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What is subject-verb agreement? 10a

CHAPTER 10

Agreement
SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT

10a What is subject-verb agreement?


Subject-verb agreement means that a SUBJECT and its VERB match in
NUMBER (singular or plural) and PERSON (first, second, or third person).
Box 10-1 presents these major concepts in grammatical agreement.
The firefly glows. [Firefly is a singular subject in the third person; glows
is a singular verb in the third person.]
Fireflies glow. [Fireflies is a plural subject in the third person; glow is a
plural verb in the third person.]

B OX 1 0 - 1 S U M M A RY

Major concepts in grammatical


agreement
Number, as a concept in grammar, refers to singular (one) and plural
(more than one).
The first person is the speaker or writer. I (singular) and we (plural)
are the only subjects that occur in the first person.
SINGULAR I see a field of fireflies.
PLURAL We see a field of fireflies.
The second person is the person spoken or written to. You (for both
singular and plural) is the only subject that occurs in the second
person.
SINGULAR You see a shower of sparks.
PLURAL You see a shower of sparks.
The third person is the person or thing being spoken or written about.
He, she, it (singular) and they (plural) are the third-person subject
forms. Most rules for subject-verb agreement involve the third person.
SINGULAR The scientist sees a cloud of cosmic dust.
PLURAL The scientists see a cloud of cosmic dust.

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10b AGREEMENT

10b Why is a final -s or -es in a subject or verb


so important?
SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT often involves one letter: s (or es) for words that
end in -s. For verbs in the present tense, you form the SIMPLE FORM of third-
person singular by adding -s or -es: laugh, laughs; kiss, kisses. Major excep-
tions are the verbs be (is), have (has) and do (does); see 8c.

That student agrees that young teenagers watch too much


television.
Those young teenagers are taking valuable time away from
studying.
That student has a part-time job for ten or twenty hours a week.
Still, that student does well in college.

For a subject to become plural, you add -s or -es to its end: lip, lips;
princess, princesses. Major exceptions include most pronouns (they, it) and
a few nouns that for singular and plural either dont change (deer, deer) or
change internally (mouse, mice). Box 10-2 on the next page shows you how
to visualize the basic pattern for agreement using -s or -es.
Heres a device for remembering how agreement works for most subject-
verb agreement. Note that the final -s or -es can take only one path at a
timeto the end of the verb or to the end of the subject.

MODEL
subject
-s or -es
verb
SINGULAR PLURAL
student students
-s -s
works work

raindrop raindrops
-s -s
dances dance

bus buses
-es -es
passes pass

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Can I ignore words between a subject and its verb? 10c

B OX 1 0 - 2 PAT T E R N

Basic subject-verb agreement

The student works long hours. The students work long hours.
SINGULAR SINGULAR PLURAL PLURAL
SUBJECT VERB SUBJECT VERB

A L E R T: When you use an AUXILIARY VERB with a main verb, never add
-s or -es to the main verb: The coach can walk [not can walks] to campus.
The coach does like [not does likes] his job.

E X E R C I S E 1 0 - 1 Use the subject and verb in each set to write two com-
plete sentencesone with a singular subject and one with a plural sub-
ject. Keep all verbs in the present tense. For help, consult 10b.

EXAMPLE climber, increase


Singular subject: Without proper equipment, a mountain climber
increases the risk of falling.
Plural subject: Without proper equipment, mountain climbers
increase the risk of falling.

1. dog, bark 5. author, write


2. flower, bloom 6. tornado, demolish
3. team, compete 7. jet, depart
4. planet, rotate 8. professor, might quiz

10c Can I ignore words between a subject


and its verb?
You can ignore all words between a subject and its verb. Focus strictly on the
subject and its verb. Box 10-3 shows you this pattern.
NO Winners of the state contest goes to the national finals.
[Winners is the subject; the verb must agree with it. Ignore the
words of the state contest.]
YES Winners of the state contest go to the national finals.
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10d AGREEMENT

B OX 1 0 - 3 PAT T E R N

When words separate subject and verb

in my college class
n The student in my college classes
works long hours.

SINGULAR INTERVENING SINGULAR


SUBJECT WORDS VERB

in my college class
n The students in my college classes
work long hours.

PLURAL INTERVENING PLURAL


SUBJECT WORDS VERB

The words one of the . . . often require a second look. Use a singular verb
to agree with the word one. Dont be distracted by the plural noun that comes
after of the. (For information on the phrase one of the . . . who, see 10k.)
NO One of the problems are the funds needed for traveling to the
national finals.
YES One of the problems is the funds needed for traveling to the
national finals.
Similarly, ignore all word groups between the subject and the verb, start-
ing with including, together with, along with, accompanied by, in addition
to, except, and as well as.
NO The moon, as well as the planet Venus, are visible in the night
sky. [Moon is the subject. The verb must agree with it. Ignore the
words as well as Venus.]
YES The moon, as well as the planet Venus, is visible in the night
sky.

10d How do verbs work when subjects


are connected by and ?
When two SUBJECTSare connected by and, they create a single COM-
POUND SUBJECT. A compound subject calls for a plural verb. Box 10-4 shows
you this pattern. (For related material on PRONOUNS and ANTECEDENTS,
see 10o.)
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How do verbs work when subjects are connected by or? 10f

B OX 1 0 - 4 PAT T E R N

When subjects are joined by and

The student and the instructor work long hours.


COMPOUND PLURAL
SUBJECT VERB
(uses and)

The Cascade Diner and the Wayside Diner have [not has] fried
catfish today. [These are two different diners.]
One exception occurs when and joins subjects that refer to a single thing
or person.
My friend and neighbor makes [not make] excellent chili. [In this sen-
tence, the friend is the same person as the neighbor. If they were two differ-
ent people, makes would become make.]
Macaroni and cheese contains [not contain] carbohydrates, protein,
and many calories. [Macaroni and cheese is one dish, not two separate
dishes, so it requires a singular verb.]

10e How do verbs work with each and every ?


The words each and every are singular even if they refer to a compound sub-
ject. Therefore, they take a singular verb.
Each human hand and foot makes [not make] a distinctive print.
To identify lawbreakers, every police chief, sheriff, and federal
marshal depends [not depend] on such prints.

A L E R T: Use one word, either each or every, not both at the same
time: Each (not Each and every) robber has been caught. (For more infor-
mation about pronoun agreement for each and every, see 10h, 10o, and
10q.)

10f How do verbs work when subjects


are connected by or ?
As Box 10-5 on the next page shows, when SUBJECTS are joined by or, or the
sets either. . . or, neither. . . nor, not only. . . but (also), the verb agrees with the
subject closest to it. Ignore everything before the last-mentioned noun or
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10g AGREEMENT

B OX 1 0 - 5 PAT T E R N

When subjects are joined by or

n Either the instructor or


the student knows the answer.
Either the instructors or
SINGULAR SINGULAR
SUBJECT VERB

n Either the instructor or


the students know the answer.
Either the instructors or
PLURAL PLURAL
SUBJECT VERB

pronoun. The box shows this pattern with either. . . or. (For related material
on pronouns and antecedents, see 10p.)
Neither spiders nor flies upset me.
Not only spiders but also all other arachnids have four pairs of legs.
A dinner of six clam fritters, four blue crabs, or one steamed lobster
sounds good.

10g How do verbs work with inverted word order?


In English sentences, the SUBJECT normally comes before its VERB:
Astronomy is interesting. Inverted word order reverses the typical
subject-verb pattern by putting the verb first. Most questions use inverted
word order: Is astronomy interesting? In inverted word order, find the sub-
ject first and then check whether the verb agrees with it.
Into deep space shoot probing satellites. [The plural verb shoot agrees
with the inverted plural subject satellites.]
On the television screen appears an image of Saturn. [The singular verb
appears agrees with the inverted singular subject image.]

10h How do verbs work with indefinite pronouns?


Indefinite pronouns usually refer to nonspecific persons, things, quanti-
ties, or ideas. The nonspecific aspect is why these pronouns are labeled
indefinite. As part of a sentence, however, the indefinite pronoun is usually
clear from the meaning.
Most indefinite pronouns are singular and require a singular verb for
agreement. Yet, others are always plural, and a few can be singular or plural.
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How do verbs work with indefinite pronouns? 10h

Box 10-6 clarifies this situation by listing indefinite pronouns according to


what verb form they require. (For related material on pronouns and
antecedents, see 10q.)

B OX 1 0 - 6 S U M M A RY

Common indefinite pronouns


Always Plural
both many

Always Singular
another every no one
anybody everybody nothing
anyone everyone one
anything everything somebody
each neither someone
either nobody something
Singular or Plural, Depending on Context
all more none
any most some

Here are sample sentences:


SINGULAR INDEFINITE PRONOUNS
Everything about that intersection is dangerous.
But whenever anyone says anything, nothing is done.
Each of us has [not have] to shovel snow; each is [not are] expected to
help.
Every snowstorm of the past two years has [not have] been severe.
Every one of them has [not have] caused massive traffic jams.
SINGULAR OR PLURAL INDEFINITE PRONOUNS (DEPENDING ON MEANING)
Some of our streams are polluted. [Some refers to the plural noun
streams, so the plural verb are is correct.]
Some pollution is reversible, but all pollution threatens the balance
of nature. [Some and all refer to the singular noun pollution, so the singu-
lar verbs is and threatens are correct.]
All that environmentalists ask is to give nature a chance. [All has the mean-
ing here of everything or the only thing, so the singular verb is is correct.]
Winter has driven the birds south; all have left. [All refers to the plural
noun birds, so the plural verb have is correct.]
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10k AGREEMENT

10i How do verbs work with collective nouns?


A collective noun names a group of people or things: family, audience, class,
number, committee, team, group, and the like. When the group of people or
things is acting as one unit, use a singular verb. When members of the group
are acting individually, use a plural verb. As youre writing, be careful not to
shift back and forth between a singular and a plural verb for the same noun.
The senior class nervously awaits final exams. [The class is acting as a
single unit, so the verb is singular.]
The senior class were fitted for their graduation robes today. [The mem-
bers (of the class) were fitted as individuals, so the verb is plural.]

10j Why does the linking verb agree with the subject,
not the subject complement?
Even though a LINKING VERB connects a sentences SUBJECT to its SUBJECT
COMPLEMENT, the linking verb agrees with the subject. It does not agree with
the subject complement.
NO The worst part of owning a car are the bills. [The subject is the
singular part, so the plural verb are is wrong. The subject comple-
ment is the plural bills and doesnt affect agreement.]
YES The worst part of owning a car is the bills. [The singular subject
part agrees with the singular verb is. The subject complement
doesnt affect agreement.]

10k What verbs agree with who , which , and that ?


If the ANTECEDENT of who, which, or that is singular, use a singular verb. If
the antecedent is plural, use a plural verb.
The scientist will share the prize with the researchers who work with
her. [Who refers to researchers, so the plural verb work is used.]
George Jones is the student who works in the science lab. [Who refers
to student, so the singular verb works is used.]

If you use phrases including one of the or the only one of the immediately
before who, which, or that in a sentence, be careful about the verb you use.
Who, which, or that always refers to the plural word immediately following
one of the, so the verb must be plural. Although the only one of is also always
followed by a plural word, who, which, or that must be singular to agree with
the singular one.
Tracy is one of the students who talk in class. [Who refers to students,
so the verb talk is plural. Tracy is pointed out, but the talking is still done by
all the students.]
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How do verbs work with special nouns? 10l

Jim is the only one of the students who talks in class. [Who refers to
one, so the verb talks is singular. Jim is the single person who is talking.]

EXERCISE 10-2 Supply the correct present-tense form of the verb in


parentheses. For help, consult 10h through 10k.
EXAMPLE Everybody on a class trip to the coastal waters of the Pacific
Ocean (to enjoy) enjoys an opportunity to study dolphins in their
natural habitat.
1. A class of college students in marine biology (to take) _____ notes individ-
ually while watching dolphins feed off the California coast.
2. Everyone in the class (to listen) _____ as a team of dolphin experts
(to explain) _____ some of the mammals characteristics.
3. A group of dolphins, called a pod, usually (to consist) _____ of 10,000 to
30,000 members.
4. One unique characteristic of dolphins brains (to be) _____ the sleep pat-
terns that (to keep) _____ one-half of the brain awake at all times.
5. All (to need) _____ to stay awake to breathe or else they would
drown.

10l How do verbs work with amounts, fields of study,


and other special nouns?
Amounts
SUBJECTS that refer to time, sums of money, distance, or measurement are
singular. They take singular verbs.
Two hours is not enough time to finish. [time]
Three hundred dollars is what we must pay. [sum of money]
Two miles is a short sprint for some serious joggers. [distance]
Three-quarters of an inch is needed for a perfect fit. [measurement]

Fields of study
When you refer to a field of study, its singular even though it appears to be
plural: economics, mathematics, physics, and statistics.
Statistics is required of science majors. [Statistics is a course of study,
so the singular verb is is correct.]
Statistics show that a teacher shortage is coming. [Statistics isnt used
here as a field of study, so the plural verb show is correct.]

Special nouns
Athletics, news, ethics, and measles are singular despite their plural appear-
ance. Also, United States of America is singular: It is one nation. However,
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10m AGREEMENT

politics and sports take singular or plural verbs, depending on the meaning
of the sentence.
The news gets better each day. [News is a singular noun, so the singular
verb gets is correct.]
Sports is a good way to build physical stamina. [Sports is one general
activity, so the singular verb is is correct.]
Three sports are offered at the recreation center. [Sports are separate
activities, so the plural verb are offered is correct.]
Jeans, pants, scissors, clippers, tweezers, eyeglasses, thanks, and riches
are some of the words that require a plural verb, even though they refer to
one thing. However, if you use pair with jeans, pants, scissors, clippers,
tweezers, or eyeglasses, use a singular verb for agreement.
Those slacks need pressing. [plural]
That pair of slacks needs pressing. [singular]
Series and means can be singular or plural, according to the meaning you
intend.
Two new TV series are big hits. [Series refers to individual items (two dif-
ferent series), so the plural verb are is correct.]
A series of disasters is plaguing our production. [Series refers to a whole
group (the whole series of disasters), so the singular verb is is correct.]

10m How do verbs work with titles, company names,


and words as themselves?
Titles
A title itself refers to one work or entity (even when plural and compound
NOUNS are in the title), so a singular verb is correct.

Breathing Lessons by Anne Tyler is a prize-winning novel.

Company Names
Many companies have plural words in their names. However, a company
should always be treated as a singular unit, requiring a singular verb.
Cohn Brothers boxes and delivers fine art.

Words as Themselves
Whenever you write about words as themselves to call attention to those
words, use a singular verb, even if more than one word is involved.
We implies that everyone is included.
During the Vietnam War, protective reaction strikes was a
euphemism for bombing.
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How do verbs work with titles, company names? 10m

EXERCISE 10-3 Supply the correct present-tense form of the verb in


parentheses. For help, consult 10i through 10m.

EXAMPLE In a fast-growing trend, some of the people who (to live) live on col-
lege campuses and (to participate) participate in campus life
today are not students but retired persons.
1. College-linked retirement communities (to be) _____ the general term for
retirement homes based on or near colleges and universities.
2. These communities, which (to gratify) _____ a retirees desire for an active
life and lifelong learning, are springing up on many campuses.
3. Many college-linked communities (to require) _____ their residents to have
been formerly linked to the affiliated university, in a role such as a faculty or
staff member, but some (to open) _____ their doors to all interested retirees.
4. To the residents of such retirement communities, the major advantage (to
be) _____ opportunities for ongoing cultural, intellectual, and social growth.
5. However, the younger student body often (to benefit) _____ when retirees
take part in courses and activities and thereby bring decades of wisdom
and experience to their studies.

E X E R C I S E 1 0 - 4 This is an exercise covering subject-verb agreement (10a


through 10m). Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses.
EXAMPLE Of the thirty thousand plant species on earth, the rose (to be) is
the most universally known.
1. Each plant species (to invite) _____ much discussion about origins and
meanings, and when talk turns to flowers, the rose is usually the first men-
tioned.
2. More fragrant and colorful (to be) _____ other types of flowers, yet roses
(to remain) _____ the most popular worldwide.
3. Each of the types of roses (to symbolize) _____ beauty, love, romance, and
secrecy.
4. There (to be) _____ over two hundred pure species of roses and thousands
of mixed species, thirty-five of which (to flourish) _____ in the soil of North
America.
5. Its impossible to determine exactly where or when the first rose (to be)
_____ domesticated, because roses have existed for so many centuries;
one of the earliest references dates back to 3000 BC.
6. One myth from Greek mythology (to suggest) _____ that the rose first
appeared with the birth of the goddess Aphrodite.
7. Another myth, which focuses on the roses thorns, (to say) _____ that an
angry god shot arrows into the stem to curse the rose forever with arrow-
shaped thorns.
8. While theories of this kind (to explain) _____ the significance and evolution
of the rose, few people can explain the flowers enduring popularity.
9. Even today, a couple (to demonstrate) _____ love by exchanging red roses.
10. Of all flowers, the best seller (to remain) _____ the rose.
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10o AGREEMENT

PRONOUN-ANTECEDENT AGREEMENT

10n What is pronoun-antecedent agreement?


Pronoun-antecedent agreement means that a PRONOUN matches its
ANTECEDENT in NUMBER (singular or plural) and PERSON (first, second, or
third person). Box 10-7 shows you how to visualize this pattern of grammat-
ical agreement. You might also want to consult Box 10-1 in 10a for explana-
tions and examples of the concepts number and person.
The firefly glows when it emerges from its nest at night. [The singular
pronouns it and its match their singular antecedent, firefly.]
Fireflies glow when they emerge from their nests at night. [The plural
pronouns they and their match their plural antecedent, fireflies.]

B OX 1 0 - 7 PAT T E R N

Pronoun-antecedent agreement

n Loud music has its harmful side effects.


THIRD-PERSON THIRD-PERSON
SINGULAR SINGULAR
ANTECEDENT PRONOUN

n The musicians damaged their hearing.


THIRD-PERSON THIRD-PERSON
PLURAL PLURAL
ANTECEDENT PRONOUN

10o How do pronouns work when and connects


antecedents?
When and connects two or more ANTECEDENTS, they require a plural pro-
noun. This rule applies even if each separate antecedent is singular. (For
related material on subjects and verbs, see 10d.)
The Cascade Diner and the Wayside Diner closed for New Years
Eve to give their [not its] employees the night off. [Two separate diners
require a plural pronoun.]
When and joins singular nouns that nevertheless refer to a single person
or thing, use a singular pronoun.
My friend and neighbor makes his [not their] excellent chili every Sat-
urday. [The friend is the same person as the neighbor, so the singular his
(or her) is correct. If two different people were involved, the correct pronoun
would be their, and make would be the correct verb.]
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How do pronouns work when antecedents are indefinite pronouns? 10q

each, every
The words each and every are singular, even when they refer to two or
more antecedents joined by and. The same rule applies when each or every
is used alone (10h). (For related material on subjects and verbs, see 10e.)
Each human hand and foot leaves its [not their] distinctive print.

The rule still applies when the construction one of the follows each or
every.
Each one of the robbers left his [not their] fingerprints at the scene.

10p How do pronouns work when or connects


antecedents?
When ANTECEDENTS are joined by or or by CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS such
as either. . . or, neither. . . nor, or not only . . . but (also), the antecedents
might mix singulars and plurals. For the purposes of agreement, ignore
everything before the final antecedent. Box 10-8 shows you how to visualize
this pattern. (For related material on subjects and verbs see 10f.)
After the restaurant closes, either the resident mice or the owners
cat gets itself a meal.
After the restaurant closes, either the owners cat or the resident
mice get themselves a meal.

B OX 1 0 - 8 PAT T E R N

When antecedents are joined by or

n Either the loudspeakers or the microphone needs its electric cord


repaired. SINGULAR SINGULAR
ANTECEDENT PRONOUN

n Either the microphone or the loudspeakers need their electric


cords repaired. PLURAL PLURAL
ANTECEDENT PRONOUN

10q How do pronouns work when antecedents


are indefinite pronouns?
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS usually refer to unknown persons, things, quantities, or
ideas. The unknown aspect is why these pronouns are labeled indefinite. But
in a sentence, context gives an indefinite pronoun a clear meaning, even if the
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10r AGREEMENT

pronoun doesnt have a specific antecedent. Most indefinite pronouns are sin-
gular. Two indefinite pronouns, both and many, are plural. A few indefinite
pronouns can be singular or plural, depending on the meaning of the sentence.
For a list of indefinite pronouns, grouped as singular or plural, see
Box 10-6 in 10h. For more information about avoiding sexist language, espe-
cially when using indefinite pronouns, see 10r and 20g. (For related materi-
al on subjects and verbs, see 10h.)
SINGULAR INDEFINITE PRONOUNS
Everyone taking this course hopes to get his or her [not their] college
degree within a year.
Anybody wanting to wear a cap and gown at graduation must have his
or her [not their] measurements taken.
Each of the students handed in his or her [not their] final term paper.

SINGULAR OR PLURAL INDEFINITE PRONOUNS


When winter break arrives for students, most leave their dormitories
for home. [Most refers to students, so the plural pronoun their is correct.]
As for the luggage, most is already on its way to the airport. [Most
refers to luggage, so the singular pronoun its is correct.]
None thinks that he or she will miss graduation. [None is singular as
used in this sentence, so the singular pronoun he or she is correct.]
None of the students has paid his or her [not their] graduation fee yet.
[None is singular as used in this sentence, so the singular pronoun his or
her is correct.]
None are so proud as they who graduate. [None is plural as used in this
sentence, so the plural pronoun they is correct.]

10r How do I use nonsexist pronouns?


A word is nonsexist when it carries neither male nor female gender. Each
PRONOUN in English carries one of three genders: male (he, him, his); female
(she, her, hers); or neutral (you, your, yours, we, our, ours, them, they, their,
theirs, it, its). Usage today favors nonsexist terms in all word choices.
You, therefore, want to use gender-free pronouns whenever possible. In the
past, it was grammatically correct to use only masculine pronouns to refer to
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS: Everyone open his book. Today, however, people
know that the pronouns he, his, him, and himself exclude women, who make
up over half the population. Box 10-9 shows three ways to avoid using mas-
culine pronouns when referring to males and females together. For more
information on gender-neutral language, see 20g.
Questions often arise concerning the use of he or she and his or her. In
general, writers find these gender-free pronoun constructions awkward. To
avoid them, many writers make the antecedents plural. Doing this becomes
problematic when the subject is a SINGULAR INDEFINITE PRONOUN (Box 10-6
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How do pronouns work when antecedents are collective nouns? 10s

B OX 1 0 - 9 S U M M A RY

Avoiding the masculine pronoun when


referring to males and females together
Solution 1: Use a pair of pronounshe or she. However, avoid using
a pair more than once in a sentence or in many sentences in a row.
A he or she construction acts as a singular pronoun.
Everyone hopes that he or she will win a scholarship.
A doctor usually has time to keep up to date only in his or her
specialty.
Solution 2: Revise into the plural.
Many students hope that they will win a scholarship.
Most doctors have time to keep up to date only in their specialties.
Solution 3: Recast the sentence.
Everyone hopes to win a scholarship.
Few specialists have time for general reading.

in section 10n). In the popular press (such as newspapers and magazines),


the use of the plural pronoun they or them with a singular antecedent has
been gaining favor. Indeed, some experts find that the history of English sup-
ports this use. In ACADEMIC WRITING, however, it is better for you not to fol-
low the practice of the popular press. Language practice changes, however,
so what we say here is our best advice as we write this book.

10s How do pronouns work when antecedents are


collective nouns?
A COLLECTIVE NOUN names a group of people or things, such as family,
group, audience, class, number, committee, and team. When the group acts
as one unit, use a singular pronoun to refer to it. When the members of the
group act individually, use a plural pronoun. In the latter case, if the sentence
is awkward, substitute a plural noun for the collective noun. (For related
material on subjects and verbs, see 10i.)
The audience was cheering as it stood to applaud the performers. [The
audience was acting as one unit, so the singular pronoun it is correct.]
The audience put on their coats and walked out. [The members of the
audience were acting as individuals, so all actions become plural;
therefore, the plural pronoun their is correct.]
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11a ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

The family is spending its vacation in Rockport, Maine. [All the family
members went to one place together.]
The parallel sentence to the last example above would be The family are
spending their vacations in Maine, Hawaii, and Rome, which might mean
that each family member is going to a different place. But such a sentence is
awkward. Therefore, revise the sentence.
The family members are spending their vacations in Maine, Hawaii,
and Rome. [Substituting a plural noun family members for the collective
noun family sounds more natural.]

EXERCISE 10-5 Underline the correct pronoun in parentheses. For help,


consult 10n through 10s.
EXAMPLE Many people wonder what gives certain leaders (his or her, their)
spark and magnetic personal appeal.
1. Power and authority alone dont guarantee charisma; (it, they) must be
combined with passion and strong purpose.
2. (He, She, He or she, They) can inspire followers to believe that the leaders
goals are the same as (his, her, his or her, their) own.
3. Today, a number of major corporations offer (its, their) employees charisma-
training courses to enhance leadership qualities.
4. Usually, its not the quiet, low-profile manager but rather the charismatic
manager with strong leadership qualities who convinces others that (his,
her, his or her, their) best interests are served by the course of action (he,
she, he or she, they) is/are proposing.
5. Charisma trainers advise would-be leaders to start by bringing order to (his,
her, his or her, their) activities; in stressful times, anyone who appears to
have some part of (his, her, his or her, their) life under control makes
others relax and perform (his, her, his or her, their) responsibilities better.

CHAPTER 11

Adjectives and Adverbs


11a What are the differences between adjectives
and adverbs?
The differences between adjectives and adverbs relate to how they function.
Adjectives modify NOUNS and PRONOUNS. Adverbs modify VERBS, adjectives,
and other adverbs. Whats the same about adjective and adverbs is that they
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