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Modeling of three-phase autotransformer for


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Article in International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems March 2014
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijepes.2013.11.005

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Electrical Power and Energy Systems 56 (2014) 228234

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Electrical Power and Energy Systems


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijepes

Modeling of three-phase autotransformer for short-circuit studies


Dalibor Filipovic-Grcic a, Bozidar Filipovic-Grcic b,, Kosjenka Capuder c
a
Koncar Electrical Engineering Institute, Fallerovo etalite 22, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
b
University of Zagreb, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Unska 3, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
c
Koncar Power Transformers, Josipa Mokrovica 6, 10090 Zagreb, Croatia

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: In this paper a three-phase autotransformer is represented by inductance matrix for short-circuit studies.
Received 11 August 2013 The inductance matrix consists of winding self-inductances and corresponding mutual inductances
Received in revised form 28 October 2013 between windings. For single phase-to-ground fault the inductance matrix model results are compared
Accepted 6 November 2013
to symmetrical components results, commonly used to analyze unsymmetrical faults in three-phase
power systems. The inuence of a delta connected tertiary winding on un-faulted phase voltages and
asymmetrical fault current distribution is analyzed.
Keywords:
2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Autotransformer
Inductance matrix model
Short-circuit
Symmetrical components
Tertiary winding

1. Introduction occurrence of tertiary lead faults since only two connections from
the phases, forming one corner of the delta that is grounded, are
The autotransformer is a power transformer in which one wind- brought out of the transformer.
ing, known as the common or parallel winding, is shared between In Ref. [4] three winding transformer model for short-circuit
the high voltage (HV) and the low voltage (LV) circuit. As a part of studies is presented. The model takes into account off-nominal
the power transmission system, in service the autotransformer is tap positions and the phase shifts among the windings.
exposed to various voltage and current stresses. Short-circuit A systematic approach to solving power system faults using the
currents cause thermal and mechanical stresses of transformer three terminal Thevenins equivalent circuit is presented in [5] and
windings, while the ground fault occurrence in network with an demonstrated in case of symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults.
isolated neutral point may result in un-faulted phase voltages sig- Papers [6,7] describe the autotransformer models for load-ow,
nicantly higher than operating voltages [1]. As a consequence, an short-circuit [8] and transient recovery voltage analysis [9]. High-
internal winding fault can occur and eventually lead to insulation frequency autotransformer model derived from the results of a
failure [2,3]. lightning electromagnetic pulse test is presented in [10]. Ref. [11]
The autotransformer zero sequence impedance highly depends describes the inuence of a delta connected tertiary winding on
on delta winding presence. For this reason, delta winding is com- voltages and currents during fault conditions.
monly used to provide a low impedance path for third harmonic The contribution of this paper is the development of autotrans-
currents and to reduce current and voltage imbalances caused by former inductance matrix model for short-circuit studies. Model
asymmetrical loading, but also for other purposes such as to con- was developed and veried in Matlab/M-le [12]. The application
nect compensation. Delta connected tertiary winding is usually of this model could be useful when performing short-circuit
sized for at least one third of the rated power and having the low- system studies needed for autotransformer dimensioning and
est rated voltage. The tertiary must withstand the effects of a protection relay setting [13,14]. The inuence of a delta connected
short-circuit fault across its external terminals, as well as those tertiary winding on un-faulted phase voltages and fault currents
due to earth faults on the main windings. An embedded delta ter- was analyzed.
tiary winding, sometimes referred to as a stabilization winding,
improves the availability of the transformer by eliminating the
2. Three-phase autotransformer model based on inductance
matrix
Corresponding author. Tel.: +385 1 6129 714; fax: +385 1 6129 890.
E-mail addresses: dlipovic@koncar-institut.hr (D. Filipovic-Grcic), bozidar.
In autotransformer the HV circuit is composed of the common
lipovic-grcic@fer.hr (B. Filipovic-Grcic), kosjenka.capuder@siemens.com winding and the series winding while the LV circuit is composed
(K. Capuder). only of the common winding [15].

0142-0615/$ - see front matter 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2013.11.005
D. Filipovic-Grcic et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 56 (2014) 228234 229

The proposed autotransformer model consists of winding self-


inductances and corresponding mutual inductances between
windings. In power transformers the resistance component of the
impedance is negligible in comparison with the inductance compo- Ur2 ukr23
nent, thus only the inductive component is considered in the
following calculations. This approximation slightly overestimates
3 100
short-circuits currents.
All model parameters can be obtained from factory measure-
ments and manufacturer data. First, the total self-inductance L1
of series and parallel winding is determined from open-circuit test
data (1):

U 2r1
L1  100; 1
x  I 0  Sr
Fig. 2. Test circuit used for determination of Mp3.
where I0 is the magnetizing current in percent of the rated current,
Ur1 is the rated voltage of HV winding, Sr is the rated power and x is
the angular frequency.
Afterwards, the self-inductances LS of the series winding, LP of
the parallel winding and L3 of the tertiary winding are determined
from the following expressions:
 2
U r1  U r2
LS L1  ; 2
U r1
 2 Ur1 ukr13
U r2
LP L1 
U r1
; 3 3 100
U 2r3
L3  100  3; 4
x  I0  Sr1
where Ur2 is the rated voltage of the parallel winding and Ur3 is the
rated voltage of tertiary winding.
Mutual inductance MSPbetween series and parallel winding can
be determined from the test circuit shown in Fig. 1. LV winding is
short-circuited and voltage is increased on HV side until rated cur-
rent Ir1 is reached.
The phase angle of the applied voltage is assumed to be 0 and
current Ir1 lags by 90 since the load is purely inductive. Value of
the current through parallel winding I2 is unknown but the direc-
tion is opposite to Ir1. The Eqs. (5) and (6) are derived from the test Fig. 3. Test circuit used for determination of MS3.

circuit shown in Fig. 1.


s
 
U r1 ukr12 U r1 ukr12 LP
p  Ir1 xLS M SP  I2 xLP M SP 5 MSP Ir1 xLS  p   7
3 100 3 100 x Ir1
M SP
I2 Ir1 6
LP Mutual inductance MP3 between parallel and tertiary winding can
be determined from the test circuit shown in Fig. 2. Voltage is ap-
ukr12 is the rated short-circuit voltage of a transformer referred to
plied on LV winding, while the tertiary winding is short-circuited.
rated apparent power Sr12 between HV and LV winding. Ur1 is the
The Eqs. (8) and (9) are derived from the test circuit shown in
rated voltage of HV winding. MSP is determined by substituting I2
Fig. 2.
in (5) with expression (6).
U r2 ukr23
p  Ir2 xLP  I3 xMP3 8
3 100
M P3
I3 Ir2 9
L3

ukr23 is the rated short-circuit voltage of a transformer referred to


rated apparent power Sr23 between LV and tertiary winding. Ur2 is
Ur1 ukr12 the rated voltage of LV winding. From Eqs. (8) and (9) MP3 is deter-
mined (10).
3 100 s
 
U r2 ukr23 L3
MP3 Ir2 xLP  p   10
3 100 xIr2
Mutual inductance MS3 between series and tertiary winding can be
determined from the test circuit shown in Fig. 3 and from the
results of previous tests. Voltage is applied on HV side, while the
Fig. 1. Test circuit used for determination of MSP. tertiary winding is short-circuited.
230 D. Filipovic-Grcic et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 56 (2014) 228234

Fig. 4. Autotransformer three-phase representation for short-circuit studies.

The Eqs. (11) and (12) are derived from the test circuit shown in Kirchhoffs voltage law equations for HV side phase A are given
Fig. 3. in (16) and (17).
U r1 ukr13 U A1 IAL1 IAS  Z AN1 IAS jxLS  IAP jxLP IN Z N  IAP jxM SP
p  Ir1 xLS LP 2M SP  I3 xMS3 M P3 11
3 100 IAS jxM SP I3 jxM S3 I3 jxMP3 16
M S3 MP3
I3 Ir1 12
L3 U A1 IAL1 IAS  Z AN1 IAL1 Z AL1 IN Z N 17
ukr13 is the rated short-circuit voltage of a transformer referred to Analogous to (16) and (17) the equations are derived for phases B
rated apparent power Sr13 between HV and tertiary winding. By and C at HV. Kirchhoffs voltage law equations for LV side phase A
including Eq. (12) into (11) MS3 is determined (13). are given in (18) and (19).
s
U r1 ukr13 L3 U A2 IAL2  IAS  IAP  Z AN2  IAP jxLP IN Z N IAS jxMSP I3 jxMP3
M S3 L3  LS LP 2MSP  p    MP3 13
3 100 xIr1 18

Active networks connected to HV and LV side are represented with


voltage sources and impedances ZAN1 and ZAN2: ZHVN
U2
Z AN1 j r1 14 X12
Ssc1 Positive
U 2r2 sequence Z LVN X11
Z AN2 j 15 network X13
Ssc2
1-system U=1 p.u.
where Ssc1 and Ssc2 are short-circuit powers of active networks on
HV and LV side, respectively. The autotransformer model is pre-
ZHVN
sented in Fig. 4.
Impedances ZAL1 and ZAL2 from Fig. 4 are used to simulate short-
circuits on HV and LV side, while ZN represents the impedance of Negative X22
the autotransformer ground impedance. sequence Z LVN X21
network X23 I
2-system

ZHVN

Zero X02
sequence Z LVN X01
network X03
0-system

Fig. 5. Equivalent scheme of single phase-to-ground fault on HV side of three-phase Fig. 6. Single phase-to-ground fault on HV side modeled using symmetrical
autotransformer. components.
D. Filipovic-Grcic et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 56 (2014) 228234 231

U A2 IAL2  IAS  IAP  Z AN2 IAL2 Z AL2 IN Z N 19 The per unit short-circuit impedances are calculated by Eqs. (29)
(31).
Analogous to (18) and (19) the equations are derived for phases B
and C at LV side. ukr12
X HV=LV 29
Two more equations are derived from Kirchhoffs current law: 100
ukr13
IAP IBP ICP  jxM P3 IAS IBS ICS  jxM S3 3I3  jxL3 20 X HV=TV 30
100
ukr23
IAP IBP ICP IN IAL1 IBL1 ICL1 IAL2 IBL2 ICL2 21 X LV=TV 31
100

2 3 2 3 2 3
U A1 Z AN1 0 0 0 0 0 Z AN1 X S X SP 0 0 X P X SP 0 0 Z N X S3 X P3 IAL1
6 7 6 7 6 7
6 U B1 7 6 0 Z BN1 0 0 0 0 0 Z BN1 X S X SP 0 0 X P X SP 0 Z N X S3 X P3 7 6 IBL1 7
6 7 6 7 6 7
6 U C1 7 6 0 0 Z CN1 0 0 0 0 0 Z CN1 X S X SP 0 0 X P X SP Z N X S3 X P3 7 6 7
6 7 6 7 6 ICL1 7
6 7 6 7 6 7
6 U A2 7 6 0 0 0 Z AN2 0 0 X SP  Z AN2 0 0 Z AN2 X P 0 0 ZN X P3 7 6 IAL2 7
6 7 6 7 6 7
6 U B2 7 6 0 0 0 0 Z BN2 0 0 X SP  Z BN2 0 0 Z BN2 X P 0 ZN X P3 7 6 IBL2 7
6 7 6 7 6 7
6 7 6 7 6 7
6 U C2 7 6 0 0 0 0 0 Z CN2 0 0 X SP  Z CN2 0 0 Z CN2 X P ZN X P3 7 6 ICL2 7
6 7 6 7 6 7
6U 7 6Z Z 0 0 0 0 0 Z AN1 0 0 0 0 0 ZN 0 7 6 7
6 A1 7 6 AN1 AL1 7 6 IAS 7
6 7 6 76 7
6 U B1 7 6 0 Z BN1 Z BL1 0 0 0 0 0 Z BN1 0 0 0 0 ZN 0 7 6 IBS 7
6 7 6 7 6 7
6U 7 6 0 0 Z CN1 Z CL1 0 0 0 0 0 Z CN1 0 0 0 ZN 0 7 6I 7
6 C1 7 6 7 6 CS 7
6 7 6 7 6 7
6 U A2 7 6 0 0 0 Z AN2 Z AL2 0 0 Z AN2 0 0 Z AN2 0 0 ZN 0 7 6 IAP 7
6 7 6 7 6 7
6U 7 6 0 0 0 0 Z BN2 Z BL2 0 0 Z BN2 0 0 Z BN2 0 ZN 0 7 6I 7
6 B2 7 6 7 6 BP 7
6 7 6 7 6 7
6 U C2 7 6 0 0 0 0 0 Z CN2 Z CL2 0 0 0 0 ZN 0 7 6 7
6 7 6 Z CN2 Z CN2 7 6 ICP 7
6 0 7 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 X S3 X S3 X S3 0 3X 3 7 6 7
4 5 4 X P3 X P3 X P3 5 4 IN 5
0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 I3
22

Kirchhoffs law equations can be written in matrix form (22) which


can be simplied as: Short-circuit reactances of the primary X1, secondary X2 and tertiary
winding X3, referring to Fig. 5, can be calculated by Eqs. (32)(34).
I Z1  U 23
1
The unknown current vector [I] is calculated as a product of the in- X1  X HV=LV X HV=TV  X LV=TV 32
2
verted matrix [Z] and the vector [U] with known nodal voltages.
1
X 2  X HV=LV X LV=TV  X HV=TV 33
2
3. Symmetrical components model for single phase-to-ground 1
fault X 3  X HV=TV X LV=TV  X HV=LV 34
2
The autotransformer model for short-circuit studies was veried Reactances of the transformer windings in positive (X11, X12, X13),
with symmetrical components [16]. Symmetrical components are negative (X21, X22, X23) and zero (X01, X02, X03) sequence systems are
commonly used to analyze unsymmetrical faults in three-phase determined by the Eqs. (35)(37).
power systems since in many cases the unbalanced part of the phys- X 11 X 21 X 01 X 1 35
ical system can be isolated for a study, while the rest of the system is
X 12 X 22 X 02 X 2 36
being considered to be in balance. In such cases, the aim is to nd the
symmetrical components of the voltages and the currents at the X 13 X 23 X 03 X 3 37
point of unbalance and connect the sequence networks. Equivalent scheme of single phase-to-ground fault on HV side mod-
Fig. 5 shows equivalent scheme for the analysis of single phase- eled using symmetrical components is shown in Fig. 6.
to-ground fault on HV side of three-phase autotransformer. Total impedances of the positive, negative and zero sequence
Per unit impedances of active networks can be calculated by networks are determined using the Eqs. (38)(41).
Eqs. (24) and (25).
Z 1HVN  Z 1LVN X 11 X 12
Sb Z1 38
Z HVN 24 Z 1LVN Z 1HVN X 11 X 12
SscHV
Z 2HVN  Z 2LVN X 21 X 22
Sb Z2 39
Z LVN 25 Z 2LVN Z 2HVN X 21 X 22
SscLV
X 03  Z 0LVN X 02
Sb is base power and SscHV and SscLV are short-circuit powers of active Zp 40
X 03 Z 0LVN X 02
networks. Z 0HVN  Z p X 01
Currents relevant to the base power are given by Eqs. (26)(28). Z0 41
Z 0HVN Z p X 01
Sb
Ir1 p 26 Total currents of positive, negative and zero-sequence networks are
3  U r1 determined by Eq. (42).
Sb
Ir2 p 27 U
3  U r2 I1 I2 I0 I 42
Z1 Z2 Z0
Sb
Ir3 28
3  U r3
232 D. Filipovic-Grcic et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 56 (2014) 228234

Positive-sequence currents of HV and LV side are determined by Eq. 4.2. Inuence of tertiary winding on un-faulted phase voltages for
(43). different grounding impedances

Z 1HVN Autotransformer neutral is sometimes isolated in order to


I11 I12 I  43
Z 1LVN Z 1HVN X 11 X 12 reduce the short circuit currents in power system. In case of
ground fault in solidly grounded network the un-faulted phase
Negative-sequence currents of HV and LV side are determined by
voltages remain unchanged, but in isolated network un-faulted
Eq. (44).
phase voltages will reach the phase-to-phase values. This would
I21 I22 I11 44 almost certainly result in over excitation of the core, with greatly
increased magnetizing currents and core losses.
Zero-sequence currents are determined by Eqs. (45)(47).

Z 1HVN
I01 I  45
Z 0HVN Z p X 01
X 03
I02 I01  46
Z 0LVN X 02 X 03
I03 I01  I02 47

Finally, currents through HV, LV and tertiary winding are deter-


mined by Eqs. (48)(50).

I1 I11 I21 I01  Ir1 48


I2 I12 I22 I02  Ir2  I1 49
I3 I03  Ir 50

4. Calculation examples

Calculations were performed on autotransformer with data


given in Table 1. Fig. 7. Phasor diagram in case of isolated neutral ZN ? 1.
Rated autotransformer powers are Sr1 = Sr2 = 400 MVA,
Sr3 = 80 MVA. Short-circuit powers of active networks are
SscLV = 3.43 GVA and SscHV = 11.9 GVA.

4.1. Single phase-to-ground fault on HV side

Inductance matrix model was compared to symmetrical com-


ponents for single phase-to-ground fault on HV side of three-phase
autotransformer with solidly grounded neutral. Calculation results
are shown in Table 2 and the percentage difference between fault
currents is calculated. Calculation results with both autotrans-
former models show excellent agreement for different tap
positions.

Table 1
Autotransformer data.

Tap Ur1 (kV) Ur2 (kV) Ur3 (kV) ukr12(%) ukr13 (%) ukr23 (%)
+ 439.87 231 13.0 9.47 10.94 9.46
0 400 231 10.5 11.63 13.92 10.66
 371.75 231 8.76 14.14 17.02 12.14
Fig. 8. Phasor diagram in case of neutral grounding impedance ZN = 10 X.

Table 2
Calculation results.

Tap position Current Current values for inductance matrix model (A) Current values for symmetrical components model (A) Difference (ppm)
High tap I3 24308.1585 24308.1909 1.33
IAS 3406.4256 3406.4283 0.80
IAP 710.6559 710.6554 0.76
Principal tap I3 23137.1589 23137.2034 1.92
IAS 3194.4801 3194.4835 1.06
IAP 515.5074 515.5073 0.13
Low tap I3 22225.8374 22225.8968 2.67
IAS 2980.4587 2980.4629 1.39
IAP 356.1546 356.1552 1.68
D. Filipovic-Grcic et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 56 (2014) 228234 233

Delta connected tertiary winding acts as short-circuit in zero se- 4.3. Inuence of tertiary winding on asymmetrical fault current
quence network and therefore reduces zero sequence impedance. distribution
As a consequence, the un-faulted phase voltages will be reduced.
The following example illustrates the effect of tertiary winding In case of an asymmetrical fault current ows through tertiary
on un-faulted phase voltages for different grounding impedances. winding. The following examples, calculated with inductance ma-
The single phase-to-ground fault was analyzed and the autotrans- trix model, show the inuence of tertiary winding presence on HV
former was represented with inductance matrix. and LV side currents.
Fig. 7 shows the voltage phasor diagram in case of isolated auto- Figs. 912 show ampere-turns diagrams for asymmetrical faults
transformer neutral. Black dotted line indicates the half-circular on autotransformer with and without tertiary winding. Black dot-
path of neutral point potential with respect to ground impedance. ted line represents translated ampere-turns phasor I3N3 which is
The results show that tertiary winding reduces overvoltages in equal to difference between parallel and serial winding ampere-
un-faulted phases by 28.6% in case of isolated neutral. Fig. 8 shows turns. It can be seen that tertiary winding presence reduces the
the voltage phasor diagram when ZN = 10 X, to illustrate the condi- currents in un-faulted windings, but increases currents in faulty
tion when neutral point is neither directly grounded nor isolated. ones.

IAPNP=IASNS IAPNP=IASNS

IASNS IASNS
IASNS=IBSNS=ICSNS
IAPNP IAPNP
ICSNS
IAPNP=IBPNP=ICPNP
ICSICP0 ICPICS=0 ICS=0
IBSNS ICPNP
ICPNP IBSNS
I3N3 I3N3 IASIBSICSIAPIBPICP0
I3N3 IBPNP IBPNP=IBSNS
IBPNP
IBPNP=IBSNS

(a) (b) (c)


Fig. 9. Ampere-turns phasor diagrams for double phase-to-ground fault (phases A and B) on HV side supplied from: (a) HV and LV side; (b) LV side only; and (c) HV side only.
Blue markings refer to case without tertiary winding. (For interpretation of the references to color in this gure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

IBSNS
IBPNP=IBSNS IBSNS
IBPNP=IBSNS ICSNS IAS=IBS=ICS=0 ICSNS
IBPNP IBPNP
ICSICP0 ICPNP ICSICP0
ICPNP

I3N3 I3N3
IASNS IASNS
IAPNP I3N3 IAPNP
IAPNP=IBPNP=ICPNP
IAPNP=IASNS IAPNP=IASNS

(a) (b) (c)


Fig. 10. Ampere-turns phasor diagrams for double phase-to-ground fault (phases A and B) on LV side supplied from: (a) HV and LV side; (b) LV side only; and (c) HV side only.
Blue markings refer to case without tertiary winding. (For interpretation of the references to color in this gure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

IASNS=IBSNS=ICSNS
IASNS IASIBSICS0
IAPNP=IASNS IAPNP=IASNS
IAPIBPICP0
IASNS
IAPNP IBSNS=ICSNS IAPNP IAPNP=IBPNP=ICPNP
IBSICSIBPICP0
IBS=ICS=0
IBPNP=ICPNP
IBPNP=ICPNP I3N3
I3N3
I3N3
(a) (b) (c)
Fig. 11. Ampere-turns phasor diagrams for single phase-to-ground fault (phase A) on HV side supplied from: (a) HV and LV side; (b) LV side only; and (c) HV side only. Blue
markings refer to case without tertiary winding. (For interpretation of the references to color in this gure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)
234 D. Filipovic-Grcic et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 56 (2014) 228234

IBSNS=ICSNS IAPIBPICP0 IAS=IBS=ICS=0


IBSICSIBPICP0 IBSNS=ICSNS
IAS=IBS=ICS=0
IBPNP=ICPNP IBSICSIBPICP0
IBPNP=ICPNP
I3N3
I3N3
IAPNP=IASNS IASNS I3N3 IAPNP=IASNS
IASNS
IAPNP=IBPNP=ICPNP
IAPNP
IAPNP

(a) (b) (c)


Fig. 12. Ampere-turns phasor diagrams for single phase-to-ground fault (phase A) on LV side supplied from: (a) HV and LV side; (b) LV side only; and (c) HV side only. Blue
markings refer to case without tertiary winding. (For interpretation of the references to color in this gure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

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analysis of simultaneous faults is considerably more compli- [16] Sluis Lou van der. Transients in power systems. Chichester, England: John
Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2001.
cated when using symmetrical components.

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