70.76 87.75 187 362,964
Basketball 89.91 10.56 68.11 111.71 24 45,076 75.75 15.28 44.20 107.29 6 8,366
Badminton 90.04 5.70 78.82 101.25 141 322,131 79.11 4.42 70.41 87.81 184 354,123
Volleyball 88.14 17.16 53.42 122.85 20 48,794 69.50 6.93 55.48 83.52 25 47,522
Tennis 89.89 5.74 78.59 101.18 144 333,201 80.30 4.26 71.92 88.68 189 372,282
Hockey 60.00 0.00 60.00 60.00 2 4,680 76.52 19.38 26.69 126.35 6 12,243
Qi gong 90.04 5.70 78.82 101.25 141 322,131 78.78 4.29 70.33 87.22 189 367,960
Squash 90.27 5.62 79.21 101.32 143 326,759 78.63 4.30 70.17 87.08 188 370,679
Football 74.18 5.55 63.26 85.10 202 488,252 58.23 2.64 53.04 63.42 151 295,604
Mountain climbing 90.37 5.53 79.49 101.25 146 334,237 78.29 4.35 69.73 86.85 191 365,968
Table tennis 88.79 5.38 78.20 99.37 157 350,402 78.75 4.18 70.53 86.96 201 391,348
Netball 62.46 12.41 36.73 88.19 13 36,060 62.39 7.16 47.54 77.24 14 30,347
Sepak takraw 85.45 4.59 76.43 94.47 201 449,059 76.71 3.62 69.59 83.83 243 465,210
Swimming 57.13 6.77 43.61 70.65 37 91,802 53.68 7.22 39.27 68.09 35 87,685
Gymnasium 53.78 8.82 36.11 71.46 34 93,479 44.35 8.37 27.59 61.11 27 70,548
Tai chi 88.81 5.75 77.50 100.13 144 332,474 73.96 3.95 66.19 81.74 212 437,997
Cycling 33.16 5.32 22.57 43.75 29 63,186 57.49 17.14 23.37 91.61 54 113,702
Jogging 43.79 2.74 38.40 49.18 146 399,636 40.87 1.32 38.28 43.47 334 666,162
Brisk walking 27.79 5.43 17.06 38.53 38 94,063 42.95 7.47 28.19 57.70 125 255,243
Aerobic exercise 84.43 5.45 73.72 95.13 168 379,554 62.12 3.29 55.66 68.58 301 583,690
Others 68.19 5.19 58.00 78.37 244 605,621 57.93 3.67 50.71 65.14 455 891,267
Table 7h: : continue

Divorced Widow
Type of activity Std 95% CI Total Estimated Std 95% CI Total Estimated
Mean Mean
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Golf 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -


Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Silat 30.00 0.00 30.00 30.00 2 1,593 120.00 0.00 120.00 120.00 1 2,350
Taekwando 30.00 0.00 30.00 30.00 2 1,593 120.00 0.00 120.00 120.00 1 2,350
Bowling 120.00 0.00 120.00 120.00 1 2,580 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Rugby 30.00 0.00 30.00 30.00 2 1,593 120.00 0.00 120.00 120.00 1 2,350
Basketball 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Badminton 30.00 0.00 30.00 30.00 2 1,593 120.00 0.00 120.00 120.00 1 2,350
Volleyball 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Tennis 30.00 0.00 30.00 30.00 2 1,593 82.68 19.95 43.44 121.93 2 6,216
Hockey 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Qi gong 30.00 0.00 30.00 30.00 2 1,593 120.00 0.00 120.00 120.00 1 2,350
Squash 30.00 0.00 30.00 30.00 2 1,593 120.00 0.00 120.00 120.00 1 2,350
Football 90.00 0.00 90.00 90.00 1 1,472 80.00 0.00 80.00 80.00 1 796
Mountain climbing 30.00 0.00 30.00 30.00 2 1,593 101.10 9.89 81.65 120.56 2 6,349
Table tennis 30.00 0.00 30.00 30.00 2 1,593 120.00 0.00 120.00 120.00 1 2,350
Netball 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Sepak takraw 30.00 0.00 30.00 30.00 2 1,593 85.32 20.70 44.64 125.99 2 5,570
Swimming 120.00 0.00 120.00 120.00 1 859 120.00 0.00 120.00 120.00 1 796
Gymnasium 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Tai chi 30.00 0.00 30.00 30.00 2 1,593 90.76 21.20 49.07 132.45 2 4,584
Cycling 30.96 14.25 2.59 59.33 3 4,483
Jogging 35.36 5.28 24.99 45.73 8 25,148 51.17 12.19 27.21 75.12 6 15,490
Brisk walking 41.56 5.19 31.32 51.80 4 8,766 54.01 10.24 33.79 74.24 2 4,701
Aerobic exercise 60.79 19.77 21.95 99.64 4 6,883 44.24 10.36 23.89 64.60 8 24,481
Others 41.73 20.35 1.77 81.68 8 31,883 50.51 17.75 15.65 85.36 9 32,642

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Table 7i: Mean time (in minutes) spent on each session of sports / exercise activities by educational level

Primary school Lower secondary school (PMR) Upper secondary school (SPM)
Type of activity Std 95% CI Total Estimated Std 95% CI Total Estimated Std 95% CI Total Estimated
Mean Mean Mean
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Golf 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 138.20 41.63 52.29 224.12 3 7,398 224.23 19.43 184.12 264.34 7 10,914
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Silat 74.82 9.99 55.16 94.48 26 51,959 86.04 10.70 64.99 107.09 55 107,497 88.54 6.04 76.66 100.43 136 310,716
Taekwando 74.82 10.00 55.16 94.48 26 51,959 84.98 10.62 64.09 105.87 54 105,516 88.42 6.04 76.54 100.31 137 310,966
Bowling 30.00 0.00 30.00 30.00 1 1,712 127.43 30.15 64.09 190.77 4 8,046 96.85 14.81 65.74 127.97 12 25,163
Rugby 74.82 9.99 55.16 94.48 26 51,959 83.15 10.60 62.29 104.00 54 105,516 88.41 6.02 76.56 100.25 136 311,942
Basketball 139.44 74.11 -13.53 292.40 2 2,908 95.68 25.10 43.88 147.48 2 2,630 78.18 7.57 62.55 93.80 16 31,116
Badminton 74.82 9.99 55.16 94.49 26 51,959 83.15 10.60 62.28 104.01 54 105,516 88.39 6.08 76.44 100.35 135 309,255
Volleyball 60.00 0.00 60.00 60.00 2 2,377 61.49 18.76 23.54 99.44 5 6,135 73.42 14.72 43.64 103.19 22 47,933
Tennis 74.82 9.99 55.16 94.48 26 51,959 83.15 10.61 62.28 104.01 54 105,516 88.61 5.93 76.95 100.28 138 317,113
Hockey 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 81.77 24.47 18.87 144.66 4 9,078
Qi gong 72.41 9.49 53.74 91.08 27 56,532 83.15 10.60 62.29 104.01 54 105,516 88.44 5.92 76.79 100.10 138 317,338
Squash 74.82 9.99 55.16 94.48 26 51,959 83.15 10.60 62.29 104.01 54 105,516 88.73 6.06 76.80 100.66 135 309,255
Football 63.18 5.18 52.99 73.37 43 75,872 59.80 3.78 52.37 67.23 61 111,236 70.94 6.63 57.91 83.98 153 383,605
Mountain climbing 74.59 9.24 56.41 92.77 28 57,098 82.11 10.17 62.09 102.12 57 112,467 88.52 5.95 76.83 100.22 140 319,019
Table tennis 76.49 10.37 56.10 96.89 29 58,247 83.29 10.20 63.24 103.34 57 110,014 87.17 5.80 75.77 98.57 146 333,714
Netball 60.00 0.00 60.00 60.00 1 2,151 60.00 0.00 60.00 60.00 1 1,454 71.31 6.81 57.14 85.47 8 17,956
Sepak takraw 70.22 6.99 56.48 83.96 46 90,471 82.13 8.33 65.76 98.50 77 140,975 84.41 4.84 74.90 93.91 195 435,635
Swimming 86.79 29.64 27.62 145.96 2 5,032 68.65 14.20 40.31 96.99 12 31,496 57.06 7.63 41.82 72.30 21 41,804
Gymnasium 39.25 15.81 7.57 70.93 2 5,115 13.45 4.12 5.18 21.71 6 10,464 53.39 12.69 27.96 78.81 20 49,576
Tai chi 67.87 7.15 53.80 81.94 35 81,090 81.73 9.65 62.75 100.71 60 121,528 82.61 5.97 70.87 94.35 145 346,702
Cycling 18.74 3.03 12.71 24.76 10 17,375 85.09 47.46 -9.39 179.57 19 36,620 48.62 12.08 24.56 72.67 27 53,819
Jogging 35.62 3.44 28.86 42.39 67 144,691 49.85 3.17 43.62 56.08 78 148,594 42.87 2.22 38.50 47.24 184 436,292
Brisk walking 35.73 3.92 28.00 43.47 27 53,232 65.60 33.68 -0.91 132.12 29 53,008 39.02 4.09 30.94 47.10 57 123,987
Aerobic exercise 64.15 6.97 50.44 77.85 44 85,759 68.37 8.57 51.52 85.22 78 152,123 72.50 5.28 62.12 82.87 199 435,375
Others 49.89 5.88 38.35 61.43 83 158,722 61.47 7.38 46.98 75.97 134 282,014 66.70 5.83 55.25 78.14 266 596,464
Table 7i: continue

Matriculation/Form 6 College/University Others


Type of activity Std 95% CI Total Estimated Std 95% CI Total Estimated Std 95% CI Total Estimated
Mean Mean Mean
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Golf 240.00 0.00 240.00 240.00 1 1,801 196.51 15.82 163.86 229.17 18 38,971 240.00 0.00 240.00 240.00 1 2,651
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Silat 80.90 8.28 64.60 97.19 27 52,199 85.07 5.39 74.47 95.67 87 166,875 70.67 17.69 35.86 105.48 3 3,604
Taekwando 82.78 8.50 66.06 99.50 27 54,839 82.34 5.00 72.50 92.18 85 159,506 70.67 17.70 35.86 105.49 3 3,604
Bowling 240.00 0.00 240.00 240.00 1 3,366 112.30 21.48 67.16 157.44 5 10,908 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Rugby 79.05 8.41 62.51 95.59 26 49,847 82.56 4.94 72.84 92.28 87 165,186 70.67 17.70 35.86 105.49 3 3,604
Basketball 64.92 19.31 25.07 104.77 4 6,950 116.45 21.93 71.20 161.70 6 9,838 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Badminton 79.05 8.41 62.51 95.59 26 49,847 81.24 5.02 71.35 91.12 83 155,942 70.67 17.70 35.86 105.49 3 3,604
Volleyball 76.58 12.70 50.89 102.26 6 13,354 95.85 16.03 63.43 128.28 10 26,517 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Tennis 85.20 9.53 66.45 103.94 26 49,847 80.88 5.22 70.62 91.15 89 181,179 70.67 17.70 35.86 105.49 3 3,604
Hockey 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - 60.59 6.61 43.61 77.58 4 7,845 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Qi gong 77.92 8.27 61.64 94.19 27 51,028 81.24 5.02 71.35 91.12 83 155,942 70.67 17.70 35.86 105.49 3 3,604
Squash 82.39 8.94 64.81 99.97 27 52,042 79.11 4.68 69.91 88.31 88 174,931 70.67 17.70 35.86 105.49 3 3,604
Football 65.96 11.05 44.23 87.70 21 41,796 71.72 6.26 59.41 84.04 72 162,972 47.18 4.02 39.27 55.09 4 9,140
Mountain climbing 79.05 8.41 62.51 95.59 26 49,847 80.42 4.95 70.68 90.17 85 159,569 90.73 17.61 56.08 125.38 4 6,073
Table tennis 73.98 7.55 59.12 88.83 30 58,149 81.54 4.67 72.35 90.73 95 177,890 70.67 17.69 35.89 105.46 3 3,604
Netball 70.77 16.26 36.96 104.58 4 11,704 63.70 14.43 33.69 93.70 12 24,527 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Sepak takraw 74.56 6.97 60.87 88.25 31 62,702 79.53 4.57 70.54 88.51 93 179,483 54.33 12.28 30.18 78.47 5 8,093
Swimming 30.69 6.81 17.11 44.28 4 8,562 52.02 6.50 39.04 65.01 35 94,247 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Gymnasium 38.04 8.33 21.37 54.72 2 4,811 53.00 8.29 36.40 69.60 31 94,059 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - -
Tai chi 77.03 7.39 62.49 91.57 30 57,628 81.02 4.99 71.20 90.84 86 162,023 70.67 17.70 35.87 105.48 3 3,604
Cycling 23.53 3.23 17.10 29.96 2 5,202 31.95 5.77 20.47 43.43 26 58,610 73.66 18.44 36.95 110.37 2 9,746
Jogging 33.38 4.19 25.16 41.61 32 81,634 42.84 2.43 38.07 47.61 120 271,276 33.26 5.85 21.77 44.76 13 23,947
Brisk walking 37.31 4.45 28.53 46.10 14 28,001 29.09 5.54 18.14 40.03 38 92,617 20.78 4.74 11.42 30.14 3 10,985
Aerobic exercise 65.34 7.24 51.11 79.57 37 80,241 69.99 4.52 61.10 78.87 116 230,561 58.59 13.00 33.04 84.13 7 8,190
Others 55.43 8.10 39.52 71.33 57 134,753 62.08 4.37 53.50 70.66 161 352,925 30.77 10.49 10.17 51.38 14 32,461

115
Table 8: Habitual usage of stairs

116
Number of times Number of flight each time Total number of flight a day
Characteristics Std 95% CI Total Estimated Std 95% CI Total Estimated Std 95% CI Total Estimated
Mean Mean Mean
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Malaysia 3.67 0.08 3.51 3.83 6,927 14,176,400 1.09 0.03 1.04 1.15 6,927 14,176,400 5.51 0.17 5.18 5.83 6,927 14,176,400
Zone
Southern 3.26 0.20 2.87 3.65 1,328 2,970,559 1.03 0.07 0.89 1.18 1,328 2,970,559 5.13 0.44 4.26 6.00 1,328 2,970,559
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 3.68 0.14 3.39 3.96 2,321 5,388,794 1.19 0.05 1.10 1.28 2,321 5,388,794 5.47 0.23 5.02 5.93 2,321 5,388,794
East Coast 3.10 0.20 2.70 3.49 943 1,616,847 0.94 0.09 0.77 1.12 943 1,616,847 6.03 0.64 4.77 7.29 943 1,616,847
Northern 2.74 0.16 2.43 3.06 893 1,886,983 1.01 0.07 0.87 1.15 893 1,886,983 4.63 0.42 3.8 5.45 893 1,886,983
Sabah 4.82 0.24 4.35 5.29 737 1,121,712 0.96 0.05 0.86 1.07 737 1,121,712 5.00 0.29 4.42 5.57 737 1,121,712
Sarawak 5.81 0.31 5.21 6.41 705 1,191,505 1.27 0.07 1.13 1.42 705 1,191,505 7.75 0.60 6.57 8.92 705 1,191,505
Strata
Urban 3.81 0.11 3.61 4.02 3,701 8,441,210 1.30 0.04 1.22 1.38 3,701 8,441,210 6.15 0.24 5.69 6.62 3,701 8,441,210
Rural 3.46 0.13 3.20 3.72 3,226 5,735,190 0.79 0.03 0.73 0.85 3,226 5,735,190 4.56 0.21 4.14 4.97 3,226 5,735,190
Sex
Men 4.11 0.12 3.86 4.35 3,342 7,208,373 1.20 0.05 1.11 1.29 3,342 7,208,373 6.39 0.26 5.87 6.91 3,342 7,208,373
Women 3.22 0.11 3.01 3.43 3,585 6,968,028 0.99 0.03 0.92 1.05 3,585 6,968,028 4.59 0.19 4.21 4.98 3,585 6,968,028
Age group (Years)
18 19 4.67 0.45 3.78 5.55 427 1,448,992 1.46 0.13 1.21 1.72 427 1,448,992 7.31 0.79 5.75 8.86 427 1,448,992
20 29 3.78 0.15 3.48 4.07 2,046 4,247,291 1.24 0.06 1.13 1.35 2,046 4,247,291 6.27 0.36 5.55 6.98 2,046 4,247,291
30 39 3.62 0.12 3.38 3.85 1,990 3,655,388 1.08 0.04 0.99 1.16 1,990 3,655,388 5.23 0.25 4.74 5.72 1,990 3,655,388
40 49 3.36 0.13 3.09 3.62 1,546 2,902,558 0.93 0.04 0.86 1.01 1,546 2,902,558 4.76 0.23 4.3 5.22 1,546 2,902,558
50 59 3.26 0.20 2.86 3.66 918 1,922,172 0.76 0.05 0.67 0.86 918 1,922,172 4.12 0.33 3.48 4.76 918 1,922,172
Ethnic group
Malay 3.36 0.11 3.15 3.57 3,727 7,713,188 1.03 0.04 0.96 1.10 3,727 7,713,188 5.26 0.22 4.83 5.69 3,727 7,713,188
Chinese 3.93 0.16 3.61 4.25 1,592 3,540,373 1.26 0.07 1.12 1.40 1,592 3,540,373 6.06 0.38 5.31 6.81 1,592 3,540,373
Indian 3.45 0.37 2.73 4.18 632 1,372,449 1.14 0.08 0.98 1.31 632 1,372,449 5.20 0.45 4.31 6.09 632 1,372,449
Orang Asli PM 1.14 0.79 -0.41 2.69 29 69,202 0.22 0.16 -0.09 0.53 29 69,202 1.10 0.79 -0.44 2.65 29 69,202
Sabah Bumiputera 4.52 0.30 3.94 5.11 398 581,075 0.88 0.07 0.74 1.02 398 581,075 4.62 0.36 3.91 5.34 398 581,075
Sarawak Bumiputera 5.49 0.34 4.82 6.17 390 619,696 1.24 0.11 1.01 1.46 390 619,696 7.56 0.97 5.66 9.45 390 619,696
Other Bumiputera 4.84 0.65 3.57 6.11 159 280,418 0.87 0.11 0.65 1.09 159 280,418 5.19 0.83 3.57 6.82 159 280,418
Table 8: continue

Number of times Number of flight each time Total number of flight a day
Characteristics Std 95% CI Total Estimated Std 95% CI Total Estimated Std 95% CI Total Estimated
Mean Mean Mean
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 2.72 0.13 2.46 2.97 1,435 2,697,449 0.70 0.04 0.62 0.77 1,435 2,697,449 3.62 0.23 3.17 4.08 1,435 2,697,449
Lower secondary
school (PMR) 2.90 0.13 2.64 3.15 1,482 2,880,629 0.88 0.05 0.78 0.98 1,482 2,880,629 4.56 0.38 3.82 5.3 1,482 2,880,629
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 3.63 0.13 3.37 3.89 2,304 4,901,071 1.06 0.04 0.98 1.15 2,304 4,901,071 5.33 0.29 4.77 5.9 2,304 4,901,071
Matriculation/Form 6 4.78 0.60 3.60 5.96 360 786,855 1.41 0.11 1.18 1.63 360 786,855 6.76 0.56 5.66 7.85 360 786,855
College/University 5.84 0.23 5.38 6.30 974 2,195,190 1.97 0.09 1.78 2.15 974 2,195,190 9.75 0.49 8.79 10.72 974 2,195,190
Others 2.76 0.31 2.15 3.37 363 691,410 0.66 0.10 0.47 0.85 363 691,410 3.25 0.44 2.38 4.12 363 691,410
Marital status
Unmarried 4.28 0.20 3.90 4.67 1,856 4,415,265 1.39 0.07 1.25 1.52 1,856 4,415,265 7.00 0.41 6.20 7.8 1,856 4,415,265
Married 3.44 0.08 3.28 3.59 4,829 9,172,330 0.97 0.03 0.92 1.02 4,829 9,172,330 4.93 0.16 4.62 5.24 4,829 9,172,330
Divorced 2.80 0.76 1.30 4.29 85 212,824 0.78 0.15 0.49 1.08 85 212,824 3.32 0.72 1.90 4.73 85 212,824
Widow 2.63 0.37 1.90 3.36 151 364,469 0.89 0.19 0.52 1.26 151 364,469 3.14 0.46 2.23 4.04 151 364,469
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 3.27 0.13 3.03 3.52 3,613 7,160,146 0.88 0.04 0.81 0.95 3,613 7,160,146 4.50 0.22 4.07 4.92 3,613 7,160,146
RM1500 - RM3500 3.70 0.13 3.45 3.95 2,362 4,960,834 1.16 0.04 1.08 1.24 2,362 4,960,834 5.74 0.26 5.24 6.24 2,362 4,960,834
More than RM3500 4.98 0.20 4.59 5.38 952 2,055,420 1.70 0.10 1.50 1.91 952 2,055,420 8.46 0.60 7.29 9.63 952 2,055,420
BMI Status
Underweight 3.58 0.24 3.11 4.06 628 1,371,798 1.23 0.10 1.04 1.42 628 1,371,798 6.51 0.79 4.96 8.07 628 1,371,798
Normal 3.85 0.12 3.62 4.09 3,366 6,985,081 1.15 0.04 1.07 1.24 3,366 6,985,081 5.77 0.24 5.29 6.24 3,366 6,985,081
Overweight 3.60 0.18 3.26 3.95 1,907 3,786,835 1.01 0.04 0.92 1.09 1,907 3,786,835 4.92 0.24 4.45 5.38 1,907 3,786,835
Obese 3.37 0.18 3.01 3.73 865 1,722,318 0.95 0.06 0.83 1.08 865 1,722,318 5.27 0.47 4.34 6.20 865 1,722,318

117
Table 9: Total time spent sleeping

118
Total Men Women
Characteristics Sleeping Std 95% CI Total Estimated Sleeping Std 95% CI Total Estimated Sleeping Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Malaysia 460.29 1.69 456.98 463.61 6,926 14,172,476 456.94 2.69 451.67 462.21 3,343 7,210,108 463.77 2.03 459.80 467.74 3,583 6,962,369
Zone
Southern 462.71 3.96 454.94 470.48 1,329 2,972,294 463.66 6.44 451.03 476.28 624 1,524,151 461.72 4.47 452.95 470.49 705 1,448,143
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 456.10 3.05 450.13 462.08 2,319 5,383,135 449.80 4.73 440.52 459.07 1,159 2,757,054 462.72 3.76 455.35 470.10 1,160 2,626,081
East Coast 455.26 5.04 445.38 465.14 943 1,616,847 452.54 8.48 435.91 469.17 453 831,825 458.14 5.23 447.89 468.40 490 785,022
Northern 462.27 3.63 455.16 469.39 893 1,886,983 459.62 5.67 448.51 470.73 417 918,873 464.79 4.57 455.83 473.76 476 968,110
Sabah 471.26 4.45 462.53 479.99 737 1,121,712 465.78 6.90 452.26 479.31 359 568,661 476.89 5.74 465.63 488.15 378 553,051
Sarawak 466.58 4.32 458.11 475.04 705 1,191,505 466.16 6.19 454.02 478.30 331 609,544 467.01 6.05 455.14 478.88 374 581,962
Strata
Urban 460.29 2.30 455.79 464.80 3,700 8,438,717 455.03 3.63 447.91 462.14 1,807 4,286,916 465.73 2.81 460.23 471.23 1,893 4,151,801
Rural 460.29 2.40 455.60 464.99 3,226 5,733,760 459.74 3.83 452.23 467.26 1,536 2,923,192 460.87 2.82 455.34 466.40 1,690 2,810,568
Sex
Men 456.94 2.69 451.67 462.21 3,343 7,210,108
Women 463.77 2.03 459.80 467.74 3,583 6,962,369
Age group (Years)
18 19 488.50 8.41 472.01 504.99 382 951,999 477.54 13.80 450.50 504.59 191 482,168 499.74 9.11 481.89 517.60 191 469,831
20 29 470.06 2.96 464.27 475.85 2,047 4,249,026 465.79 4.56 456.85 474.73 990 2,161,113 474.48 3.72 467.20 481.77 1,057 2,087,913
30 39 448.08 2.57 443.04 453.11 1,989 3,652,222 445.27 4.03 437.37 453.18 919 1,851,420 450.96 3.12 444.85 457.07 1,070 1,800,803
40 49 446.48 2.80 440.99 451.97 1,546 2,902,558 441.76 4.13 433.66 449.85 769 1,481,407 451.40 3.75 444.06 458.75 777 1,421,151
50 59 451.78 3.82 444.30 459.26 895 1,794,884 447.93 5.65 436.86 459.00 447 917,697 455.80 5.09 445.83 465.77 448 877,187
Ethnic group
Malay 441.90 2.16 437.66 446.15 3,727 7,711,757 441.20 3.51 434.33 448.07 1,823 3,978,731 442.65 2.45 437.85 447.46 1,904 3,733,026
Chinese 491.04 3.33 484.51 497.57 1,591 3,537,879 486.89 5.01 477.06 496.71 756 1,781,201 495.26 4.38 486.68 503.83 835 1,756,678
Indian 464.15 6.14 452.11 476.19 632 1,372,449 448.75 9.65 429.83 467.67 299 669,482 478.82 7.43 464.26 493.38 333 702,967
Orang Asli PM 612.31 38.12 537.58 687.04 29 69,202 643.35 53.24 538.98 747.72 12 38,171 574.12 24.92 525.26 622.98 17 31,032
Sabah Bumiputera 470.65 6.34 458.21 483.09 398 581,075 462.91 9.12 445.02 480.79 187 275,841 477.65 8.90 460.20 495.10 211 305,235
Sarawak Bumiputera 469.99 5.65 458.92 481.06 390 619,696 462.69 8.48 446.06 479.32 191 317,936 477.67 7.27 463.42 491.93 199 301,760
Other Bumiputera 478.85 9.75 459.73 497.97 159 280,418 484.96 15.78 454.03 515.90 75 148,746 471.95 9.91 452.51 491.39 84 131,672
Table 9: continue

Total Men Women


Characteristics Sleeping Std 95% CI Total Estimated Sleeping Std 95% CI Total Estimated Sleeping Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 466.99 2.95 461.21 472.77 1,435 2,697,449


Lower secondary
school (PMR) 466.40 3.69 459.18 473.63 1,482 2,880,629
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 453.80 2.70 448.50 459.09 2,304 4,901,071
Matriculation/Form 6 443.34 9.04 425.63 461.06 360 786,855
College/University 458.24 4.80 448.83 467.65 975 2,196,924
Others 479.05 9.86 459.73 498.37 363 691,410
Marital status
Unmarried 482.60 3.88 475.00 490.20 1,857 4,417,000
Married 450.22 1.65 446.98 453.46 4,829 9,172,330
Divorced 439.22 13.91 411.95 466.49 85 212,824
Widow 450.93 8.51 434.25 467.61 151 364,469
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 463.27 2.38 458.61 467.93 3613 7,160,146
RM1500 - RM3500 456.18 2.66 450.97 461.39 2363 4,962,569
More than RM3500 458.87 4.87 449.33 468.42 952 2,055,420
BMI Status
Underweight 490.13 5.96 478.45 501.81 631 1,379,652 498.26 9.34 479.95 516.58 297 668,889 482.47 7.34 468.07 496.86 334 710,763
Normal 464.15 2.50 459.24 469.05 3,419 7,083,985 457.87 3.94 450.16 465.59 1,723 3,735,606 471.15 2.95 465.37 476.93 1,696 3,348,379
Overweight 450.27 2.75 444.88 455.67 1,943 3,859,895 445.81 3.97 438.03 453.59 971 2,051,154 455.34 3.75 448.00 462.68 972 1,808,741
Obese 441.37 4.64 432.27 450.46 901 1,793,660 441.98 9.23 423.88 460.07 336 721,533 440.96 4.64 431.87 450.04 565 1,072,127

119
Table 10: Total time spent working

120
Total Men Women
Characteristics Working Std 95% CI Total Estimated Working Std 95% CI Total Estimated Working Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Malaysia 212.49 3.32 205.98 219.00 6,926 14,172,476 281.02 4.95 271.32 290.72 3,343 7,210,108 141.51 4.14 133.39 149.64 3,583 6,962,369
Zone
Southern 216.72 7.28 202.45 230.99 1,329 2,972,294 285.95 11.29 263.83 308.08 624 1,524,151 143.85 8.65 126.89 160.82 705 1,448,143
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 217.42 5.86 205.93 228.90 2,319 5,383,135 280.19 8.81 262.92 297.46 1,159 2,757,054 151.51 7.51 136.78 166.24 1,160 2,626,081
East Coast 195.73 8.66 178.76 212.69 943 1,616,847 255.84 11.82 232.67 279.00 453 831,825 132.03 12.03 108.45 155.61 490 785,022
Northern 205.28 9.42 186.82 223.73 893 1,886,983 288.68 14.01 261.20 316.15 417 918,873 126.12 10.60 105.35 146.90 476 968,110
Sabah 191.37 8.25 175.20 207.55 737 1,121,712 247.78 11.48 225.29 270.28 359 568,661 133.37 11.22 111.37 155.38 378 553,051
Sarawak 233.67 10.41 213.27 254.08 705 1,191,505 326.23 14.62 297.58 354.88 331 609,544 136.73 11.96 113.29 160.18 374 581,962
Strata
Urban 217.99 4.55 209.08 226.91 3,700 8,438,717 289.98 6.95 276.35 303.62 1,807 4,286,916 143.66 5.47 132.94 154.37 1,893 4,151,801
Rural 204.38 4.70 195.17 213.60 3,226 5,733,760 267.87 6.70 254.73 281.01 1,536 2,923,192 138.35 6.35 125.91 150.79 1,690 2,810,568
Sex
Men 281.02 4.95 271.32 290.72 3,343 7,210,108
Women 141.51 4.14 133.39 149.64 3,583 6,962,369
Age group (Years)
18 19 202.34 12.85 177.14 227.53 382 951,999 218.53 19.24 180.82 256.24 191 482,168 185.72 17.05 152.29 219.14 191 469,831
20 29 213.52 5.85 202.05 225.00 2,047 4,249,026 272.05 9.01 254.39 289.72 990 2,161,113 152.94 7.31 138.61 167.27 1,057 2,087,913
30 39 223.55 5.80 212.17 234.93 1,989 3,652,222 315.58 8.25 299.41 331.76 919 1,851,420 128.93 6.64 115.91 141.95 1,070 1,800,803
40 49 230.74 6.67 217.65 243.82 1,546 2,902,558 307.68 9.06 289.92 325.44 769 1,481,407 150.53 8.66 133.55 167.51 777 1,421,151
50 59 169.84 8.22 153.72 185.96 895 1,794,884 244.72 12.10 221.00 268.45 447 917,697 91.49 9.24 73.39 109.60 448 877,187
Ethnic group
Malay 202.82 4.41 194.18 211.46 3,727 7,711,757 263.28 6.54 250.46 276.10 1,823 3,978,731 138.38 5.66 127.28 149.48 1,904 3,733,026
Chinese 229.38 7.05 215.56 243.19 1,591 3,537,879 314.79 10.48 294.25 335.33 756 1,781,201 142.77 7.96 127.16 158.38 835 1,756,678
Indian 243.65 12.19 219.76 267.54 632 1,372,449 328.12 17.93 292.97 363.27 299 669,482 163.20 16.00 131.83 194.58 333 702,967
Orang Asli PM 136.67 34.35 69.34 204.00 29 69,202 160.74 43.89 74.71 246.78 12 38,171 107.05 42.81 23.14 190.97 17 31,032
Sabah Bumiputera 177.99 11.18 156.07 199.90 398 581,075 226.86 15.40 196.66 257.05 187 275,841 133.82 15.59 103.27 164.38 211 305,235
Sarawak Bumiputera 213.89 12.67 189.05 238.72 390 619,696 290.98 17.33 257.02 324.94 191 317,936 132.66 15.47 102.34 162.98 199 301,760
Other Bumiputera 199.79 17.61 165.28 234.31 159 280,418 249.17 25.88 198.43 299.90 75 148,746 144.01 24.08 96.81 191.22 84 131,672
Table 10: continue

Total Men Women


Characteristics Working Std 95% CI Total Estimated Working Std 95% CI Total Estimated Working Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 195.05 6.97 181.39 208.70 1,435 2,697,449


Lower secondary
school (PMR) 232.07 7.59 217.18 246.95 1,482 2,880,629
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 225.86 5.92 214.25 237.48 2,304 4,901,071
Matriculation/Form 6 224.85 13.96 197.48 252.21 360 786,855
College/University 192.84 7.45 178.24 207.45 975 2,196,924
Others 160.77 14.58 132.18 189.35 363 691,410
Marital status
Unmarried 233.33 6.93 219.74 246.91 1,857 4,417,000
Married 203.75 3.76 196.37 211.13 4,829 9,172,330
Divorced 238.60 27.62 184.46 292.75 85 212,824
Widow 173.15 20.75 132.47 213.83 151 364,469
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 198.09 4.37 189.52 206.66 3,937 7,862,673
RM1500 - RM3500 233.79 6.32 221.40 246.18 2,039 4,278,230
More than RM3500 226.00 8.58 209.18 242.83 952 2,037,232
BMI Status
Underweight 191.31 10.63 170.48 212.15 631 1,379,652 222.78 16.60 190.24 255.33 297 668,889 161.70 13.56 135.12 188.28 334 710,763
Normal 225.49 4.73 216.22 234.75 3,419 7,083,985 295.05 6.65 282.00 308.09 1,723 3,735,606 146.90 6.03 135.08 158.72 1,695 3,345,214
Overweight 208.93 6.35 196.48 221.38 1,943 3,859,895 283.81 9.03 266.11 301.52 971 2,051,154 124.01 7.97 108.40 139.63 972 1,808,741
Obese 188.44 8.68 171.42 205.46 901 1,793,660 260.36 15.68 229.62 291.11 336 721,533 140.04 10.22 120.01 160.07 565 1,072,127

121
Table 11: Total time spent watching television

122
Total Men Women

Characteristics Watching 95% CI Watching 95% CI Watching 95% CI


Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated
TV/ Video TV/ Video TV/ Video
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population
(minutes) (minutes) (minutes)

Malaysia 156.15 2.02 152.18 160.12 6,926 14,172,476 150.70 2.97 144.87 156.53 3,343 7,210,108 161.79 2.73 156.44 167.15 3,583 6,962,369
Zone
Southern 165.07 3.88 157.47 172.68 1,329 2,972,294 158.72 5.63 147.69 169.75 624 1,524,151 171.76 5.29 161.40 182.12 705 1,448,143
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 157.80 3.80 150.35 165.26 2,319 5,383,135 151.00 5.52 140.17 161.83 1,159 2,757,054 164.95 5.24 154.68 175.22 1,160 2,626,081
East Coast 143.11 5.10 133.12 153.11 943 1,616,847 142.81 7.27 128.56 157.05 453 831,825 143.44 7.10 129.52 157.36 490 785,022
Northern 162.86 5.83 151.44 174.28 893 1,886,983 153.53 9.26 135.38 171.69 417 918,873 171.72 7.15 157.70 185.74 476 968,110
Sabah 167.44 6.00 155.67 179.21 737 1,121,712 167.01 8.21 150.90 183.11 359 568,661 167.88 8.19 151.83 183.94 378 553,051
Sarawak 122.86 4.64 113.76 131.96 705 1,191,505 120.61 7.18 106.54 134.68 331 609,544 125.22 5.74 113.97 136.47 374 581,962
Strata
Urban 162.69 2.79 157.22 168.15 3,700 8,438,717 154.94 4.07 146.97 162.91 1,807 4,286,916 170.69 3.78 163.28 178.10 1,893 4,151,801
Rural 146.53 2.85 140.94 152.12 3,226 5,733,760 144.49 4.27 136.12 152.87 1,536 2,923,192 148.65 3.77 141.26 156.05 1,690 2,810,568
Sex
Men 150.70 2.97 144.87 156.53 3,343 7,210,108
Women 161.79 2.73 156.44 167.15 3,583 6,962,369
Age group (Years)
18 19 162.80 9.19 144.79 180.82 382 951,999 152.63 11.44 130.22 175.05 191 482,168 173.23 14.26 145.27 201.20 191 469,831
20 29 168.35 3.37 161.74 174.95 2,047 4,249,026 160.09 4.76 150.77 169.41 990 2,161,113 176.89 4.75 167.58 186.21 1,057 2,087,913
30 39 145.58 2.98 139.74 151.42 1,989 3,652,222 141.76 4.34 133.26 150.25 919 1,851,420 149.51 4.06 141.56 157.46 1,070 1,800,803
40 49 144.43 3.48 137.60 151.27 1,546 2,902,558 133.86 4.81 124.43 143.30 769 1,481,407 155.45 4.99 145.67 165.23 777 1,421,151
50 59 154.70 5.16 144.57 164.82 895 1,794,884 154.22 6.92 140.65 167.79 447 917,697 155.20 7.69 140.13 170.26 448 877,187
Ethnic group
Malay 155.83 2.66 150.62 161.05 3,727 7,711,757 149.77 3.85 142.22 157.33 1,823 3,978,731 162.30 3.63 155.18 169.41 1,904 3,733,026
Chinese 163.38 4.30 154.96 171.80 1,591 3,537,879 152.81 6.41 140.24 165.38 756 1,781,201 174.10 5.64 163.04 185.17 835 1,756,678
Indian 150.95 7.59 136.07 165.83 632 1,372,449 157.69 11.19 135.75 179.62 299 669,482 144.53 10.17 124.60 164.47 333 702,967
Orang Asli PM 57.73 29.33 0.23 115.23 29 69,202 60.59 48.85 -35.16 156.35 12 38,171 54.20 27.41 0.48 107.93 17 31,032
Sabah Bumiputera 160.05 7.59 145.16 174.94 398 581,075 154.94 10.52 134.31 175.57 187 275,841 164.67 10.75 143.59 185.75 211 305,235
Sarawak Bumiputera 132.28 6.98 118.59 145.97 390 619,696 132.97 10.64 112.11 153.82 191 317,936 131.55 8.96 113.98 149.12 199 301,760
Other Bumiputera 168.08 11.95 144.66 191.51 159 280,418 172.08 16.71 139.32 204.85 75 148,746 163.56 16.47 131.27 195.85 84 131,672
Table 11: continue

Total Men Women

Characteristics Watching 95% CI Watching 95% CI Watching 95% CI


Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated
TV/ Video TV/ Video TV/ Video
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population
(minutes) (minutes) (minutes)

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 149.38 3.61 142.31 156.45 1,435 2,697,449


Lower secondary
school (PMR) 160.45 4.15 152.31 168.59 1,482 2,880,629
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 163.84 3.58 156.82 170.86 2,304 4,901,071
Matriculation/Form 6 134.25 7.10 120.34 148.17 360 786,855
College/University 154.30 6.33 141.88 166.71 975 2,196,924
Others 141.13 9.58 122.35 159.91 363 691,410
Marital status
Unmarried 171.29 4.75 161.99 180.60 1,857 4,417,000
Married 150.44 2.05 146.41 154.46 4,829 9,172,330
Divorced 131.02 11.88 107.73 154.32 85 212,824
Widow 132.45 11.95 109.03 155.87 151 364,469
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 157.25 2.74 151.88 162.63 3613 7,160,146
RM1500 - RM3500 161.47 3.46 154.69 168.25 2363 4,962,569
More than RM3500 139.32 5.77 128.01 150.62 952 2,055,420
BMI Status
Underweight 174.80 8.22 158.68 190.93 631 1,379,652 179.91 12.90 154.62 205.21 297 668,889 170.00 10.28 149.85 190.14 334 710,763
Normal 152.19 2.73 146.82 157.55 3,419 7,083,985 143.63 3.73 136.31 150.95 1,723 3,735,606 161.73 3.97 153.95 169.51 1,696 3,348,379
Overweight 153.06 3.63 145.94 160.17 1,943 3,859,895 149.43 5.03 139.58 159.29 971 2,051,154 157.16 5.26 146.85 167.47 972 1,808,741
Obese 163.95 6.02 152.15 175.75 901 1,793,660 163.67 12.00 140.15 187.19 336 721,533 164.14 6.03 152.32 175.95 565 1,072,127

123
Table 12: Total time spent on resting activity

124
Total Men Women
Characteristics Resting Std 95% CI Total Estimated Resting Std 95% CI Total Estimated Resting Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Malaysia 115.01 1.47 112.13 117.89 6,926 14,172,476 112.74 2.07 108.69 116.79 3,343 7,210,108 117.36 2.11 113.22 121.50 3,583 6,962,369
Zone
Southern 89.15 2.72 83.81 94.49 1,329 2,972,294 91.11 4.11 83.05 99.17 624 1,524,151 87.09 3.52 80.19 93.98 705 1,448,143
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 114.02 2.49 109.14 118.91 2,319 5,383,135 110.49 3.54 103.55 117.43 1,159 2,757,054 117.74 3.49 110.89 124.58 1,160 2,626,081
East Coast 139.37 4.85 129.87 148.88 943 1,616,847 137.67 6.40 125.12 150.22 453 831,825 141.18 7.34 126.78 155.58 490 785,022
Northern 136.66 4.40 128.04 145.28 893 1,886,983 129.90 6.25 117.64 142.16 417 918,873 143.08 6.14 131.04 155.12 476 968,110
Sabah 111.66 4.28 103.28 120.05 737 1,121,712 115.62 5.58 104.69 126.55 359 568,661 107.59 6.46 94.93 120.26 378 553,051
Sarawak 119.78 4.71 110.56 129.01 705 1,191,505 114.48 5.79 103.13 125.82 331 609,544 125.35 7.48 110.69 140.00 374 581,962
Strata
Urban 105.62 1.89 101.93 109.32 3,700 8,438,717 103.88 2.70 98.58 109.18 1,807 4,286,916 107.42 2.64 102.25 112.59 1,893 4,151,801
Rural 128.83 2.32 124.27 133.38 3,226 5,733,760 125.74 3.15 119.56 131.91 1,536 2,923,192 132.04 3.44 125.29 138.79 1,690 2,810,568
Sex
Men 112.74 2.07 108.69 116.79 3,343 7,210,108
Women 117.36 2.11 113.22 121.50 3,583 6,962,369
Age group (Years)
18 19 102.27 5.64 91.22 113.33 382 951,999 109.38 7.65 94.38 124.39 191 482,168 94.98 8.11 79.07 110.88 191 469,831
20 29 106.65 2.47 101.81 111.49 2,047 4,249,026 102.57 3.51 95.69 109.45 990 2,161,113 110.87 3.50 104.02 117.72 1,057 2,087,913
30 39 107.78 2.36 103.15 112.41 1,989 3,652,222 103.04 3.16 96.84 109.23 919 1,851,420 112.65 3.55 105.70 119.60 1,070 1,800,803
40 49 118.37 2.85 112.78 123.97 1,546 2,902,558 123.73 4.08 115.73 131.73 769 1,481,407 112.79 3.98 104.99 120.59 777 1,421,151
50 59 152.07 5.16 141.95 162.19 895 1,794,884 144.87 6.86 131.42 158.32 447 917,697 159.61 7.72 144.47 174.74 448 877,187
Ethnic group
Malay 122.87 2.04 118.88 126.86 3,727 7,711,757 121.01 2.90 115.33 126.70 1,823 3,978,731 124.84 2.87 119.21 130.48 1,904 3,733,026
Chinese 98.59 2.78 93.14 104.04 1,591 3,537,879 92.97 3.77 85.59 100.35 756 1,781,201 104.28 4.07 96.30 112.26 835 1,756,678
Indian 102.19 4.88 92.62 111.77 632 1,372,449 91.56 6.02 79.77 103.35 299 669,482 112.32 7.56 97.51 127.14 333 702,967
Orang Asli PM 240.71 29.84 182.23 299.20 29 69,202 255.63 37.80 181.53 329.73 12 38,171 222.36 50.56 123.26 321.47 17 31,032
Sabah Bumiputera 105.04 5.49 94.28 115.80 398 581,075 124.61 7.43 110.04 139.18 187 275,841 87.35 7.42 72.81 101.89 211 305,235
Sarawak Bumiputera 127.49 6.30 115.13 139.84 390 619,696 130.11 8.78 112.90 147.33 191 317,936 124.72 9.13 106.82 142.63 199 301,760
Other Bumiputera 130.98 11.07 109.27 152.68 159 280,418 127.86 16.13 96.23 159.48 75 148,746 134.50 15.09 104.93 164.08 84 131,672
Table 12: continue

Total Men Women


Characteristics Resting Std 95% CI Total Estimated Resting Std 95% CI Total Estimated Resting Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 128.72 3.55 121.76 135.68 1,435 2,697,449


Lower secondary
school (PMR) 136.69 4.34 128.18 145.20 1,482 2,880,629
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 195.05 6.97 181.39 208.70 2,304 4,901,071
Matriculation/Form 6 15.55 1.58 12.46 18.64 360 786,855
College/University 32.40 2.28 27.93 36.87 975 2,196,924
Others 19.18 0.79 17.64 20.73 363 691,410
Marital status
Unmarried 104.30 2.81 98.80 109.81 1,857 4,417,000
Married 119.34 1.74 115.93 122.75 4,829 9,172,330
Divorced 102.60 11.33 80.39 124.82 85 212,824
Widow 145.99 13.77 119.01 172.98 151 364,469
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 125.01 2.23 120.64 129.38 3,613 7,160,146
RM1500 - RM3500 104.67 2.32 100.12 109.22 2,363 4,962,569
More than RM3500 105.37 3.45 98.61 112.14 952 2,055,420
BMI Status
Underweight 108.43 4.87 98.88 117.98 631 1,379,652 107.27 6.85 93.84 120.69 297 668,889 109.53 6.92 95.96 123.10 334 710,763
Normal 114.22 2.05 110.21 118.24 3,419 7,083,985 113.15 2.83 107.60 118.70 1,723 3,735,606 115.42 2.98 109.59 121.26 1,696 3,348,379
Overweight 114.38 2.71 109.06 119.69 1,943 3,859,895 110.79 3.62 103.68 117.89 971 2,051,154 118.44 4.08 110.44 126.45 972 1,808,741
Obese 123.96 4.86 114.44 133.48 901 1,793,660 118.40 8.33 102.07 134.74 336 721,533 127.70 5.84 116.24 139.15 565 1,072,127

125
Table 13: Total time spent on housework

126
Total Men Women
Characteristics Housework Std 95% CI Total Estimated Housework Std 95% CI Total Estimated Housework Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Malaysia 105.86 1.94 102.06 109.66 6,926 14,172,476 24.64 1.14 22.40 26.88 3,343 7,210,108 189.97 2.84 184.41 195.54 3,583 6,962,369
Zone
Southern 110.05 4.63 100.98 119.12 1,329 2,972,294 24.22 2.20 19.90 28.54 624 1,524,151 200.39 6.02 188.59 212.19 705 1,448,143
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 100.21 3.28 93.79 106.64 2,319 5,383,135 25.65 2.15 21.43 29.87 1,159 2,757,054 178.49 5.11 168.48 188.50 1,160 2,626,081
East Coast 106.65 5.00 96.85 116.44 943 1,616,847 21.56 2.35 16.94 26.17 453 831,825 196.81 7.96 181.20 212.42 490 785,022
Northern 103.43 4.97 93.68 113.18 893 1,886,983 20.43 3.37 13.82 27.05 417 918,873 182.20 7.05 168.39 196.02 476 968,110
Sabah 120.50 6.03 108.68 132.32 737 1,121,712 35.02 4.01 27.15 42.89 359 568,661 208.40 7.77 193.17 223.62 378 553,051
Sarawak 109.93 6.32 97.54 122.33 705 1,191,505 21.96 2.71 16.65 27.28 331 609,544 202.08 9.02 184.40 219.75 374 581,962
Strata
Urban 102.20 2.64 97.02 107.38 3,700 8,438,717 25.00 1.59 21.88 28.11 1,807 4,286,916 181.91 3.86 174.35 189.47 1,893 4,151,801
Rural 111.25 2.76 105.83 116.67 3,226 5,733,760 24.11 1.56 21.06 27.16 1,536 2,923,192 201.88 4.09 193.87 209.89 1,690 2,810,568
Sex
Men 24.64 1.14 22.40 26.88 3,343 7,210,108
Women 189.97 2.84 184.41 195.54 3,583 6,962,369
Age group (Years)
18 19 57.22 5.87 45.71 68.73 382 951,999 17.73 3.34 11.18 24.27 191 482,168 97.75 10.13 77.89 117.61 191 469,831
20 29 88.96 3.22 82.64 95.27 2,047 4,249,026 19.48 1.85 15.86 23.10 990 2,161,113 160.87 4.59 151.87 169.87 1,057 2,087,913
30 39 122.01 3.42 115.30 128.71 1,989 3,652,222 25.29 2.06 21.26 29.32 919 1,851,420 221.44 4.53 212.55 230.32 1,070 1,800,803
40 49 124.27 4.11 116.21 132.33 1,546 2,902,558 27.27 2.38 22.61 31.93 769 1,481,407 225.38 5.75 214.11 236.66 777 1,421,151
50 59 124.74 5.56 113.84 135.65 895 1,794,884 37.06 3.52 30.16 43.95 447 917,697 216.48 8.13 200.55 232.41 448 877,187
Ethnic group
Malay 110.30 2.74 104.93 115.67 3,727 7,711,757 26.04 1.58 22.93 29.14 1,823 3,978,731 200.11 3.84 192.59 207.63 1,904 3,733,026
Chinese 90.75 3.53 83.83 97.68 1,591 3,537,879 20.45 2.17 16.19 24.71 756 1,781,201 162.04 5.46 151.33 172.75 835 1,756,678
Indian 102.91 6.43 90.30 115.53 632 1,372,449 18.32 3.56 11.34 25.31 299 669,482 183.47 10.30 163.28 203.66 333 702,967
Orang Asli PM 87.02 32.90 22.53 151.52 29 69,202 33.04 26.88 -19.65 85.73 12 38,171 153.43 44.38 66.43 240.44 17 31,032
Sabah Bumiputera 135.17 8.50 118.51 151.83 398 581,075 38.86 5.87 27.35 50.38 187 275,841 222.21 11.29 200.08 244.34 211 305,235
Sarawak Bumiputera 116.87 8.15 100.90 132.84 390 619,696 26.83 3.48 20.00 33.65 191 317,936 211.74 11.82 188.58 234.91 199 301,760
Other Bumiputera 108.33 13.67 81.53 135.12 159 280,418 32.51 9.91 13.09 51.93 75 148,746 193.97 14.11 166.32 221.63 84 131,672
Table 13: continue

Total Men Women


Characteristics Housework Std 95% CI Total Estimated Housework Std 95% CI Total Estimated Housework Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 136.69 4.34 128.18 1,45.20 1,435 2,697,449


Lower secondary
school (PMR) 106.43 4.04 98.50 1,14.35 1,482 2,880,629
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 104.35 3.40 97.68 1,11.03 2,304 4,901,071
Matriculation/Form 6 104.83 7.03 91.05 1,18.60 360 786,855
College/University 55.40 3.46 48.62 62.18 975 2,196,924
Others 158.55 9.46 140.01 1,77.10 363 691,410
Marital status
Unmarried 48.15 2.62 43.02 53.28 1,857 4,417,000
Married 130.19 2.33 125.62 1,34.76 4,829 9,172,330
Divorced 152.05 15.03 122.59 181.51 85 212,824
Widow 173.97 13.46 147.57 200.36 151 364,469
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 118.75 2.87 113.13 1,24.37 3,613 7,160,146
RM1500 - RM3500 96.02 3.12 89.90 102.13 2,363 4,962,569
More than RM3500 85.78 4.65 76.68 94.89 952 2,055,420
BMI Status
Underweight 80.64 5.52 69.82 91.46 631 1,379,652 15.83 2.81 10.33 21.33 297 668,889 141.63 8.55 124.88 1,58.38 334 710,763
Normal 98.10 2.67 92.87 103.34 3,419 7,083,985 23.17 1.51 20.20 26.13 1,723 3,735,606 181.70 4.18 173.52 1,89.89 1,696 3,348,379
Overweight 116.62 3.65 109.47 123.76 1,943 3,859,895 29.11 2.40 24.41 33.82 971 2,051,154 215.84 5.27 205.52 2,26.17 972 1,808,741
Obese 133.42 5.58 122.49 144.36 901 1,793,660 25.85 3.01 19.95 31.74 336 721,533 205.82 6.95 192.20 219.44 565 1,072,127

127
Table 14: Total time spent eating

128
Total Men Women
Characteristics Meal time Std 95% CI Total Estimated Meal time Std 95% CI Total Estimated Meal time Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Malaysia 67.02 0.49 66.05 67.99 6,926 14,172,476 69.59 0.73 68.16 71.03 3,343 7,210,108 64.35 0.65 63.08 65.62 3,583 6,962,369
Zone
Southern 65.49 1.10 63.34 67.65 1,329 2,972,294 67.54 1.71 64.18 70.91 624 1,524,151 63.33 1.29 60.81 65.86 705 1,448,143
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 66.89 0.94 65.05 68.73 2,319 5,383,135 70.58 1.35 67.93 73.23 1,159 2,757,054 63.02 1.25 60.57 65.48 1,160 2,626,081
East Coast 63.37 1.17 61.07 65.66 943 1,616,847 66.87 1.65 63.64 70.11 453 831,825 59.65 1.61 56.49 62.81 490 785,022
Northern 64.37 1.14 62.13 66.61 893 1,886,983 65.13 1.70 61.80 68.46 417 918,873 63.65 1.54 60.62 66.67 476 968,110
Sabah 70.12 1.13 67.90 72.33 737 1,121,712 70.30 1.51 67.34 73.27 359 568,661 69.92 1.67 66.65 73.19 378 553,051
Sarawak 77.62 1.55 74.59 80.65 705 1,191,505 80.06 2.46 75.23 84.88 331 609,544 75.07 1.89 71.36 78.77 374 581,962
Strata
Urban 69.60 0.71 68.20 71.00 3,700 8,438,717 72.36 1.06 70.28 74.44 1,807 4,286,916 66.76 0.93 64.93 68.58 1,893 4,151,801
Rural 63.21 0.60 62.03 64.39 3,226 5,733,760 65.53 0.87 63.82 67.24 1,536 2,923,192 60.79 0.81 59.21 62.38 1,690 2,810,568
Sex
Men 69.59 0.73 68.16 71.03 3,343 7,210,108
Women 64.35 0.65 63.08 65.62 3,583 6,962,369
Age group (Years)
18 19 64.22 1.98 60.34 68.10 382 951,999 66.89 2.85 61.30 72.47 191 482,168 61.48 2.70 56.18 66.79 191 469,831
20 29 66.57 0.95 64.72 68.43 2,047 4,249,026 68.27 1.48 65.37 71.18 990 2,161,113 64.82 1.11 62.64 66.99 1,057 2,087,913
30 39 68.37 0.81 66.78 69.96 1,989 3,652,222 70.33 1.17 68.05 72.62 919 1,851,420 66.35 1.11 64.18 68.52 1,070 1,800,803
40 49 67.69 0.94 65.85 69.53 1,546 2,902,558 71.71 1.43 68.90 74.52 769 1,481,407 63.50 1.17 61.20 65.80 777 1,421,151
50 59 69.75 1.26 67.29 72.22 895 1,794,884 72.08 1.75 68.65 75.52 447 917,697 67.32 1.81 63.77 70.86 448 877,187
Ethnic group
Malay 63.64 0.71 62.24 65.03 3,727 7,711,757 66.89 1.05 64.84 68.94 1,823 3,978,731 60.17 0.90 58.41 61.94 1,904 3,733,026
Chinese 72.83 1.00 70.86 74.80 1,591 3,537,879 75.20 1.59 72.08 78.32 756 1,781,201 70.42 1.24 67.98 72.86 835 1,756,678
Indian 64.45 1.43 61.65 67.25 632 1,372,449 65.88 2.04 61.89 69.87 299 669,482 63.09 2.01 59.15 67.03 333 702,967
Orang Asli PM 51.60 3.82 44.11 59.09 29 69,202 55.07 4.62 46.00 64.13 12 38,171 47.34 5.01 37.52 57.16 17 31,032
Sabah Bumiputera 70.21 1.50 67.27 73.15 398 581,075 72.73 2.22 68.38 77.09 187 275,841 67.93 1.93 64.14 71.72 211 305,235
Sarawak Bumiputera 81.02 1.90 77.29 84.75 390 619,696 80.11 2.44 75.32 84.89 191 317,936 81.98 2.92 76.26 87.70 199 301,760
Other Bumiputera 65.48 2.39 60.79 70.17 159 280,418 66.98 3.18 60.74 73.22 75 148,746 63.79 3.35 57.23 70.35 84 131,672
Table 14: continue

Total Men Women


Characteristics Meal time Std 95% CI Total Estimated Meal time Std 95% CI Total Estimated Meal time Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 65.24 0.96 63.36 67.11 1,435 2,697,449


Lower secondary
school (PMR) 66.92 0.94 65.07 68.77 1,482 2,880,629
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 65.93 0.81 64.34 67.52 2,304 4,901,071
Matriculation/Form 6 65.83 1.98 61.94 69.72 360 786,855
College/University 73.69 1.57 70.61 76.78 975 2,196,924
Others 63.85 2.29 59.37 68.33 363 691,410
Marital status
Unmarried 65.24 1.10 63.09 67.40 1,857 4,417,000
Married 68.18 0.51 67.19 69.17 4,829 9,172,330
Divorced 64.36 5.58 53.42 75.30 85 212,824
Widow 64.42 3.96 56.65 72.19 151 364,469
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 64.65 0.66 63.36 65.95 3,613 7,160,146
RM1500 - RM3500 68.51 0.85 66.84 70.18 2,363 4,962,569
More than RM3500 72.27 1.41 69.51 75.03 952 2,055,420
BMI Status
Underweight 67.62 1.57 64.54 70.70 631 1,379,652 68.80 2.43 64.04 73.56 297 668,889 66.51 2.02 62.55 70.47 334 710,763
Normal 68.86 0.68 67.53 70.20 3,419 7,083,985 71.03 0.97 69.13 72.93 1,723 3,735,606 66.44 0.95 64.59 68.30 1,696 3,348,379
Overweight 65.92 0.91 64.14 67.71 1,943 3,859,895 67.93 1.27 65.45 70.41 971 2,051,154 63.65 1.29 61.11 66.18 972 1,808,741
Obese 61.63 1.39 58.91 64.36 901 1,793,660 67.52 2.52 62.57 72.46 336 721,533 57.67 1.58 54.57 60.78 565 1,072,127

129
Table 15: Total time spent on transportation-related activities

130
Total Men Women
Characteristics Transportation Std 95% CI Total Estimated Transportation Std 95% CI Total Estimated Transportation Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Malaysia 63.30 1.13 61.08 65.52 6,926 14,172,476 83.28 1.78 79.79 86.77 3,343 7,210,108 42.61 1.26 40.14 45.08 3,583 6,962,369
Zone
Southern 70.06 2.52 65.12 75.01 1,329 2,972,294 90.61 3.84 83.09 98.14 624 1,524,151 48.43 2.92 42.71 54.15 705 1,448,143
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 73.09 2.15 68.87 77.31 2,319 5,383,135 95.91 3.39 89.26 102.56 1,159 2,757,054 49.13 2.34 44.54 53.71 1,160 2,626,081
East Coast 55.65 2.67 50.41 60.88 943 1,616,847 75.88 4.29 67.47 84.30 453 831,825 34.21 2.74 28.83 39.59 490 785,022
Northern 48.90 2.23 44.53 53.27 893 1,886,983 65.97 3.39 59.32 72.61 417 918,873 32.70 2.50 27.80 37.60 476 968,110
Sabah 47.85 3.19 41.61 54.10 737 1,121,712 60.24 4.63 51.16 69.31 359 568,661 35.11 4.55 26.20 44.03 378 553,051
Sarawak 49.95 2.94 44.19 55.70 705 1,191,505 65.51 4.80 56.11 74.91 331 609,544 33.65 3.14 27.49 39.80 374 581,962
Strata
Urban 67.20 1.52 64.22 70.18 3,700 8,438,717 86.91 2.34 82.31 91.51 1,807 4,286,916 46.85 1.78 43.36 50.34 1,893 4,151,801
Rural 57.56 1.68 54.27 60.85 3,226 5,733,760 77.96 2.74 72.58 83.34 1,536 2,923,192 36.34 1.66 33.09 39.60 1,690 2,810,568
Sex
Men 83.28 1.78 79.79 86.77 3,343 7,210,108
Women 42.61 1.26 40.14 45.08 3,583 6,962,369
Age group (Years)
18 19 62.23 5.96 50.54 73.93 382 951,999 69.93 10.38 49.57 90.28 191 482,168 54.34 5.38 43.79 64.89 191 469,831
20 29 63.74 2.01 59.79 67.68 2,047 4,249,026 83.81 2.95 78.04 89.59 990 2,161,113 42.96 2.38 38.28 47.63 1,057 2,087,913
30 39 67.17 1.93 63.39 70.95 1,989 3,652,222 89.34 3.00 83.46 95.23 919 1,851,420 44.37 2.11 40.23 48.50 1,070 1,800,803
40 49 66.04 2.17 61.79 70.30 1,546 2,902,558 87.51 3.27 81.11 93.91 769 1,481,407 43.67 2.58 38.61 48.73 777 1,421,151
50 59 54.41 3.00 48.53 60.28 895 1,794,884 76.26 4.16 68.10 84.42 447 917,697 31.55 3.90 23.90 39.20 448 877,187
Ethnic group
Malay 65.16 1.51 62.20 68.12 3,727 7,711,757 87.50 2.30 82.99 92.01 1,823 3,978,731 41.35 1.63 38.15 44.55 1,904 3,733,026
Chinese 62.82 2.13 58.65 67.00 1,591 3,537,879 77.29 3.44 70.55 84.04 756 1,781,201 48.15 2.44 43.37 52.93 835 1,756,678
Indian 73.90 4.88 64.34 83.47 632 1,372,449 100.48 7.85 85.09 115.86 299 669,482 48.60 5.35 38.12 59.08 333 702,967
Orang Asli PM 17.32 7.86 1.92 32.72 29 69,202 22.77 14.21 -5.09 50.64 12 38,171 10.62 7.44 -3.97 25.21 17 31,032
Sabah Bumiputera 50.77 4.33 42.28 59.25 398 581,075 68.56 5.90 56.99 80.13 187 275,841 34.69 6.10 22.72 46.65 211 305,235
Sarawak Bumiputera 46.44 4.12 38.35 54.52 390 619,696 65.98 6.59 53.05 78.90 191 317,936 25.85 3.76 18.48 33.22 199 301,760
Other Bumiputera 40.85 7.23 26.68 55.01 159 280,418 44.48 9.48 25.90 63.06 75 148,746 36.74 11.42 14.34 59.13 84 131,672
Table 15: continue

Total Men Women


Characteristics Transportation Std 95% CI Total Estimated Transportation Std 95% CI Total Estimated Transportation Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 48.08 0.67 46.76 49.40 1,435 2,697,449


Lower secondary
school (PMR) 49.13 0.73 47.70 50.57 1,482 2,880,629
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 51.59 0.66 50.31 52.88 2,304 4,901,071
Matriculation/Form 6 54.14 1.50 51.20 57.07 360 786,855
College/University 53.40 0.91 51.62 55.17 975 2,196,924
Others 44.14 1.45 41.29 46.98 363 691,410
Marital status
Unmarried 67.30 2.35 62.69 71.91 1,857 4,417,000
Married 62.94 1.30 60.40 65.49 4,829 9,172,330
Divorced 51.68 6.47 39.00 64.35 85 212,824
Widow 33.89 5.48 23.14 44.63 151 364,469
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 51.59 1.48 48.68 54.49 3,613 7,160,146
RM1500 - RM3500 70.35 2.04 66.36 74.35 2,363 4,962,569
More than RM3500 87.71 3.11 81.61 93.81 952 2,055,420
BMI Status
Underweight 62.50 4.71 53.27 71.74 631 1,379,652 83.98 8.46 67.40 100.57 297 668,889 42.29 3.84 34.77 49.81 334 710,763
Normal 61.88 1.48 58.98 64.79 3,419 7,083,985 78.48 2.26 74.05 82.92 1,723 3,735,606 43.36 1.74 39.95 46.78 1,696 3,348,379
Overweight 68.98 2.26 64.54 73.42 1,943 3,859,895 90.23 3.23 83.90 96.56 971 2,051,154 44.88 2.88 39.23 50.53 972 1,808,741
Obese 58.74 2.65 53.53 63.94 901 1,793,660 89.80 4.80 80.40 99.20 336 721,533 37.83 2.80 32.34 43.32 565 1,072,127

131
Table 16: Total time spent on personal care activities

132
Total Men Women

Characteristics Personal 95% CI Personal 95% CI Personal 95% CI


Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated
activity activity activity
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population
(minutes) (minutes) (minutes)

Malaysia 50.47 0.35 49.78 51.16 6,926 14,172,476 49.96 0.50 48.97 50.95 3,343 7,210,108 50.99 0.49 50.04 51.95 3,583 6,962,369
Zone
Southern 46.48 0.67 45.16 47.80 1,329 2,972,294 47.37 0.94 45.52 49.22 624 1,524,151 45.55 0.94 43.70 47.39 705 1,448,143
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 50.57 0.60 49.39 51.75 2,319 5,383,135 50.51 0.84 48.86 52.15 1,159 2,757,054 50.64 0.87 48.94 52.34 1,160 2,626,081
East Coast 54.56 1.06 52.47 56.65 943 1,616,847 52.90 1.43 50.10 55.70 453 831,825 56.32 1.56 53.27 59.37 490 785,022
Northern 50.44 0.89 48.70 52.18 893 1,886,983 47.94 1.24 45.51 50.38 417 918,873 52.82 1.23 50.40 55.23 476 968,110
Sabah 50.83 1.46 47.97 53.69 737 1,121,712 51.13 2.47 46.29 55.97 359 568,661 50.52 1.50 47.59 53.46 378 553,051
Sarawak 54.12 1.11 51.93 56.30 705 1,191,505 51.94 1.70 48.61 55.27 331 609,544 56.40 1.36 53.74 59.05 374 581,962
Strata
Urban 50.20 0.46 49.29 51.11 3,700 8,438,717 50.04 0.65 48.77 51.32 1,807 4,286,916 50.36 0.66 49.07 51.65 1,893 4,151,801
Rural 50.87 0.54 49.82 51.92 3,226 5,733,760 49.84 0.80 48.28 51.40 1,536 2,923,192 51.93 0.71 50.53 53.33 1,690 2,810,568
Sex
Men 49.96 0.50 48.97 50.95 3,343 7,210,108
Women 50.99 0.49 50.04 51.95 3,583 6,962,369
Age group (Years)
18 19 54.14 1.42 51.36 56.92 382 951,999 49.86 1.86 46.21 53.51 191 482,168 58.53 2.12 54.37 62.69 191 469,831
20 29 52.17 0.65 50.90 53.44 2,047 4,249,026 50.29 0.88 48.57 52.02 990 2,161,113 54.11 0.94 52.27 55.95 1,057 2,087,913
30 39 48.98 0.59 47.81 50.14 1,989 3,652,222 49.72 0.86 48.04 51.41 919 1,851,420 48.21 0.82 46.61 49.81 1,070 1,800,803
40 49 49.33 0.67 48.02 50.64 1,546 2,902,558 50.32 0.90 48.55 52.10 769 1,481,407 48.29 0.98 46.37 50.22 777 1,421,151
50 59 49.42 0.92 47.62 51.22 895 1,794,884 50.30 1.25 47.85 52.76 447 917,697 48.50 1.35 45.85 51.14 448 877,187
Ethnic group
Malay 51.47 0.47 50.55 52.38 3,727 7,711,757 50.85 0.64 49.59 52.11 1,823 3,978,731 52.13 0.68 50.80 53.45 1,904 3,733,026
Chinese 47.45 0.69 46.11 48.80 1,591 3,537,879 46.44 0.99 44.51 48.38 756 1,781,201 48.48 0.95 46.62 50.34 835 1,756,678
Indian 50.33 1.18 48.01 52.65 632 1,372,449 50.49 1.73 47.10 53.87 299 669,482 50.19 1.62 47.01 53.36 333 702,967
Orang Asli PM 38.60 3.73 31.30 45.91 29 69,202 39.56 3.77 32.18 46.95 12 38,171 37.42 6.84 24.01 50.84 17 31,032
Sabah Bumiputera 51.40 1.29 48.87 53.92 398 581,075 49.38 1.87 45.71 53.06 187 275,841 53.22 1.74 49.81 56.63 211 305,235
Sarawak Bumiputera 54.83 1.45 51.98 57.68 390 619,696 52.79 1.85 49.17 56.40 191 317,936 56.98 2.20 52.68 61.29 199 301,760
Other Bumiputera 53.08 4.68 43.90 62.26 159 280,418 63.69 6.54 50.88 76.50 75 148,746 41.10 3.33 34.58 47.62 84 131,672
Table 16: continue

Total Men Women

Characteristics Personal 95% CI Personal 95% CI Personal 95% CI


Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated
activity activity activity
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population
(minutes) (minutes) (minutes)

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 48.08 0.67 46.76 49.40 1,435 2,697,449


Lower secondary
school (PMR) 49.13 0.73 47.70 50.57 1,482 2,880,629
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 51.59 0.66 50.31 52.88 2,304 4,901,071
Matriculation/Form 6 54.14 1.50 51.20 57.07 360 786,855
College/University 53.40 0.91 51.62 55.17 975 2,196,924
Others 43.88 1.43 41.07 46.69 362 688,245
Marital status
Unmarried 53.34 0.77 51.83 54.84 1,856 4,413,835
Married 49.12 0.38 48.39 49.86 4,829 9,172,330
Divorced 50.75 3.16 44.55 56.94 85 212,824
Widow 49.13 2.27 44.68 53.58 150 361,975
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 50.51 0.50 49.54 51.48 3,612 7,156,980
RM1500 - RM3500 50.39 0.61 49.19 51.58 2,363 4,962,569
More than RM3500 50.51 0.87 48.81 52.21 951 2,052,927
BMI Status
Underweight 51.89 1.30 49.33 54.44 631 1,379,652 47.73 1.71 44.37 51.08 297 668,889 55.81 1.84 52.20 59.41 334 710,763
Normal 50.39 0.50 49.40 51.38 3,418 7,080,819 49.89 0.72 48.48 51.30 1,723 3,735,606 50.95 0.70 49.58 52.32 1,695 3,345,214
Overweight 49.98 0.64 48.72 51.24 1,943 3,859,895 50.27 0.92 48.47 52.07 971 2,051,154 49.65 0.90 47.89 51.40 972 1,808,741
Obese 50.92 0.94 49.08 52.76 901 1,793,660 51.69 1.62 48.52 54.87 336 721,533 50.40 1.14 48.18 52.63 565 1,072,127

133
Table 17: Total time spent on activities related to moving about

134
Total Men Women

Characteristics Moving 95% CI Moving 95% CI Moving 95% CI


Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated
about about about
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population
(minutes) (minutes) (minutes)

Malaysia 49.37 0.42 48.55 50.20 6,926 14,172,476 50.19 0.66 48.90 51.48 3,343 7,210,108 48.53 0.52 47.50 49.56 3,583 6,962,369
Zone
Southern 50.38 0.84 48.74 52.02 1,329 2,972,294 51.34 1.18 49.02 53.65 624 1,524,151 49.37 1.19 47.04 51.70 705 1,448,143
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 45.67 0.70 44.30 47.05 2,319 5,383,135 45.96 1.12 43.76 48.16 1,159 2,757,054 45.38 0.83 43.75 47.00 1,160 2,626,081
East Coast 53.79 1.24 51.36 56.22 943 1,616,847 54.37 1.67 51.08 57.65 453 831,825 53.18 1.83 49.60 56.77 490 785,022
Northern 42.89 0.86 41.21 44.57 893 1,886,983 41.44 1.19 39.12 43.77 417 918,873 44.27 1.23 41.86 46.67 476 968,110
Sabah 60.89 1.85 57.26 64.51 737 1,121,712 65.68 2.89 60.02 71.34 359 568,661 55.95 2.00 52.03 59.87 378 553,051
Sarawak 57.01 1.51 54.05 59.97 705 1,191,505 59.50 2.52 54.55 64.45 331 609,544 54.41 1.49 51.49 57.32 374 581,962
Strata
Urban 49.02 0.56 47.93 50.12 3,700 8,438,717 49.90 0.88 48.17 51.62 1,807 4,286,916 48.12 0.67 46.80 49.44 1,893 4,151,801
Rural 49.89 0.65 48.62 51.16 3,226 5,733,760 50.62 1.00 48.67 52.58 1,536 2,923,192 49.13 0.83 47.50 50.75 1,690 2,810,568
Sex
Men 50.19 0.66 48.90 51.48 3,343 7,210,108
Women 48.53 0.52 47.50 49.56 3,583 6,962,369
Age group (Years)
18 19 52.06 1.87 48.40 55.72 382 951,999 55.01 3.02 49.09 60.92 191 482,168 49.04 2.01 45.09 52.99 191 469,831
20 29 47.69 0.68 46.35 49.03 2,047 4,249,026 48.51 1.02 46.51 50.52 990 2,161,113 46.84 0.90 45.07 48.61 1,057 2,087,913
30 39 48.51 0.63 47.26 49.75 1,989 3,652,222 48.42 0.92 46.61 50.22 919 1,851,420 48.60 0.87 46.88 50.31 1,070 1,800,803
40 49 50.03 0.76 48.55 51.52 1,546 2,902,558 51.04 1.13 48.83 53.26 769 1,481,407 48.98 1.01 47.00 50.96 777 1,421,151
50 59 50.62 1.08 48.50 52.75 895 1,794,884 51.41 1.39 48.69 54.14 447 917,697 49.80 1.67 46.52 53.07 448 877,187
Ethnic group
Malay 49.97 0.54 48.93 51.02 3,727 7,711,757 50.62 0.77 49.11 52.14 1,823 3,978,731 49.28 0.74 47.82 50.74 1,904 3,733,026
Chinese 46.01 0.93 44.19 47.83 1,591 3,537,879 46.10 1.61 42.95 49.25 756 1,781,201 45.91 0.91 44.12 47.70 835 1,756,678
Indian 45.42 1.21 43.05 47.78 632 1,372,449 44.74 1.52 41.76 47.71 299 669,482 46.07 1.86 42.42 49.71 333 702,967
Orang Asli PM 40.69 3.47 33.89 47.49 29 69,202 39.97 4.52 31.11 48.82 12 38,171 41.58 5.33 31.14 52.03 17 31,032
Sabah Bumiputera 58.68 1.91 54.93 62.44 398 581,075 64.40 2.68 59.14 69.66 187 275,841 53.52 2.60 48.42 58.61 211 305,235
Sarawak Bumiputera 57.92 1.68 54.63 61.21 390 619,696 60.54 2.57 55.50 65.58 191 317,936 55.16 2.12 51.02 59.31 199 301,760
Other Bumiputera 58.67 5.61 47.67 69.67 159 280,418 66.22 9.11 48.37 84.07 75 148,746 50.14 3.04 44.19 56.09 84 131,672
Table 17: continue

Total Men Women

Characteristics Moving 95% CI Moving 95% CI Moving 95% CI


Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated
about about about
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population
(minutes) (minutes) (minutes)

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 48.84 0.77 47.33 50.35 1,435 2,697,449


Lower secondary
school (PMR) 48.33 0.83 46.71 49.96 1,482 2,880,629
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 47.78 0.75 46.31 49.26 2,304 4,901,071
Matriculation/Form 6 48.80 1.46 45.94 51.66 360 786,855
College/University 53.43 1.29 50.91 55.95 975 2,196,924
Others 55.84 2.63 50.68 61.01 363 691,410
Marital status
Unmarried 50.60 1.00 48.63 52.56 1,857 4,417,000
Married 48.33 0.41 47.52 49.13 4,829 9,172,330
Divorced 55.11 2.58 50.06 60.17 85 212,824
Widow 61.36 4.24 53.04 69.67 151 364,469
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 50.56 0.62 49.35 51.77 3,613 7,160,146
RM1500 - RM3500 47.62 0.65 46.35 48.89 2,363 4,962,569
More than RM3500 50.17 1.31 47.60 52.73 952 2,055,420
BMI Status
Underweight 50.23 1.71 46.87 53.58 631 1,379,652 48.68 2.44 43.90 53.47 297 668,889 51.68 2.39 46.99 56.37 334 710,763
Normal 49.85 0.64 48.60 51.11 3,419 7,083,985 51.06 1.01 49.07 53.04 1,723 3,735,606 48.51 0.74 47.07 49.95 1,696 3,348,379
Overweight 48.68 0.69 47.33 50.02 1,943 3,859,895 49.58 1.00 47.61 51.54 971 2,051,154 47.66 0.91 45.87 49.45 972 1,808,741
Obese 49.04 1.03 47.03 51.05 901 1,793,660 49.21 1.55 46.18 52.24 336 721,533 48.93 1.37 46.25 51.61 565 1,072,127

135
Table 18: Total time spent on social activities

136
Total Men Women

Characteristics Social 95% CI Social 95% CI Social 95% CI


Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated
Activity Activity Activity
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population
(minutes) (minutes) (minutes)

Malaysia 44.75 1.14 42.51 46.99 6,926 14,172,476 57.16 1.83 53.56 60.75 3,343 7,210,108 31.90 1.27 29.40 34.39 3,583 6,962,369
Zone
Southern 47.71 2.59 42.64 52.78 1,329 2,972,294 59.46 3.98 51.65 67.26 624 1,524,151 35.34 3.15 29.16 41.52 705 1,448,143
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 45.84 1.89 42.14 49.54 2,319 5,383,135 57.80 3.01 51.90 63.69 1,159 2,757,054 33.29 2.10 29.18 37.40 1,160 2,626,081
East Coast 44.69 3.11 38.59 50.78 943 1,616,847 58.64 4.98 48.87 68.41 453 831,825 29.90 3.31 23.41 36.39 490 785,022
Northern 43.70 3.33 37.17 50.23 893 1,886,983 56.96 5.43 46.32 67.59 417 918,873 31.12 3.83 23.62 38.63 476 968,110
Sabah 42.71 3.58 35.69 49.73 737 1,121,712 58.10 6.39 45.57 70.63 359 568,661 26.89 3.06 20.88 32.89 378 553,051
Sarawak 36.09 3.57 29.09 43.10 705 1,191,505 45.92 6.09 33.98 57.86 331 609,544 25.81 3.38 19.18 32.43 374 581,962
Strata
Urban 42.39 1.52 39.42 45.37 3,700 8,438,717 54.46 2.44 49.68 59.24 1,807 4,286,916 29.93 1.68 26.64 33.22 1,893 4,151,801
Rural 48.22 1.74 44.81 51.62 3,226 5,733,760 61.11 2.81 55.60 66.63 1,536 2,923,192 34.80 1.93 31.02 38.59 1,690 2,810,568
Sex
Men 57.16 1.83 53.56 60.75 3,343 7,210,108
Women 31.90 1.27 29.40 34.39 3,583 6,962,369
Age group (Years)
18 19 59.12 4.87 49.57 68.67 382 951,999 79.17 7.43 64.61 93.73 191 482,168 38.53 5.74 27.28 49.79 191 469,831
20 29 47.36 2.01 43.41 51.31 2,047 4,249,026 64.04 3.17 57.83 70.26 990 2,161,113 30.09 2.29 25.61 34.57 1,057 2,087,913
30 39 41.43 2.10 37.31 45.55 1,989 3,652,222 54.33 3.66 47.15 61.51 919 1,851,420 28.17 1.87 24.50 31.83 1,070 1,800,803
40 49 39.67 2.14 35.49 43.86 1,546 2,902,558 45.69 3.49 38.85 52.53 769 1,481,407 33.40 2.38 28.74 38.06 777 1,421,151
50 59 42.93 3.00 37.04 48.81 895 1,794,884 50.93 4.77 41.58 60.29 447 917,697 34.55 3.48 27.73 41.37 448 877,187
Ethnic group
Malay 48.29 1.60 45.16 51.43 3,727 7,711,757 62.04 2.46 57.22 66.86 1,823 3,978,731 33.65 1.89 29.94 37.35 1,904 3,733,026
Chinese 38.05 2.21 33.72 42.38 1,591 3,537,879 48.25 3.76 40.87 55.63 756 1,781,201 27.70 2.25 23.29 32.12 835 1,756,678
Indian 42.28 3.15 36.12 48.45 632 1,372,449 49.42 5.14 39.33 59.50 299 669,482 35.49 3.65 28.33 42.65 333 702,967
Orang Asli PM 81.96 17.20 48.24 115.67 29 69,202 95.99 16.37 63.89 128.09 12 38,171 64.70 29.77 6.34 123.05 17 31,032
Sabah Bumiputera 43.08 4.66 33.94 52.23 398 581,075 59.41 8.42 42.91 75.91 187 275,841 28.33 4.27 19.97 36.70 211 305,235
Sarawak Bumiputera 41.79 5.71 30.60 52.97 390 619,696 56.55 9.54 37.85 75.25 191 317,936 26.23 5.46 15.53 36.93 199 301,760
Other Bumiputera 44.65 8.95 27.11 62.18 159 280,418 55.28 15.93 24.06 86.50 75 148,746 32.63 7.33 18.27 46.99 84 131,672
Table 18: continue

Total Men Women

Characteristics Social 95% CI Social 95% CI Social 95% CI


Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated
Activity Activity Activity
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population
(minutes) (minutes) (minutes)

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 44.82 2.54 39.85 49.80 1,435 2,697,449


Lower secondary
school (PMR) 44.05 2.36 39.42 48.68 1,482 2,880,629
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 44.23 2.03 40.25 48.22 2,304 4,901,071
Matriculation/Form 6 34.28 3.38 27.65 40.91 360 786,855
College/University 50.93 3.16 44.73 57.14 975 2,196,924
Others 42.85 5.00 33.05 52.65 363 691,410
Marital status
Unmarried 60.85 2.61 55.73 65.96 1,857 4,417,000
Married 37.33 1.17 35.04 39.63 4,829 9,172,330
Divorced 44.67 9.69 25.66 63.67 85 212,824
Widow 40.31 6.23 28.08 52.53 151 364,469
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 45.76 1.58 42.66 48.86 3,613 7,160,146
RM1500 - RM3500 44.11 1.99 40.21 48.01 2,363 4,962,569
More than RM3500 43.47 3.04 37.52 49.43 952 2,055,420
BMI Status
Underweight 44.75 3.89 37.12 52.37 631 1,379,652 61.68 5.93 50.05 73.31 297 668,889 28.81 4.84 19.32 38.31 334 710,763
Normal 43.68 1.64 40.46 46.89 3,419 7,083,985 55.52 2.60 50.41 60.62 1,723 3,735,606 30.46 1.80 26.93 34.00 1,696 3,348,379
Overweight 45.04 2.15 40.82 49.27 1,943 3,859,895 55.90 3.47 49.09 62.72 971 2,051,154 32.73 2.23 28.35 37.11 972 1,808,741
Obese 48.45 3.06 42.45 54.46 901 1,793,660 63.93 5.35 53.44 74.42 336 721,533 38.04 3.52 31.14 44.94 565 1,072,127

137
Table 19: Total time spent on child care activities

138
Total Men Women
Characteristics Child care Std 95% CI Total Estimated Child care Std 95% CI Total Estimated Child care Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Malaysia 27.58 0.96 25.69 29.47 6,926 14,172,476 7.69 0.53 6.65 8.73 3,343 7,210,108 48.17 1.76 44.72 51.63 3,583 6,962,369
Zone
Southern 30.51 1.94 26.71 34.32 1,329 2,972,294 7.74 1.03 5.72 9.76 624 1,524,151 54.48 3.37 47.88 61.08 705 1,448,143
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 27.63 1.73 24.24 31.02 2,319 5,383,135 8.92 1.01 6.94 10.90 1,159 2,757,054 47.28 3.18 41.04 53.52 1,160 2,626,081
East Coast 24.27 2.05 20.26 28.29 943 1,616,847 7.38 1.40 4.65 10.12 453 831,825 42.17 3.80 34.71 49.62 490 785,022
Northern 28.34 3.28 21.92 34.76 893 1,886,983 6.61 1.58 3.52 9.71 417 918,873 48.96 5.95 37.29 60.63 476 968,110
Sabah 22.06 2.30 17.54 26.58 737 1,121,712 4.86 1.06 2.78 6.95 359 568,661 39.74 4.23 31.45 48.03 378 553,051
Sarawak 28.50 2.79 23.02 33.97 705 1,191,505 6.73 1.26 4.25 9.21 331 609,544 51.30 5.19 41.13 61.47 374 581,962
Strata
Urban 29.12 1.36 26.44 31.79 3,700 8,438,717 7.96 0.74 6.51 9.40 1,807 4,286,916 50.97 2.48 46.11 55.82 1,893 4,151,801
Rural 25.32 1.29 22.78 27.85 3,226 5,733,760 7.31 0.74 5.87 8.75 1,536 2,923,192 44.04 2.42 39.30 48.78 1,690 2,810,568
Sex
Men 7.69 0.53 6.65 8.73 3,343 7,210,108
Women 48.17 1.76 44.72 51.63 3,583 6,962,369
Age group (Years)
18 19 6.66 1.97 2.79 10.52 382 951,999 0.60 0.56 -0.50 1.70 191 482,168 12.87 3.89 5.24 20.50 191 469,831
20 29 29.69 1.95 25.87 33.51 2,047 4,249,026 4.38 0.75 2.91 5.85 990 2,161,113 55.88 3.52 48.99 62.78 1,057 2,087,913
30 39 42.67 2.04 38.68 46.66 1,989 3,652,222 13.49 1.30 10.93 16.04 919 1,851,420 72.67 3.54 65.73 79.62 1,070 1,800,803
40 49 21.89 1.56 18.83 24.95 1,546 2,902,558 9.60 1.08 7.48 11.72 769 1,481,407 34.70 2.89 29.03 40.37 777 1,421,151
50 59 18.04 2.07 13.98 22.11 895 1,794,884 7.11 1.84 3.51 10.71 447 917,697 29.48 3.71 22.21 36.76 448 877,187
Ethnic group
Malay 28.24 1.31 25.67 30.82 3,727 7,711,757 8.24 0.69 6.90 9.58 1,823 3,978,731 49.56 2.42 44.81 54.31 1,904 3,733,026
Chinese 27.55 2.08 23.48 31.62 1,591 3,537,879 7.14 1.31 4.57 9.71 756 1,781,201 48.25 3.78 40.83 55.66 835 1,756,678
Indian 23.84 2.63 18.69 28.99 632 1,372,449 8.17 1.57 5.09 11.25 299 669,482 38.77 4.82 29.31 48.22 333 702,967
Orang Asli PM 30.93 17.18 -2.74 64.60 29 69,202 1.71 1.88 -1.97 5.39 12 38,171 66.87 31.24 5.62 128.11 17 31,032
Sabah Bumiputera 29.27 5.11 19.25 39.28 398 581,075 6.18 1.80 2.64 9.72 187 275,841 50.13 9.01 32.46 67.79 211 305,235
Sarawak Bumiputera 28.45 3.97 20.66 36.23 390 619,696 6.64 1.67 3.36 9.93 191 317,936 51.42 7.49 36.73 66.11 199 301,760
Other Bumiputera 21.74 4.14 13.63 29.85 159 280,418 4.18 1.85 0.56 7.81 75 148,746 41.58 6.97 27.92 55.24 84 131,672
Table 19: continue

Total Men Women


Characteristics Child care Std 95% CI Total Estimated Child care Std 95% CI Total Estimated Child care Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 32.40 2.28 27.93 36.87 1,435 2,697,449


Lower secondary
school (PMR) 28.25 2.12 24.09 32.40 1,482 2,880,629
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 29.54 1.78 26.04 33.03 2,304 4,901,071
Matriculation/Form 6 28.27 3.73 20.96 35.57 360 786,855
College/University 17.90 1.89 14.20 21.60 975 2,196,924
Others 24.51 3.80 17.06 31.96 363 691,410
Marital status
Unmarried 3.46 0.59 2.31 4.60 1,857 4,417,000
Married 39.72 1.37 37.04 42.40 4,829 9,172,330
Divorced 17.34 4.36 8.79 25.89 85 212,824
Widow 25.98 6.89 12.47 39.49 151 364,469
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 27.70 1.33 25.10 30.30 3,613 7,160,146
RM1500 - RM3500 28.26 1.78 24.76 31.75 2,363 4,962,569
More than RM3500 26.53 2.13 22.36 30.71 952 2,055,420
BMI Status
Underweight 20.96 3.00 15.08 26.85 631 1,379,652 3.79 1.04 1.75 5.84 297 668,889 37.12 5.59 26.17 48.08 334 710,763
Normal 27.58 1.39 24.86 30.30 3,419 7,083,985 6.81 0.68 5.46 8.15 1,723 3,735,606 50.76 2.65 45.56 55.96 1,696 3,348,379
Overweight 28.53 1.78 25.03 32.03 1,943 3,859,895 10.42 1.14 8.19 12.66 971 2,051,154 49.06 3.36 42.47 55.66 972 1,808,741
Obese 31.53 2.69 26.25 36.81 901 1,793,660 8.13 1.87 4.46 11.80 336 721,533 47.28 4.10 39.25 55.32 565 1,072,127

139
Table 20: Total time spent on recreational activities

140
Total Men Women
Characteristics Recreation Std 95% CI Total Estimated Recreation Std 95% CI Total Estimated Recreation Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Malaysia 23.14 0.86 21.45 24.83 6,926 14,172,476 25.90 1.39 23.18 28.62 3,343 7,210,108 20.27 0.99 18.33 22.22 3,583 6,962,369
Zone
Southern 23.09 2.25 18.68 27.51 1,329 2,972,294 25.34 3.92 17.67 33.02 624 1,524,151 20.73 1.96 16.89 24.56 705 1,448,143
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 23.48 1.37 20.79 26.17 2,319 5,383,135 25.85 2.19 21.55 30.14 1,159 2,757,054 20.99 1.60 17.85 24.14 1,160 2,626,081
East Coast 19.08 1.77 15.60 22.55 943 1,616,847 23.49 2.73 18.14 28.84 453 831,825 14.41 2.20 10.10 18.71 490 785,022
Northern 27.06 2.64 21.89 32.23 893 1,886,983 30.26 3.59 23.22 37.30 417 918,873 24.02 3.85 16.48 31.56 476 968,110
Sabah 20.28 2.25 15.88 24.69 737 1,121,712 23.54 3.70 16.30 30.79 359 568,661 16.93 2.58 11.88 21.98 378 553,051
Sarawak 23.67 2.71 18.35 28.98 705 1,191,505 26.44 4.55 17.53 35.35 331 609,544 20.76 2.97 14.94 26.58 374 581,962
Strata
Urban 25.42 1.27 22.94 27.90 3,700 8,438,717 27.12 2.03 23.14 31.10 1,807 4,286,916 23.67 1.47 20.79 26.55 1,893 4,151,801
Rural 19.77 1.01 17.78 21.75 3,226 5,733,760 24.11 1.65 20.87 27.35 1,536 2,923,192 15.25 1.13 13.03 17.48 1,690 2,810,568
Sex
Men 25.90 1.39 23.18 28.62 3,343 7,210,108
Women 20.27 0.99 18.33 22.22 3,583 6,962,369
Age group (Years)
18 19 33.24 4.21 24.99 41.49 382 951,999 35.46 6.65 22.43 48.49 191 482,168 30.97 5.10 20.97 40.97 191 469,831
20 29 30.15 2.01 26.21 34.10 2,047 4,249,026 35.31 3.27 28.90 41.71 990 2,161,113 24.82 2.17 20.56 29.08 1,057 2,087,913
30 39 20.69 1.41 17.93 23.46 1,989 3,652,222 21.59 2.23 17.23 25.95 919 1,851,420 19.77 1.72 16.40 23.14 1,070 1,800,803
40 49 18.32 1.29 15.79 20.85 1,546 2,902,558 20.94 2.06 16.90 24.98 769 1,481,407 15.59 1.52 12.61 18.57 777 1,421,151
50 59 16.04 1.44 13.22 18.85 895 1,794,884 18.31 2.08 14.23 22.39 447 917,697 13.66 1.98 9.79 17.53 448 877,187
Ethnic group
Malay 23.67 1.20 21.32 26.02 3,727 7,711,757 28.27 1.99 24.37 32.16 1,823 3,978,731 18.77 1.19 16.44 21.11 1,904 3,733,026
Chinese 25.62 1.87 21.95 29.29 1,591 3,537,879 24.76 2.70 19.47 30.06 756 1,781,201 26.49 2.59 21.40 31.57 835 1,756,678
Indian 19.30 2.25 14.89 23.71 632 1,372,449 18.64 3.31 12.15 25.13 299 669,482 19.93 3.06 13.93 25.94 333 702,967
Orang Asli PM 13.50 9.92 -5.93 32.94 29 69,202 8.20 6.62 -4.78 21.17 12 38,171 20.03 19.69 -18.57 58.64 17 31,032
Sabah Bumiputera 20.31 3.33 13.79 26.83 398 581,075 25.86 5.95 14.20 37.52 187 275,841 15.29 3.35 8.73 21.85 211 305,235
Sarawak Bumiputera 18.99 3.41 12.31 25.67 390 619,696 25.07 6.15 13.03 37.12 191 317,936 12.58 2.58 7.52 17.64 199 301,760
Other Bumiputera 13.23 3.51 6.35 20.11 159 280,418 15.19 5.80 3.82 26.57 75 148,746 11.01 3.66 3.84 18.18 84 131,672
Table 20: continue

Total Men Women


Characteristics Recreation Std 95% CI Total Estimated Recreation Std 95% CI Total Estimated Recreation Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 14.07 1.22 11.68 16.46 1,435 2,697,449


Lower secondary
school (PMR) 19.02 1.45 16.18 21.86 1,482 2,880,629
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 23.16 1.37 20.48 25.85 2,304 4,901,071
Matriculation/Form 6 30.27 3.80 22.81 37.72 360 786,855
College/University 40.86 3.33 34.33 47.39 975 2,196,924
Others 14.64 3.82 7.15 22.13 363 691,410
Marital status
Unmarried 32.18 2.12 28.03 36.32 1,857 4,417,000
Married 19.59 0.84 17.95 21.23 4,829 9,172,330
Divorced 17.77 5.35 7.27 28.26 85 212,824
Widow 16.37 5.41 5.77 26.96 151 364,469
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 20.76 1.25 18.30 23.22 3,613 7,160,146
RM1500 - RM3500 24.10 1.42 21.31 26.88 2,363 4,962,569
More than RM3500 30.93 2.59 25.86 36.00 952 2,055,420
BMI Status
Underweight 28.49 3.26 22.09 34.89 631 1,379,652 34.16 5.03 24.30 44.01 297 668,889 23.15 4.16 15.00 31.30 334 710,763
Normal 22.57 1.20 20.22 24.91 3,419 7,083,985 23.73 1.80 20.20 27.26 1,723 3,735,606 21.27 1.54 18.25 24.29 1,696 3,348,379
Overweight 23.37 1.60 20.24 26.50 1,943 3,859,895 26.03 2.46 21.21 30.85 971 2,051,154 20.35 1.94 16.54 24.16 972 1,808,741
Obese 22.17 1.88 18.49 25.85 901 1,793,660 29.85 3.62 22.76 36.93 336 721,533 17.00 1.87 13.34 20.67 565 1,072,127

141
Table 21: Total time spent on miscellaneous activities

142
Total Men Women
Characteristics Miscellaneous Std 95% CI Total Estimated Miscellaneous Std 95% CI Total Estimated Miscellaneous Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Malaysia 22.10 1.23 19.68 24.52 6,926 14,172,476 22.63 1.84 19.03 26.23 3,343 7,210,108 21.55 1.63 18.35 24.74 3,583 6,962,369
Zone
Southern 20.13 2.09 16.03 24.24 1,329 2,972,294 18.28 2.67 13.04 23.51 624 1,524,151 22.09 3.27 15.68 28.50 705 1,448,143
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 24.02 2.52 19.07 28.96 2,319 5,383,135 25.90 3.92 18.21 33.59 1,159 2,757,054 22.04 3.10 15.97 28.11 1,160 2,626,081
East Coast 20.85 2.55 15.85 25.84 943 1,616,847 22.15 3.09 16.09 28.21 453 831,825 19.46 4.11 11.40 27.52 490 785,022
Northern 20.84 2.57 15.80 25.88 893 1,886,983 22.78 3.93 15.08 30.49 417 918,873 19.00 3.34 12.45 25.54 476 968,110
Sabah 17.32 2.15 13.10 21.54 737 1,121,712 20.45 3.30 13.98 26.91 359 568,661 14.10 2.77 8.67 19.54 378 553,051
Sarawak 26.52 4.92 16.87 36.16 705 1,191,505 21.19 7.05 7.38 35.00 331 609,544 32.09 6.96 18.44 45.75 374 581,962
Strata
Urban 24.65 1.83 21.06 28.23 3,700 8,438,717 24.49 2.75 19.09 29.89 1,807 4,286,916 24.81 2.39 20.12 29.49 1,893 4,151,801
Rural 18.35 1.41 15.58 21.12 3,226 5,733,760 19.91 2.04 15.91 23.90 1,536 2,923,192 16.73 1.96 12.89 20.57 1,690 2,810,568
Sex
Men 22.63 1.84 19.03 26.23 3,343 7,210,108
Women 21.55 1.63 18.35 24.74 3,583 6,962,369
Age group (Years)
18 19 64.75 8.92 47.27 82.23 382 951,999 63.80 12.83 38.64 88.96 191 482,168 65.73 12.38 41.46 90.00 191 469,831
20 29 21.63 2.10 17.52 25.74 2,047 4,249,026 23.90 3.34 17.36 30.44 990 2,161,113 19.28 2.49 14.39 24.17 1,057 2,087,913
30 39 16.68 1.43 13.89 19.48 1,989 3,652,222 19.16 2.23 14.78 23.53 919 1,851,420 14.14 1.75 10.71 17.57 1,070 1,800,803
40 49 15.68 1.51 12.73 18.63 1,546 2,902,558 16.81 2.09 12.70 20.91 769 1,481,407 14.50 2.17 10.25 18.76 777 1,421,151
50 59 14.52 1.99 10.62 18.42 895 1,794,884 14.10 2.28 9.63 18.57 447 917,697 14.97 3.30 8.50 21.43 448 877,187
Ethnic group
Malay 20.97 1.31 18.41 23.53 3,727 7,711,757 23.06 1.92 19.29 26.82 1,823 3,978,731 18.75 1.73 15.35 22.14 1,904 3,733,026
Chinese 26.16 3.46 19.39 32.94 1,591 3,537,879 23.42 5.42 12.79 34.04 756 1,781,201 28.95 4.30 20.51 37.39 835 1,756,678
Indian 25.94 4.92 16.29 35.60 632 1,372,449 25.60 6.83 12.21 39.00 299 669,482 26.27 7.07 12.40 40.13 333 702,967
Orang Asli PM 3.54 3.23 -2.80 9.88 29 69,202 6.42 6.21 -5.76 18.60 12 38,171 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 17 31,032
Sabah Bumiputera 19.10 3.14 12.95 25.25 398 581,075 24.52 4.53 15.64 33.41 187 275,841 14.20 4.32 5.73 22.67 211 305,235
Sarawak Bumiputera 11.74 2.44 6.95 16.53 390 619,696 10.96 2.45 6.15 15.76 191 317,936 12.56 4.30 4.13 20.99 199 301,760
Other Bumiputera 16.71 4.13 8.61 24.81 159 280,418 14.11 5.22 3.89 24.34 75 148,746 19.64 6.32 7.25 32.03 84 131,672
Table 21: continue

Total Men Women


Characteristics Miscellaneous Std 95% CI Total Estimated Miscellaneous Std 95% CI Total Estimated Miscellaneous Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 11.77 1.58 8.66 14.87 1,435 2,697,449


Lower secondary
school (PMR) 13.09 1.48 10.19 15.98 1,482 2,880,629
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 17.68 1.73 14.30 21.06 2,304 4,901,071
Matriculation/Form 6 53.69 8.64 36.75 70.63 360 786,855
College/University 48.34 4.94 38.66 58.01 975 2,196,924
Others 10.57 2.91 4.86 16.28 363 691,410
Marital status
Unmarried 35.96 3.24 29.60 42.32 1,857 4,417,000
Married 15.67 0.88 13.94 17.40 4,829 9,172,330
Divorced 19.99 10.58 -0.74 40.72 85 212,824
Widow 21.39 11.63 -1.41 44.20 151 364,469
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 19.65 1.49 16.74 22.57 3,613 7,160,146
RM1500 - RM3500 22.70 1.92 18.94 26.46 2,363 4,962,569
More than RM3500 29.92 4.87 20.38 39.47 952 2,055,420
BMI Status
Underweight 33.80 5.02 23.95 43.65 631 1,379,652 28.88 7.14 14.88 42.89 297 668,889 38.43 7.05 24.61 52.24 334 710,763
Normal 22.49 1.99 18.59 26.40 3,419 7,083,985 23.49 3.03 17.56 29.43 1,723 3,735,606 21.38 2.50 16.47 26.29 1,696 3,348,379
Overweight 18.73 1.56 15.67 21.79 1,943 3,859,895 19.43 1.99 15.53 23.33 971 2,051,154 17.94 2.46 13.12 22.76 972 1,808,741
Obese 19.30 2.55 14.30 24.29 901 1,793,660 22.41 4.04 14.49 30.34 336 721,533 17.20 3.27 10.79 23.61 565 1,072,127

143
Table 22: Total time spent praying

144
Total Men Women
Characteristics Praying Std 95% CI Total Estimated Praying Std 95% CI Total Estimated Praying Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Malaysia 17.69 0.36 16.98 18.40 6,926 14,172,476 16.64 0.51 15.65 17.63 3,343 7,210,108 18.79 0.53 17.75 19.82 3,583 6,962,369
Zone
Southern 18.12 0.79 16.56 19.67 1,329 2,972,294 17.39 1.12 15.20 19.59 624 1,524,151 18.88 1.11 16.69 21.06 705 1,448,143
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 17.27 0.61 16.08 18.46 2,319 5,383,135 16.52 0.87 14.82 18.22 1,159 2,757,054 18.05 0.85 16.38 19.71 1,160 2,626,081
East Coast 31.61 1.10 29.46 33.76 943 1,616,847 30.67 1.65 27.44 33.90 453 831,825 32.61 1.43 29.81 35.41 490 785,022
Northern 19.27 1.15 17.01 21.53 893 1,886,983 16.80 1.40 14.05 19.55 417 918,873 21.62 1.80 18.10 25.14 476 968,110
Sabah 9.39 0.90 7.62 11.17 737 1,121,712 7.62 1.07 5.51 9.72 359 568,661 11.22 1.43 8.42 14.02 378 553,051
Sarawak 5.01 0.67 3.70 6.32 705 1,191,505 4.33 0.77 2.82 5.85 331 609,544 5.72 1.10 3.55 7.89 374 581,962
Strata
Urban 14.99 0.49 14.03 15.95 3,700 8,438,717 14.49 0.69 13.13 15.85 1,807 4,286,916 15.50 0.69 14.14 16.86 1,893 4,151,801
Rural 21.68 0.54 20.63 22.73 3,226 5,733,760 19.80 0.73 18.37 21.23 1,536 2,923,192 23.63 0.79 22.08 25.19 1,690 2,810,568
Sex
Men 16.64 0.51 15.65 17.63 3,343 7,210,108
Women 18.79 0.53 17.75 19.82 3,583 6,962,369
Age group (Years)
18 19 11.40 1.30 8.86 13.95 382 951,999 11.52 2.03 7.54 15.51 191 482,168 11.28 1.60 8.15 14.41 191 469,831
20 29 14.99 0.59 13.83 16.15 2,047 4,249,026 14.32 0.85 12.65 15.99 990 2,161,113 15.68 0.82 14.08 17.29 1,057 2,087,913
30 39 17.14 0.55 16.06 18.22 1,989 3,652,222 16.69 0.82 15.08 18.30 919 1,851,420 17.60 0.75 16.14 19.06 1,070 1,800,803
40 49 20.00 0.78 18.48 21.53 1,546 2,902,558 19.33 1.07 17.23 21.43 769 1,481,407 20.71 1.13 18.49 22.93 777 1,421,151
50 59 26.01 1.32 23.43 28.60 895 1,794,884 22.69 1.57 19.61 25.77 447 917,697 29.49 2.11 25.36 33.62 448 877,187
Ethnic group
Malay 26.90 0.50 25.93 27.87 3,727 7,711,757 25.72 0.72 24.31 27.12 1,823 3,978,731 28.16 0.68 26.82 29.49 1,904 3,733,026
Chinese 3.44 0.58 2.30 4.58 1,591 3,537,879 3.25 0.70 1.88 4.61 756 1,781,201 3.63 0.93 1.80 5.46 835 1,756,678
Indian 14.72 1.19 12.39 17.06 632 1,372,449 11.05 1.45 8.21 13.89 299 669,482 18.23 1.84 14.62 21.83 333 702,967
Orang Asli PM 0.26 0.27 -0.27 0.80 29 69,202 0.48 0.53 -0.56 1.52 12 38,171 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 17 31,032
Sabah Bumiputera 7.93 1.24 5.50 10.35 398 581,075 6.50 1.21 4.14 8.86 187 275,841 9.22 2.04 5.23 13.21 211 305,235
Sarawak Bumiputera 4.36 0.93 2.53 6.18 390 619,696 4.25 1.18 1.94 6.57 191 317,936 4.47 1.46 1.61 7.32 199 301,760
Other Bumiputera 12.95 2.26 8.52 17.38 159 280,418 8.82 2.92 3.10 14.53 75 148,746 17.62 2.98 11.77 23.46 84 131,672
Table 22: continue

Total Men Women


Characteristics Praying Std 95% CI Total Estimated Praying Std 95% CI Total Estimated Praying Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 19.18 0.79 17.64 20.73 1,435 2,697,449


Lower secondary
school (PMR) 15.34 0.86 13.65 17.03 1,482 2,880,629
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 16.95 0.56 15.85 18.04 2,304 4,901,071
Matriculation/Form 6 19.59 1.54 16.57 22.61 360 786,855
College/University 19.25 0.99 17.31 21.19 975 2,196,924
Others 21.90 2.75 16.52 27.28 363 691,410
Marital status
Unmarried 13.09 0.71 11.68 14.49 1,857 4,417,000
Married 19.46 0.43 18.62 20.30 4,829 9,172,330
Divorced 23.21 4.05 15.28 31.15 85 212,824
Widow 31.65 4.08 23.65 39.64 151 364,469
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 19.86 0.53 18.81 20.91 3,613 7,160,146
RM1500 - RM3500 15.75 0.62 14.53 16.96 2,363 4,962,569
More than RM3500 15.89 1.00 13.93 17.86 952 2,055,420
BMI Status
Underweight 14.82 1.52 11.83 17.80 631 1,379,652 13.03 1.79 9.53 16.53 297 668,889 16.50 2.42 11.76 21.24 334 710,763
Normal 16.33 0.51 15.33 17.33 3,419 7,083,985 16.23 0.70 14.85 17.60 1,723 3,735,606 16.43 0.75 14.96 17.91 1,696 3,348,379
Overweight 19.55 0.65 18.27 20.84 1,943 3,859,895 17.88 0.88 16.17 19.60 971 2,051,154 21.45 0.98 19.52 23.37 972 1,808,741
Obese 22.12 1.06 20.03 24.20 901 1,793,660 18.84 1.50 15.90 21.78 336 721,533 24.33 1.44 21.50 27.16 565 1,072,127

145
Table 23: Total time spent on village type activities

146
Total Men Women

Characteristics Village 95% CI Village 95% CI Village 95% CI


Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated
work work work
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population
(minutes) (minutes) (minutes)

Malaysia 8.68 0.53 7.63 9.72 6,926 14,172,476 10.94 0.89 9.19 12.70 3,343 7,210,108 6.33 0.56 5.23 7.43 3,583 6,962,369
Zone
Southern 7.47 1.27 4.97 9.96 1,329 2,972,294 10.94 2.26 6.52 15.37 624 1,524,151 3.81 1.10 1.65 5.97 705 1,448,143
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 4.71 0.64 3.45 5.97 2,319 5,383,135 6.29 1.10 4.14 8.44 1,159 2,757,054 3.04 0.64 1.78 4.30 1,160 2,626,081
East Coast 13.25 1.81 9.69 16.80 943 1,616,847 17.07 3.07 11.06 23.08 453 831,825 9.20 1.82 5.63 12.76 490 785,022
Northern 8.39 1.38 5.69 11.09 893 1,886,983 13.77 2.65 8.57 18.97 417 918,873 3.28 0.85 1.60 4.95 476 968,110
Sabah 16.34 2.48 11.49 21.20 737 1,121,712 20.14 4.21 11.90 28.39 359 568,661 12.43 2.51 7.52 17.34 378 553,051
Sarawak 16.66 2.28 12.18 21.14 705 1,191,505 10.78 2.46 5.96 15.61 331 609,544 22.82 3.83 15.31 30.33 374 581,962
Strata
Urban 3.66 0.42 2.84 4.47 3,700 8,438,717 5.11 0.74 3.66 6.55 1,807 4,286,916 2.16 0.37 1.44 2.88 1,893 4,151,801
Rural 16.06 1.14 13.82 18.30 3,226 5,733,760 19.50 1.88 15.82 23.19 1,536 2,923,192 12.48 1.26 10.00 14.95 1,690 2,810,568
Sex
Men 10.94 0.89 9.19 12.70 3,343 7,210,108
Women 6.33 0.56 5.23 7.43 3,583 6,962,369
Age group (Years)
18 19 4.84 1.94 1.04 8.64 382 951,999 9.35 3.78 1.93 16.77 191 482,168 0.21 0.15 -0.08 0.51 191 469,831
20 29 5.47 0.84 3.82 7.12 2,047 4,249,026 8.06 1.57 4.98 11.14 990 2,161,113 2.80 0.55 1.72 3.87 1,057 2,087,913
30 39 7.76 0.90 6.00 9.53 1,989 3,652,222 8.29 1.17 5.98 10.59 919 1,851,420 7.22 1.37 4.54 9.91 1,070 1,800,803
40 49 9.85 1.05 7.78 11.91 1,546 2,902,558 12.63 1.75 9.19 16.07 769 1,481,407 6.95 1.12 4.75 9.15 777 1,421,151
50 59 19.70 2.33 15.14 24.26 895 1,794,884 23.36 3.90 15.71 31.01 447 917,697 15.86 2.43 11.10 20.63 448 877,187
Ethnic group
Malay 8.84 0.73 7.40 10.28 3,727 7,711,757 11.97 1.25 9.52 14.42 1,823 3,978,731 5.51 0.73 4.08 6.94 1,904 3,733,026
Chinese 5.44 0.90 3.68 7.20 1,591 3,537,879 7.03 1.58 3.94 10.11 756 1,781,201 3.83 0.83 2.20 5.46 835 1,756,678
Indian 3.87 1.10 1.72 6.02 632 1,372,449 5.31 2.07 1.26 9.37 299 669,482 2.50 0.84 0.84 4.15 333 702,967
Orang Asli PM 20.32 11.30 -1.83 42.47 29 69,202 6.19 4.23 -2.10 14.47 12 38,171 37.71 22.14 -5.70 81.12 17 31,032
Sabah Bumiputera 21.47 3.44 14.72 28.22 398 581,075 28.11 5.68 16.97 39.24 187 275,841 15.47 3.91 7.80 23.14 211 305,235
Sarawak Bumiputera 21.66 3.67 14.47 28.84 390 619,696 15.97 4.37 7.41 24.53 191 317,936 27.65 5.88 16.12 39.18 199 301,760
Other Bumiputera 10.39 5.81 -0.99 21.77 159 280,418 14.49 10.82 -6.71 35.70 75 148,746 5.76 2.14 1.57 9.94 84 131,672
Table 23: continue

Total Men Women

Characteristics Village 95% CI Village 95% CI Village 95% CI


Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated
work work work
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population
(minutes) (minutes) (minutes)

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 15.55 1.58 12.46 18.64 1,435 2,697,449


Lower secondary
school (PMR) 32.40 2.28 27.93 36.87 1,482 2,880,629
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 6.34 0.79 4.79 7.89 2,304 4,901,071
Matriculation/Form 6 7.65 3.18 1.43 13.88 360 786,855
College/University 3.86 0.74 2.41 5.30 975 2,196,924
Others 19.38 3.97 11.60 27.16 363 691,410
Marital status
Unmarried 6.26 0.98 4.33 8.19 1,857 4,417,000
Married 9.95 0.68 8.62 11.28 4,829 9,172,330
Divorced 10.25 3.23 3.92 16.57 85 212,824
Widow 12.83 4.26 4.48 21.19 151 364,469
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 12.40 0.92 10.60 14.21 3,613 7,160,146
RM1500 - RM3500 5.16 0.71 3.77 6.54 2,363 4,962,569
More than RM3500 5.53 1.11 3.36 7.70 952 2,055,420
BMI Status
Underweight 7.38 1.66 4.12 10.64 631 1,379,652 7.36 2.28 2.90 11.82 297 668,889 7.40 2.41 2.67 12.14 334 710,763
Normal 8.48 0.80 6.91 10.04 3,419 7,083,985 10.80 1.30 8.26 13.34 1,723 3,735,606 5.88 0.89 4.14 7.62 1,696 3,348,379
Overweight 10.37 1.04 8.33 12.41 1,943 3,859,895 12.43 1.65 9.19 15.67 971 2,051,154 8.03 1.18 5.71 10.34 972 1,808,741
Obese 7.42 1.30 4.87 9.96 901 1,793,660 10.58 2.81 5.08 16.09 336 721,533 5.29 1.05 3.23 7.34 565 1,072,127

147
Table 24: Total time spent on religious activities

148
Total Men Women

Characteristics Religious 95% CI Religious 95% CI Religious 95% CI


Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated
activity activity activity
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population
(minutes) (minutes) (minutes)

Malaysia 6.74 0.49 5.78 7.70 6,926 14,172,476 6.48 0.52 5.47 7.49 3,343 7,210,108 7.01 0.84 5.37 8.66 3,583 6,962,369
Zone
Southern 7.47 1.55 4.44 10.50 1,329 2,972,294 6.14 1.15 3.89 8.39 624 1,524,151 8.87 2.92 3.14 14.60 705 1,448,143
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 5.65 0.62 4.43 6.87 2,319 5,383,135 6.03 0.83 4.39 7.67 1,159 2,757,054 5.25 0.93 3.42 7.08 1,160 2,626,081
East Coast 12.62 1.36 9.95 15.28 943 1,616,847 11.05 1.44 8.23 13.87 453 831,825 14.28 2.34 9.69 18.87 490 785,022
Northern 7.38 1.46 4.52 10.24 893 1,886,983 7.19 1.58 4.09 10.30 417 918,873 7.56 2.42 2.82 12.29 476 968,110
Sabah 3.36 0.93 1.53 5.18 737 1,121,712 2.35 0.67 1.03 3.67 359 568,661 4.40 1.75 0.96 7.83 378 553,051
Sarawak 4.06 1.16 1.78 6.33 705 1,191,505 5.89 2.19 1.59 10.18 331 609,544 2.14 0.62 0.92 3.36 374 581,962
Strata
Urban 5.43 0.54 4.37 6.50 3,700 8,438,717 5.26 0.62 4.05 6.47 1,807 4,286,916 5.61 0.90 3.84 7.38 1,893 4,151,801
Rural 8.67 0.91 6.89 10.44 3,226 5,733,760 8.27 0.90 6.51 10.03 1,536 2,923,192 9.08 1.59 5.96 12.21 1,690 2,810,568
Sex
Men 6.48 0.52 5.47 7.49 3,343 7,210,108
Women 7.01 0.84 5.37 8.66 3,583 6,962,369
Age group (Years)
18 19 4.00 1.35 1.35 6.65 382 951,999 5.31 2.52 0.38 10.25 191 482,168 2.65 0.89 0.90 4.39 191 469,831
20 29 2.91 0.42 2.10 3.73 2,047 4,249,026 3.70 0.56 2.60 4.79 990 2,161,113 2.10 0.62 0.89 3.31 1,057 2,087,913
30 39 4.34 0.57 3.23 5.46 1,989 3,652,222 4.60 0.82 2.99 6.21 919 1,851,420 4.08 0.79 2.53 5.63 1,070 1,800,803
40 49 8.23 0.82 6.62 9.84 1,546 2,902,558 9.58 1.28 7.06 12.09 769 1,481,407 6.83 1.02 4.83 8.83 777 1,421,151
50 59 17.52 2.05 13.50 21.54 895 1,794,884 13.87 2.28 9.40 18.33 447 917,697 21.35 3.44 14.59 28.10 448 877,187
Ethnic group
Malay 10.16 0.79 8.61 11.71 3,727 7,711,757 9.76 0.82 8.14 11.37 1,823 3,978,731 10.59 1.37 7.89 13.28 1,904 3,733,026
Chinese 2.28 0.75 0.80 3.76 1,591 3,537,879 1.96 0.72 0.55 3.38 756 1,781,201 2.60 1.33 0.00 5.20 835 1,756,678
Indian 2.72 0.86 1.04 4.40 632 1,372,449 2.41 0.97 0.50 4.31 299 669,482 3.02 1.40 0.28 5.75 333 702,967
Orang Asli PM 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 29 69,202 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 12 38,171 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 17 31,032
Sabah Bumiputera 2.95 1.18 0.63 5.27 398 581,075 2.04 1.08 -0.08 4.16 187 275,841 3.77 2.03 -0.20 7.75 211 305,235
Sarawak Bumiputera 3.63 1.40 0.89 6.37 390 619,696 6.00 2.67 0.76 11.23 191 317,936 1.13 0.53 0.09 2.17 199 301,760
Other Bumiputera 5.11 2.73 -0.24 10.46 159 280,418 2.14 1.13 -0.08 4.36 75 148,746 8.47 5.59 -2.49 19.42 84 131,672
Table 24: continue

Total Men Women

Characteristics Religious 95% CI Religious 95% CI Religious 95% CI


Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated
activity activity activity
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population
(minutes) (minutes) (minutes)

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 10.43 1.13 8.20 12.65 1,435 2,697,449


Lower secondary
school (PMR) 4.51 0.89 2.76 6.25 1,482 2,880,629
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 5.17 0.58 4.02 6.31 2,304 4,901,071
Matriculation/Form 6 7.07 1.82 3.50 10.63 360 786,855
College/University 6.36 0.85 4.69 8.04 975 2,196,924
Others 15.21 6.22 3.01 27.41 363 691,410
Marital status
Unmarried 3.67 0.49 2.71 4.64 1,857 4,417,000
Married 7.41 0.53 6.37 8.44 4,829 9,172,330
Divorced 15.15 6.50 2.40 27.89 85 212,824
Widow 26.98 11.48 4.48 49.47 151 364,469
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 8.22 0.82 6.62 9.83 3,613 7,160,146
RM1500 - RM3500 5.06 0.64 3.80 6.31 2,363 4,962,569
More than RM3500 6.44 1.06 4.35 8.52 952 2,055,420
BMI Status
Underweight 2.71 0.66 1.41 4.00 631 1,379,652 2.70 0.68 1.36 4.03 297 668,889 2.72 1.11 0.54 4.89 334 710,763
Normal 6.01 0.57 4.90 7.13 3,419 7,083,985 6.45 0.74 4.99 7.90 1,723 3,735,606 5.53 0.87 3.81 7.24 1,696 3,348,379
Overweight 8.25 0.94 6.40 10.10 1,943 3,859,895 7.56 1.09 5.42 9.69 971 2,051,154 9.04 1.59 5.93 12.15 972 1,808,741
Obese 9.99 2.39 5.30 14.68 901 1,793,660 7.13 1.40 4.38 9.88 336 721,533 11.91 3.88 4.32 19.51 565 1,072,127

149
Table 25: Total time spent on personal errands

150
Total Men Women

Characteristics Personal 95% CI Personal 95% CI Personal 95% CI


Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated
errands errands errands
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population
(minutes) (minutes) (minutes)

Malaysia 3.28 0.24 2.80 3.75 6,926 14,172,476 4.23 0.41 3.43 5.04 3,343 7,210,108 2.29 0.25 1.80 2.78 3,583 6,962,369
Zone
Southern 4.16 0.64 2.91 5.41 1,329 2,972,294 6.06 1.17 3.76 8.36 624 1,524,151 2.17 0.46 1.27 3.06 705 1,448,143
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 3.05 0.36 2.34 3.76 2,319 5,383,135 3.91 0.61 2.72 5.10 1,159 2,757,054 2.14 0.37 1.42 2.87 1,160 2,626,081
East Coast 2.62 0.71 1.22 4.01 943 1,616,847 3.62 1.32 1.04 6.20 453 831,825 1.55 0.45 0.66 2.44 490 785,022
Northern 1.52 0.34 0.86 2.17 893 1,886,983 1.23 0.34 0.56 1.89 417 918,873 1.80 0.57 0.68 2.91 476 968,110
Sabah 7.55 1.38 4.85 10.25 737 1,121,712 8.95 1.98 5.07 12.82 359 568,661 6.11 1.91 2.36 9.87 378 553,051
Sarawak 1.77 0.46 0.86 2.68 705 1,191,505 2.08 0.69 0.73 3.44 331 609,544 1.45 0.62 0.23 2.66 374 581,962
Strata
Urban 3.11 0.28 2.55 3.66 3,700 8,438,717 3.99 0.47 3.07 4.91 1,807 4,286,916 2.20 0.31 1.58 2.81 1,893 4,151,801
Rural 3.53 0.43 2.69 4.37 3,226 5,733,760 4.59 0.74 3.14 6.04 1,536 2,923,192 2.43 0.42 1.61 3.24 1,690 2,810,568
Sex
Men 4.23 0.41 3.43 5.04 3,343 7,210,108
Women 2.29 0.25 1.80 2.78 3,583 6,962,369
Age group (Years)
18 19 1.71 0.64 0.45 2.97 382 951,999 2.44 1.17 0.14 4.75 191 482,168 0.96 0.48 0.02 1.90 191 469,831
20 29 2.98 0.40 2.20 3.76 2,047 4,249,026 4.13 0.71 2.73 5.53 990 2,161,113 1.80 0.33 1.15 2.45 1,057 2,087,913
30 39 4.62 0.60 3.46 5.79 1,989 3,652,222 5.91 1.00 3.96 7.86 919 1,851,420 3.30 0.64 2.04 4.56 1,070 1,800,803
40 49 3.57 0.54 2.52 4.63 1,546 2,902,558 4.35 0.87 2.65 6.05 769 1,481,407 2.76 0.62 1.54 3.98 777 1,421,151
50 59 2.26 0.50 1.29 3.24 895 1,794,884 2.45 0.69 1.10 3.80 447 917,697 2.06 0.72 0.65 3.48 448 877,187
Ethnic group
Malay 3.47 0.35 2.78 4.16 3,727 7,711,757 4.72 0.62 3.51 5.94 1,823 3,978,731 2.13 0.30 1.54 2.72 1,904 3,733,026
Chinese 1.94 0.29 1.37 2.52 1,591 3,537,879 2.14 0.47 1.21 3.06 756 1,781,201 1.75 0.35 1.06 2.44 835 1,756,678
Indian 3.89 0.85 2.23 5.56 632 1,372,449 6.26 1.61 3.11 9.41 299 669,482 1.64 0.61 0.45 2.84 333 702,967
Orang Asli PM 1.14 1.14 -1.10 3.39 29 69,202 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 12 38,171 2.55 2.37 -2.10 7.20 17 31,032
Sabah Bumiputera 6.79 1.78 3.29 10.29 398 581,075 6.30 2.02 2.34 10.25 187 275,841 7.24 2.87 1.62 12.86 211 305,235
Sarawak Bumiputera 3.52 1.21 1.15 5.90 390 619,696 2.90 1.13 0.69 5.12 191 317,936 4.18 2.18 -0.11 8.46 199 301,760
Other Bumiputera 4.61 2.08 0.55 8.68 159 280,418 7.14 3.73 -0.18 14.46 75 148,746 1.76 1.13 -0.45 3.97 84 131,672
Table 25: continue

Total Men Women

Characteristics Personal 95% CI Personal 95% CI Personal 95% CI


Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated
errands errands errands
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population
(minutes) (minutes) (minutes)

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 2.60 0.46 1.70 3.50 1,435 2,697,449


Lower secondary
school (PMR) 2.73 0.42 1.90 3.56 1,482 2,880,629
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 3.50 0.44 2.64 4.36 2,304 4,901,071
Matriculation/Form 6 3.32 1.28 0.81 5.82 360 786,855
College/University 4.67 0.75 3.21 6.13 975 2,196,924
Others 3.18 1.34 0.55 5.81 363 691,410
Marital status
Unmarried 3.15 0.48 2.20 4.10 1,857 4,417,000
Married 3.41 0.29 2.84 3.99 4,829 9,172,330
Divorced 2.63 1.83 -0.96 6.22 85 212,824
Widow 4.89 1.93 1.11 8.67 151 364,469
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 3.18 0.36 2.48 3.89 3,613 7,160,146
RM1500 - RM3500 3.07 0.41 2.27 3.86 2,363 4,962,569
More than RM3500 4.65 0.65 3.37 5.94 952 2,055,420
BMI Status
Underweight 3.50 0.83 1.86 5.14 631 1,379,652 5.00 1.55 1.95 8.04 297 668,889 2.09 0.65 0.83 3.36 334 710,763
Normal 3.24 0.35 2.55 3.93 3,419 7,083,985 3.91 0.54 2.84 4.98 1,723 3,735,606 2.49 0.43 1.64 3.34 1,696 3,348,379
Overweight 3.10 0.44 2.23 3.97 1,943 3,859,895 4.30 0.77 2.79 5.82 971 2,051,154 1.74 0.36 1.03 2.44 972 1,808,741
Obese 3.96 0.72 2.56 5.36 901 1,793,660 4.86 1.33 2.24 7.47 336 721,533 3.36 0.80 1.80 4.92 565 1,072,127

151
Table 26: Total time spent on heavy-intensity sports activities

152
Total Men Women

Characteristics Heavy 95% CI Heavy 95% CI Heavy 95% CI


Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated
sport sport sport
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population
(minutes) (minutes) (minutes)

Malaysia 2.76 0.22 2.33 3.19 6,926 14,172,476 4.57 0.40 3.79 5.35 3,343 7,210,108 0.89 0.14 0.60 1.17 3,583 6,962,369
Zone
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Southern 2.31 0.50 1.32 3.30 1,329 2,972,294 3.91 0.91 2.12 5.69 624 1,524,151 0.63 0.25 0.14 1.11 705 1,448,143
Central 2.75 0.34 2.08 3.41 2,319 5,383,135 4.33 0.61 3.13 5.52 1,159 2,757,054 1.08 0.26 0.57 1.60 1,160 2,626,081
East Coast 1.86 0.48 0.91 2.80 943 1,616,847 2.73 0.83 1.09 4.36 453 831,825 0.93 0.45 0.05 1.81 490 785,022
Northern 2.44 0.44 1.57 3.31 893 1,886,983 4.42 0.85 2.75 6.08 417 918,873 0.56 0.29 -0.01 1.14 476 968,110
Sabah 5.22 0.96 3.33 7.11 737 1,121,712 9.17 1.71 5.82 12.52 359 568,661 1.16 0.55 0.07 2.24 378 553,051
Sarawak 3.38 1.05 1.32 5.43 705 1,191,505 5.78 1.92 2.02 9.54 331 609,544 0.86 0.54 -0.20 1.92 374 581,962
Strata
Urban 2.80 0.31 2.19 3.41 3,700 8,438,717 4.41 0.56 3.31 5.52 1,807 4,286,916 1.14 0.21 0.73 1.55 1,893 4,151,801
Rural 2.70 0.29 2.13 3.27 3,226 5,733,760 4.80 0.53 3.76 5.85 1,536 2,923,192 0.51 0.18 0.16 0.86 1,690 2,810,568
Sex
Men 4.57 0.40 3.79 5.35 3,343 7,210,108
Women 0.89 0.14 0.60 1.17 3,583 6,962,369
Age group (Years)
18 19 4.82 0.99 2.88 6.76 382 951,999 9.03 1.86 5.38 12.67 191 482,168 0.50 0.50 -0.48 1.48 191 469,831
20 29 3.24 0.43 2.41 4.07 2,047 4,249,026 5.72 0.76 4.23 7.22 990 2,161,113 0.67 0.25 0.18 1.16 1,057 2,087,913
30 39 2.18 0.30 1.60 2.77 1,989 3,652,222 3.50 0.54 2.43 4.56 919 1,851,420 0.83 0.22 0.40 1.26 1,070 1,800,803
40 49 2.09 0.33 1.44 2.74 1,546 2,902,558 2.72 0.50 1.74 3.70 769 1,481,407 1.43 0.43 0.58 2.28 777 1,421,151
50 59 2.18 0.53 1.14 3.22 895 1,794,884 3.16 0.95 1.30 5.02 447 917,697 1.15 0.42 0.32 1.98 448 877,187
Ethnic group
Malay 2.69 0.30 2.11 3.28 3,727 7,711,757 4.86 0.55 3.77 5.94 1,823 3,978,731 0.39 0.12 0.16 0.61 1,904 3,733,026
Chinese 2.40 0.44 1.54 3.25 1,591 3,537,879 2.92 0.75 1.45 4.39 756 1,781,201 1.87 0.43 1.03 2.71 835 1,756,678
Indian 2.54 0.61 1.35 3.73 632 1,372,449 3.90 1.09 1.76 6.04 299 669,482 1.25 0.57 0.14 2.36 333 702,967
Orang Asli PM 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 29 69,202 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 12 38,171 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 17 31,032
Sabah Bumiputera 4.28 0.99 2.33 6.23 398 581,075 8.23 1.97 4.36 12.09 187 275,841 0.72 0.51 -0.28 1.71 211 305,235
Sarawak Bumiputera 3.93 0.94 2.09 5.77 390 619,696 6.57 1.63 3.37 9.78 191 317,936 1.15 0.84 -0.49 2.79 199 301,760
Other Bumiputera 5.18 2.68 -0.09 10.44 159 280,418 9.76 4.44 1.05 18.47 75 148,746 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 84 131,672
Table 26: continue

Total Men Women

Characteristics Heavy 95% CI Heavy 95% CI Heavy 95% CI


Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated
sport sport sport
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population
(minutes) (minutes) (minutes)

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 1.55 0.30 0.96 2.13 1,435 2,697,449


Lower secondary
school (PMR) 2.26 0.33 1.61 2.92 1,482 2,880,629
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 3.46 0.48 2.53 4.40 2,304 4,901,071
Matriculation/Form 6 2.59 0.70 1.22 3.95 360 786,855
College/University 3.95 0.59 2.78 5.11 975 2,196,924
Others 1.53 0.63 0.30 2.76 363 691,410
Marital status
Unmarried 4.65 0.56 3.55 5.76 1,857 4,417,000
Married 1.93 0.18 1.57 2.30 4,829 9,172,330
Divorced 1.77 1.28 -0.75 4.29 85 212,824
Widow 2.77 1.67 -0.51 6.04 151 364,469
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 2.64 0.29 2.07 3.22 3,613 7,160,146
RM1500 - RM3500 2.90 0.43 2.06 3.73 2,363 4,962,569
More than RM3500 3.11 0.47 2.18 4.03 952 2,055,420
BMI Status
Underweight 3.32 0.64 2.07 4.57 631 1,379,652 5.34 1.11 3.15 7.52 297 668,889 1.42 0.65 0.15 2.69 334 710,763
Normal 3.24 0.37 2.51 3.96 3,419 7,083,985 5.31 0.65 4.03 6.58 1,723 3,735,606 0.93 0.22 0.49 1.37 1,696 3,348,379
Overweight 2.48 0.35 1.80 3.15 1,943 3,859,895 3.68 0.59 2.52 4.84 971 2,051,154 1.11 0.29 0.53 1.69 972 1,808,741
Obese 1.16 0.30 0.57 1.75 901 1,793,660 2.37 0.69 1.02 3.73 336 721,533 0.34 0.20 -0.05 0.73 565 1,072,127

153
Table 27: Total time spent on moderate-intensity sports activities

154
Total Men Women

Characteristics Moderate 95% CI Moderate 95% CI Moderate 95% CI


Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated
sport sport sport
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population
(minutes) (minutes) (minutes)

Malaysia 2.40 0.23 1.95 2.85 6,925 14,170,812 3.56 0.39 2.79 4.32 3,342 7,208,443 1.20 0.23 0.75 1.65 3,583 6,962,369
Zone
Southern 2.31 0.46 1.41 3.21 1,329 2,972,294 3.51 0.79 1.96 5.05 624 1,524,151 1.05 0.44 0.18 1.92 705 1,448,143
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 2.57 0.37 1.85 3.29 2,318 5,381,471 3.01 0.49 2.04 3.97 1,158 2,755,390 2.12 0.55 1.05 3.19 1,160 2,626,081
East Coast 1.34 0.45 0.46 2.22 943 1,616,847 2.35 0.86 0.67 4.04 453 831,825 0.27 0.16 -0.04 0.58 490 785,022
Northern 2.61 0.84 0.96 4.27 893 1,886,983 5.12 1.70 1.79 8.44 417 918,873 0.24 0.16 -0.07 0.55 476 968,110
Sabah 2.84 0.69 1.48 4.19 737 1,121,712 4.83 1.31 2.25 7.40 359 568,661 0.79 0.35 0.11 1.47 378 553,051
Sarawak 2.51 0.89 0.76 4.26 705 1,191,505 4.27 1.69 0.96 7.58 331 609,544 0.67 0.36 -0.03 1.37 374 581,962
Strata
Urban 2.46 0.32 1.84 3.08 3,699 8,437,052 3.32 0.51 2.32 4.31 1,806 4,285,251 1.58 0.37 0.85 2.30 1,893 4,151,801
Rural 2.31 0.32 1.68 2.94 3,226 5,733,760 3.91 0.61 2.72 5.10 1,536 2,923,192 0.64 0.17 0.31 0.98 1,690 2,810,568
Sex
Men 3.56 0.39 2.79 4.32 3,342 7,208,443
Women 1.20 0.23 0.75 1.65 3,583 6,962,369
Age group (Years)
18 19 2.92 0.97 1.02 4.82 382 951,999 5.17 1.88 1.48 8.87 191 482,168 0.61 0.39 -0.16 1.37 191 469,831
20 29 3.34 0.46 2.44 4.23 2,046 4,247,362 4.82 0.72 3.42 6.23 989 2,159,448 1.80 0.56 0.70 2.89 1,057 2,087,913
30 39 1.68 0.34 1.01 2.35 1,989 3,652,222 2.83 0.65 1.55 4.10 919 1,851,420 0.50 0.16 0.18 0.82 1,070 1,800,803
40 49 2.03 0.44 1.17 2.88 1,546 2,902,558 1.93 0.51 0.92 2.93 769 1,481,407 2.13 0.71 0.74 3.53 777 1,421,151
50 59 1.68 0.44 0.82 2.53 895 1,794,884 2.87 0.80 1.30 4.44 447 917,697 0.43 0.29 -0.13 1.00 448 877,187
Ethnic group
Malay 2.23 0.27 1.70 2.76 3,727 7,711,757 3.45 0.45 2.57 4.34 1,822 3,977,067 0.93 0.28 0.39 1.47 1,904 3,733,026
Chinese 3.02 0.61 1.82 4.21 1,591 3,537,879 4.03 1.07 1.93 6.12 756 1,781,201 1.99 0.57 0.87 3.12 835 1,756,678
Indian 1.96 0.68 0.62 3.29 632 1,372,449 2.26 0.92 0.46 4.06 299 669,482 1.67 1.00 -0.29 3.62 333 702,967
Orang Asli PM 5.68 3.99 -2.15 13.50 29 69,202 10.29 7.81 -5.02 25.61 12 38,171 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 17 31,032
Sabah Bumiputera 3.96 1.23 1.55 6.38 398 581,075 7.97 2.51 3.06 12.89 187 275,841 0.34 0.24 -0.13 0.82 211 305,235
Sarawak Bumiputera 0.98 0.39 0.22 1.74 390 619,696 1.72 0.74 0.27 3.18 191 317,936 0.20 0.16 -0.12 0.51 199 301,760
Other Bumiputera 0.47 0.29 -0.10 1.03 159 280,418 0.56 0.48 -0.39 1.51 75 148,746 0.36 0.28 -0.19 0.91 84 131,672
Table 27: continue

Total Men Women

Characteristics Moderate 95% CI Moderate 95% CI Moderate 95% CI


Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated
sport sport sport
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population
(minutes) (minutes) (minutes)

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 0.98 0.24 0.51 1.45 1,435 2,697,449


Lower secondary
school (PMR) 2.20 0.60 1.03 3.37 1,482 2,880,629
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 2.84 0.40 2.06 3.63 2,303 4,899,407
Matriculation/Form 6 3.76 1.29 1.23 6.29 360 786,855
College/University 3.51 0.67 2.20 4.81 975 2,196,924
Others 1.05 0.56 -0.06 2.15 363 691,410
Marital status
Unmarried 3.46 0.49 2.50 4.41 1,856 4,415,336
Married 1.92 0.26 1.41 2.42 4,829 9,172,330
Divorced 1.58 0.97 -0.33 3.49 85 212,824
Widow 3.76 1.81 0.22 7.30 151 364,469
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 2.42 0.31 1.80 3.03 3,612 7,158,481
RM1500 - RM3500 2.35 0.42 1.53 3.16 2,363 4,962,569
More than RM3500 2.73 0.58 1.59 3.87 952 2,055,420
BMI Status
Underweight 2.28 0.65 1.01 3.55 631 1,379,652 4.41 1.32 1.82 6.99 297 668,889 0.28 0.17 -0.05 0.61 334 710,763
Normal 2.56 0.37 1.84 3.28 3,418 7,082,320 3.38 0.60 2.22 4.55 1,722 3,733,941 1.64 0.40 0.85 2.42 1,696 3,348,379
Overweight 2.68 0.40 1.90 3.46 1,943 3,859,895 4.14 0.66 2.85 5.42 971 2,051,154 1.03 0.41 0.23 1.82 972 1,808,741
Obese 1.50 0.46 0.61 2.40 901 1,793,660 2.18 0.82 0.58 3.77 336 721,533 1.05 0.54 0.00 2.10 565 1,072,127

155
Table 28: Total time spent on light-intensity sports activities

156
Total Men Women
Characteristics Light sport Std 95% CI Total Estimated Light sport Std 95% CI Total Estimated Light sport Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Malaysia 0.89 0.10 0.69 1.09 6,926 14,172,476 1.06 0.16 0.75 1.37 3,343 7,210,108 0.72 0.13 0.47 0.96 3,583 6,962,369
Zone
Southern 0.60 0.14 0.32 0.88 1,329 2,972,294 0.72 0.23 0.26 1.17 624 1,524,151 0.48 0.15 0.18 0.78 705 1,448,143
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 1.26 0.21 0.86 1.67 2,319 5,383,135 1.37 0.29 0.80 1.94 1,159 2,757,054 1.15 0.29 0.57 1.72 1,160 2,626,081
East Coast 0.34 0.12 0.10 0.59 943 1,616,847 0.42 0.15 0.11 0.72 453 831,825 0.26 0.20 -0.12 0.65 490 785,022
Northern 1.06 0.36 0.36 1.77 893 1,886,983 1.67 0.70 0.30 3.03 417 918,873 0.49 0.21 0.08 0.91 476 968,110
Sabah 1.00 0.30 0.40 1.60 737 1,121,712 1.41 0.51 0.41 2.42 359 568,661 0.58 0.32 -0.05 1.20 378 553,051
Sarawak 0.31 0.13 0.05 0.57 705 1,191,505 0.15 0.07 0.00 0.30 331 609,544 0.49 0.26 -0.02 0.99 374 581,962
Strata
Urban 1.15 0.16 0.84 1.47 3,700 8,438,717 1.37 0.25 0.88 1.86 1,807 4,286,916 0.93 0.20 0.54 1.31 1,893 4,151,801
Rural 0.51 0.09 0.34 0.68 3,226 5,733,760 0.61 0.13 0.35 0.87 1,536 2,923,192 0.41 0.11 0.19 0.63 1,690 2,810,568
Sex
Men 1.06 0.16 0.75 1.37 3,343 7,210,108
Women 0.72 0.13 0.47 0.96 3,583 6,962,369
Age group (Years)
18 19 0.75 0.31 0.15 1.36 382 951,999 0.64 0.35 -0.04 1.32 191 482,168 0.87 0.51 -0.14 1.88 191 469,831
20 29 0.53 0.15 0.25 0.82 2,047 4,249,026 0.74 0.26 0.23 1.25 990 2,161,113 0.32 0.13 0.07 0.56 1,057 2,087,913
30 39 0.65 0.13 0.40 0.90 1,989 3,652,222 0.59 0.15 0.31 0.88 919 1,851,420 0.70 0.21 0.30 1.11 1,070 1,800,803
40 49 1.28 0.27 0.75 1.81 1,546 2,902,558 1.53 0.45 0.65 2.42 769 1,481,407 1.02 0.28 0.46 1.57 777 1,421,151
50 59 1.79 0.42 0.96 2.62 895 1,794,884 2.29 0.63 1.06 3.52 447 917,697 1.27 0.57 0.16 2.37 448 877,187
Ethnic group
Malay 0.50 0.08 0.34 0.67 3,727 7,711,757 0.63 0.13 0.38 0.89 1,823 3,978,731 0.36 0.10 0.16 0.57 1,904 3,733,026
Chinese 1.84 0.33 1.20 2.49 1,591 3,537,879 2.16 0.52 1.15 3.17 756 1,781,201 1.53 0.40 0.74 2.31 835 1,756,678
Indian 0.96 0.26 0.45 1.47 632 1,372,449 0.97 0.33 0.33 1.62 299 669,482 0.94 0.40 0.15 1.73 333 702,967
Orang Asli PM 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 29 69,202 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 12 38,171 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 17 31,032
Sabah Bumiputera 0.90 0.43 0.06 1.74 398 581,075 1.63 0.88 -0.09 3.35 187 275,841 0.24 0.14 -0.04 0.52 211 305,235
Sarawak Bumiputera 0.25 0.16 -0.08 0.57 390 619,696 0.37 0.31 -0.24 0.98 191 317,936 0.12 0.09 -0.06 0.29 199 301,760
Other Bumiputera 0.86 0.60 -0.32 2.04 159 280,418 0.38 0.28 -0.17 0.93 75 148,746 1.40 1.23 -1.01 3.82 84 131,672
Table 28: continue

Total Men Women


Characteristics Light sport Std 95% CI Total Estimated Light sport Std 95% CI Total Estimated Light sport Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 1.26 0.32 0.62 1.89 1,435 2,697,449


Lower secondary
school (PMR) 0.75 0.17 0.41 1.10 1,482 2,880,629
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 0.81 0.15 0.53 1.10 2,304 4,901,071
Matriculation/Form 6 1.16 0.44 0.30 2.02 360 786,855
College/University 0.87 0.26 0.36 1.39 975 2,196,924
Others 0.84 0.48 -0.11 1.79 363 691,410
Marital status
Unmarried 0.57 0.15 0.28 0.86 1,857 4,417,000
Married 1.09 0.14 0.82 1.37 4,829 9,172,330
Divorced 0.25 0.15 -0.05 0.55 85 212,824
Widow 1.62 0.89 -0.13 3.37 151 364,469
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 0.77 0.14 0.50 1.04 3,613 7,160,146
RM1500 - RM3500 0.80 0.13 0.54 1.05 2,363 4,962,569
More than RM3500 1.81 0.42 0.98 2.64 952 2,055,420
BMI Status
Underweight 0.44 0.16 0.13 0.75 631 1,379,652 0.41 0.19 0.05 0.77 297 668,889 0.47 0.25 -0.03 0.96 334 710,763
Normal 0.84 0.15 0.55 1.13 3,419 7,083,985 0.92 0.20 0.53 1.31 1,723 3,735,606 0.75 0.22 0.31 1.18 1,696 3,348,379
Overweight 1.09 0.22 0.67 1.51 1,943 3,859,895 1.26 0.35 0.58 1.94 971 2,051,154 0.90 0.24 0.43 1.37 972 1,808,741
Obese 0.93 0.26 0.42 1.43 901 1,793,660 1.25 0.50 0.27 2.22 336 721,533 0.71 0.27 0.18 1.24 565 1,072,127

157
Table 29: Total time spent on activities based on body position (sleeping and lying down)

158
Total Men Women
Sleeping 95% CI Sleeping 95% CI Sleeping 95% CI
Characteristics and lying Std Total Estimated and lying Std Total Estimated and lying Std Total Estimated
down Error Lower Upper Respondents population down Error Lower Upper Respondents population down Error Lower Upper Respondents population
(minutes) (minutes) (minutes)

Malaysia 475.27 1.75 471.83 478.70 6,928 14,178,135 470.03 2.79 464.55 475.50 3,343 7,210,108 480.69 2.09 476.58 484.79 3,585 6,968,028
Zone
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Southern 475.38 4.06 467.43 483.34 1,329 2,972,294 473.39 6.54 460.57 486.22 624 1,524,151 477.48 4.70 468.26 486.70 705 1,448,143
Central 469.74 3.11 463.64 475.84 2,321 5,388,794 461.36 4.89 451.78 470.94 1,159 2,757,054 478.52 3.78 471.12 485.93 1,162 2,631,740
East Coast 477.68 5.28 467.33 488.04 943 1,616,847 470.38 8.67 453.39 487.37 453 831,825 485.42 5.90 473.85 497.00 490 785,022
Northern 474.91 3.87 467.32 482.51 893 1,886,983 471.45 5.98 459.73 483.17 417 918,873 478.20 4.96 468.48 487.93 476 968,110
Sabah 486.86 4.74 477.57 496.14 737 1,121,712 480.61 7.53 465.85 495.37 359 568,661 493.28 5.84 481.83 504.73 378 553,051
Sarawak 486.32 4.79 476.94 495.70 705 1,191,505 488.32 7.37 473.88 502.76 331 609,544 484.23 6.05 472.36 496.10 374 581,962
Strata
Urban 473.24 2.39 468.56 477.92 3,701 8,441,210 466.08 3.80 458.63 473.54 1,807 4,286,916 480.62 2.87 475.00 486.24 1,894 4,154,294
Rural 478.25 2.48 473.39 483.11 3,227 5,736,925 475.81 3.93 468.10 483.52 1,536 2,923,192 480.79 2.98 474.94 486.63 1,691 2,813,733
Sex
Men 470.03 2.79 464.55 475.50 3,343 7,210,108
Women 480.69 2.09 476.58 484.79 3,585 6,968,028
Age group (Years)
18 19 514.25 8.94 496.72 531.77 427 1,448,992 517.85 14.93 488.59 547.12 208 734,969 510.53 9.52 491.87 529.20 219 714,022
20 29 484.68 3.10 478.61 490.75 2,047 4,249,026 478.11 4.82 468.66 487.56 990 2,161,113 491.48 3.82 483.99 498.96 1,057 2,087,913
30 39 463.88 2.66 458.67 469.09 1,990 3,655,388 457.36 4.08 449.35 465.36 919 1,851,420 470.57 3.34 464.02 477.12 1,071 1,803,968
40 49 458.86 2.92 453.13 464.58 1,546 2,902,558 452.78 4.21 444.52 461.04 769 1,481,407 465.19 4.02 457.32 473.06 777 1,421,151
50 59 471.50 4.18 463.31 479.69 918 1,922,172 466.34 6.12 454.34 478.33 457 981,199 476.89 5.63 465.85 487.93 461 940,973
Ethnic group
Malay 459.54 2.26 455.11 463.97 3,728 7,714,922 455.62 3.61 448.54 462.69 1,823 3,978,731 463.72 2.66 458.51 468.93 1,905 3,736,191
Chinese 500.86 3.48 494.03 507.68 1,592 3,540,373 495.74 5.31 485.34 506.15 756 1,781,201 506.04 4.51 497.20 514.87 836 1,759,172
Indian 474.77 6.17 462.67 486.86 632 1,372,449 457.39 9.56 438.66 476.13 299 669,482 491.32 7.59 476.44 506.19 333 702,967
Orang Asli PM 623.40 39.20 546.55 700.25 29 69,202 660.27 53.27 555.84 764.70 12 38,171 578.05 23.76 531.48 624.62 17 31,032
Sabah Bumiputera 484.76 6.43 472.17 497.36 398 581,075 477.04 10.02 457.41 496.67 187 275,841 491.74 8.31 475.45 508.04 211 305,235
Sarawak Bumiputera 488.68 6.28 476.38 500.98 390 619,696 484.59 10.03 464.92 504.26 191 317,936 492.99 7.31 478.66 507.31 199 301,760
Other Bumiputera 501.29 11.53 478.68 523.90 159 280,418 511.38 18.57 474.98 547.79 75 148,746 489.88 11.76 466.83 512.94 84 131,672
Table 29: continue

Total Men Women


Sleeping 95% CI Sleeping 95% CI Sleeping 95% CI
Characteristics and lying Std Total Estimated and lying Std Total Estimated and lying Std Total Estimated
down Error Lower Upper Respondents population down Error Lower Upper Respondents population down Error Lower Upper Respondents population
(minutes) (minutes) (minutes)
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Educational level
Primary school 486.46 3.20 480.19 492.73 1,435 2,697,449
Lower secondary
school (PMR) 482.34 3.78 474.93 489.76 1,482 2,880,629
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 466.43 2.77 461.01 471.86 2,304 4,901,071
Matriculation/Form 6 457.02 9.21 438.96 475.08 360 786,855
College/University 470.26 5.01 460.43 480.09 975 2,196,924
Others 500.88 10.12 481.04 520.71 363 691,410
Marital status
Unmarried 496.06 4.01 488.21 503.91 1,857 4,417,000
Married 465.64 1.73 462.26 469.03 4,829 9,172,330
Divorced 461.50 13.34 435.35 487.65 85 212,824
Widow 474.20 9.96 454.69 493.72 151 364,469
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 481.64 2.30 477.13 486.15 3,937 7,862,673
RM1500 - RM3500 466.72 3.02 460.80 472.65 2,039 4,278,230
More than RM3500 468.59 5.11 458.58 478.61 952 2,037,232
BMI Status
Underweight 504.64 6.05 492.78 516.50 631 1,379,652 513.45 9.69 494.45 532.45 297 668,889 496.35 7.20 482.23 510.47 334 710,763
Normal 479.60 2.61 474.47 484.72 3,419 7,083,985 471.73 4.15 463.60 479.86 1,723 3,735,606 488.38 3.03 482.44 494.31 1,696 3,348,379
Overweight 463.32 2.83 457.76 468.88 1,943 3,859,895 456.51 4.06 448.55 464.48 971 2,051,154 471.04 3.88 463.44 478.64 972 1,808,741
Obese 459.94 4.83 450.46 469.41 901 1,793,660 456.00 9.07 438.22 473.77 336 721,533 462.59 5.36 452.09 473.09 565 1,072,127

159
Table 30: Total time spent on activities based on body position (sitting)

160
Total Men Women
Characteristics Sitting Std 95% CI Total Estimated Sitting Std 95% CI Total Estimated Sitting Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Malaysia 588.23 2.66 583.02 593.44 6,926 14,172,476 615.03 4.16 606.88 623.17 3,343 7,210,108 560.49 3.10 554.42 566.56 3,583 6,962,369
Zone
Southern 585.62 6.88 572.14 599.10 1,329 2,972,294 606.85 11.61 584.09 629.62 624 1,524,151 563.28 6.23 551.06 575.49 705 1,448,143
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 611.11 4.43 602.43 619.80 2,319 5,383,135 648.43 6.40 635.88 660.97 1,159 2,757,054 571.94 5.64 560.89 582.99 1,160 2,626,081
East Coast 574.70 6.86 561.25 588.14 943 1,616,847 610.05 10.04 590.37 629.72 453 831,825 537.23 9.28 519.05 555.42 490 785,022
Northern 578.74 6.11 566.76 590.71 893 1,886,983 592.31 9.35 573.98 610.64 417 918,873 565.85 7.87 550.42 581.29 476 968,110
Sabah 570.22 7.33 555.85 584.58 737 1,121,712 592.60 12.10 568.88 616.32 359 568,661 547.20 8.51 530.51 563.89 378 553,051
Sarawak 541.76 8.10 525.88 557.64 705 1,191,505 546.36 13.35 520.18 572.54 331 609,544 536.95 8.78 519.73 554.16 374 581,962
Strata
Urban 603.74 3.64 596.60 610.87 3,700 8,438,717 635.35 5.68 624.21 646.49 1,807 4,286,916 571.10 4.19 562.97 579.22 1,893 4,151,801
Rural 565.42 3.58 558.40 572.44 3,226 5,733,760 585.22 5.54 574.37 596.08 1,536 2,923,192 544.82 4.61 536.09 553.55 1,690 2,810,568
Sex
Men 615.03 4.16 606.88 623.17 3,343 7,210,108
Women 560.49 3.10 554.42 566.56 3,583 6,962,369
Age group (Years)
18 19 598.98 13.95 571.63 626.33 427 1,448,992 603.03 23.17 557.60 648.45 208 734,969 594.81 15.28 564.86 624.77 219 714,022
20 29 595.58 4.82 586.12 605.04 2,047 4,249,026 610.93 7.62 595.98 625.87 990 2,161,113 579.69 5.45 569.01 590.37 1,057 2,087,913
30 39 576.97 4.23 568.68 585.25 1,990 3,655,388 609.07 6.43 596.46 621.68 919 1,851,420 544.02 5.31 533.61 554.42 1,071 1,803,968
40 49 583.75 4.61 574.71 592.79 1,546 2,902,558 624.51 6.84 611.10 637.91 769 1,481,407 541.26 5.74 530.01 552.51 777 1,421,151
50 59 595.18 7.07 581.31 609.04 918 1,922,172 629.96 10.45 609.47 650.45 457 981,199 558.90 8.67 541.91 575.89 461 940,973
Ethnic group
Malay 593.36 4.41 586.55 600.17 3,727 7,711,757 623.58 5.18 613.43 633.73 1,823 3,978,731 561.15 4.05 553.21 569.09 1,904 3,733,026
Chinese 593.10 7.05 582.07 604.14 1,591 3,537,879 607.82 9.28 589.62 626.02 756 1,781,201 578.18 6.25 565.94 590.43 835 1,756,678
Indian 586.88 12.19 568.23 605.53 632 1,372,449 636.98 14.40 608.74 665.22 299 669,482 539.16 12.01 515.62 562.70 333 702,967
Orang Asli PM 515.25 34.35 426.26 604.24 29 69,202 469.23 59.44 352.71 585.75 12 38,171 571.86 35.02 503.21 640.52 17 31,032
Sabah Bumiputera 565.83 11.18 546.99 584.68 398 581,075 604.59 14.06 577.03 632.16 187 275,841 530.81 12.76 505.80 555.81 211 305,235
Sarawak Bumiputera 537.68 12.67 517.93 557.43 390 619,696 556.49 16.36 524.41 588.56 191 317,936 517.87 10.80 496.69 539.04 199 301,760
Other Bumiputera 568.61 17.61 531.96 605.25 159 280,418 555.57 30.37 496.03 615.10 75 148,746 583.34 18.28 547.51 619.17 84 131,672
Table 30: continue

Total Men Women


Characteristics Sitting Std 95% CI Total Estimated Sitting Std 95% CI Total Estimated Sitting Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Educational level
Primary school 544.87 4.82 535.43 554.31 1,435 2,697,449
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Lower secondary
school (PMR) 559.79 5.87 548.28 571.31 1,482 2,880,629
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 591.75 4.33 583.26 600.25 2,304 4,901,071
Matriculation/Form 6 616.83 11.45 594.38 639.28 360 786,855
College/University 668.71 6.79 655.39 682.03 975 2,196,924
Others 563.67 12.33 539.50 587.83 363 691,410
Marital status
Unmarried 608.25 6.11 596.28 620.22 1,857 4,417,000
Married 581.66 2.70 576.37 586.96 4,829 9,172,330
Divorced 530.84 17.90 495.76 565.92 85 212,824

Widow 563.37 17.90 528.28 598.47 151 364,469


Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 569.23 3.86 561.66 576.80 3,613 7,160,146
RM1500 - RM3500 597.84 4.31 589.39 606.28 2,363 4,962,569
More than RM3500 634.13 7.29 619.83 648.42 952 2,055,420
BMI Status

Underweight 594.46 8.71 577.38 611.54 631 1,379,652 608.17 13.65 581.42 634.92 297 668,889 581.56 10.84 560.31 602.82 334 710,763
Normal 585.57 4.05 577.64 593.51 3,419 7,083,985 604.37 6.39 591.85 616.89 1,723 3,735,606 564.60 4.60 555.58 573.62 1,696 3,348,379
Overweight 588.91 4.47 580.15 597.68 1,943 3,859,895 624.93 6.39 612.40 637.46 971 2,051,154 548.07 5.78 536.75 559.40 972 1,808,741
Obese 594.82 6.12 582.83 606.81 901 1,793,660 647.43 9.48 628.85 666.02 336 721,533 559.41 7.41 544.88 573.94 565 1,072,127

161
Table 31: Total time spent on activities based on body position (standing)

162
Total Men Women
Characteristics Standing Std 95% CI Total Estimated Standing Std 95% CI Total Estimated Standing Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Malaysia 170.69 1.94 166.89 174.48 6,926 14,172,476 147.75 2.84 142.19 153.31 3,343 7,210,108 194.44 2.43 189.68 199.20 3,583 6,962,369
Zone
Southern 170.03 4.81 160.61 179.45 1,329 2,972,294 150.04 7.63 135.08 165.00 624 1,524,151 191.07 4.88 181.51 200.63 705 1,448,143
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 159.92 3.14 153.76 166.07 2,319 5,383,135 133.74 4.26 125.39 142.09 1,159 2,757,054 187.40 4.30 178.97 195.83 1,160 2,626,081
East Coast 190.05 5.41 179.44 200.66 943 1,616,847 164.36 7.01 150.62 178.10 453 831,825 217.27 8.03 201.53 233.01 490 785,022
Northern 182.79 4.91 173.16 192.42 893 1,886,983 165.35 7.33 150.97 179.73 417 918,873 199.35 6.48 186.64 212.06 476 968,110
Sabah 162.72 4.93 153.06 172.37 737 1,121,712 135.90 6.72 122.73 149.08 359 568,661 190.29 6.26 178.02 202.55 378 553,051
Sarawak 183.03 6.81 169.68 196.38 705 1,191,505 167.26 11.28 145.14 189.38 331 609,544 199.54 6.76 186.28 212.80 374 581,962
Strata
Urban 160.87 2.64 155.70 166.04 3,700 8,438,717 136.67 3.85 129.12 144.22 1,807 4,286,916 185.86 3.32 179.48 192.24 1,893 4,151,801
Rural 185.13 2.73 179.79 190.47 3,226 5,733,760 164.00 3.97 156.21 171.78 1,536 2,923,192 207.11 3.74 200.13 214.08 1,690 2,810,568
Sex
Men 147.75 2.84 142.19 153.31 3,343 7,210,108
Women 194.44 2.43 189.68 199.20 3,583 6,962,369
Age group (Years)
18 19 127.74 8.34 111.39 144.09 427 1,448,992 111.77 11.77 88.69 134.84 208 734,969 144.18 11.36 121.92 166.44 219 714,022
20 29 158.81 3.67 151.62 166.01 2,047 4,249,026 146.13 5.76 134.84 157.43 990 2,161,113 171.94 4.17 163.77 180.11 1,057 2,087,913
30 39 192.77 3.27 186.35 199.19 1,990 3,655,388 164.80 4.92 155.16 174.44 919 1,851,420 221.47 4.17 213.30 229.65 1,071 1,803,968
40 49 183.21 3.42 176.50 189.91 1,546 2,902,558 151.57 4.90 141.95 161.18 769 1,481,407 216.19 4.47 207.42 224.95 777 1,421,151
50 59 171.54 5.14 161.47 181.61 918 1,922,172 140.33 6.43 127.72 152.93 457 981,199 204.09 7.31 189.76 218.42 461 940,973
Ethnic group
Malay 182.00 2.74 176.66 187.35 3,727 7,711,757 156.00 3.94 148.28 163.72 1,823 3,978,731 209.72 3.29 203.28 216.16 1,904 3,733,026
Chinese 146.40 3.53 139.08 153.72 1,591 3,537,879 135.97 6.04 124.14 147.81 756 1,781,201 156.97 4.28 148.58 165.35 835 1,756,678
Indian 171.85 6.43 159.18 184.53 632 1,372,449 140.13 8.51 123.46 156.80 299 669,482 202.07 9.44 183.57 220.57 333 702,967
Orang Asli PM 98.66 32.90 68.17 129.15 29 69,202 87.33 18.52 51.02 123.65 12 38,171 112.60 24.49 64.60 160.60 17 31,032
Sabah Bumiputera 174.79 8.50 162.18 187.41 398 581,075 138.24 8.63 121.32 155.15 187 275,841 207.83 8.49 191.19 224.47 211 305,235
Sarawak Bumiputera 182.40 8.15 167.54 197.26 390 619,696 158.89 12.04 135.29 182.49 191 317,936 207.17 8.26 190.98 223.35 199 301,760
Other Bumiputera 143.53 13.67 121.72 165.34 159 280,418 111.78 13.94 84.45 139.12 75 148,746 179.38 13.15 153.61 205.16 84 131,672
Table 31: continue

Total Men Women


Characteristics Standing Std 95% CI Total Estimated Standing Std 95% CI Total Estimated Standing Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 195.53 3.68 188.31 202.76 1,435 2,697,449


Lower secondary
school (PMR) 187.23 4.01 179.37 195.10 1,482 2,880,629
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 174.53 3.33 168.00 181.06 2,304 4,901,071
Matriculation/Form 6 158.68 7.36 144.25 173.10 360 786,855
College/University 112.01 4.35 103.49 120.54 975 2,196,924
Others 185.61 9.78 166.43 204.79 363 691,410
Marital status
Unmarried 138.09 4.19 129.89 146.29 1,857 4,417,000
Married 184.57 1.96 180.73 188.42 4,829 9,172,330
Divorced 222.93 13.57 196.33 249.53 85 212,824
Widow 200.46 14.95 171.16 229.77 151 364,469
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 181.08 2.93 175.32 186.83 3,613 7,160,146
RM1500 - RM3500 168.29 3.12 162.17 174.40 2,363 4,962,569
More than RM3500 143.21 4.88 133.63 152.78 952 2,055,420
BMI Status
Underweight 145.76 5.97 134.06 157.46 631 1,379,652 127.08 8.31 110.79 143.37 297 668,889 163.34 8.28 147.12 179.57 334 710,763
Normal 168.47 2.89 162.81 174.12 3,419 7,083,985 152.39 4.34 143.89 160.89 1,723 3,735,606 186.40 3.54 179.47 193.33 1,696 3,348,379
Overweight 180.65 3.43 173.93 187.37 1,943 3,859,895 150.19 4.44 141.49 158.90 971 2,051,154 215.19 4.92 205.55 224.83 972 1,808,741
Obese 179.51 4.80 170.10 188.91 901 1,793,660 137.52 7.50 122.82 152.21 336 721,533 207.76 5.47 197.04 218.48 565 1,072,127

163
Table 32: Total time spent on activities based on body position (walking)

164
Total Men Women
Characteristics Walking Std 95% CI Total Estimated Walking Std 95% CI Total Estimated Walking Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Malaysia 138.25 1.19 135.91 140.60 6,926 14,172,476 134.44 1.80 130.91 137.97 3,343 7,210,108 142.21 1.54 139.19 145.22 3,583 6,962,369
Zone
Southern 146.49 2.81 140.98 152.00 1,329 2,972,294 140.53 4.29 132.12 148.94 624 1,524,151 152.76 3.43 146.03 159.49 705 1,448,143
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 132.78 2.11 128.65 136.91 2,319 5,383,135 124.58 3.04 118.63 130.53 1,159 2,757,054 141.39 2.83 135.83 146.95 1,160 2,626,081
East Coast 125.24 2.47 120.39 130.08 943 1,616,847 118.71 3.24 112.36 125.06 453 831,825 132.16 3.72 124.87 139.44 490 785,022
Northern 138.34 3.13 132.19 144.48 893 1,886,983 141.95 5.30 131.57 152.34 417 918,873 134.91 3.44 128.16 141.66 476 968,110
Sabah 147.62 3.77 140.24 155.01 737 1,121,712 150.65 5.48 139.91 161.39 359 568,661 144.51 5.20 134.33 154.70 378 553,051
Sarawak 151.14 3.84 143.61 158.67 705 1,191,505 158.78 6.41 146.22 171.34 331 609,544 143.13 4.24 134.82 151.45 374 581,962
Strata
Urban 136.10 1.60 132.96 139.25 3,700 8,438,717 130.61 2.41 125.88 135.34 1,807 4,286,916 141.78 2.12 137.74 145.81 1,893 4,151,801
Rural 141.42 1.75 137.98 144.85 3,226 5,733,760 140.05 2.64 134.87 145.23 1,536 2,923,192 142.84 2.48 138.34 147.34 1,690 2,810,568
Sex
Men 134.44 1.80 130.91 137.97 3,343 7,210,108
Women 142.21 1.54 139.19 145.22 3,583 6,962,369
Age group (Years)
18 19 126.14 5.09 116.16 136.11 427 1,448,992 124.93 7.39 110.44 139.42 208 734,969 127.38 6.98 113.70 141.06 219 714,022
20 29 130.85 2.07 126.78 134.92 2,047 4,249,026 129.13 3.18 122.89 135.37 990 2,161,113 132.63 2.62 127.50 137.77 1,057 2,087,913
30 39 145.33 2.23 140.96 149.69 1,990 3,655,388 140.04 3.28 133.61 146.47 919 1,851,420 150.76 2.99 144.89 156.62 1,071 1,803,968
40 49 147.98 2.55 142.99 152.97 1,546 2,902,558 141.33 3.75 133.97 148.68 769 1,481,407 154.92 3.40 148.25 161.60 777 1,421,151
50 59 138.12 3.19 131.86 144.37 918 1,922,172 132.28 4.63 123.21 141.35 457 981,199 144.20 4.34 135.69 152.71 461 940,973
Ethnic group
Malay 138.52 0.73 135.41 141.64 3,727 7,711,757 133.01 2.36 128.39 137.63 1,823 3,978,731 144.40 2.03 140.41 148.39 1,904 3,733,026
Chinese 131.62 0.90 127.02 136.21 1,591 3,537,879 127.93 3.53 121.01 134.86 756 1,781,201 135.35 3.05 129.37 141.34 835 1,756,678
Indian 141.97 1.10 133.02 150.93 632 1,372,449 136.55 7.21 122.41 150.68 299 669,482 147.14 5.72 135.91 158.36 333 702,967
Orang Asli PM 128.71 11.30 96.44 160.97 29 69,202 126.66 19.53 88.38 164.93 12 38,171 131.23 27.36 77.60 184.85 17 31,032
Sabah Bumiputera 142.61 3.44 133.26 151.97 398 581,075 142.14 6.63 129.15 155.13 187 275,841 143.04 6.83 129.66 156.42 211 305,235
Sarawak Bumiputera 154.46 3.67 144.79 164.13 390 619,696 162.19 7.75 147.00 177.37 191 317,936 146.32 5.92 134.71 157.93 199 301,760
Other Bumiputera 153.85 5.81 134.99 172.71 159 280,418 169.30 13.01 143.79 194.81 75 148,746 136.39 13.28 110.36 162.42 84 131,672
Table 32: continue

Total Men Women


Characteristics Walking Std 95% CI Total Estimated Walking Std 95% CI Total Estimated Walking Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 146.53 2.58 141.47 151.59 1,435 2,697,449


Lower secondary
school (PMR) 143.16 2.63 138.01 148.31 1,482 2,880,629
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 139.13 2.17 134.87 143.38 2,304 4,901,071
Matriculation/Form 6 138.86 4.50 130.05 147.67 360 786,855
College/University 120.33 2.75 114.94 125.73 975 2,196,924
Others 141.17 6.03 129.34 152.99 363 691,410
Marital status
Unmarried 125.92 2.51 121.00 130.85 1,857 4,417,000
Married 143.54 1.34 140.92 146.17 4,829 9,172,330
Divorced 156.69 8.80 139.45 173.93 85 212,824
Widow 155.97 8.99 138.36 173.59 151 364,469
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 140.05 1.69 136.75 143.36 3,937 7,862,673
RM1500 - RM3500 139.26 2.13 135.07 143.44 2,039 4,278,230
More than RM3500 131.56 3.11 125.47 137.65 952 2,037,232
BMI Status
Underweight 125.31 4.11 117.25 133.37 631 1,379,652 117.47 5.73 106.24 128.70 297 668,889 132.69 5.76 121.41 143.97 334 710,763
Normal 138.85 1.80 135.32 142.37 3,419 7,083,985 136.97 2.62 131.83 142.11 1,723 3,735,606 140.14 2.27 135.69 144.58 1,695 3,345,214
Overweight 140.43 2.02 136.48 144.38 1,943 3,859,895 136.75 3.10 130.68 142.83 971 2,051,154 144.60 2.49 139.72 149.48 972 1,808,741
Obese 143.31 3.25 136.94 149.67 901 1,793,660 133.46 5.10 123.46 143.45 336 721,533 149.93 4.10 141.90 157.96 565 1,072,127

165
Table 33: Total time spent on activities based on body position (personal care activities)

166
Total Men Women

Characteristics Personal 95% CI Personal 95% CI Personal 95% CI


Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated
Activity Activity Activity
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population
(minutes) (minutes) (minutes)

Malaysia 50.47 0.35 49.78 51.16 6,926 14,172,476 49.96 0.50 48.97 50.95 3,343 7,210,108 50.99 0.49 50.04 51.95 3,583 6,962,369
Zone
Southern 46.48 0.67 45.16 47.80 1,329 2,972,294 47.37 0.94 45.52 49.22 624 1,524,151 45.55 0.94 43.70 47.39 705 1,448,143
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 50.57 0.60 49.39 51.75 2,319 5,383,135 50.51 0.84 48.86 52.15 1,159 2,757,054 50.64 0.87 48.94 52.34 1,160 2,626,081
East Coast 54.56 1.06 52.47 56.65 943 1,616,847 52.90 1.43 50.10 55.70 453 831,825 56.32 1.56 53.27 59.37 490 785,022
Northern 50.44 0.89 48.70 52.18 893 1,886,983 47.94 1.24 45.51 50.38 417 918,873 52.82 1.23 50.40 55.23 476 968,110
Sabah 50.83 1.46 47.97 53.69 737 1,121,712 51.13 2.47 46.29 55.97 359 568,661 50.52 1.50 47.59 53.46 378 553,051
Sarawak 54.12 1.11 51.93 56.30 705 1,191,505 51.94 1.70 48.61 55.27 331 609,544 56.40 1.36 53.74 59.05 374 581,962
Strata
Urban 50.20 0.46 49.29 51.11 3,700 8,438,717 50.04 0.65 48.77 51.32 1,807 4,286,916 50.36 0.66 49.07 51.65 1,893 4,151,801
Rural 50.87 0.54 49.82 51.92 3,226 5,733,760 49.84 0.80 48.28 51.40 1,536 2,923,192 51.93 0.71 50.53 53.33 1,690 2,810,568
Sex
Men 49.96 0.50 48.97 50.95 3,343 7,210,108
Women 50.99 0.49 50.04 51.95 3,583 6,962,369
Age group (Years)
18 19 52.71 1.65 49.48 55.94 427 1,448,992 48.69 2.73 43.34 54.04 208 734,969 56.85 1.79 53.34 60.35 219 714,022
20 29 52.17 0.65 50.90 53.44 2,047 4,249,026 50.29 0.88 48.57 52.02 990 2,161,113 54.11 0.94 52.27 55.95 1,057 2,087,913
30 39 49.02 0.59 47.85 50.19 1,990 3,655,388 49.72 0.86 48.04 51.41 919 1,851,420 48.30 0.82 46.69 49.90 1,071 1,803,968
40 49 49.33 0.67 48.02 50.64 1,546 2,902,558 50.32 0.90 48.55 52.10 769 1,481,407 48.29 0.98 46.37 50.22 777 1,421,151
50 59 49.65 0.91 47.87 51.43 918 1,922,172 50.10 1.20 47.74 52.46 457 981,199 49.19 1.38 46.49 51.89 461 940,973
Ethnic group
Malay 51.47 0.79 50.55 52.38 3,727 7,711,757 50.85 0.64 49.59 52.11 1,823 3,978,731 52.13 0.68 50.80 53.45 1,904 3,733,026
Chinese 47.45 0.75 46.11 48.80 1,591 3,537,879 46.44 0.99 44.51 48.38 756 1,781,201 48.48 0.95 46.62 50.34 835 1,756,678
Indian 50.33 0.86 48.01 52.65 632 1,372,449 50.49 1.73 47.10 53.87 299 669,482 50.19 1.62 47.01 53.36 333 702,967
Orang Asli PM 38.60 0.00 31.30 45.91 29 69,202 39.56 3.77 32.18 46.95 12 38,171 37.42 6.84 24.01 50.84 17 31,032
Sabah Bumiputera 51.40 1.18 48.87 53.92 398 581,075 49.38 1.87 45.71 53.06 187 275,841 53.22 1.74 49.81 56.63 211 305,235
Sarawak Bumiputera 54.83 1.40 51.98 57.68 390 619,696 52.79 1.85 49.17 56.40 191 317,936 56.98 2.20 52.68 61.29 199 301,760
Other Bumiputera 53.08 0.79 43.90 62.26 159 280,418 63.69 6.54 50.88 76.50 75 148,746 41.10 3.33 34.58 47.62 84 131,672
Table 33: continue

Total Men Women

Characteristics Personal 95% CI Personal 95% CI Personal 95% CI


Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated
Activity Activity Activity
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population
(minutes) (minutes) (minutes)

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 48.08 0.67 46.76 49.40 1,435 2,697,449


Lower secondary
school (PMR) 49.13 0.73 47.70 50.57 1,482 2,880,629
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 51.59 0.66 50.31 52.88 2,304 4,901,071
Matriculation/Form 6 54.14 1.50 51.20 57.07 360 786,855
College/University 53.40 0.91 51.62 55.17 975 2,196,924
Others 44.14 1.45 41.29 46.98 363 691,410
Marital status
Unmarried 53.37 0.77 51.86 54.88 1,857 4,417,000
Married 49.12 0.38 48.39 49.86 4,829 9,172,330
Divorced 50.75 3.16 44.55 56.94 85 212,824
Widow 49.47 2.28 45.00 53.93 151 364,469
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 50.54 0.50 49.57 51.51 3,613 7,160,146
RM1500 - RM3500 50.39 0.61 49.19 51.58 2,363 4,962,569
More than RM3500 50.57 0.87 48.87 52.27 952 2,055,420
BMI Status
Underweight 51.89 1.30 49.33 54.44 631 1,379,652 47.73 1.71 44.37 51.08 297 668,889 55.81 1.84 52.20 59.41 334 710,763
Normal 50.41 0.50 49.42 51.40 3,419 7,083,985 49.89 0.72 48.48 51.30 1,723 3,735,606 50.99 0.70 49.62 52.36 1,696 3,348,379
Overweight 49.98 0.64 48.72 51.24 1,943 3,859,895 50.27 0.92 48.47 52.07 971 2,051,154 49.65 0.90 47.89 51.40 972 1,808,741
Obese 50.92 0.94 49.08 52.76 901 1,793,660 51.69 1.62 48.52 54.87 336 721,533 50.40 1.14 48.18 52.63 565 1,072,127

167
Table 34: Total time spent on activities based on body position (climbing stairs)

168
Total Men Women
Characteristics Stairs Std 95% CI Total Estimated Stairs Std 95% CI Total Estimated Stairs Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Malaysia 2.11 0.10 1.90 2.31 6,926 14,172,476 2.30 0.17 1.97 2.63 3,343 7,210,108 1.91 0.11 1.69 2.13 3,583 6,962,369
Zone
Southern 1.75 0.19 1.38 2.11 1,329 2,972,294 1.93 0.30 1.35 2.51 624 1,524,151 1.56 0.21 1.14 1.98 705 1,448,143
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 2.10 0.19 1.73 2.47 2,319 5,383,135 2.35 0.32 1.72 2.98 1,159 2,757,054 1.84 0.19 1.47 2.21 1,160 2,626,081
East Coast 1.53 0.29 0.96 2.10 943 1,616,847 1.44 0.49 0.48 2.41 453 831,825 1.63 0.29 1.06 2.19 490 785,022
Northern 1.24 0.19 0.87 1.60 893 1,886,983 1.33 0.31 0.71 1.95 417 918,873 1.15 0.21 0.74 1.56 476 968,110
Sabah 4.37 0.30 3.78 4.96 737 1,121,712 4.86 0.48 3.92 5.79 359 568,661 3.87 0.37 3.14 4.59 378 553,051
Sarawak 3.05 0.47 2.14 3.96 705 1,191,505 3.23 0.67 1.92 4.54 331 609,544 2.86 0.65 1.59 4.13 374 581,962
Strata
Urban 2.28 0.15 1.99 2.58 3,700 8,438,717 2.60 0.26 2.09 3.11 1,807 4,286,916 1.95 0.15 1.67 2.23 1,893 4,151,801
Rural 1.84 0.12 1.60 2.09 3,226 5,733,760 1.85 0.17 1.53 2.18 1,536 2,923,192 1.84 0.21 1.48 2.20 1,690 2,810,568
Sex
Men 2.30 0.17 1.97 2.63 3,343 7,210,108
Women 1.91 0.11 1.69 2.13 3,583 6,962,369
Age group (Years)
18 19 2.79 0.54 1.73 3.84 427 1,448,992 3.71 0.99 1.77 5.66 208 734,969 1.83 0.34 1.17 2.49 219 714,022
20 29 2.18 0.17 1.85 2.51 2,047 4,249,026 2.33 0.26 1.82 2.83 990 2,161,113 2.02 0.22 1.60 2.45 1,057 2,087,913
30 39 2.09 0.16 1.76 2.41 1,990 3,655,388 1.99 0.21 1.58 2.40 919 1,851,420 2.18 0.25 1.68 2.68 1,071 1,803,968
40 49 1.96 0.18 1.61 2.32 1,546 2,902,558 2.03 0.22 1.59 2.47 769 1,481,407 1.89 0.29 1.33 2.45 777 1,421,151
50 59 1.97 0.27 1.45 2.50 918 1,922,172 2.16 0.37 1.44 2.88 457 981,199 1.78 0.39 1.01 2.54 461 940,973
Ethnic group
Malay 1.94 1.60 1.70 2.17 3,727 7,711,757 2.14 0.20 1.76 2.53 1,823 3,978,731 1.72 0.13 1.46 1.98 1,904 3,733,026
Chinese 2.21 2.21 1.65 2.77 1,591 3,537,879 2.27 0.49 1.31 3.22 756 1,781,201 2.15 0.30 1.57 2.74 835 1,756,678
Indian 1.22 3.15 0.88 1.55 632 1,372,449 1.56 0.28 1.02 2.11 299 669,482 0.89 0.20 0.50 1.28 333 702,967
Orang Asli PM 0.00 17.20 0.00 0.00 29 69,202 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 12 38,171 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 17 31,032
Sabah Bumiputera 5.06 4.66 4.25 5.88 398 581,075 6.10 0.70 4.72 7.48 187 275,841 4.12 0.46 3.22 5.02 211 305,235
Sarawak Bumiputera 2.40 5.71 1.50 3.29 390 619,696 2.39 0.59 1.22 3.55 191 317,936 2.40 0.69 1.04 3.76 199 301,760
Other Bumiputera 3.50 8.95 2.32 4.69 159 280,418 3.53 0.90 1.77 5.30 75 148,746 3.47 0.78 1.94 5.00 84 131,672
Table 34: continue

Total Men Women


Characteristics Stairs Std 95% CI Total Estimated Stairs Std 95% CI Total Estimated Stairs Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 1.67 0.19 1.31 2.03 1,435 2,697,449


Lower secondary
school (PMR) 1.55 0.15 1.25 1.84 1,482 2,880,629
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 1.99 0.14 1.72 2.27 2,304 4,901,071
Matriculation/Form 6 1.81 0.32 1.19 2.44 360 786,855
College/University 3.64 0.45 2.76 4.52 975 2,196,924
Others 2.86 0.64 1.61 4.10 363 691,410
Marital status
Unmarried 2.52 0.26 2.01 3.04 1,857 4,417,000
Married 1.96 0.10 1.77 2.15 4,829 9,172,330
Divorced 2.09 0.62 0.86 3.31 85 212,824
Widow 2.11 0.80 0.54 3.68 151 364,469
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 1.81 0.12 1.57 2.04 3,613 7,160,146
RM1500 - RM3500 2.18 0.17 1.84 2.52 2,363 4,962,569
More than RM3500 3.25 0.42 2.41 4.08 952 2,055,420
BMI Status
Underweight 1.61 0.23 1.17 2.05 631 1,379,652 1.29 0.26 0.78 1.80 297 668,889 1.91 0.36 1.20 2.62 334 710,763
Normal 2.38 0.17 2.04 2.72 3,419 7,083,985 2.63 0.28 2.07 3.18 1,723 3,735,606 2.11 0.18 1.76 2.47 1,696 3,348,379
Overweight 2.01 0.17 1.66 2.35 1,943 3,859,895 2.29 0.25 1.80 2.78 971 2,051,154 1.68 0.24 1.21 2.15 972 1,808,741
Obese 1.81 0.21 1.41 2.22 901 1,793,660 1.59 0.31 0.99 2.19 336 721,533 1.96 0.27 1.43 2.50 565 1,072,127

169
Table 35: Total time spent on activities based on body position (sports)

170
Total Men Women
Characteristics Sports Std 95% CI Total Estimated Sports Std 95% CI Total Estimated Sports Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Malaysia 8.16 0.46 7.27 9.05 6,928 14,178,135 11.29 0.62 10.08 12.50 3,343 7,210,108 4.92 0.66 3.62 6.22 3,585 6,968,028
Zone
Southern 6.13 0.73 4.69 7.56 1,329 2,972,294 8.90 1.26 6.44 11.36 624 1,524,151 3.21 0.62 2.00 4.41 705 1,448,143
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 8.70 0.94 6.86 10.53 2,321 5,388,794 10.02 0.92 8.21 11.82 1,159 2,757,054 7.31 1.66 4.07 10.56 1,162 2,631,740
East Coast 7.89 0.98 5.97 9.81 943 1,616,847 10.90 1.64 7.69 14.11 453 831,825 4.70 1.02 2.70 6.69 490 785,022
Northern 9.45 1.16 7.18 11.72 893 1,886,983 15.89 2.19 11.60 20.17 417 918,873 3.34 0.67 2.03 4.64 476 968,110
Sabah 9.97 1.20 7.61 12.33 737 1,121,712 16.91 2.09 12.81 21.00 359 568,661 2.83 0.79 1.29 4.38 378 553,051
Sarawak 7.43 1.34 4.80 10.07 705 1,191,505 11.38 2.41 6.67 16.10 331 609,544 3.29 0.79 1.75 4.84 374 581,962
Strata
Urban 7.75 0.57 6.64 8.86 3,701 8,441,210 10.44 0.82 8.83 12.04 1,807 4,286,916 4.99 0.76 3.49 6.48 1,894 4,154,294
Rural 8.76 0.76 7.27 10.24 3,227 5,736,925 12.54 0.93 10.71 14.37 1,536 2,923,192 4.83 1.19 2.49 7.16 1,691 2,813,733
Sex
Men 11.29 0.62 10.08 12.50 3,343 7,210,108
Women 4.92 0.66 3.62 6.22 3,585 6,968,028
Age group (Years)
18 19 11.04 1.64 7.81 14.26 427 1,448,992 19.31 3.03 13.38 25.25 208 734,969 2.52 0.77 1.00 4.03 219 714,022
20 29 8.18 0.66 6.88 9.49 2,047 4,249,026 12.42 1.09 10.28 14.55 990 2,161,113 3.80 0.67 2.48 5.12 1,057 2,087,913
30 39 6.87 1.01 4.89 8.85 1,990 3,655,388 8.79 0.97 6.89 10.70 919 1,851,420 4.90 1.78 1.40 8.40 1,071 1,803,968
40 49 7.27 0.69 5.92 8.63 1,546 2,902,558 8.57 1.00 6.60 10.54 769 1,481,407 5.93 0.94 4.08 7.77 777 1,421,151
50 59 9.73 1.66 6.48 12.97 918 1,922,172 11.61 1.87 7.95 15.27 457 981,199 7.76 2.75 2.36 13.16 461 940,973
Ethnic group
Malay 7.90 0.62 6.69 9.11 3,728 7,714,922 11.55 0.80 9.97 13.12 1,823 3,978,731 4.01 0.93 2.19 5.83 1,905 3,736,191
Chinese 8.99 1.07 6.90 11.09 1,592 3,540,373 9.77 1.38 7.07 12.46 756 1,781,201 8.21 1.63 5.01 11.40 836 1,759,172
Indian 7.29 1.12 5.09 9.49 632 1,372,449 10.01 1.88 6.32 13.69 299 669,482 4.70 1.23 2.28 7.11 333 702,967
Orang Asli PM 11.39 8.22 -4.73 27.51 29 69,202 19.82 15.93 -11.42 51.05 12 38,171 1.02 1.01 -0.97 3.01 17 31,032
Sabah Bumiputera 9.59 1.63 6.40 12.79 398 581,075 18.76 3.14 12.59 24.92 187 275,841 1.31 0.58 0.18 2.45 211 305,235
Sarawak Bumiputera 6.78 1.16 4.51 9.05 390 619,696 10.83 1.98 6.94 14.72 191 317,936 2.52 1.09 0.38 4.65 199 301,760
Other Bumiputera 8.42 2.76 3.02 13.82 159 280,418 13.40 4.44 4.69 22.10 75 148,746 2.80 1.62 -0.37 5.97 84 131,672
Table 35: continue

Total Men Women


Characteristics Sports Std 95% CI Total Estimated Sports Std 95% CI Total Estimated Sports Std 95% CI Total Estimated
(minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population (minutes) Error Lower Upper Respondents population

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 6.58 0.64 5.32 7.84 1,435 2,697,449


Lower secondary
school (PMR) 6.65 0.75 5.19 8.12 1,482 2,880,629
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 8.87 0.69 7.52 10.21 2,304 4,901,071
Matriculation/Form 6 8.53 1.58 5.44 11.63 360 786,855
College/University 9.18 1.00 7.23 11.13 975 2,196,924
Others 8.62 4.58 -0.37 17.60 363 691,410
Marital status
Unmarried 11.08 1.06 9.00 13.16 1,857 4,417,000
Married 6.55 0.38 5.80 7.29 4,829 9,172,330
Divorced 6.12 1.98 2.25 10.00 85 212,824
Widow 14.80 7.20 0.69 28.91 151 364,469
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 8.43 0.64 7.18 9.68 3,937 7,862,673
RM1500 - RM3500 6.80 0.60 5.63 7.98 2,039 4,278,230
More than RM3500 9.97 1.54 6.96 12.98 952 2,037,232
BMI Status
Underweight 9.04 1.26 6.57 11.50 631 1,379,652 15.00 2.37 10.36 19.64 297 668,889 3.42 0.89 1.69 5.16 334 710,763
Normal 8.73 0.71 7.33 10.13 3,419 7,083,985 11.92 0.93 10.09 13.75 1,723 3,735,606 5.17 1.07 3.07 7.27 1,696 3,348,379
Overweight 7.76 0.62 6.55 8.97 1,943 3,859,895 10.49 1.01 8.52 12.47 971 2,051,154 4.67 0.64 3.41 5.93 972 1,808,741
Obese 4.49 0.64 3.23 5.75 901 1,793,660 6.27 1.18 3.95 8.59 336 721,533 3.29 0.72 1.87 4.71 565 1,072,127

171
Table 36: Total time spent on activities based on body position (Other activities)

172
Total Men Women

Characteristics Other 95% CI Other 95% CI Other 95% CI


Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated
activity activity activity
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population
(minutes) (minutes) (minutes)

Malaysia 7.50 0.53 6.46 8.54 6,928 14,178,135 9.14 0.85 7.47 10.80 3,343 7,210,108 5.81 0.63 4.57 7.04 3,585 6,968,028
Zone
Southern 8.11 0.96 6.23 9.99 1,329 2,972,294 10.99 1.82 7.41 14.56 624 1,524,151 5.08 0.49 4.11 6.05 705 1,448,143
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 6.97 1.16 4.70 9.24 2,321 5,388,794 9.02 1.72 5.66 12.39 1,159 2,757,054 4.81 1.55 1.78 7.84 1,162 2,631,740
East Coast 8.34 1.18 6.03 10.65 943 1,616,847 11.23 2.14 7.05 15.42 453 831,825 5.28 0.75 3.82 6.74 490 785,022
Northern 3.82 0.60 2.65 4.99 893 1,886,983 3.22 1.01 1.24 5.20 417 918,873 4.39 0.67 3.08 5.69 476 968,110
Sabah 7.42 1.22 5.04 9.81 737 1,121,712 7.35 2.08 3.26 11.43 359 568,661 7.50 1.23 5.09 9.91 378 553,051
Sarawak 13.15 1.44 10.33 15.97 705 1,191,505 12.73 2.38 8.07 17.39 331 609,544 13.59 1.57 10.51 16.67 374 581,962
Strata
Urban 6.34 0.70 4.97 7.70 3,701 8,441,210 8.21 1.21 5.84 10.57 1,807 4,286,916 4.41 0.67 3.09 5.73 1,894 4,154,294
Rural 9.21 0.82 7.60 10.81 3,227 5,736,925 10.50 1.11 8.32 12.67 1,536 2,923,192 7.87 1.20 5.52 10.21 1,691 2,813,733
Sex
Men 9.14 0.85 7.47 10.80 3,343 7,210,108
Women 5.81 0.63 4.57 7.04 3,585 6,968,028
Age group (Years)
18 19 6.37 1.98 2.49 10.24 427 1,448,992 10.71 3.80 3.26 18.15 208 734,969 1.90 0.62 0.69 3.11 219 714,022
20 29 7.54 1.04 5.51 9.57 2,047 4,249,026 10.65 1.99 6.75 14.54 990 2,161,113 4.33 0.45 3.46 5.20 1,057 2,087,913
30 39 7.17 1.05 5.12 9.23 1,990 3,655,388 7.95 1.12 5.76 10.15 919 1,851,420 6.37 1.79 2.86 9.87 1,071 1,803,968
40 49 7.64 0.85 5.98 9.30 1,546 2,902,558 8.89 1.55 5.85 11.94 769 1,481,407 6.33 0.60 5.17 7.50 777 1,421,151
50 59 8.67 1.54 5.65 11.68 918 1,922,172 7.23 1.36 4.55 9.90 457 981,199 10.17 2.80 4.68 15.65 461 940,973
Ethnic group
Malay 5.94 0.56 4.84 7.04 3,728 7,714,922 7.12 0.70 5.75 8.49 1,823 3,978,731 4.68 0.89 2.93 6.43 1,905 3,736,191
Chinese 10.59 1.59 7.48 13.71 1,592 3,540,373 14.05 2.77 8.62 19.49 756 1,781,201 7.09 1.51 4.13 10.05 836 1,759,172
Indian 5.69 1.05 3.63 7.75 632 1,372,449 6.89 1.98 3.00 10.78 299 669,482 4.54 0.80 2.97 6.11 333 702,967
Orang Asli PM 23.99 13.54 -2.56 50.53 29 69,202 37.13 18.72 0.43 73.82 12 38,171 7.82 3.81 0.35 15.29 17 31,032
Sabah Bumiputera 5.94 1.02 3.94 7.94 398 581,075 3.76 1.01 1.78 5.73 187 275,841 7.92 1.70 4.59 11.25 211 305,235
Sarawak Bumiputera 12.77 1.72 9.41 16.14 390 619,696 11.84 2.78 6.39 17.28 191 317,936 13.76 1.96 9.92 17.59 199 301,760
Other Bumiputera 7.73 3.63 0.61 14.84 159 280,418 11.35 6.30 -1.00 23.69 75 148,746 3.64 0.99 1.70 5.57 84 131,672
Table 36: continue

Total Men Women

Characteristics Other 95% CI Other 95% CI Other 95% CI


Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated
activity activity activity
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population
(minutes) (minutes) (minutes)

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 10.27 1.22 7.88 12.66 1,435 2,697,449


Lower secondary
school (PMR) 10.12 1.54 7.10 13.15 1,482 2,880,629
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 5.69 0.51 4.69 6.70 2,304 4,901,071
Matriculation/Form 6 4.13 0.87 2.42 5.84 360 786,855
College/University 2.24 0.44 1.38 3.09 975 2,196,924
Others 15.49 4.92 5.85 25.13 363 691,410
Marital status
Unmarried 8.09 1.22 5.69 10.49 1,857 4,417,000
Married 6.94 0.50 5.97 7.91 4,829 9,172,330
Divorced 9.08 2.62 3.94 14.22 85 212,824
Widow 13.10 7.01 -0.64 26.83 151 364,469
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 8.74 0.71 7.35 10.13 3,937 7,862,673
RM1500 - RM3500 6.33 0.99 4.40 8.26 2,039 4,278,230
More than RM3500 5.16 1.37 2.48 7.84 952 2,037,232
BMI Status
Underweight 7.30 1.35 4.64 9.95 631 1,379,652 9.82 2.60 4.73 14.92 297 668,889 4.92 0.95 3.06 6.78 334 710,763
Normal 8.10 0.79 6.55 9.66 3,419 7,083,985 9.97 1.20 7.62 12.32 1,723 3,735,606 6.02 1.01 4.03 8.00 1,696 3,348,379
Overweight 6.94 0.97 5.04 8.84 1,943 3,859,895 8.55 1.76 5.10 12.01 971 2,051,154 5.10 0.52 4.09 6.11 972 1,808,741
Obese 5.19 0.73 3.75 6.63 901 1,793,660 6.01 1.62 2.82 9.19 336 721,533 4.65 0.56 3.55 5.74 565 1,072,127

173
Table 37: Total time spent on light activities

174
Total Men Women

Characteristics Light 95% CI Light 95% CI Light 95% CI


Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated
activities activities activities
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population
(minutes) (minutes) (minutes)

Malaysia 1286.20 1.30 1283.65 1288.76 6,926 14,172,476 1284.47 2.04 1280.48 1288.47 3,343 7,210,108 1287.99 1.60 1284.85 1291.13 3,583 6,962,369
Zone
Southern 1278.50 2.88 1272.85 1284.16 1,329 2,972,294 1278.78 4.50 1269.96 1287.60 624 1,524,151 1278.21 3.54 1271.26 1285.16 705 1,448,143
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 1293.32 2.34 1288.73 1297.90 2,319 5,383,135 1296.06 3.59 1289.01 1303.11 1,159 2,757,054 1290.44 2.90 1284.74 1296.13 1,160 2,626,081
East Coast 1297.89 2.89 1292.23 1303.56 943 1,616,847 1298.73 4.17 1290.56 1306.91 453 831,825 1297.01 3.96 1289.24 1304.77 490 785,022
Northern 1288.93 3.25 1282.55 1295.31 893 1,886,983 1279.84 5.46 1269.13 1290.54 417 918,873 1297.57 3.59 1290.53 1304.60 476 968,110
Sabah 1272.21 4.57 1263.25 1281.18 737 1,121,712 1262.31 7.00 1248.58 1276.03 359 568,661 1282.40 5.66 1271.31 1293.49 378 553,051
Sarawak 1266.23 3.97 1258.45 1274.00 705 1,191,505 1254.50 6.32 1242.12 1266.89 331 609,544 1278.50 4.71 1269.27 1287.74 374 581,962
Strata
Urban 1289.87 1.74 1286.47 1293.28 3,700 8,438,717 1290.16 2.71 1284.84 1295.47 1,807 4,286,916 1289.58 2.14 1285.38 1293.78 1,893 4,151,801
Rural 1280.80 1.93 1277.02 1284.57 3,226 5,733,760 1276.14 3.00 1270.25 1282.02 1,536 2,923,192 1285.65 2.38 1280.98 1290.31 1,690 2,810,568
Sex
Men 1284.47 2.04 1280.48 1288.47 3,343 7,210,108
Women 1287.99 1.60 1284.85 1291.13 3,583 6,962,369
Age group (Years)
18 19 1295.06 5.84 1283.61 1306.52 427 1,448,992 1283.24 9.13 1265.35 1301.14 208 734,969 1307.23 7.10 1293.32 1321.14 219 714,022
20 29 1292.21 2.32 1287.66 1296.76 2,047 4,249,026 1286.61 3.77 1279.22 1294.00 990 2,161,113 1298.01 2.71 1292.70 1303.32 1,057 2,087,913
30 39 1282.22 2.23 1277.85 1286.60 1,989 3,652,222 1282.32 3.53 1275.39 1289.25 919 1,851,420 1282.12 2.71 1276.80 1287.44 1,070 1,800,803
40 49 1276.96 2.67 1271.71 1282.20 1,546 2,902,558 1281.36 4.03 1273.45 1289.27 769 1,481,407 1272.37 3.48 1265.55 1279.19 777 1,421,151
50 59 1287.75 3.31 1281.26 1294.25 917 1,919,678 1289.46 5.16 1279.33 1299.58 457 981,199 1285.97 4.10 1277.93 1294.01 460 938,479
Ethnic group
Malay 1287.53 1.67 1284.26 1290.79 3,727 7,711,757 1287.41 2.53 1282.44 1292.37 1,823 3,978,731 1287.65 2.12 1283.50 1291.80 1,904 3,733,026
Chinese 1290.39 2.77 1284.96 1295.82 1,591 3,537,879 1288.55 4.46 1279.81 1297.29 756 1,781,201 1292.26 3.26 1285.87 1298.65 835 1,756,678
Indian 1285.35 4.66 1276.21 1294.49 632 1,372,449 1286.63 7.42 1272.09 1301.16 299 669,482 1284.13 5.77 1272.83 1295.44 333 702,967
Orang Asli PM 1275.92 19.48 1237.72 1314.11 29 69,202 1256.39 25.36 1206.69 1306.10 12 38,171 1299.93 26.40 1248.18 1351.68 17 31,032
Sabah Bumiputera 1278.04 5.14 1267.97 1288.11 398 581,075 1271.44 7.47 1256.80 1286.09 187 275,841 1284.00 7.09 1270.11 1297.90 211 305,235
Sarawak Bumiputera 1264.51 5.41 1253.91 1275.12 390 619,696 1254.08 8.51 1237.41 1270.76 191 317,936 1275.50 6.49 1262.77 1288.24 199 301,760
Other Bumiputera 1268.44 12.96 1243.04 1293.85 159 280,418 1243.80 18.55 1207.43 1280.17 75 148,746 1296.29 13.67 1269.48 1323.09 84 131,672
Table 37: continue

Total Men Women

Characteristics Light 95% CI Light 95% CI Light 95% CI


Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated
activities activities activities
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population
(minutes) (minutes) (minutes)

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 1276.60 2.86 1270.98 1282.21 1,435 2,697,449


Lower secondary
school (PMR) 1279.84 3.07 1273.82 1285.86 1,482 2,880,629
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 1285.63 2.28 1281.17 1290.09 2,304 4,901,071
Matriculation/Form 6 1288.71 4.82 1279.26 1298.17 360 786,855
College/University 1306.25 2.94 1300.47 1312.02 975 2,196,924
Others 1285.85 5.37 1275.33 1296.38 362 688,245
Marital status
Unmarried 1295.63 2.73 1290.27 1300.99 1,856 4,413,835
Married 1282.57 1.45 1279.72 1285.41 4,829 9,172,330
Divorced 1267.20 9.76 1248.06 1286.33 85 212,824
Widow 1275.95 7.70 1260.85 1291.05 150 361,975
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 1282.55 1.90 1278.82 1286.29 3,612 7,156,980
RM1500 - RM3500 1287.12 2.19 1282.83 1291.41 2,363 4,962,569
More than RM3500 1296.69 2.96 1290.89 1302.50 951 2,052,927
BMI Status
Underweight 1297.68 4.52 1288.82 1306.54 631 1,379,652 1297.44 6.73 1284.25 1310.63 297 668,889 1297.91 6.05 1286.04 1309.77 334 710,763
Normal 1284.56 1.91 1280.81 1288.32 3,418 7,080,819 1279.96 2.93 1274.22 1285.71 1,723 3,735,606 1289.70 2.37 1285.06 1294.34 1,695 3,345,214
Overweight 1284.47 2.25 1280.06 1288.87 1,943 3,859,895 1283.66 3.55 1276.71 1290.62 971 2,051,154 1285.38 2.60 1280.27 1290.48 972 1,808,741
Obese 1286.85 3.39 1280.21 1293.49 901 1,793,660 1294.94 5.56 1284.04 1305.83 336 721,533 1281.41 4.15 1273.27 1289.54 565 1,072,127

175
Table 38: Total time spent on moderate activities

176
Total Men Women

Characteristics Moderate 95% CI Moderate 95% CI Moderate 95% CI


Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated
activities activities activities
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population
(minutes) (minutes) (minutes)

Malaysia 148.68 1.31 146.12 151.25 6,926 14,172,476 148.21 2.06 144.18 152.24 3,343 7,210,108 149.17 1.60 146.05 152.30 3,583 6,962,369
Zone
Southern 156.98 3.04 151.02 162.95 1,329 2,972,294 154.50 4.85 144.99 164.01 624 1,524,151 159.60 3.52 152.70 166.49 705 1,448,143
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 141.62 2.34 137.04 146.20 2,319 5,383,135 136.88 3.59 129.85 143.91 1,159 2,757,054 146.60 2.90 140.92 152.28 1,160 2,626,081
East Coast 138.71 2.86 133.11 144.30 943 1,616,847 137.10 4.10 129.07 145.13 453 831,825 140.41 3.96 132.65 148.16 490 785,022
Northern 147.27 3.21 140.97 153.56 893 1,886,983 154.17 5.38 143.62 164.72 417 918,873 140.71 3.56 133.74 147.68 476 968,110
Sabah 157.84 4.27 149.46 166.21 737 1,121,712 163.20 6.34 150.77 175.64 359 568,661 152.32 5.71 141.12 163.51 378 553,051
Sarawak 167.05 4.21 158.79 175.31 705 1,191,505 175.90 7.03 162.12 189.68 331 609,544 157.78 4.64 148.67 166.88 374 581,962
Strata
Urban 144.84 1.77 141.37 148.30 3,700 8,438,717 142.48 2.78 137.02 147.94 1,807 4,286,916 147.27 2.13 143.09 151.44 1,893 4,151,801
Rural 154.35 1.88 150.65 158.04 3,226 5,733,760 156.61 2.91 150.90 162.32 1,536 2,923,192 151.99 2.37 147.35 156.64 1,690 2,810,568
Sex
Men 148.21 2.06 144.18 152.24 3,343 7,210,108
Women 149.17 1.60 146.05 152.30 3,583 6,962,369
Age group (Years)
18 19 136.27 5.74 125.02 147.52 427 1,448,992 141.92 8.97 124.34 159.51 208 734,969 130.45 7.09 116.56 144.33 219 714,022
20 29 142.10 2.38 137.44 146.75 2,047 4,249,026 144.83 3.90 137.20 152.47 990 2,161,113 139.26 2.70 133.96 144.56 1,057 2,087,913
30 39 153.41 2.22 149.07 157.76 1,989 3,652,222 151.89 3.50 145.03 158.75 919 1,851,420 154.98 2.70 149.68 160.28 1,070 1,800,803
40 49 158.92 2.67 153.69 164.15 1,546 2,902,558 153.74 4.02 145.86 161.63 769 1,481,407 164.31 3.46 157.53 171.10 777 1,421,151
50 59 148.16 3.25 141.78 154.54 917 1,919,678 145.05 5.06 135.13 154.96 457 981,199 151.42 4.05 143.49 159.35 460 938,479
Ethnic group
Malay 147.57 1.69 144.26 150.88 3,727 7,711,757 145.10 2.57 140.06 150.15 1,823 3,978,731 150.20 2.11 146.07 154.33 1,904 3,733,026
Chinese 144.90 2.81 139.39 150.42 1,591 3,537,879 146.15 4.59 137.16 155.14 756 1,781,201 143.64 3.23 137.30 149.98 835 1,756,678
Indian 150.55 4.66 141.41 159.68 632 1,372,449 147.21 7.45 132.60 161.81 299 669,482 153.73 5.73 142.48 164.97 333 702,967
Orang Asli PM 164.08 19.48 125.89 202.28 29 69,202 183.61 25.36 133.90 233.31 12 38,171 140.07 26.40 88.32 191.82 17 31,032
Sabah Bumiputera 152.16 5.02 142.32 162.00 398 581,075 153.28 7.06 139.44 167.11 187 275,841 151.15 7.12 137.19 165.10 211 305,235
Sarawak Bumiputera 168.58 5.33 158.13 179.03 390 619,696 175.83 8.39 159.38 192.29 191 317,936 160.94 6.42 148.35 173.53 199 301,760
Other Bumiputera 162.88 11.48 140.37 185.38 159 280,418 182.91 16.19 151.17 214.65 75 148,746 140.25 13.61 113.57 166.92 84 131,672
Table 38: continue

Total Men Women

Characteristics Moderate 95% CI Moderate 95% CI Moderate 95% CI


Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated
activities activities activities
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population
(minutes) (minutes) (minutes)

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 160.15 2.86 154.53 165.76 1,435 2,697,449


Lower secondary
school (PMR) 156.16 3.05 150.18 162.13 1,482 2,880,629
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 148.41 2.25 143.99 152.83 2,304 4,901,071
Matriculation/Form 6 146.84 4.73 137.57 156.11 360 786,855
College/University 126.02 2.94 120.26 131.78 975 2,196,924
Others 150.59 5.26 140.27 160.90 362 688,245
Marital status
Unmarried 136.74 2.75 131.36 142.13 1,856 4,413,835
Married 153.44 1.44 150.61 156.27 4,829 9,172,330
Divorced 168.95 9.93 149.48 188.42 85 212,824
Widow 160.47 7.48 145.81 175.14 150 361,975
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 152.88 1.91 149.13 156.63 3,612 7,156,980
RM1500 - RM3500 147.52 2.19 143.22 151.82 2,363 4,962,569
More than RM3500 136.87 2.98 131.04 142.71 951 2,052,927
BMI Status
Underweight 136.83 4.45 128.11 145.55 631 1,379,652 134.97 6.54 122.15 147.79 297 668,889 138.58 6.01 126.80 150.36 334 710,763
Normal 149.74 1.94 145.94 153.54 3,418 7,080,819 151.81 3.00 145.94 157.69 1,723 3,735,606 147.43 2.36 142.80 152.05 1,695 3,345,214
Overweight 150.89 2.23 146.51 155.26 1,943 3,859,895 150.08 3.54 143.15 157.01 971 2,051,154 151.80 2.58 146.74 156.85 972 1,808,741
Obese 149.64 3.37 143.04 156.24 901 1,793,660 139.82 5.45 129.13 150.51 336 721,533 156.25 4.13 148.14 164.35 565 1,072,127

177
Table 39: Total time spent on vigorous activities

178
Total Men Women

Characteristics Vigorous 95% CI Vigorous 95% CI Vigorous 95% CI


Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated
activities activities activities
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population
(minutes) (minutes) (minutes)

Malaysia 5.12 0.26 4.60 5.63 6,926 14,172,476 7.32 0.48 6.38 8.25 3,343 7,210,108 2.83 0.18 2.48 3.19 3,583 6,962,369
Zone
Southern 4.51 0.63 3.27 5.75 1,329 2,972,294 6.72 1.13 4.49 8.94 624 1,524,151 2.19 0.33 1.55 2.83 705 1,448,143
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Central 5.06 0.42 4.24 5.88 2,319 5,383,135 7.06 0.74 5.60 8.51 1,159 2,757,054 2.96 0.32 2.33 3.60 1,160 2,626,081
East Coast 3.40 0.56 2.31 4.49 943 1,616,847 4.17 0.96 2.29 6.05 453 831,825 2.59 0.54 1.53 3.64 490 785,022
Northern 3.80 0.49 2.85 4.76 893 1,886,983 5.99 0.92 4.20 7.79 417 918,873 1.72 0.36 1.02 2.42 476 968,110
Sabah 9.95 0.97 8.05 11.85 737 1,121,712 14.49 1.66 11.24 17.74 359 568,661 5.28 0.71 3.88 6.68 378 553,051
Sarawak 6.72 1.34 4.11 9.34 705 1,191,505 9.60 2.41 4.87 14.32 331 609,544 3.72 0.84 2.07 5.36 374 581,962
Strata
Urban 5.29 0.37 4.56 6.03 3,700 8,438,717 7.36 0.67 6.04 8.68 1,807 4,286,916 3.16 0.25 2.66 3.65 1,893 4,151,801
Rural 4.85 0.35 4.16 5.55 3,226 5,733,760 7.25 0.64 6.01 8.50 1,536 2,923,192 2.36 0.26 1.85 2.87 1,690 2,810,568
Sex
Men 7.32 0.48 6.38 8.25 3,343 7,210,108
Women 2.83 0.18 2.48 3.19 3,583 6,962,369
Age group (Years)
18 19 8.67 1.51 5.71 11.63 427 1,448,992 14.83 2.79 9.36 20.31 208 734,969 2.32 0.52 1.31 3.34 219 714,022
20 29 5.69 0.51 4.70 6.69 2,047 4,249,026 8.56 0.90 6.79 10.32 990 2,161,113 2.73 0.33 2.08 3.37 1,057 2,087,913
30 39 4.36 0.34 3.70 5.02 1,989 3,652,222 5.79 0.60 4.62 6.96 919 1,851,420 2.90 0.29 2.32 3.48 1,070 1,800,803
40 49 4.12 0.41 3.33 4.92 1,546 2,902,558 4.90 0.62 3.68 6.12 769 1,481,407 3.32 0.51 2.31 4.32 777 1,421,151
50 59 4.09 0.56 3.00 5.18 917 1,919,678 5.50 0.98 3.58 7.42 457 981,199 2.61 0.48 1.66 3.56 460 938,479
Ethnic group
Malay 4.90 0.35 4.21 5.59 3,727 7,711,757 7.49 0.64 6.23 8.74 1,823 3,978,731 2.15 0.18 1.80 2.50 1,904 3,733,026
Chinese 4.71 0.59 3.56 5.86 1,591 3,537,879 5.30 1.04 3.27 7.34 756 1,781,201 4.10 0.52 3.08 5.12 835 1,756,678
Indian 4.10 0.69 2.75 5.46 632 1,372,449 6.16 1.27 3.68 8.65 299 669,482 2.14 0.60 0.97 3.31 333 702,967
Orang Asli PM 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 29 69,202 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 12 38,171 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 17 31,032
Sabah Bumiputera 9.80 1.14 7.57 12.03 398 581,075 15.28 2.19 10.98 19.57 187 275,841 4.85 0.70 3.47 6.23 211 305,235
Sarawak Bumiputera 6.90 1.19 4.57 9.23 390 619,696 10.09 2.07 6.03 14.14 191 317,936 3.55 1.07 1.45 5.65 199 301,760
Other Bumiputera 8.68 2.47 3.84 13.52 159 280,418 13.29 3.98 5.50 21.08 75 148,746 3.47 0.78 1.94 5.00 84 131,672
Table 39: continue

Total Men Women

Characteristics Vigorous 95% CI Vigorous 95% CI Vigorous 95% CI


Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated Std Total Estimated
activities activities activities
Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population Error Lower Upper Respondents population
(minutes) (minutes) (minutes)

Educational level
Appendix 6: Physical Activity

Primary school 3.26 0.35 2.56 3.95 1,435 2,697,449


Lower secondary
school (PMR) 4.01 0.38 3.26 4.75 1,482 2,880,629
Upper secondary
school (SPM) 5.96 0.56 4.87 7.06 2,304 4,901,071
Matriculation/Form 6 4.45 0.76 2.95 5.94 360 786,855
College/University 7.73 0.79 6.18 9.29 975 2,196,924
Others 3.56 0.68 2.23 4.90 362 688,245
Marital status
Unmarried 7.63 0.69 6.27 8.98 1,856 4,413,835
Married 3.99 0.21 3.58 4.41 4,829 9,172,330
Divorced 3.85 1.38 1.16 6.55 85 212,824
Widow 3.58 1.59 0.46 6.70 150 361,975
Household income
(per month)
Less than RM1500 4.57 0.33 3.92 5.21 3,612 7,156,980
RM1500 - RM3500 5.36 0.51 4.36 6.37 2,363 4,962,569
More than RM3500 6.43 0.70 5.07 7.80 951 2,052,927
BMI Status
Underweight 5.49 0.78 3.97 7.01 631 1,379,652 7.59 1.38 4.89 10.30 297 668,889 3.51 0.76 2.02 5.00 334 710,763
Normal 5.70 0.43 4.85 6.54 3,418 7,080,819 8.22 0.76 6.73 9.71 1,723 3,735,606 2.87 0.26 2.37 3.37 1,695 3,345,214
Overweight 4.65 0.39 3.88 5.42 1,943 3,859,895 6.26 0.65 4.97 7.54 971 2,051,154 2.82 0.38 2.08 3.57 972 1,808,741
Obese 3.51 0.59 2.35 4.67 901 1,793,660 5.24 1.37 2.55 7.93 336 721,533 2.35 0.34 1.68 3.01 565 1,072,127

179