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The following Recommendations of the Work and statements in respect
to the study of the Syriac language are respectfully submitted :

"It is one of the best Grammars of any language with which I am
acquainted. The Syriac is easily learned with the help of that proficiency
in the Hebrew which is now generally carried away from our Theological >
institutions and the little labor necessary for its acquisition is richly

repai J by the privilege of consulting a version of the New Testament, which
ranks before all others as the oldest and best, and which, besides its impor-
tance in respect to evidence of the genuineness of the Sacred Text, has the
peculiar interest of presenting the discourses of Our Saviour essentially in
the same language in which they were originally pronounced."
have been acquainted with the Grammar for many years, and I regard
it as better
adapted for translation in this country than any other grammar
that I know of. I shall be heartily glad to see an English translation of it,
and I have no doubt that such a work would greatly tend to promote, what,
by the way, is a most desirable object, the knowledge of the Syriac among
our Clergymen and Theological students. There has not been hitherto so
much interest taken in our Seminary in the study of the languages cognate
to the Hebrew as I could wish."

" It
highly desirable that all Theological students should make them-

selves acquainted with the Syriac tongue for it is not only (next to the

Chaldee, perhaps.) the eldest sister of the Hebrew, and the Sacred dialect
of that interesting people, the Nestorians but it gives us the very best;

translation of the Hible, (especially of the New Testament) that has ever
been made in any language."
have been much pleased with Uhlemann's Syriac Grammar. It is
the best for purposes of instruction with which I am acquainted."
"Uhlemann's Syriac Grammar is an admirable work for its object, and
isthe best extant for school use. I should be glad to see it translated and
furnished at a price which could be afforded by Theological students. If a
Grammar could be obtained at a moderate price, I think the study would
soon become pretty eoimmm among ministers. The privilege of reading
the oldest version of the New Testament would richly reward all the trouble
lunl expense of
acquiring the language."
"The Exercises and 'hrestumathy have been very carefully prepared,

with good success, Both would be very serviceable to the learner."
" A good translation of Uhlemann would command a constant sale












D. APPLETOX & CO., 346 & 348 BROADWAY.


in the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Southern District of New York. . Entered according to Act of Congress. BY E. HUTCHINSON. in the year 1855.

Uhlemann's Grammar is acknowledged by all to be a manual of rare excellence . occasional explanatory notes. where it seemed to be necessary. Some of our helps of tliis kind. following Winer's arrangement in his Chaldee Grammar. on the whole. and others are too volu- minous. and it is hoped that. He has added. THE following translation was undertaken in accordance with the suggestion of several literary friends. he. and not to make the attempt to im- prove a grammar BO nearly faultless. it will be found to be well adapted to promote the progress of ori- ental philology in this country. and which is essentially the language spoken by our Saviour. . in an English dress. Uhlemann has aimed to present. After having prepared an abridgment of the paradigms of verbs and nouns. The translator has endeavored to give as literal a transla- tion as is compatible with perspicuity. TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE. concluded to insert the full paradigms as they stand in the original work. a work sufficiently extensive for ordinary purposes of instruc- tion. in the study of the Syriac. within moderate lim- its. and in view of an increasing desire among American students to become acquainted with a language in which the earliest and best version of the New Testament is generally admitted to have been made. are too brief.

and reprinted in smaller type in 1826. It was corrected for the press. The translator trusts that he shall not be considered as obtrusive in calling special attention to a method of analysis which he has found to be of great advantage in teaching classes in Hebrew. and the text is considered as very correct. commence upon the Exercises. Some in- structors have probably adopted a similar one. and com- pleted by Rev. the pupil may. in order to enable him to solve the difficulties with which he may meet in analyzing the first page of the Chrestomathy. It was executed for the use of the Syrian Christians in India. Several manuscripts were consulted. In the Exercises. A brief Chrestomathy and Lexicon. will. by Dr. though we have discovered in it some typographical errors. S. and cursorily examined other parts of the grammar. the introduction. After having read.Vi TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE. follow the Exercises. if carefully studied. it is believed. and others may have devised still better methods. as far as the Acts of the Apostles. with care. This is submitted to the con- sideration of those teachers who have not already adopted a satisfactory one. and merely consult the grammar (as directed in the introductory remarks to the Exercises) as a book of reference. mate- rially facilitate the progress of the learner in an accurate know- ledge of the elements of the language. at once. The translation is followed by a course of Exercises in Syriac grammar. The former is composed of selections from that beautiful edition of the Peshito Bible published by the British and Foreign Bible Society in London. Buchanan. Lee. an extended analysis will be found of the first . prepared by the transla- tor. Professor of Arabic in the University of Cambridge. in 1816. which.

for valuable suggestions. of Rochester Univer- sity. should it ever be called for. and he will be very thankful to receive suggestions from any quarter. CONANT. G. having consulted the Syriac Lexicons of M. The translator avails himself of this opportunity to express his obligations to Mr. formerly of the Theological School connected with Harvard University. and merely brief explanatory remarks on the remaining pages. others which were not observed. may be improved. and J. by which a future edition. Trost. The translator trusts that this effort will be received with indulgence by the literary public. T. ^Egidius Gutbier. The basis of the Lexicon is that inserted by Uhlemann in his grammar. A. There are. vtf page of the Chrestoraathy. in the author's numerous references to the Old and New Testaments. PALFREY. E. to which the translator has made many additions. probably. and ^Emilius Rodigcr. most of the stereotype plates... H. TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE. for important aid in the examination of the manuscript before going to press. D. D. having been destroyed by a disastrous fire. The Lexicon is intended merely to include those words which occur in the Chrestoinathy. when nearly completed. 1855. also to Mr. have been discovered and corrected. Castell. GUERNSEY. D. Some errors. The publication of the work has been unexpectedly delayed. W. . D. Errors will doubtless be found by teachers who may use the Manual. of this city. J. Jan. TURNER. NEW YORK. W. late of the Union Thelogical Seminary of this city.


where deviations existed. but is introduced on account of the difficulty of pronunciation. for academical instruction. Following the older grammarians. as in the case of the Segholate forms. principally. Upon a close examination of the above-mentioned work. a knowledge of the Hebrew implies an acquaintance with the principles of the Syriac. such as Amira. 1 was of the opinion that the more extended treatment of separate phenomena of the language might be dispensed with. IIL 48. Ludov. In the preparation of this work my plan had especially led me to present. EXTRACTS FKOM THE AUTHOR'S PREFACE. by isolated alterations. designed. and that part of the Manuscript which contains the elementary principles and paradigms had been for a considerable time out of my hands. this was done because the vo\\vl entering into the inflection of these nouns is not an original one.* instoiul of classing them with the Segholate forms . yet I deemed it advisable. in the ta- bular arrangement of derivative nouns. with as much brevity as was consistent with clearness. when the more comprehensive work of Professor HOFFMANN made its appearance. I have introduced a separate paradigm of the nouns placed under Declension III. what is most essential for understanding the language in its grammatical forms. had made a similar use of the older grammarians. to follow my own views .. I was convinced. and others. de Dieu. Michaelis. and had deviated only in the collocation of separate rules. as for example. Buxtorf. that I had proceeded upon almost the same principles. THE earlier sheets of this Text hook. Although I might have appr< >xi- mated more nearly to the work of Hoffmann. Real Segholate * Ded. and in fact. since the greater portion ot the Syriac forms may be explained from those of the Hebrew language . .had heen printed.

followed the Lehrgebdude of Gesenius . like Professor Hoff- mann. which we have not inserted. ed. 1789 . seems to have wrought more in accordance with the genius of his own language. . 1743. monosyllabic nouns.. TR. torn. In addition to this.X EXTRACTS FROM THE AUTHOR'S PREFACE. forms. in our opinion. I have made use only of those passages of the Old Tes- tament collected by Gesenius. also. Kirsch. In preparing the Syntax. though the New Testament was trans- lated into Syriac from the original Greek about the same time. and Assemani Bib- liotheca Orient. March. they being. coincide with the Segholate forms. according to their principal inflection... I have frequently consulted the translation of the Tew Testament.f BERLIN. belong rather. Romse. 1719. fol. Barhebraei Chronicon Syr. namely.. Olaph quiescent. and like him. 1829. too difficult for beg'nnera Ttt. torn. Lips. Romae. those derived from verbs 3 rad. or in the early part of the second century. t The remainder of the Author's Preface relates mainly to his Reading Lessons. unfet- tered by the Hebrew text. in which the translator. in only a few instances. Michaelis sup- poses.* Ephraemi Opera Syr... that the Syriac version of both Testaments was made near the close of the first. Clementine-Yaticana. * In point of time the Fesbito version of the Old Testament is the most ancient document extant in the Syriac language. so that a close and impartial examination will easily ****** determine what has been added from my own not inconsider- able collections. to the substantive-stems of Declension V. fol. as the oldest Syriac writing known to us . I have. III. and. III..

Brief Historical View of the Syriac Languagt and Literature 17 PART FIRST.28 { 2. 8. 9. { 1.. Changes of the Consonants 36 . Diacritical Points which supply the place of Vowels . 31 2 5. Yowels in general (Vowel Letters and Vowel Signs) .. INTRODUCTION.. ELEMENTS OF THE LANGUAGE. Marks of Punctuation 35 CHAPTER H. CHAPTER I. 11 CONTENTS. Ribui 33 2 2 7. . 34 35 35 2 2 10. WRITTEN CHARACTERS AND THEIR USB. General View 36 { 12. Consonants . Mehagyono and Marhetono Linea Occultans Tone . 30 2 3... % PECULIARITIES AND CHANGES OF LETTERS.. 3 11. Kushoi and Rukok 32 2 6. .. Vowel Signs 30 2 4.

Personal and Possessive Pronouns . Ethpeel 58 2 22. General View 63 Table of Irregular Verbs . Personal Inflections 54 B. The Ground-form Peal its formation and signification . $18. Irregular Verbs. THE VERB. Other Pronouns 48 CHAPTER IT.. Verbs with Gutturals 63 II.. Table of the Temporal Inflection of Regular Verbs . 40 15. Quiescent Letters 39 \ 14. . Changes in the Vowels 41 PART SECOND. turn g 13.. Derivative Conjugations. Inflection of the Tenses and Moods 55 2 20. Regular Verbs. .. Table of Personal Inflection 52 CONTENTS. ETYMOLOGY. 2 19. Conjugations occasionally used and Quadriliteral Verbs . . 65 .. 16. General View 49 I. OR PARTS OF SPEECH. 44 Table of Pronouns and Suffixes 45 2 17.. .. 2 27. 56 B. CHAPTER L PRONOUNS. Pael and Ethpaal 59 2 23. 53 A. . The Inflection of Regular Verbs in General . 50 I. 62 2 26. Aphel and Ethtaphal 60 24. Shaphel and Eshtaphal 61 2 25. 2 21. . A.. Vowel Letters which are not sounded (Otiant) .

THE NOUN. Verbs 3 Rad. Verbs 1 Rad. Regular Verb with Suffixes 97 Table of the Same 102 2 37. Doubly Irregular and Defective Verbs ... xni MB A. Yud 68 2 30. Number of Nouns 126 2 45.. Rad. Vau and Yud Quiescent 70 2 32. Suffixes to Verbs 3 Rad. { 28. Quiescent Verbs.. Declension of Nouns in general . 80 2 36. Verbs 1 Rad. Nun 75 34. 129 132 2 46. Olaph Quiescent 67 $ 29. Olaph Quiescent .. Olaph Quiescent 72 B. 2 39.. . Different Relations (states) of the Table of the Same Noun .139 .. Verbs 1 Rad. 76 Paradigms of the Regular and Irregular Verbs .. Denominative Nouns 122 2 42. 1 33.... CONTENTS. Nouns with Suffixes 136 2 47. .. Defective Verbs. Derivation of Nouns Ill 2 40. Verbs Med. Had.. doubled 75 \ 2 35. Verbs Med. Auxiliary or Substantive Verbs 110 CHAPTER m.. . 70 .103 Table of the Same 108 2 38. . Olaph Quiescent . Quiescent Verbs Med... Nouns derived from Verbs 112 Tabular View of Nouns derived from Regular and Irregular Verbs 113 \ 41. Gender of Nouns 124 2 44. \ 31. . Composite and Exotic Nouns 123 2 43..

Separable Personal Pronouns 160 B.xiv CONTENTS. . .163 56.. 54. Conjunctions and Interjections 156 PART THIRD. . Suffixes 161 General Remarks on Personal Pronouns . Adverbs 152 52..157 A. . Adjectives and Numerals 150 CHAPTER IV. 153 155 | 53. THE PRONOUN. CHAPTER I. . Pronouns for which the Syrians have no special forms . Prepositions Table of Prepositions with Suffixes . Separable Personal Pronouns 157 B. . Pleonastic use of Pronouns 160 A.. 159 55. . Reflexive Pronouns 166 B.. 139 49. Use of Separable Personal Pronouns and Suffixes .. Use of the Relative Pronoun 164 57.. PARTICLES. 167 . 166 58. . Other Pronouns .166 A. \ 51. PACK \ 48. Use of Demonstrative and Interrogative Pronouns . Suffixes . . Nouns according Exhibition of to Declension . Anomalous Nouns 145 Paradigms of Nouns with Suffixes 148 g 50.. SYNTAX.

. View 172 J 59. Use of the Noun in General 207 2 70.. 203 2 68.. The Substantive Verb and some other peculiarities chiefly relating to the Construction of Verbs in General . CONTENTS. . 62. 204 A. THE VEBB.. . Verbs with the Accusative 193 II. and Optative 188 66. Number of the Noun 212.179 A. . .. Infinitive Absolute 179 B. . Pluper- fect. . The Persons of the Verb 190 2 67. General Use of the Preterit 172 g 60. Indirect Discourse 205 C.. . . . THE NOUN. Use of the Future 175 | 61. Use of the Imperative 178 2 63. Verbs with Prepositions 196 III. 206 CHAPTER m. . Construction of Verbs with the different Cases and with Prepositions 193 I. Infinitive with ^ or the Construct form . Passive Verbs and their Construction . . Gender of Nouns 210 2 71. 201 Mode of expressing Greek Composites . 2 69. Use of the Infinitive . Useof]oOl AJ) and AA^ 204 B. x* FAOl CHAPTER II. . Use of the Participle 182 \ 65. Ellipsis Zeugma Paronomasia and Puns . 180 2 64. and particularly the Imperfect. General View of the Manner of Designating all the different Moods and Tenses.

. Prepositions 244 J 85. Construction of Numerals 224 A. Peculiarities relating to Nouns 237 A. 238 CHAPTER IV. Conjunctions . In Eespect to Number 229 B. Construction and Union of Adverbs 240 | 83.. .. 75.. Construction of Sentences in which there is a Compound or more than one Subject 234 81. 250 . affirmation and negation 242 \ 84. Interjections 249 Peculiarities in respect to the Position of Words .. Other Eelations of Numbers 226 | 79. .. . Cardinal Numbers 224 B. ... Ordinal Numbers 224 C..212 73.. Ellipsis of the Noun 237 B. Use of the Particles of interrogation. Zeugma and Hendiadys 238 The rendering of Composite Greek Nouns . In respect to both Gender and Number .. Union of the Noun with the Yerb 229 A. 2 82. PAGE \ 72. 222 A. Union of the Noun with Adjectives 227 80. Designation and Use of the other Cases 218 76. . PARTICLES. . The Case Absolute 220 77. The Superlative 223 \ 78. In respect to Gender 232 C. The Emphatic State 214 The Construct State and the Genitive . 234 D.xvi CONTENTS. ." 246 2 86.. . The Comparative 222 B.215 g 74. Apposition and Duplication of Nouns . Comparison of Adjectives .

this may be asserted with still more confidence in respect to the Nabatoean dialect. THE Syriac language (sometimes called the "Western Aramaean. in particular * E. the Chalnic or Ctesiphontic. As from the earliest period the Palmyrene dialect was recognized as the principal one. 1. so this period has been designated by the name of the Edessene Period. Rodiger says of the Aramaean language: "It was called Syriac in the form in which it appeared in the Christian Aramwan literature. formerly extended over the whole northern part of Aram. T H O D U C T I O N. with which it constitutes the Aramaean dialect of the Semitic family of languages). Tm .* It degenerated at an early period." See Geseuius' JK'b. by Rodiger. and the Maronite dialects. to distinguish it from the Chaldsean or Eastern Aramaean. from the borders of Palestine to Natolia. 1. and kept its place for a long time at Edessa as a written lan- guage. and Chaldee when it appeared in the Jewish Araimean writings. at various times. Leipz. But at the beginning of the fourth cen- tury after Christ.. no written monuments have come down to our times. . lost much of its original purity. Of its pure state. 2. mention is made of the Damascene. 15th edit. and. The ancient written language of Antioch or Com- is still used magene by various Christian sects. the language enjoyed a flourishing period. during the continual changes of government. BRIEF HISTORICAL VIEW SYKIAC LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE. Gramm. The essential difference between these con- sisted very likely in the pronunciation . the Acharic or Nesibene. particularly by the re- ception of Persian and Greek words. b. Moreover. 1848 Einleitung. and from the Mediterranean to and beyond the Euphrates.

Strabo Geog. II. 2. Thl. for the Old Testament comp. as JSTiebuhr and Brown. or so- called St. Ammian Marcell. as we do the Latin. xi. p. TR. Hesiod II. ii 5. it torians use the Syriac language at the prrsent day. .). at the present day. Vater Commentar viber den Pentat. p. David conquered them both (2 Sam. in their religious ceremonies. they are opposed by Ferrieres Sauveboeuf and Volney. Diod. as early as the eighth and ninth centuries. Orient. John's Disciples. 3 sq. 16. was greatly corrupted by the frequent use of the Arabic. 783. i. sjiys of the Nestorians (or Chaldoeans as he incor- " Most of their church books are written in rectly denominates them) : Syriac. Lnyard. Bd. i. viii. and Bochart Geogr. as well as upon Lebanon. 11. Strabo xvi. and Burckhardt only remarks. Sic. as it lay at the left. . ruled by kings (comp. i. Joliffe. 6 ). when their faces were turned towards the east (eomp. I. as their ecclesiastical language. 304. 31 Lucian de Dea Syr. III. and Damascus. Seetzen.. p. which. xix [xviiij 3. in his admirable work on the ruins of Nineveh. 1 Oppian. . 1 seq. x. Mr. even. and the Greek and Roman Authors often confound Syria with Assyria (comp. the Latin in the West. and was driven by the Arabs from the cities in the tenth and eleventh. and Thomas-Christians of India. Mannert Geogr." See Layard's Nineveh. of these. Assemani Bibl. 4. Archaol. ii. 4. ii. Cyrop. Zobah and Damascus are mentioned in the Scriptures.18 INTRODUCTION. Edessa. 2 ii. 51 seq. Theog. 782. Od. by the Maronites. use Syria. i. Kuvrj^ III. (2utec. 32. 5. p. it may be safely assumed that it is no longer in use as a vernacular Ian guage. Nestorians. vii. viii. Ju^itfTt) in the ? * wider sense. Jahn Bibl. and Solomon kept possession of them * Since Uhlemann his has been ascertained that the Nes- prepared grammar. Bd. Bd vi.. 152 . Bd. So also the Zabians. while Chateaubriand. under "Api/xa. . xxiii. subsequently to the time of David. that the Maronites in the convent of Kashia use the Syriac. 2poi. Xenoph. III. 14. as the most powerful. are said to make use of it. and from the villages in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. P. vii. Syr. But as the language. bear testimony to the same fact. Real- worterbuch. Herodot. Stephanus Byzant. i. T. 402 Horat. The Arabs call it f UiJf . 6. Clarke. 63. 51 seq. chap. became the sacred language in the greater part like of the East. 5. 6. Abulfeda Tab.. S. Missionaries who are laboring among the Nestorians. Although several modern travelers of note. and Buckingham pass the matter over in silence. 2. Winer Bibl. Justin. . p. 1 Chron. p.) In the earliest times this country was divided into several small nations. maintain that it is still spoken in some parts of Mesopotamia. the "Apijxoj ft^a (^>1 in Horn. sq). The LXX.* REM. about Raka. 13.

f At the time of the Crusades. p. during which flourished Ephraem (died 378). who had been general of the king of Zoba (1 Kings xi. . Subsequently the Syrians were incor- porated with the monarchies of the Assyrians (738 B. sighed under the Turkish yoke(cf.). re-established at Damascus a government inde- pendent of that of the Hebrews. s. Ti. I. 675 Kuhs. c. PfeUfer. T. or Seljoukian Turks. buch der Geschichte des Mittelalters. 994). Bd. u. 213 sq. 435. sq. a. 213 sq. 3G3) already surren- dered Nesibis* to Sapores II. Syria became a prey to the marauding inroads of the Mongols under Timor and it has now. Handbuch der Geschichte des Mittelalters. king of Persia.-. which is known to us by some inscriptions found among the ruins of Palmyra or Tadmor. I. III. p. P. p. ami the latter. and was subjected (660) to the Onimiades and several other Arabic royal families. . p. the language * A celebrated city ami military post in Mesopotamia. .). 413. may have grown up soou after Solo- mon. . 248 sq. TR. under Theodosius (395). Gatterer. 166 sq. The transition into broadness of pronunciation (irXarutfrofxov) seems not to have extended much beyond the time of the Babylonish captivity . who differ from the N'cstorians nnlv in name and place of residence (ef. Bd. Though after the death of Alexander the Great. II. . w. . Assem. ().).). Bd. I. c. 417. and the Thomas-Christians of India. 638). former shaking Arabic in common life. originally disciples and followerp of St. Maro (cf. . Jacob Vou Sarug. 23 sq. I. at the middle of the seventh century. At the division of the Empire. theological learning was zealously cultivated (cf. generally written Nisibia. Hand- . the Christians could maintain themselves there against the Seljooks but a short time (1097 and subsequently) . pp. when this kingdom came also under the Roman sway. c. all of whom Jacob of Edessa. . Bd. In the Edessene Period. till the third century after Christ. pp. Syria fi-11 to the Byzantine Empire. 496 sq. whose dynasties were. Sahv din wrested the country from them. In 1369. Beck. 152. Riihs. also. D. they arose again for a time under the Seleucidae (301 B. in 1086. Heeren. in his Auszuge. Hand- luicli der Universalhist. the Per-ian. T. I. As<em. 2S5. Gieseler. Giescler.). . and their kings reigned only at Edessa. brought to a close by the Scljooks. I. II. sq. and decipher- ed by Bartheleray and Svvinton. p. and the Macedonians (331 B. Weltgeschichte. for three centuries. the founder of that city.). III. p. Ideen iiber die Politik. Seljuka. 379). pp. As<cin. 37) approximate to the an- cient Syriac dialect still more closely do the Ncstorians (cf. Afterwards it was taken possession of by the Arabs (636). P. INTRODUCTION 19 nntilReson Ben-Eliada. p. c. yet they again lost their independence by means of Pom- pey (64 B.C. and Xenaias of Mabug. p. Lehrbuch der Kircliengeschichte. and in 1171. The Manmitcs on the Orontes and upon Lebanon.). 484 . p. f Called. (539 B. all of whom make use of it only as an ecclesiastical language the two . Seljouks. a. Thl. Isaac the Syrian. Assem. and the Palmyrene Dialect. after Jovianus hud (A. recognizes as classical writers. PfeiH'cr.

. and became. 186. p. compare Niebuhr. have composed his Rete Punctorum. Through the labors of these men. Mernoires historiques. p. a Nestorian monk. and Honain. Kirche. in its own country. 169 Volney. I. at an earlier period. history records the names of Achudeinen (died 575). from the numerous Ghebric expressions which occur in them. Ferrieres Sauveboeuf. II. T. der neuesten Reisebeschr. II. whether the Syrian is still a vernacular language. etc. p. Religion uud . . Travels in Syria. Bishop of the Syrians upon Lebanon. Theseus Ambrosius learned the Syriac language from Syrians at Rome. also. III. 352 . II. cf. etc. Allgemeine Geschichte der christlichen. 331 .66 Neander. in Maraccii Coran. 489 . zealous cultivators in the departments of Grammar and Lexicography. had found. who subsequently pursued the study under Simeon. p. T. according to Barhebrseus (in Assem. 2.etc. Reisebeschr von Arabien. Voyage en Syrie. the study of the Syriac language was transplanted to Europe. p. p. Abth. John. and of Moses vonMerdin. or Zabians (who are not to be confounded with a Mohammedan sect of the same name. I. Joseph Bar Malcon seems to . At the beginning of the sixteenth century. pp. Bd. and Barhebraeus (died 1286) to have made known his grammatical works. 22. whom . On the question. son of Cha- mis. II. As the most ancient grammarians. Mandaeans. and which appears. Sur. who labored to restore the purity of the ancient language. Gieseler. I. Jacob of Edessa (died G98). Syriac literature. 427). The first accurate grammar. Bd. pp.20 INTRODUCTION. which gave proof of its versatility of expression by the translations of Aristotle and other Greek authors. 476) is to be understood the former language of the Syrian country- people. of Malabar. 33 sq. I. v teacher to Albert Widmansladt. the physician (died 876).. in 1529. p. John Stylita (about 830). I. P. Thl. . however. and in a special manner over the department of Theology. Jesudenah (at the beginning of the eighth century). Bd. was written by John Bar Zugbi. The language itself.. p. whose works have been lost. and possesses valuable works upon Oriental and Eccle- siastical History. Brown. 509-515 Pfeiffer. T. Different from this is the dialect of the so-called Johannes- Christians. By the Nabatsean. flourished principally in the period between the fourth and tenth centuries of the Christian era. Assem.510 sq. whose religious books are written in a corrupted Syriac. II.. and Burckhardt. vrhich extends over almost all branches of knowledge. to have been drawn up in the Persian Irak. Bishop of Themanum (850). Joseph Hu- zita (died 580). at the beginning of the thirteenth century about which time. in 1514. and by its accurate representation of mathematical subjects. p. T.. Biblioth.

Widmanstadt. philologists of great merit in the department of Oriental literature. by Isaac Sciadrensis and Joshua Accurensis. From this period onwards. in Syria. and Zanolini. availed themselves of the above-mentioned Syriac works relating to the same subject. They were followed. INTRODUCTION. in 1552. of Ananiesu Bar-Saru (about 900). The valuable work of Lorsbach. Dumas.) which is still extant. Hot- tinger. p. de la Boderie. . or with the other Semitic languages. still remains uncom- pleted. The lexicons of Dumas. who compared all the Syriac works which had then been printed. At the close of the sixteenth century. and the answer to ft. copious works have been promised by Bernstein and Quatremere. . Halm. Tychsen. and collected the words and significations wanting in Syriac lexicons. Crines. and whose instructions were enjoyed by Andreas Dumas (Masius). the grammatical study of the Syriac language was much promoted at Rome itself. More recently. most copiously by the two Michaelises and Hoffmann . by the Maronites Amira and Abraham Ecchellensis. Nicolai. Castell. Giesder. which have appeared since the sixteenth century. II. Schaaf. Bd. de Dieu and Jalm . More im- portant. Vater. the publication of the New Testament was effected in 1555. whose copious grammatical works had already been preceded by the attempts of Theseus Ambrosius. I. to Julius III. and. Glossaries are contained in the Chrestomathies of Michaelis. Hottinger. REM. Fer- rarius. and Edm. 554 III. Buxtorf. partly in connection with the Chaldee. the Syriac language has been gram- matically pursued in Germany. P. the son of Bochticsu. are the contemporary works of Isa Bar-Ali (about 885). Eccl. and the most serviceable work of this kind by Abulhasan. Isa Bar-Bahlul (about 963. and Gabriel. and Waser. Gutbier. and Sieffert. I. are confined to the New Testament. with which the Syriac literature in 1555 made its appearance in Europe. Trost. I. Grimm. 74) . Schindler. p. Tremellius. 13) cites the letter of Abgarus to Jesus. as by Ludov. Kirsch. by Honain Isa or Joshua of Maruz. about the middle of the seven- teenth century. and John David Michaelis enriched the labors of the latter by valuable remarks and additions. as by Buxtorf. The earliest attempts at Syriac lexicography were also made in the ninth and tenth centuries. Patriarch of Antioch. 8 . 21 Ignatius. besides a number of manuscripts. Assem. and others. had sent. Schaaf. however. aa among the mst ancient Syriac writings (cf. at Rome. Eusebius (Hist. on the other hand. partly independently of other languages.

But the most ancient Syriac work of undoubted authenti- city. That the Syrians considered their language to be richer than the Ara- bic is attested by Asseman (III. Masii. 4to.22 INTRODUCTION.. 1596. Lugd. Bruns).. 225-291. Erlangen. . 1554. linguam. pp. etc. et Syr. sive Chald.. Grammatica Syr. Grammatica linguaa Syriacae (im Tom. 4to. Bat. P. quse et Syriaca dicitur. Merceri. and that both were included under the same name. ed. Grammaticae Chald. Parish's. loh. 1555. Eiusd. Syriacam. Abulphara- gius. Gymnasium Syr.* which musi have existed as early as the second century (cf.) 3 vols. Thl. Introductio in Chald. John is said to have written his Gospel in the Syriac language. et Syr. I. II. and the abridgment of it by Pfeiffer. Einleitung in die Schriften des N. Polygl. Yitebergae. Aug. p.. etc. . linguae lesu Christo verna- culae perfecta institutio. Institutiones linguse Syriacse. GRAMMARS. Pocock.. 4to. 1594. Hug. Assem. Ap- pended also to his edition of the New Testament. T. h. Ed. 348 Gieseler. 4to. 8vo. 1611. Romae. Christoph. says that the Translation of the New Testament was appended to that of the Old Testament. I. 4). Buxtorfii. Georg. 1729. fol. Grammatica Chald. compared with Aristotle (Top. cap. Syriacse lingua? prima ekmenta. we possess a brief history of Syriac literature by Hoffmann. Institutio linguae Syrae ex optimis quibusque apud Syros scriptoribus collecta. mentions Theophilus of Edessa as the author of a successful translation of two books of the Iliad (cf. 123). p.) 1573. lo. p. I. Thesd Ambrosii. XIV. 8vo. Viennae. Widmanstadii. Bd. in his Historia Dynast. rendering Greek authors may be judged from Barhebraeus (Chron. 1569. 326 sq. Ed. II. 1615. ed. fol. I. Aiidr. der Antwerp. Paris. Caninii. * Hug. in his Introduction to the New Testament. 4to. Tabulae in grammaticen linguae Chald. 1619. Thl. 1650. 1572. 1776. YI. Casp. isperhaps the translation of the New Testament. in Bertholdt's kritischem Journal der neuesten theologischen Literatur. p. et Syr.) and its capacity for . Waseri. p. Genevae. Amirce. TremeUii. 231. Imman. 1560. 1579. Pcshito. libri III. 521). Antwerp. etc. in like manner. Romae. TR. 4to. Basil. Crinesii. ed. In addition to the larger work of Asseman (Assemani Bibliotheca Orientalis Clemeutino-Yaticana. Vite- bergae. Papiae. 147. II. e. grammatica Chald. p. I. 1539. I. Leidae.

4to. 1686. Casp. 1628. etc. Abrah. Arab. Hal. ad M. 1686. lo. Arab. Bat. Chald. Arabismus nee non Rabbinismus. Grammatica Syr. et Francof. Henr. Clodii. 1637. Grammatica linguae Syr. Eiusd.orientalium secuudum prima prasccpta delineata harmonica. de Dieu. Viteb. Castdli. 1652. EccheUensis. 8vo. Chald. tribus libris tradita. Car. Leusdeni. 4to. 1659. Rom. 1669 (preceding his Lex. ^Ethiop. Christ. Nicolai. Grammatica quatuor linguarr. linguae Syro-Chald. Aditus Syriae reclusus. Brevis et harmonica quontum fieri potuit grammaticae linguarr. 1658. Dilherri. Idea linguarr. 1677. Opitii. Roma3. Grammatica linguarr. Hebr. Critica Sacra Francof. Hvo. ex recens. Cizas. Altingi. perbrevis institutio. lo. 1649. in compendium redactus a Christ. losephl Acurensis. Lij>s. Halis. Gerhardi. Hebraeorum. Ed. 8vo. Ultraiect. lenoe. Arab. et Arab. Eiusd. 1636. Myriad. 1666. 1715. INTRODUCTION. Syr. loh. 4to. 1665. Syriasmus. lo.Ernst. Andr.Hebr. et Rabbinica Turic. 8vo. et JBthiop. Cellarii.. lo. Edm. Gerhardi. Michael.. Eiusd. Rom. Ed. Chald. Guil. Ern. Hebr. 1619. Schafii. III. Chaldaismus.) Dav. JSthiop. 8vo. orientt. Loud. Pers. Chald. Genev. Scholae Syriacae lib. Francof. Chaldaismus et Syrias- raus. Othone adornata. 4to. etc. Au>r. Ebr. Syr. et Hamb. Syriasmus facilitati ct integritati suas restitutus. 2xia^a<pi'a. lenae. Introductio ad lectionem linguarr. Syr. 4to. 1646. Briatii Waltoni. s. II. 1693. VI. etc. Rudimenta grammaticae Syr. orientt. delineatio. Loud. II. Porta Syriaca. Chald. Grammatica Syro-Chaldaea. Harmonia Hugua3 Chald. 8vo. etc. Synopsis iustitutionum Chald. . leiwe. harmonica Turici. 1658. et Pers. Bat. Hottingeri. Ludov. Porta Syria? patentior. Bevendgii. 1676. 1653. 8vo. 1670. Chald. etc. Grammatica lingua? Syr. 1627. lo. Ludovici Viteb. loh. Syr. Isanc Sciadrensis. 1628. Nicolai. 1683. 4to (the Syriac also printed separately). 8vo. inter se collatnrum Lugd. Lugd. etc. 1682. 1666. Syr. Grafunderi. 16mo. Grammatica Syriaca cum Syntaxi. III. ad M. D<i/i-ii. et Syr. Copt. Herm. Linguae Syr. Grammatica Chald. Samarit. et Syr. Pers. Ed. 3 To. 12mo. 8vo. 166U. Aramasaruin per comparationem etc Copenh. 4to. lo. Ed.. 1689. Grammatica linguarr. Ebraimus. 4to. Lond. Viteb. Henr. Armen. 1701. etc. Syr. 12mo. 1678. Heptagl. Sennerli. Sax. a Georg. Francof. 1647. 8vo. Opius Aramaenm complectens grammaticam Chaldaico- Syriacam.

et II. Aramaische oder Chaldaische und Syrische Sprachlehre fur Anfanger. Cothenis Anhalt. 8vo. et Lips. et Arab. 8vo. -^Eth. orientt. Phil. Syrische Sprachlehre. 4to. Syr. Gottfr. Thomas Yeates Syriac Grammar. 4to. Fessleri Institutiones linguarr. 8vo. Hampus Tullberg Elementale Syr. Halis. Martini Trostii Lexicon Syr. VI. etc. Lemgo. 1824. of the Antw. Andr. 1707. Christ. lac. Paul Ewald Lehrbuch der syr. Chald. Altonae. Gferh. et Syr. Lond. e. neu herausgegeben von Oberleit- ner Elementa Aramaic* s. und Arab. 8vo. Buxtorfii iun. Michaelis Syriasmus i. institutio etc. Bucheri Thesaurus orientalis s. Pers. 8vo. 1694. Sprache. von der Hardt Syriacae linguae fundamenta. David Michaelis Grammatica Syr. 1521. Bened. /. I. Basil. 4to. Viteb. Andr. Francof. Arab. Rostochi. Antwerp. 4to. 1649. II. Romae. lo. Jfesel. 1802 u. Halis. orientt. 1622. Hasse Practisches Handbuch der Aramaischen oder Syrisch-Chaldaisch-Samaritanischen Sprache. Christoph. 4to. W. Chald. loh. Halis et lenae. Lond. 4to. compendiosa et facilis methodus linguarr. (Ap- pendedto his Chrestomathy. Lexicon Chald. Bapt. Tychseni Elementale Syr. Amstelod. et Samarit. Hoffmanni Grammatics Syriacae h'bri III. lena. 1793. 1622.) Ge. Theoph. Lond.) lo. Francof. Fabr. Adlerii Brevis linguae Syr. 4to. loh. 1787 et 1789. 1758. Ge. 1635 Francof. 1817. 1741. 1820. Othonis Palaestra linguarr. LEXICONS. Syr. 1788. Hanoviae. Erlangen. fol. 1826. Vater Handbuch der Hebr. 1572. Vratisl. 1819. Syr. Wien 1793. Schindleri Lexicon pentagl. Chaldaeo-Syriacae linguae etc. 8vo. Viennae. et Aram. Kals Grammatica Hebraeo-harmonica cum Arab. Sam. 1784. Syr. Christ. . Gram- matik. grammatica linguae Syr. 1612. 4to. (Tom. Chald. Chald. loh. lo. lahn.) Val. Hebr. Francof. 1725. loh. Ferrarii Nomendator Syriacus. ad M. 1612. 1695. P. 4to. 8vo. 1702. 1827. Herm.24 INTRODUCTION. G. Boderiani Dictionariurn Syro-Chald. 1794. Polygl. 4to. 8vo. 01. Innoc. Frid. Antw. 4to. Leipzig. folio. 1784. Sev. Halae. etc. 1653. Crinesii Lexicon Syriacum. linguarum institutio harmonica. Hartmanni Hebraicae. etc. orientt. 8vo. principally adapted to the New 1 Testament in that Language. (Only Paradigms. 1623. Helmst. Masii Syrorum peculium. 8vo.

Ad. 4to. Henr. Dcepke.) IIL CHRESTOMATHTES. Christoph. vervollstandigt unter dem Titel loh. 8vo. concordantiale. Adleri Chrestomathia Syr. under the title. Hottingeri Etymologicum oricntt. Syr. 1789. g5 Thomas a Novaria Nomenclator Syr. C. (Appended to bis Syriac Grammar. Viteb. Castclli Lexicon heptagl. Georg. Lemgo. Gottingen. Tom. II. Outbirii Lexicon Syr. Lugd. Henr. Ephraemi carmina selecta. Gottfr. 8vo. Nicolai Hodogeticum orientale harmonicum etc. glossario adnotationibusque instructa a /. 8vo. loh. 1768. /. 1795. Aug. 1788. Grafunderi Compendium Lexici. 1683. Die II. s. Francof 1661. III. 1793.) Aegid. Cf. Ausg. Ch. 4to. 1825. by J. Car. Dav. Knoes Chrestomathia Syr. Michaelis Chrestoma- : thia Syr. 1667. 1829. Michaelis Syrische Chrestomathie Thl. loh. s. 1669. 8vo. Getting.) Olai Gerh. G. (Newly edited by Bernstein. Ti/chsen Elementale Syriacum etc. 1. maximam partem e Codd.) . lense. Andr. 1666. 8vo. MSS. Cellarii Glossarium Syro-Latinuin. Grimm Neue Syrische Chrestomathie mit einem Glossarium u. 1807. 4to. collecta. 1784. Hamb. s. 1783. et Lipsias. Dav. From this has been specially edited the Syriac. Ed. 4to. S. etc. Turici. SYRIAC CHBE8TOMATHIE8. Zanolini Lexicon Syriacum. Sennerti Lexici Chald. Lips. Kirschii Chrestomathia Syr. (Appended to his New Testament. Ifasse Lectiones Syro-Arabico-Samaritano-^Ethiopic Regiom. mit einem Glossar. 1670. Fr. Edmundi Castelli Lexicon Syr. 1788. w. Hafn. Cizae. Hofifi. 8vo. u.) Edm. 8vo. lo. 8vo. 1742. llomie. 1664. Dav. Anm. 1636. loh. (Appended to the New Testament. Bat. 1708. Michaelis. Rostochi. 8vo. 8vo. Patav. Lond. Getting. Schafii Lexicon Syr. (With a Lex. Guil. Lexicon harmonicum heptagl. Hahn et Sieffert Chrestomatliia Syr. compendium. 4to. Syr. Gust. (Ap- pended to the New Testament ) Ant. et Syr.



> . (see Asseman Biblioth. in consequence of the amalgamation of the gutturals | with 1 and Ol with A* consists of only twenty con- . Q . always at the beginning of a word. The Syriac. i. in words adopted from . . 'as exhibited in the table on the preceding page. connect only . After one of these letters. e. p. and the Mandwan or Nabatcean alphabet. Besides this. or is connected or unconnected with the preceding letter. has an alphabet consisting. or "West Aramaean Language. 378. . Consonants. employed by the Maronites and It is Jacobites. P. of twenty-! two consonants. 'X> .28 CONSONANTS.. REM. r Ol.. stand unconnected . y . III. CHAPTER I. 15. the simple consonant. medial. with the preceding letter. i.) which. found in inscrip- tions on the ruins of Palmyra or Tadmor. bears a strong resemblance. WKITTEN CHARACTERS AND THEIR USE. or final. or u. The letters \. The latter. to Avhich the so-called double alphabet. is called Peshito. from which arises a fourfold form. Orient. L . according as a letter is initial. Double X . not from rfrpoyyuXo?. T. The letter G. and also. p. In common with the Arabic. means the Gospel character (scriptura evangelii). therefore. The final letters are ^ . I. REM. Amira mentions the Estrangelo. . ^ . 1. viz. *. . 'r A. like that of the Hebrew and Chaldee. with the exception of ^ . II. round. at the end of a word takes the form of m. It is written in a continuous line. the simple. according to Micbaelis Gram. It was the basis of the Nestorian smaller character. and after it U or )$ . There is also the Palmyrene alphabet. "\ before ^ is written -^ . . Syr. Q. . with four different forms of each letter. The character exhibited in the preceding alphabet. though essentially the same. sonants. it connects together the several letters of a word by horizontal lines at the bottom . 1. 2. used for inscriptions and titles of books. and is said to have been invented by Jacob of Edessa in the seventh century. and the consonant with the vowels a.

b) before Ol is pronounced like | . CONSONANTS. sc before e and i. The aspirated conson- ants Al2 r . 500 900. Amira. g.units arc :uM'tl. where they ter- minate a word. REM. ten thousand thousand by The . sometimes by the Spirilus asper. c) that initial .12. 3. Deeper guttural sounds are *** ( the German ch ) = and 1 which the Greeks express. 5. and sometimes by 7. The gutturals express the several gradations of guttural sounds from the weakest to the strongest. But the gutturals MA*OI| occasion less difficulty than in Hebrew.-J. the larger stand first e. forms the dipthongs au and eu . it is to be remarked . 5. are slightly inflected upward . marked as such with a red point placed over them. pOOUf Ihudho .f> are. Fractional numbers are designated lv :v small line drawn obliquely downward. a) that ( between two vowels has *P f 4> the sound of y . REM. is the same as in Hebrew. The sound of 2 is formed in the fore-part of the mouth that of O farther back towards the throat. e. Of the gutturals. 4. from left to right. and even when } is pre- fixed. i. etc. e. tuc final loiters tailing awav \\ lien. iO^O ko-yem . g.g. Thousands are designated by > 800. . 9. The letters ofthe Alphabet suffice for designating the numerals as far as 400 (Vid. the removal of the aspiration is indicated by the same sign beneath them ( 5). -co GOO. Incompound numbers. with reference to the organs of speech. poZ 441. = i <fec. g. it is pronounced t . according to Amira. p. e. "e. and Ol may be compared | with the and Spiritus asper of the Greek language Spiritus lenis ( 12. over the letter which expresses the denominator of the fraction . in some MSS. = i . From . . as the Sheva and Daghesh forte are wanting in Syriac. g. . placed under the units.g. 2 =. Table of Consonants. The division of consonants. ten thousand by ~=. p. REM. with . is written "XS Several consonants.. >Oli chadh. sq). and is pronounced. JD. 29 other languages. ID. a. . d) that initial 1 7 * *i ( 8. in connection with JL and Q. e. b). e. ** "Qj = sometimes stands for at the end of Greek words. 1} that O quiesces in and 7 * (= o and u\ and after and (= a and e). the tens of 50 90 are denoted by a dot over the letter .g. numbers 20 and 50 are also expressed by double ^2 and .

_t = i. and. I = o. or by characters formed from and in imitation of the Greek vowels. and *a originally served to designate the vowels. or or Revotzo or Chevotzo x or Zekofo (jabl ) o. which sufficed for their language. on the other hand. SOUND. Vowels in General (Vowel Letters and Vowd Signs). and u (v. 2. NAME. the vowel-letters }. The Monophysites or Maronites commonly use them only in doubtful cases. II. In ancient manuscripts both modes occur together. I. 34). GREEK. Q . making *\ = or. in the eighth century.' and which the Arabs appear to have borrowed from them. 29). InSyriac. The Syrians denote the vowels by diacritical points. | == e. p. p. SYRIAC. 478 . and increased their number to seven (v. the latter mode being that now generally used. the Syrians were acquainted with only three vowel-signs. REM. and since the time of Theophilus of Edessa. Asseman T. make ' use of diacritical points (Asseman T. The Nestorians. 7 VLaAS *A \ or Pethocho ( ) a. the Greek vowels appear to have been in common use. Q Q Q Etzotzo . at the time of Mohammed. p. the Maronite Gabriel Heva em- ployed the vowel-letters to designate the vowels. 477. Michaelis. III. Afterwards the Monophysites sought to express the Greek vowels. Gesenius Lehrgeb. 378). Even in the last century.80 VOWEL LETTERS AND VOWEL SIGNS. 3. FORM. o. Vowel Signs. P. pp.

As to quantity it may be assumed with some certainty ff 7 that is always " long. t = 6. Amira. 7 7 f ' a) with a preceding . and always short . b) with in the middle and at the end of a word. g. 2. The names are derived from the form of the organ used in pronouncing the vowel. With Vau . g. . III. 1. . As to pronunciation. * also occurs without Q =u in vi ^\O and ^&SO. p. . 3. is short. seems to have denoted a and ae. e. 379). SHORT. 7 Oj (ZolD: ft) with A preceding. thus . Revotzo. II. I'M . k In are contained both the German 6 and u. ou ( according to Amira u). Diacritical Points which sujyrfy tin place of Vowels. ol nearly (the German eu ) . * * 7 . 4. The first three vowel-signs may also be written beneath the consonants. oi . Chevotzo. O -O O Etzotzo. p*\ . and with Q are long. (For |A-*r^>. 31 REM. P. stands more correctly ]A*. 7 REM. 4.even with Q. Tliese were employed earlier than were the vowels. e. are common. LOXG. e. The dipthongs are formed with Q and **. c ) in the middle of a word. In foreign words it quiesces in Q. REM. d) Vau doubled. ai . e. g. 29. with **. and the others. maintains that T = #. Q. on the other hand. au . ^aiQj^QJ . Luke xvii. With Yud (besides the combinations b and c above). DIACRITICAL POINTS WHICH SUPPLY TJIK PLACE OF VOWELS. The Greek forms from which they are derived are easily recognized. g. _OlQjA') . after a. g. the first with . and .I3 Psalm xi 6). a) with preceding at the beginning or middle of a word. . according to others. I 7 . Asseman T. REM. Some grammarians also denote the quantity of the vowels by different signs. though was sometimes sounded by the Nestorians like a (V. except in foreign words.

de Dieu and Norberg. while OO1 O01. Some Grammarians. in Aphel. p. denoted by any written characters. fern. which removes the aspiration. o. Throughout the preterite. called liukok (i.32 KCSHOI AND RUKOK. Beobachtungen von dem Gebrauche des Syrischen Puncti diacritic! bei den Verbis. 51. it stands under the radicals. in Peal. The future takes it only under the radicals.u has treated this subject more definitely in his Grammar. according to him the point when above the consonant denotes and under un- a.42. have in fact the Sheva. _L. der wi and ( i. The retention of the aspiration is indicated by a point placed underneath. Isenbiehl. Amira. OT seems to have originated from that system.Q. and under Q u. u. This duplication is retained only in foreign words. or ciple. use p. not under the preformatives. exception of the 1 sing.. In the parti- y it denotes.*r>o According to Lud. The principal use of this point in the verb. it e. and the Zabians. and. where it stands above it (comp. Ludov. wCl= -Ol < . . according to the analogy of the Hebrew. de Dieu. over the first radical. 2. * Itshould be borne in mind that Sheva and Daghesh are not^ in >vriuc. 'Tr. the doubling of consonants in too.(\. "" So according to Asseman. were used even after the invention of the vowels. p. The point which designates the suffix 3 sing. . this grammatical usage is still very doubtful. X 7 REM. omitted or written underneath. a red point inserted over the aspirates. hardening). e. is to denote the different persons and tenses (v. the Syrians 1. . in manuscripts. Kushoi and Riikok (. with the . ^OQQJ pronounced n kum.. 1773). 37). Vau. * In the imperative and infinitive it may be in Verbs med. and appear only in pronunciation. pronunciation (Daghesh forte) occurs among the Oriental Syrians. i 9 wiOl wiGl . 35 seq. de Die. Analogous withDaghesh lene is Kushoi. 5.g. . p. in Pael andEthpaalofVerbs^2>andMi* But as the doubly written consonant falls away where analogy would require to be it retained ( 8). According to Amira p. as Amira. Gottingen. and pronounce a vowelless consonant with a short half-sound of e . by the Nestorians. OO1==OCTI . 51 Lud. e. with the exception of the 1 sing.

in printed books. O. pret. where the formatives Q and ^ at the end sometimes fall away from the 3 sing. syllable. in Hebrew. (Ab)QO . i.yo consonant . c) after an open syllable . g. they follow a movable Sheva . f.. fern. 33 REM. masc. AA_^ IZoSo. 6. g. by means of these points |nV> is read |n \V) the kings. ^\OL\ . re- . e. the preceding word ends in w. g. in which case Rukok is retained. OlluXSD . . masc. de Dieu. of Verbs 3 rad. g. iQAo e. e.. like the vowels. from \yXJ and in verbs with the middle radical doubled. e.. which are easily recognized. muse. Some consider Kushoi to be Daghesh forte. on the contrary. the Syriac makes use of Ribui. here belong the letters in which one having fallen away before them.. . when the J preceding them has fallen away . Lud. e. occurs. according to Hebrew analogy.tZ| they naveprafad tJieinselves . *a\ . VL4o The plurals. Daghesh forte stands. except where ^OpO precede. c) after dipthongs . g. places it a) at the beginning of words. 6) in the middle. These points do not occur in printed works.Z] he has praised himself. g.V. . g. the kiny. To distinguish the plural of nouns and verbs from the singular written with the same consonants. ^So. e. Rukok. which is denied by Amira and Gabriel Sionita. EIBDI. "\r*\. where. and distinguished from pVf).. Ribui 1.from A\ .g. e. Furthermore. p. . '25 sq. in the future and infinitive of verbs jk2>. and loin. pret. after a quiescent letter . This sign is also used in the 3 pltir. In liko mannor Uilmi strongtln'iis llu> distinction betwoon the 3 i>lur. of Verbs ^<b. but is in the same case hardened by a preceding vacant T. besides 17 as. the cases noted under'a above a) when one of the aspirates ends a . So too these consonants are not pronounced as aspirates in Pa and Ethpa. This sign is still retained. e. or in general where Daghesh forte euphonic stands in Hebrew. e.. Olaph in all the conjugations except Peal ( 32). Thus. e. to distin- I T yV*1 guish it from 3 sing. or where . is to be com- pensated for. g. two points placed horizontally over the word. b) when.

v i REM.. is omitted. 48. Pe. e. 7 or coincides with a diacritical one of the points point representing . 41. -aZ>l2. Sometimes a line is found over consonants a) in numerals ~ " * T 7 . Some Grammarians place Mehagyono only before viVnX and before ** in jA**)>.). Syr. p. This line is called Mehagyono. 2. ed. omits Ribui. p. but adopts the above-mentioned use m numerals. these same consonants. When three points come together. i e. 2. Some mark with this sign only the feminines. one of them represents Kushoi. sq. compares the two with Diaeresis and Synceresis. 1. 7. and so on. and the forms with suffixes . g. v & of exclamation O|.. lAojl. g rO for |A-*rO . . they place a line under the 7 consonant to which a vowel (usually more rarely ) is to be supplied . When Ribui stands over > (with the exception of the 1 sing. i. 1. e. Amira. Mehagyono and Marhetono. Hahn et Sieffert. according to 4. they are. pret. Chrestom. p. REM. (Vd. 1825. Ribui also serves to denote collectives . Amira. c) over the particle . and fut. 11). and denotes a removal of this accumulation in utterance If. e. e. c). Lips. g. a line is drawn above them. e. on the contrary. g. main without this designation. to distinguish it from Of.QO a beeve. or a dissyllabic word as a trisyllable. a herd of beeves. occurs. }AL**j. g. which is called Marhetono. . tQQj>_2.. REM. *1* 12 b) in abbreviations . e. In numerals the usage is arbitrary. which may have been transferred from prosody into prose. the voice hurry over is to (Diaeresis). and the participles Act.QJ| or OOUAjf. . . though it is not omitted in plural forms with suffixes.34: MEHAGYONO AND MAKHETONO. and uses it also with prepositions joined with plural suffixes ( 16. when the plural form x ( 44) ** *" 7 1 *k* A I has the signification . REM.and the Syrians wish to indicate that a monosyllabic word is to be pronounced as a dissyllable. g. REM. When an accumulation of consonants without vowels.

The tone is on the ultimate. 1). the tone remains upon the stem-syllable. 1). 10. As such it may in general be regarded as coming under b and c above. Signs of Interpunctum. Tone. Amira. This line placed under consonants denotes a) that the . It is more difficult to determine whether words. Linea Occultans. p. into . g. ? ' ' e. Ethpeel and Ethpaal ^4^1. e. of the first two radicals is *>O1 (comp. LINEA OCCULTANS.. Rem. Some have extended this also to the imperatives Ethtaphal and Eshtaphal but in the latter especially. . 9. a diacritical designation of the imperat. of the pass. REM.viz. REM. In an accumulation of consonants. so too with Q and -i. if they have arisen from 2a and A*. fov/). g. which. according to Amira. it appears to be merely . who do not possess the Hebrew system of accents. g. (JCUjj. Z^a ( 12.g. letter under which it stands is not pronounced e. e. when the ultimate does not terminate in a movable consonant . in the imperf. c) that the letter quiesces. 2. vid. g. ethkatl. oA* . g. 1. pp. The Syrians. p. >Oll (vid. where by Mehagyono ( 7) the penultimate syllable becomes the antepenultimate. 12. follow the same rule . and like 1 e. 462. g. p *.and imp. when it ends in a movable consonant . from ^O19 which with the transposition . . final. Mdlco. The tone stands regularly upon the penultimate sylla- ble. according to Amira. and should be pronounced ackuno or achuno. followed at the by Ol is to be pronounced weaker. e. 467469. 475. . 35 8. have Q in the penultimate. m\V) from ZosXso. divide their periods. b) that 1 beginning of a word.4) . e. 1. pronounced .

a) the separate members of the protasis with (:) .*).). In the first place. which also marks longer interrogations . in pronouns. protasis and apodosis. c) the separate members of the apodosis with (. must be accurately distinguished from those which occur only in individual forms. and d) the close of a period is marked by a point. yet in order to afford a proper connection between them. General View. and that which takes place in special and individual cases will be appended. Changes of the Consonants. and include the more precise designation of subject and predicate. In this respect they designate . 12. verbs. some consider to be the smallest mark of interpunction. command. 11. 479. PECULIARITIES AND CHANGES OF THE LETTERS. which again are subdivided into smaller parts. mentions a point standing over a word which indicates a question. that which occurs universally will be first treated of. CHAPTEE II. admiration. praise. and nouns. REM. Amira. address. Though the former class of changes will be here principally treated. i) the close of the protasis with (. and (>) or (::) the largest point. which as it also occurs in the middle of a period. Of those changes in the radical consonants which Hebrew grammarians classify as Assimilation. those changes which take place uniformly. in accordance with fixed laws. this chapter is naturally divided into two parts.36 GENERAL VIEW. which is also the sign of interroga- tion . either independently or in remarks. p. As the changes in the different parts of speech are effected partly by consonants and partly by vowels. Falling . and the like. Transposition.

wiOiCu. |2omJ^ . ^-***! .. 38) when il is an auxiliary verb. e. ^LDOOl> c Pw|jw] . before r "*> * r l V ^'^* n ' OOl. e. g. or when Linea occultans has arisen from theGreek Spirilus asper. woUb. (v. particularly in the following cases . I-. .** . 132). < ff p ^ as (jijoo* from 1^ : B) In particular is this the case . . of the verb.KM.. And this want is only in form. wiOl ..g. Exchange. an<l **hl\ fern. and ninnv . g. in which case. e. Table to 16). Consonants are dropped in pronunciation. and their plurals oAj) masc. for in point of fact this feature exists in those cases where a letter is dropped in pronunciation by the occurrence of Linea occultans (^ 8. g. ^ * ooi |AO pronounced frsheu.LT. * e. : a) in nouns whose middle radical is doubled . mano . c) with ^ in ^l] to go away. passes into . g. ooi p| lor p| . &Sffbt ASif (v. |2>*| . . i *. the first only is wanting in Syriac. d) with J in the pronouns AJ] mase. with the throwing back of the vowel upon the * . t> _ * 9 Ml in connection with the participle. Linoa occultans is ivt:iinrtl nmlrr | in nouns (Icriv. and in sonic other words. CHANGES OF THE CONSONANTS. or with the falling with the preceding vowel away of the e. he /mil killed] y) in oou for OOU fo give.. sing. p. (I) O in derivatives of verbs ^^aand \S>. p] \\+ . 87 away. as follows A) In Oeneral . and Addition. preceding vacant consonant . p) in ]ooi r ^' tt (v. c) Ol in Q ~ %. and uOlQ of the noun plural (v. when it should have a vowel which falls back upon the 1 . U. jZni>t| .lOlO . c) with > in 2^3 duiujhUv . 8). however. (OO1 xs^O f T 1 . g 12. Here should be no- ticed the following 1.-d from those adiliH-otl undi-r (/ . e. a) * * " V" *i 1 '^ with initial in **J| an d in the pronoun s* f ^-^l - . g. e. comp. f suffixes of the 3 masc. and finally . a) in the pronouns OOl and wOI . ]Als. letter . 28) . b) with Ol. Gesenius. Lehrgebaude. ooi A^A . e.g. by the occurrence of Linea occultans.g. b) > without a vowel before 2. e.-iAj] fi'in.

e. Rem. which verb loses 2* Liuea occultans only when it is used absolutely in the sense of to be.. Etlipa. As to further inflection of 7 bOTU compare 29. Also when threeL stand together in the fut. 1. c) one of two Z without a vowel standing between them . . the logical copula is fundamentally involved. a) the gutturals 2 and | before Ol . e. Transposed is L before sibilants in Eihpe. A). j as middle radical is sometimes transposed .. g. Be. of Verbs ]si ( 28. Dropped are . ^iOl] for ^011. f passes into >.. b) +* and J as first radical.oi) (v. g. b) in transferring Hebrew words into Syriac. jZp** for IZZpAi. *\&oLL for . 1). e. 2). as is con- firmed by the pleonastic use of ]ool ( 68.e. 1) . There is no transposition when Z is doubled in Ethpe.. to come to pass . 4.Co22] (v. e. 2). and in ^>] for ^} %a] . g. g . e. A. of Verbs ^L and Ql . 3. 31. g.. intin. A). In these pronouns. g. end- ings ZQ and AJL . K 07 3. occurs in (j| It OO1 and w01 when they are used also . and Q as middle radical in Verbs +*s> 29.Q 75 for fc*J| ^) and as first radical in the 1 sing. g. * > ** *X "X others. after 1< . Here belong such nouns as |innV> for }iamk> The same is true also in respect to the middle radical of Verbs ^il ( 34. ( ^S ( and Ql ( 31. fat. ) | with Linea occultans . Finally Z falls away at the end of the fern. 1) . 8). ^ into -. 1). e. into > after ] . g. >>J. g. e. 1. Exchanged are . ^\4oZZZ. also ^ of verbs *\y into Ol . e. e. 16. g. e. a and c)..38 CHANGES OF THE CONSONANTS. even when they stand pleonastically ( oo.a3|Zl from |O* Also > in the imperat.LDfl| . sometimes 1 into -^ and J . and Etihta. Qio fromQ2j. 2. *jjoA] from _oo. -35 into Z^. e. and the nouns derived therefrom . . g. 33. J>Q. ^cb] for ^oa"!) . for the logical copula or substantive verb (comp. pass. and part.. i"^^ j ^-J for k . <*>^\^"> for Zo^ALo. Pa. " 7 i ? 7 7 is changed into 7 7 *> 7 . 54.. g. to become. from . wi^Am] from VCD . ^-?l I for ^_1^|.

Irvi^ which may be derived from ' r <L or J v t| Hence * )"> T \ \^ \^ the form ( j.g. o. D|SD . aud in the Ethpe. and in cases where Ol does not represent Spiritus asper . and ^Apa.^OI i . 1.. (A^joZ from ^?O|. and before suffixes ( 45. f ^ = S-aSiw I)) oi to denote the Spiritus asper in Greek" words . *. from **jJ|. 2. ^o]!sD .. e. -* ^ . Uy-J and . The derivatives from Aphel do not belong ^ IL T 7 j T 1T here. 9 ^QJ. of verbs ]s> ( 28. This last has been also applied to nouns derived from |2> t Verbs. also in Greek words beginning with 2 . e. goes over into > and ^. )jL. . g. in the passive. even in compound " ^ *.k>ooi> 'Pwftaioff ( 12. .g. In many cases this usage is doubt- *f a r i r ) * v ful . QUIESCENT LETTERS. ^lij for ^)*J. e. Here belongs only Ol for oi of the suf. according to Rem. and. REM. r^ZZf for r^|Z| REM. g. before a vacant consonant e. Added are a) sometimes . e. . g. when transposed with sibilants. g. 89 c) 2. fern. |Z is found. The following letters quiesce : 1. g. ( at the beginning. e. 1. . g. above. Tlie vowel-letters w. . g. (t) ] with 2 in the construct state fern. e. -. 'r 21 ^ = TUWi 13. * c) J is added where it supplies the place of Daghesh forte with Linea occultans . wAl for wiA . quiesce in the preceding vowel. Ol also. " * v 1 Rem. ]3^. 3 sing. according to some. c). g. . = ft of the Hebrew. DOOUQD tf-jvoiJoj . -46). 2a3} for 2aD . 5. and if it have a vowel. words in the later Syriac. Quiescent Letters. e. And so in words transferred from the Hebrew. g. g. this falls back upon the preceding vacant consonant . >p . g. e. 1 medial in - . A. 1 final in and e. e. g. e. . JjxlZ. e.

e. in the termination OQ = 05 . . V>1^. e.g> x = $iXK'of. In the later Syriac f stands for a and e. QDQ " is . the later language we find kDaL^| 'ASr]vai. Vowel. sing.. . O. and 2 . 7 y 7 7 77 1 1 / 1 f\ "iV 11* REM. e. . .. 14.Letters which are not sounded (Oliant). g. 0^4 5 &) i n the suffixes _ . 1. ai sometimes by j | . e. ^oAj] . e. ^^a . i \V)Z] yesterday. sing.g. which form ]1 in the emphatic state ( 46. 1 T 3. g. ^. e. 4). 2. ) in the pronouns 2 plur. pp>r><y> N. fern. fD j|o xcupoj.: imperat.7 also = i> r *i 7 > ap%aff. also used hCDQ2)| = a^aij. OOl li^O pronounced bekyu . and fern. g.g. initial usually quiesces in . sing. g. are not sounded . In g. and falls back upon the preceding vowelless prefix e. g. \ jA^JJ for jA^J). In Greek words O quiesces in . fern. g. e. in which case the ^ of the participle is not sounded. and plur. o quiesces in 2. SOOD and sometimes OQ ? .40 VOWEL-LETTERS WHICH ARE NOT SOUNDED. and the like. Jljooi (3. O and w at the end of words . g. 3 plur. medial and final. is sounded only when fol- * . c ) in . ^. . DQ3)| = x.Z1* . e. 1Zao]r> xi/3w<ro .u^. quiesces. REM. a) in verbal endings without any vowel preceding (2 pret.g. 1). e. ^-iAj) conjoined with the participle to denote the present tense. in and . masc. n>. masc.masc. e. where w. . wkOiQ ~ . lowed by 001 . e. Eem. |f and fl>[ In Greek words i and on are represented by | . toAj] ^\fto pronounced kotelitun. ^lAL^fi . kjJiL. ^ %^ for ai . fern. 71 7 T QlrtO " for OL^O* Also between two consonants A quiesces x Vt * ' m . g. In the following cases j. P^. and fern. j quiesces in in pfl.. .) . fat. ]. i\ rest.

exchanged partly in accordance with tli<_- are genius of the language. ]k>CLt = (ChaKl. 2. Pe. the following vowel changes may be noted a) for . undergo various changes and modifications in pect to formation and derivation.1). e. Although to a less extent than in Hebrew. the Syriac prefers e. emphatic state ]Xoa .. ir ^DQQ^ 7 T-VoonVw. but before gutturals and > at the end of words. or OH. . win-n- . A) in general. the vowels in Syriac. the vowel of the ^ falls back upon it e.g. e. and partly in transferring Hebrew and Chaldee words. when a syllable is appended and in the emphatic state U?QO ( 45. ^OOb and VOfOO with . 52. They I. into . ^04 construct state Ao4 In transferring words from the Hebrew and ( 45. b) in the feminine with V. e. IV) of the form Ijoa. a) Q in the iin- when a suffix added n ^ n ^P.^ r) in pn>lixcd. rS]io . ^D)J. dropped or add" I. (U-* 32). 1. e. masc. 13. Vowels are transposed . In . . l*?OO = ^'i . A^ll for ASlI (12. 15. and infm.1. +*S) . g.g. a) in ^l). Pe. e. passes over into . transposed. b) in some nouns of the form ^OfO. upon prefixes. . g. c. r. still they are exchan>/l. B) in Particular . g. in Verbs ] . **A2Lt = nSlSP ? c) 1 with Q.1 whon it enters int. in simple syllables. Chaldee. Decl. Q is placed before Q wlu-n Q and > retain tlu-ir . is . >r for jf . * with * . ^. g. g. . in the con- ' . 2). 6) concerning the falling back of tl u- vowel over }. passes over into . ever 1 is vacant. e. perat. g. Rem. plur. or with Q_ . compare 3. with suffix woi ciL^ao . M VI = nb} ^M = 0~i^ . g. e. of the fut. The genius of the language requires the following exchanges of vowels a) in the preformativ ~ . e. \\ XT-: 5 : 6) is exchanged in proper names mostly with . A. g. . CHANGES IN T1IK VOWELS. 41 Changes in the Vowels. 53. 1. 48. 3 .90 struct state.


composition, moves forward upon r e. g. ^-kOpl, l^Orl* ;

The vowel of a final mixed syllable is dropped, wKen
an entire syllable is added at the end, especially when
the last radical begins the new syllable ; e. g. in the verb

masc. A&jQ fern.; in the nouns
HEM. This vowel remains unchanged a) ;
when merely a formative

letter, without a vowel, is added ; e.g. ClX^,O from ^j^O b) ;
a syllable is added, if the
stem-syllable remain a mixed one ; e.

from o^O ;
and moreover ; c) when the stem-syllable
becomes a simple one, the following cases ; in
in the second form
of the 3 where inHebrew
fem.plur.pret.and 2 fern. plur. imperat; /3)

Daghesh forte stands ;
g. ^Ql emphatic state

/)in words ofDeclension I.masc. (comp. 48.A). In
^i\ emphatic
7 -p 7
^0 .

state (1 *,S; iOQj emphatic state 0Q-, the original vowel only
reappears (comp. 48. A. Decl. IV).
4. Vowels are added ; a) with 1, *, and i, at the begin-

ning of words ; } and 1 usually take and ; e.g. ^QD\
7 * I i* I

(imp.), >Oll ; but wi
usually takes ;
e. g. JDAj ; b) of two
vacant consonants at the beginning of a word,the first takes
y y
vf>*"> for
7 -p 7

; e. g. f (Vf>~> ; so also when two vacant
P (>. 7 g
consonants in the middle of a word follow ;
e. g. |A>j^j
for IA.MJO ;
or when in Hebrew, the first has Daghesh
forte e.
g. from tl^K or finally when
ft,.") for
VAytf 5

three vacant consonants would come together in the middle

of a word ;
e. g. Al^L^t for AS&of. This assumed vowel
T .7 * . .7 x
is sometimes ; e.g. &.QO from \v4^
(pret. PC.)* ;

before A, (v. 13. 3), excepting
in the emphatic state of

the participle fern. pass, of Verbs |] in Pa., Aph.,
where is added to distinguish it from the^active
participle (comp. 48. B. Decl.IV. Kern.). Finally Q is as-
sumed in the emphatic state sing, of some words ; e. g.
")'A^Q2iS>from ]3aLo for "jAlaSo c) a vowel is assumed ;

with Q between two vacant consonants this vowel is _I_ :

:vhen it stands at the beginning of a mixed syllable e. g. ;


but when it stands in a simple syllable ;
e. g.

d) The assumption of a vowel is arbitrary, when
there are two vacant consonants, of which the first can be
attached to the preceding, and the second to the following

syllable ;
e. g. VQ,V) and )A.O^D; if the second consonant
be 1, must be assumed, for .*., Q and f cannot stand
without a vowel between two consonants.





16. Personal and Possessive Pronouns.

The Personal Pronouns are divided into two classes :

Separate Pronouns, which stand as separate words, and
mark the nominative case and Suffixes, consisting of

syllablesformed from the separate pronouns, which are
appended to other parts of speech appended to Verbs, they

mark the accusative appended to nouns, the possessive

pronoun, or the relation of the genitive ; and, with preposi-
tions,they form the remaining cases.




IK Sim. In

-* ^
Sing. 1. 2.

1 C.

2 m.

2 f .

3 m. 01- 01-

3 f. Ol 01 01 OU.


7 r
1 c.

. r
2 in. .on*.

2 f .


3 m. OOI

3 f. QL*.



I. Tke Personal Pronoun.

The second and third persons have two genders, while the
person is of the common gender. The fern, of the 2


is denoted by

001 masc. and wOl
to the masc. In the 3
are used rather in a
strative sense, while ooi masc. and aOT fern., are used in
connection with adjectives and participles rather to designate
the present tense. And so in the plur., the first forms given
above are used rather substantively as nominatives, and the
second as accusatives (comp. 36). Concerning Linea oc-
cultans under 1 and Ol of the 1 and 3 sing., see 12.1.

II. Suffix Pronouns.


In the suffixes, or abbreviated forms of the separate pro-
nouns, an ancient obsolete form whose characteristic was
not 2 but D, lies at the basis of the 2 sing, and plur. (comp.
Gesen. Lehrgeb. 203).
Of the
suffixes to verbs, given in the Table, those marked
two classes ; the first of which are attached to con-
a, fall into
sonants (with the exception of ) in the forms of the regular

verb ;
and the second mainly to the same forms of Verbs ]),
and in part to the imperat. and fut. of the regular verb.
The forms placed between 1 and 2, are common to both.
The suffixes marked b are appended to forms with Q and
A, which then quiesce in _1 and _L. Where this form is
wanting under b it is comprehended under a. Finally the
suffixes under c are attached to the forms with

and also to
the ii sing. masc. and 3 plur. fem. pret. The forms wanting
under c are comprised under a. On their mode of union,
comp. 36, and 37, and the accompanying Tables.


The suffixes of the noun (possessive pronouns) are attached,
in nouns masc. sing., to the emphatic state ( 45,) with the


falling away, of \- e.g. ,AV) emphatic state
; ,

with suflT. *) Vf)> In the
plural they coalesce with the end-

ing of the construct state -., so that they may be considered
as attached to the final consonant of the noun ; e.g. construct

state - - ^V^n with suff. "iVv~ in the 3 sing. masc.
does jk pass into Q, and in the 3 sing. fern. _L is the union
vowel. In the noun fern, the suffix with a union vowel is

attached to the emphatic state, with the falling away of

I ,
e. g. oiA^oAo from emphatic state ]A^oAo. In
the remaining persons (1 sing. 2 and 3 plur.) suffixes sing.
are attached to the construct state (v. 46. 2) e. g. ;

*jASoA^ from the construct state A^oAo, plur. ^^DA^oAc
from construct state A^oAo.
REM. For the complete union of nouns and suffixes, compare
46 48, and the accompanying Tables.

Besides, the possessive pronoun may be expressed in a

separate form from the noun, by means of some form of
(from > = "ittfja chald. i 1} and ^ ) with a suffix, thus ;

Plural. Singular.

2. <QQAjj
^i-lNo your.

^_OlXj> jOOl\j> their. j
<JLl-> /ier. Ou^i> A/x.

REM. This form, which corresponds with the German der meinige
(mine)etc. occurring after a suffix to the noun, indicates an emphasis ;
I T T <r-

e. g. v^-^t) ,ij r AV^\Zo, but thy scholars. Sometimes it signifies

e. to us.
relating to; g. ^Qn\j>


The Prepositions, which were in part originally nouns,
take suffixes sing, and plur. Singular suffixes are attached


to JS in, L the sign of the dative, 2oL to, ^D from,
jAcQQ and jAa after,
\>,*Snn\ towards, against,
comp. 15.

2. Plural suffixes are attached to >QM>-^O aside, only ,

,S\Q without, Jr** or *J9,-K about, *?\\**for, ^^ over, >]

yj. towards^ after, io^o oe/ore, 2ox2 (AjjaZ before
nouns) under. The suffix plural fern, occurs with ^&k>
ow account of ; e. g. oA^Lo ;
with both plural suffixes
and Ai ."> between.

REM. For the complete union with suffixes, compare the Table
belonging to 52.

17. 6Mer Pronouns.

1. The Demonstrative Pronoun is declined as follows :

Plural. Singular.
F. C. M. F. M.


(> 9

REM. Sometimes, in the sing., the fern. (>O1 is united with the
. I 70
personal pronoun 3 sing, masc. OO1 and fem. *jOl, forming QJO1 and
-\ ^ -.
wC7l|)C7I. Sometimes OO1 and ^O1 precede ; e.g. pOl OOljiist this,
~> I f^ ^ ?

(JO! ^01,/MS^ <Ais. The Chaldee ^--^l is
only used in compari-
ti7 7 7
or WCft.
sons; e.
g. ^i\| y^|>, ^\O1 ^*J!>

2. The Relative for all numbers and genders is J,
7 7 * " f -7

which, that, and with the pronouns ^So M-] c. r/2. | H / (

cow. preceding, it becomes interrogative.
*P *7
REM. |L| having a relative signification with J following it, is

an exception to the general rule.

3. The Interrogative ; a) for persons of both genders and
numbers is
^0 who. It unites with ooi following, and


forms oilo and ]L*\ masc. who? VrO &" who? 1 -
I) lib and

TD what, refer to things ( Jiib, iOLo ) ; c) V '^'] refers to
both persons and things.
The Reciprocal and Reflexive Pronouns are formed
21. 2.
partly by passives
( 22. 2. 24. 2), or by the nouns

l*U soul, and ]V>Oin person, with suffixes appended
(comp. the Syntax).



18. General View.
1. The Verb is, as in Hebrew, the most important of the

parts of speech, since it lies at the basis of the formation of
the others. Verbs may be divided into the three following
classes, in so far as new verbal forms are derived from them
in accordance with definite laws, or as a noun is to be
considered as their stem: a) Primitives', e. g. *oAD to

'write, VH&O to Mil ; 5) Verbal Derivatives (Conjugations) ;
1> J 7
g. *ojl to justify, from *D>1 ; c) Denoiiiumtu'tt*, Bnltteqnent
7 7 T

formations from nouns ;
e. g. ;fiQ^ to tithe, from paoi ten ;
7 fc^ t> *

.*)] to celebrate Easter, from j**^ Easter.
'2. The Stem-form in the 3 sing. masc. pret. consists
usually of three radicals (verbum triliterum), and is
ced as a monosyllable, by the help of placed over the
middle radical intransitive, and in intransitive verlx.
3. From Derivatives or Conjugations,
this are fornu-d flu-
which agree closely with the ground-form in the inflection
"f persons, and the principal characteristics mood and ( .t'

tense. Modem graniniariaus have added a third conjuo;ation,
Shaphel, to the two originally derived from the groima-form.
The passive formed by prefixing Z|, and has not only a

nassive but also a reciprocal and ivtlexive signitication.

are divided into two principal classes. Regular and Irregular. Active. or quiesces (Quies- cent Verbs) v. (OO1 is also frequently used (v. and wherePael andAphel are found together. and for the sake of brevity. The Optative and Subjunctive^ are contained in the future. Passive. and two Participles. moreover. All verbs do not have the whole of the conjugations. the Present is expressed by the participle with the personal 001 It the former joined with the participle. Aphel ^&o) to cause to kill . there is usually a difference 77 7 T in their signification. Verbs. an Imperative in the passive. It has. r d* to honor. The formation of Verbs.* Ethpeel 2.0 to kill. finally. ' g. sing. an active and a passive. The Inflection of Regular Verbs in General. 1. The Hebrew Infinitive absolute and Infinitive con- struct are in Syriac united in one form (v. 19. e. in general. 4. is uniformly used to represent the Syriac ground form 3 masc.3). in particular *Literally. Ethpaal 3. to de- note which more explicitly. . The Syriac.B. 1. The Conjugations are as follows . tense. Peal . while in irregular' verbs. Ethtaphal 4 Shaphel ^^n* to cause to kill (rare) Eshtaphal REM. the latter with the preterite. The irre- gular verbs are formed in a different manner. J-DO| to be burdensome.">0 THE REGULAR VERB. REGULAR VERBS. Pael ^\&O to murder . REM. The infinitive being considered in English the ground-form of the verb. in the active. like the other Semitic dialects. In regular verbs the radical letters remain unchanged. by uniform laws. 27. has a Pre- terit and Future. he killed. etc.Syntax). TR. one of the rad- icals either falls away (Defective Verbs). 5. 19. in respect to person. and mood is effected. The other relations of time are supplied in the following manner .

. stana over this sign. 51 cases only.. according to their special laws. and those vowels which are separated from the * by . belong to the inflection of transitive verbs. In the following Tables of the Inflection of Kegular and Irregular Verbs. Radical letters which have fallen away. or denote other forms in erjual use. REGULAR VERBS. Those which take their place. The vowels which stand imme- diately over the *. belong to intransitive or guttural verbs. It will therefore be most convenient to treat. under the regular verb. 27 by .. of what- ever belongs to the universal analogy of the verb. the following signs are used The radical : letters are denoted by *. . are denoted in the Table of Irregular Verbs.

52 TABLE OF PERSONAL INFLECTIONS. 8 O S p^ ^ o 02 W An fe O W H? w <1 H .


and the plur. where the fem. But in the plur. and plur. reminds one of the paragogic final syllable H5 in Hebrew.. masc. masc. this same character at the end. are related \\\ masc. In the the masc. the simple verbal stern suffices for the masc. are to ^pAj) masc. shares with the 3 pers. the ori- ginal form of the L with _L if| preceding. additions being received at the beginning (Preformatives\ and at the end. A. which has a two-fold gender. pret.. has not been T - shown.54 PERSONAL INFLECTIONS. is distinguished in the masc. Thus in the pret. and uAj] fern. The same is true of the preformative L in the same person of the fut. The inflection of persons is found in its most simple form in the preterit and imperative. Table 1). as . In the future the form is more complex. as well as ( before the . and ^Ajj fem. the inquiry into the origin of the preformative J in the sing. ^ and ^J. t > *1 ~ ~**A"lT A" n* and ^_Z fem.. from which the fern. The 3 plur.instead of Q In the same person of the fut. and . L masc.-/ fem. and fern. In the 3 sing. The inflection is as follows . And thus the ^ in the fern. preceded by _!_ (= n~)> i g appen- ded and considered as a sign of that gender. takes wi final and ^ paragogic. The opinion that the J had its origin in * is opposed by the fact that among the Zabians this preformative exists... but in the fern. in the plur.. sing. is a difficult one.. 17). with a like influence upon the vowel of the preceding radical syllable. in order to designate the gender. is plur. The abbreviated form of the personal pronoun evidently appears in the 2 sing. In the plur. In the I sing.. the 2 pers. where formative syllables are appended only to the stem (Affirmatives). in its simple form is distinguished only by a silent . in addition to the preformative J. 2. by the addition of the plural-sign Q. sing. pret.. sing. Personal Inflections (comp. while there is no similarity between those two letters. distinguished as in the pret. and plur..oZ masc.. which causes the vowel of the last radical syllable to fall away. More consideration is probably * & -X > due to the derivation from poi and ^QJOI (comp. by the plural-sign Q with ^ pa- ragogic.

The imperative coincides with the future in respect to formatives at the end. 3. the former person ending in the feminine sign -. The future is formed from the imperative by prefixing J. refer us the more defi- nitely back to W and ^J**. and in Aphel. plur. Finally the fern. \vlu-iv they t coincide precisely with the preterit) in Q and. and in passives ] of the formative syllable 2] In Ethpe. tut. both cases in Peal. in the apoco- . in Verbs Med. the middle radical takes All the remaining imperatives are like preterits. falls away. and J before the 1 plur. and the section following). and Ethpa. is distinguished from the 3 sing. and 2 plur. INFLECTION OF THK TENSES AND MOODS. A. B. after . Here too it should be noticed that the 1 plur.. Gutt. tut. masc. Table 11). The same holds good in respect to the imperatives Ethta. IV-il receives. fern. where they take _.. The infinitives (of which the simple form denotes the gerund in do or the absolute state. In Aphel the characteristic falls away. between the second and thinl radicals. but with \ pivtixed de- notes the construct state) are formed from tin. where (with the exception of the 1. which has the same form. the vowels of the preterite re-appear. REM. and 3 . 5 ~> 1 sing. Linea occultans stands under the middle radical 7 with preceding. the rejection of Linea occultans. Inflection of the Tenses and Moods (comp. and the latter in the plural sign Q In. except that the paragogic ^ in the 2 sing.preterites by prefixing Lo. Q quiescing in but in Yerbs Med. They end (excepting in the Peal. The prefbrmatives of the fut. the imperative most nearly coincides. and Eshta.) they are vacant. by Ribui. sing. and Ethpa. uniformly take except in Pael and Shaphel. 1. E. except that in Ethpe. The imperat. With the preterit (the characteristics of which are more specifically given in Table 11. ends with ^* and the vowel of the final syllable is retained. masc. Q is retained as the vowel of the radical syllable. if Linea occultaus be admitted in them 2.

except that in this case also in Ethpe. 1.* In the fut.. the remaining preterits also lose the vowel of the last radical syllable but Ethpe. . For the reciprocal use of these twoTables. and part. as Q is retained in the imperat. in 2a . The participles are formed from the preterit as fol- lows in peal. in pret. THE GROUND FORM PEAL ITS FORMATION AND SIGNIFICATION.*_ is inserted between . Besides this the form with _i (med.. changing the vowel of the last i syllable of the preterit into * 4. the last two radicals. the second _L in the passive form *. TR. 2 . takes 7 over the first radical. Peal. Peal. the aftbrrnatives with the vowels thereto belonging. The usual form of Peal is *\&O (transitive verb mcd. take JL. infin. and merely take from Table I..where . A. in passives. that Table I. the vowel of the stem falls away. 20. The forms in Table II. into _L But this distinction appears only in the absolute state of the masc. and oi. which suffice for the complete formation of the regular verb. A). and _L.. the first radical takes -2-. mostly 5. pate feminine form. but in Aphel they take _L. contains the personal inflection of Peal. >. E) is always used *Tho inflection of the different persons in the preterit should be noticed in order to perceive the verification of this remark. this has _L in Peal.. REM. the active form of which like- wise takes _!_ The preformatives of the fut. and in Pael and Shaphel they are without a vowel. active form. In the other conjugations So is pre- fixed. and even here is lost in verbs 3 Gutt. Where. the vowel of the last radical 9. ding to No. it is to be remarked . in the second syllable of the active form. rejecting the ] accor- . is changed. retain their charac- teristic vowels. syllable is uniformly lost where Q falls away in Peal.56 THE GROUND FORM PEAL.the first radical takes _L In imperatives the X vowel of the last radical syllable is retained. and . in the inflection according to Table I.

the form with . though the transitive form with Q is . QfDO^O from JD^O* Sometimes another form with n tk occurs . e. In the imperat. still ap- pears in the Verb >Q2iO to shudder. ***>. O. >)a to feel pain. * * . e. a guttural. g. e. With the inflection of Verbs Med. e. xiii. act. . - ^& . In the part. To this class also belong Verbs ]. pret. |J ^f) The active if * form in iinincilialf . OlioZ to admire. Amira final quiesces in . 67).n. and of those having the third rad.with paragogic. fern. r^l* More rarely the vowel of the imperat. ( ^>xB (verse 54). which throw back upon the first radical . are alike . Verbs Med.niiccticn \\ith ^*x (Mark xiv. e.g. * ^\^Q The apocopate form of the infinitive with Q is also sometimes found in Peal e. g. Med. (p. with Besides the 2 plur.Sl together will: Instead of the part. g. take . . or derivatives of Hebrew Verbs *\y . fern.ofVerbs 7 . ^M*U. though rare. Luke ix. E. the participial noun of the emphatic state |J-x>. when in Verbs Med. agree those with 3 rad. g. * ^5*"* .2lklJi.>rrt 1 to the forms of the 3 plur. ^1 P. 57 for intransitives .g.plur. * T 1> _ Q 33. stands in the radical syllable. tin' first r radical sometimes takes Passsive intransitives occasionally occur in . in which is placed over the third radical in the 1 plur.rl-s .'rhajis to be regarded as an error in transcribing. but the fut of Verbs Med. Q.takes instead of Q .iSQ^D* The imperat. e. E. REM. as in the Verb ^tyj. A.g. g.attached is more frequent. ITS FORMATION AND SIGNIFICATION. dAd^O. imperat. Also a form of the fat. In th- fut. vt^O.fera. There are instances to be found. OliO to name.viz : .A. is often used. . differs from that of the fut. act. and the absol. J3\& to be near. with . e. also found .g. e. is ji. y T m Ol . fern. e. 3 sing. Rom..E.U| '' ^5 adduced by Buxtorf. *oAft to *//. fut. In r> iv. The passive form is always fully written in intransitive \. zfy = m't> Tne form Med. 300) adduces another form. the first is found only in Verbs (J and ik the second seems to have originated from crasis with the alHx _O1. 3.^1* Not only the imperat. ^k. e. tin- emphatic state masc. g. g.masc. retain + r .

and fern.g. to the partici- ple. an active sense. and the 1 and 2. But this formation occurs only in the 2 sing.. . Gutt. in the last syllable (vid. 21. plur.V bearing. _L. g. Upon the transposition of the sibilants with Z see 12. and is as follows : Participle Passive. masc. To the inflection of the participle belongs also the idiom by which the present tense is expressed by abbreviated per- sonal pronouns. *y*^> B. I . REM. chew . sometimes derived from transitives . appended. as in the other ?v* * passives. The characteristic of this conjugation. and 2 and 3 plur.58 DERIVATIVE CONJUGATIONS.. or by the addition of 2. e. pret. and fern. masc. Amira. to divide. and 1 siug. The first radical takes y in the 3 sing. in all of the imperat. 2. in the 2 sing. Sometimes we find both forms in the same verb. the formative syllable \ and the vowel is or in Verbs 3 Rad. Participle Active. *Mt2> to be divided. DERIVATIVE CONJUGATIONS. like afformatives. The passive conjugations are distinguished from each other generally by the vowels over the radical letters. Ethpeel 1. fern. (Ethta. 278). From the preceding remarks it appears that the signifi cation of Peal may be transitive or intransitive. fern.. H-^| holding.) or by the insertion of * (Eshta. g.}. In some cases there isno difference of signification e. e. ms\ and rf>S\ to . 2. p. and in other cases there is a difference in signification.

must be considered as an incorrect x r Diode of writing. and 1 sing. ix. ^\4o| ? b) reflexive. The imperat. e. pret. de Dieu p. xx. act. Acts. According to others is used. with Linea.fut. is . Matt. . e. 19. The infinitive however is excepted . Ethpa. ASA*|. in Verbs 3 Rad. (vid. fern. a] jiassive of Peal. and pass.g. e. in Pa. 2 sing. excepting the absolute state masc.g. e.m*^^Zj . g. . Pa. but only in Verbs Pk even when 1 falls away e.* rejected also by Euxtorf. fern. since ^CLtfO (verse 32) is a participial noun. and finally in the part. . 19. c) = Peal in intransitive verbs . ^o_. occultans and the part. the imperatives. d) sometimes Ethpe. Pa. cannot be distinguished. pret. Ethpa.. p. from 22. f r It is *. excepting the absolute masc. 339.. or >. becomes hardened. iD>Z| to reflect by or upon ones self. according to Lud. which. e. alone takes _l (comp. The passive form s not mentioned by Amira. and the part. This A|^1 . g. are like the same forms in Ethpe.g. vid. The preformative 1 of the 1 sing. REM. in Ethpa. and fern. and 2 and 3 plur.* * * l <fiL\ to return . The signification of Ethpe. Both of these conjugations are characterized by _1 in the penultimate. ^4>o2l ' JL_ is inserted between the two final radical letters. g. . U and x . as it is in the passive. is passive of Aph. tern. 5). excepting when the first radical is an aspirate.4. 1C ) in pret. usage however is confirmed neither by examples nor by Amira. in Pa. 217. 27.. Gutt. The form I 7 ^*-'r^ (Mark.. from llif same persons of Ethpa. 59 of the future. The passive form 4o| does not occur in Amira. that in i>O-*J >Z|. DERIVATIVE CONJUGATIONS. A. and _^_. masc. and B. Pael and Ethpaal 1. B. infinit.A| to be embarrassed. Amira remarks. 2. x. orozi^AiD. Concerning the part. of the fut. The 3 sing. the second radical takes only in the imperat. 27). In the Verb ff\ lf ib in Ethpe. in the ultimate syllable. The vowel is changed into _L.

do not belong here. e. which quiesces in _L After the preformatives of the fut. fut..g. Rem.g. and part. *O. which lose a radical letter . g.) = Pe. *A2p or & t\ v y * T* f is k*^iJ But the Verbs o*. e. infinit.. i. ^&o2] to be murdered . to compensate for the loss of the characteris- tic ] of Aph. Aphel and Ethtaphal. 1.60 APHEL AND ETHTAPHAL. _*~K(^ from (^M Under the same rule should be placed Verbs |l .. de Dieu p.>T 7j able takes . In respect to the participles of 7 Aphel the same rule holds good as in 22. e. to declare . occult... approves of the abridged imperat. to blush 23. g. Lud. since _2_ already re-appears over ( They are rather forms of Pe. P. g.. Qn^aV) (comp. ] falls away.g. is retained after the prefor- Tl 7 P mative. e. only in Verbs 3 Bad.g. b) reciprocal. is . 4. as is also shown by their further for- 7 -n 4k * mation . e. <. e. g. Aphel is characterized by } placed before the stem. . e. occurs in the second syllable. e. and nal to Hss . Buxtorf and others do not recognize the passive. B. 1.). Ma^ 7 to overwhelm from ^li to press. rf) to AotoJ forth. 2.Rem. with Lin. The characteristic | of Aph. e. In the passive. . o>2] to wonder within one's self. L mit _L is inserted between the stem and the formative syllable of the passive Z] The final radical syll- 7 . e. xy^oZZf* REM. The signification of Ethpa. g. g.J. is . part. b) intensive .2s| to be able. infinit. with | prosthetic. a) passive of Pael . and. to be made to blush. ^\li> to cause to be afraid. compared with 19.**^A"j. e. c) = Peal.g. to pronounce just. Gutt. in verbs. 238. e. -"^* and the passive . 20. The signification of Pa. and v*A| to drink. . a) causative . from ^**> to fear . and its vowel falls back upon the preformative. and J is _L found in that syllable.

*oZoZZ| to keep house. Xlu.g. g. fut. In the passive (Eshta- phal) occurs the transposition of * and L and _L appears in the last syllable. from Shaph. SHAPHEL AND ESHTAPHAL. In verbs which lose a radical letter. Shaphel is one of the conjugations. to sin. The signification of these two conjugations is similar to that of Aph. The same is true in Eshtaphal. . of i>o!U. from . 8. and then it frequently takes two accusatives . g. Its characteristic is m with _L prefixed to the stem. e. or it forms iutransitives . g. g. The signification of Aphel is . e. e. a) causative as in Pael .* to exchange. and Ethtaphal. 24. 2. e. 61 Later Grammarians however doubt the correctness of this form (Comp. e. REM. in the examples still extant. wi A^l to briny forward . g. like that of Pael.g. d) = Pael . Shaphel and Eshlaphal. ^oJ*10} to be weak . e.jAsf to err. 1. Kshta- phal has sometimes a passive and sometimes a reciprocal %t signification . e. g.. e. takes _L only in the 1 sing. this conjugation some- T * times furnishes a new stem .g. ? ^ incides with Pe. Rem. . The preformative of Shaphel. *oA* to dwell. and _ZL in the last syllable. ) causative . ^**> and ^I*>] to frighten. ^.).^Sn to cJt(in<j>. e. Sliaphel is. admitted into the paradigm at a later period ( 18. *Q^ to cause to put on (something* * upon some one) b) imperative or permissive .. c) intransitive .. The passive has either the passive signification of * x Aphel or co- *. %1D> .^Sn. In inflection it coincides with Aphel. 3). g. | to suffer to mount a horse . 2. ^\ir* to let fall . furnishes the new quadriliteral wT^A*).* to be black. 6) inten- sive. Thus . e.

g. and are. b) Pealel with its pass. c] Thaphel. viz. j^Cll 1> y to reduce to slavery .LOiOl (wA| vid. ^a iZ] to malce one a master. e. Agrell in Otiolis Syr. Conjugations occasionally used and Quadriliteral Verbs. 2.iZ| C. pass. D. pass. and finally . . b) Palen. Here belong quadriliterals with a radical doubled = Pilel and Pilpel . a) Palel = Pael . a) Pauel == . 23. Xu&Sooo to heal. and take. pass. e. To verbs. 7 In also belong here . g. a) Maphel.. wAxa to domesticate. pass. MSo^ quadriliterals formed from the Greek (e. and Aph.*2] to dream. b) Paiel. Those verbs. a) Pali ===== X 7 I 7 j*< Pael. iOj. ^mV) to make poor. ^^oAco') to to teach. jjOoZ] vk 7 7 to become divided . their signification. They are also to be considered as quadriliterals. r Q. Q^A) to elect a Bishop). which take the initial. pass. *jA^OI| to converse 1> 7 77 . similar to Aphel. g. as similar examples do not occur. . * y A. belong . ^iiZfto be broken. }*">m to suffer . which are compounded of two ground forms. e. transitive . Poel. . Rem. persecute . after the first radical viz.^f)\L 1* 7 ^ ^"" REM. g. e. c) Pamel . Similar to Pael are those conjugations which insert ' *. 25. pass. For ^. prosthetic letters Lo . CO . wifJi one .g. for the most part. e. pass. ^*-o to be master.) are similar to Pa. 77^ from V and fi*. b) Saphel. g. RKM. . The occasional conjugations (vid. 28 sq. .77 f 7 7 . Not very different from the last are also the quadril- iteral verbs with prosthetic j and final ^.62 OTHER CONJUGATIONS AND QUADRILITERALS. p. g.Wl(^| to blush. c) Palpel (in Verbs Mi).. J * Q yt to chew the cud. S>Q>>to>>. e. usually transitive . 7 7 I ^ to be cut off. e. B.) no special form can be assumed. ^ir^ to dance. JDOl^fi to permit to hasten and to hasten ===== *S01 i) . So. ^mVu to remain : d) Parel . ^QCQksZ] to become poor .g.

they exchange the _i of the last syllable for _L . and 11* compare 28. 26. in connection with which these deviations have already been cited. as in Hebrew. imperat. K. Rem).. Pret. RKM. g.* . of which the third a guttural or >. Peal. A verb in. o)2ti fat- part pret. and im- perat. and those radical is in but very few cases from the regular verb. IRREGULAR VERBS. the irregularities in verbs of which the first and second rad- icals are gutturals are entirely wanting . Pa. & pass. part.Peal.. are formed the following . 1. For more convenient reference. part. rr * T . Peal. General View. instead of Q . 1. 32). and pass. e. Irregular Verbs. 30. > T. these cases of deviation are here brought together. T r r *^ T Aph. >r*J. e.. In the same manner in Pa. fut. 13. Verbs with Gutturals. {iQ to soil. 27. VERBS WITH GUTTURALS. are to be comprehended.act. Since the peculiarities of Guttural Verbs. ^l>f. are not marked in Syriac. >r*J . to appoint as Patriarch. Ethpe. These verbs take . e. either by Daghesh forte or Sheva. deviate. those Under in which there is a change in respect to one of the three letters of the ground form. and those only. pret. act. 2) in like manner in the other conjugations. II. ^i>|. 1*2 to console. fut.*. >. 63 a letter of the ground form frequently falls away . imperat. >. 1) inthefut. g. imperat. (Con- cerning Verbs Ja. >. and to be adorned (comp. which two let- . 1 1 1 to defile. fut. act. Such letter either quiesces or falls away ( Quiescent and Defective Verbs). jiol. and in the part act. and Ethpa. ^l*p. g.

(k).rad.g. and med. e. rad. rad. ground form are changed is said ters of the to be doubly an- omalous ( Verbum dupliciter imperfectum). rad. of the Verb ^\12) ( ^3) ^7 which the variations affecting the radical letters of irregular verbs are kept in view. 2. med.o^n. Jud (**2>\ *\ med.64: IRREGULAR VERBS. Here. the designa- tions of classes of verbs are taken from the position of the radicals. rad.g. Olaph ^l. rad. doubled (Ul).VQ. and frequently in subsequent sections. Olaph (]a).^) 5>oo A. ^D^ 1. REM. . . The Quiescent Verbs are the following . Nun (^a). e.Vauand Jud (oL. (^ono) and 3 rad. verbs with 1. Olaph (B) B'yi* To defective verbs belong those with 1.


|L . TABLE OF IKREG VERBS fi . . VERBS |i . 32.

f *la. 63. 51. . 30. Vid.ULAB VERBS . pp.


x. pass. excep- ting Verbs 3 rad. and _L. Pa. g. ] takes _L but in the imperat. In the Pret. and fut. 67 A. e. The forms of the 3 plur. and the vowel is thrown back upon the preformative e."*.. Also the correctness of ^Q^OJZ in 1 Cor. UV rl>>E rT'r V(K-g. pjstZZl* This formation is also found in some other verbs varying little from regular verbs .. of the regular verb (20. and part Pa. g. . part. ^obft^fco.. where. of it is not found with Q. 27 . - the passives Ethpe. Peal. . ^tf. and Ethpa. and . The same peculiarity ex- ists in the infinit. pret. "\ does not so often fall away in the other persons. Pe. 28. Olaph quiescent (Ja) ^af to eat.Pe. of the Verb . is used in the verbs . e. the first radical has no vowel. 28. Verbs 1 rod. Rein.1. Pe. x.S&T.0]* ^ft . If the preform- ative or characteristic consonant of the conjugation be with- out a vowel. . although the form IiQ-^ is found in I Cor. ^QD| ^xDJ. e. g. and the second class form them like intransitives with _!_ Lud. g. . in the regular verb. | is assimilated to the preceding Z. de Dieu (p. Pe. QUIESCENT VERBS. VERBS.-M|. e.. *Al and . ^ftf. but the|" y\]~ e. rightly doubts the correctness of the double form of the infinit. In the and infinit. g.. pret. 265). fut. ^oZZ) and 2. In - .!D|J. or >. 0"! / will speak. 1. is suspected. g.7 r -* (>? r i V>( and ^i V">( are not approved. g. Ethpe. 1 f> But -. like transitives with Q. form the sometimes The vowel found in the part. e. ^lo . the vowel of 1 falls back upon it . o)lD Both of these forms are found in ^Z| It should further be remarked that the first class of verbs mentioned above. fut. Pe. with * . . and imperat. Gutt.). " I 7 1> 1. pass. fern. The radical } usually falls away in the 1 sing. RKM. in the verbs H^ ^Of. Thefollowing are the irregularities of these verbs. the preformative takes A fut. it takes . fut. ^oa] / ic ill cat.

1 is chang- ed into O. it is formed regu- larly. g. and form . Qlf. In the sigriification. Pe. General ^Remarks. In respect to these verbs it should be observed : 1. The Verbs ^J| to go away and |Z| to come. fern. fern. like Verbs )a. Aph. REM. ^f . 12. In Aphel and Shaphel with their passives. }XJ . fat. Gutt. 15. they take . 1). lose | in the imperat. infinit. ]L**>. In two verbs 1 is changed into w . etc. viz : ]Z*) . 1. to profit. JZ.sing. to 12. Rem. 3. w A*}.1 . pret. f. with the preceding _L forms au . Aph. to be of iise.2) should 3 and be no- following persons . 29. .masc. part.) . although this latter occurs in the Galilean dialect.1.. 1 sing. like those. *Af. Verbs which commence with on. Yud (+*&) to bring forth. and. e. and 2 and 3 plur. sing. \t]] and plur. reject or change it. REM. which had but a single character for the two gutturals (comp. Verbs ivith 1 Rad. part. The Verb ticed in the ^ (according.68 QUIESCENT VERBS. * fut. ^SQ^OI y = "li^^n )* For this reason *L^t and lT^* are sometimes found together. . oZ. and fern. in the ultimate syllable (excepting Verbs 3 Rad. *CL*!LlO .. That in the pret. l^uf. not. even when transitive. Alf A^lf. imperat. . 2 fem. as- sume the vowel and throw it back upon 1 but do .

In the part. since from JLi appear Pa. ^> r LD and r f L ^)Ak3.g.. part. In the fut. e. But in the 1 sing. But where. -*>>. and infinit. and fern. the first radical takes a vowel.!_. e. e. fut. 1.SV The imperat. pass. VERBS 1 RAD. g. with their passives a is changed into o Verbs ]a. with Linea occultans * * * A under Ol. Pe.g. it In the fut. under sim- T ilar circumstances. Only 2OLi takes . 3. Pe. In Aph. but where the r regular verb takes over the first radical. ^1 and S2\I follow the inflection of F* Verbs ^2) ( * 33) . jSof. . g. and infinit. g. ^2). e.).. and 1 sing. .g. and Shaph. pret. REM. g. L^*. g.the second syllable takes . the vowel _L falls quiesces in JL back upon the vowelless preformative .g. e. g. 3) (vid. g.. A)GLi Lin. and changes . 7 fi f T e. Pe.. occult. occultans with appears * f in the 3 fern. still it should scarcelj be considered as an irregularity. e. with a suffix attached . above). A)io. a falls away . Pe.. JD/U radical. from >OL* follows the same rule. ETC. ^-J and SAJ. . falls away . (^r*)* If *> the " fi 1 8 * as is usually the case (in pret. wiGlQOGLi they have given him (QQOU).and imperat.Pe. . be without a vowel. ^ is retained in m*| and ni*| . . this class of verbs is similar to 1 % z Verbs J2>. pass.t into | which quiesces in (vid. e. Lin. In the fut. inasc. ^?di. e. OlAoou * * "* A she hay given him (OOLi) In 3 plur. on the contrary retains * . JUD. In like manner 2O1 imperat. fut. besides the regular form. falls away . 28. one with r x r J T appears . infinit. imperat. ' ' * Etbpa. g. e. b . e. tit* "i * \* REM. these verbs are regularly inflected . in the regular verb. falls back upon L . 2. So too in Ethpe. REM. e. imperat. ^> and *32.

7 /^ ]]. take . g. These verbs.>^>' to swear. into . g._ .and part. The termination of the infinit. g. changes .-__ at the end. *xJk. the other conjugations in j . . lose the characteristic _L excepting the 1 sing. to disclose. OLAPH QUIESCENT. 3. . X 7 V>if)(. ^ ma 7 * e. Pe. . No example is found of Shaphel. The third radical "j either quiesces or is changed into wi Here it should be remarked that the pret. e.. e. Ethpe. . Aph..*. -^._ .g. the preformatives of the fut. V-.^-So* The other conjugations in the infinit. Omy the part.g. g. The imperatives of this kind of verbs. *jL^. Pa. contrary to the analogy of other part. e. e. seem to 7 XT belong here . 1. pass... to distinguish it from the active form ^o^oLo . g. of Pa. g.. is the same . . REM.g. Some verbs with ^ (-) in the pret. e. V>. Aph. e. . Here belong mostly intransitives.^ f X ^> I I Verbs |Su and . Olaph Quiescent (]3) 13-.g. Pa. g. pass. the other preterits in **. are inflected like the other preterits. 32.g ^\ * f (J.i2] * ^\ The futures of all the conjugations end in |_ .infinit. e.-J the imperat. >*fl Some grammarians. are different from the regular verbs in the following cases. the participles generally with |_ . Pe. W-y- T ends with -. Pe. In Aph. -^Xt imperat... Pe. e. Pa. OlSQs to name.. . fut.. The part. e.^_lo . which include the Hebrew j$^ and ni> Verbs.. passives. g. e. ends in )1.g. cuA. Pe. ^oaSo. e. in -i. Pe. e..72 VERBS 3 RAD. and Shaph.Zf . end with <L_. in -!. or Verbs Med. e.. E. Some verbs with 3 rad. Ethpe.. ^^ T T > * ^ . He. REM. Both forms are found in the .. Verbs 3 rod. )]-. . * to be great.

. A^IOjliO for AJ| Ifojlio. the part. e. throughout in the 2 sing. -7 . Pe. of all the participles . OLAPH QUIESCENT. g. . of ^ f l f . in the 2 and 3 plur. JL is a) movable in the pret. . .x 7 \^ 3 plur. (OAJi^ B. ^i \t . g.. Aph.. e.0 and plur. Pe. oXt in the fut. e. pass. The Verb fOOl has two forms of the future . ) . while the regular form is changed into ^-.f A ^ X e. g.. takes **_ quiescent. in Pe.. e..g. is quiescent in the 1 and 2 masc. the forms U-tt^i and (J_. 2. J1CD and (jJLffi* The former refers more particularly to things. (OOU > * ^* and |OOU. pret. g. Pe. fem. Ethpe. fern. Pe. and in the 2 .*. in the fem. A.. and finally in all the infinitives except that of Pe. in the 3 plur. A*-Xi ) quiesces in . VERBS 3 RAD. 1 falls away in the 3 sing. 3 sing. Ethpe. fem. e. fern. of Verbs ending in |^ with -1 retained . and the latter to persons. ^. e. * 3 plur. e. ] is either changed into JL or falls entirely away. fern. 78 without proof. In the first case.. o^^lo ^^ (Pe. . g. M-X . A*-^l. g.So) of both numbers of all the preterits.. . . g. From ]lfiD to hate appears a double form of the part. AftS^T.g.g. **_ remains) of all the preterits . In the formation of the present tense in connection with 1< - the pronoun.. oAj^.fem. of all the *t^ imperatives. ^i i V. Pa. pret. derive from the imperat. AS. e. of all the conjugations excepting Pe. g. Ethpe. e. instead of {_ . masc. in the second form of V^ l. ^\t . In other cases quiesces in e. * * . * all the futures . masc. g. fem. sing. Pe. A^. of verbs ending in "jl . e. (excepting the 1 sing. JJ . ^\^k -9 . and fem.Z(. b) . and in such a manner T T that j.. and in the 3 plur. g. e. Pa. in the 2 plur. rr*-\VAJ . (in the . Pe. of Verbs -A and of other preterits. and fem. Ethpe. ^. g. When a letter or syllable is added. e.Z] ( PC..

Ethpe. for which Amira (p. masc. g. ^* is . also in the 2 sing.. masc. tOX. etc. 0lJ. In all the conjugations excepting Pe. infinit. imperat. g.. appears. masc. X 7 * it * *f 7 if* oi]]] and **X|.Z( GENERAL REMARK. "*. infinit.sometimes the quadriliteral form I 7 7 -OA. part. itfk). Pa. ^i > . is rejected when the first radical and the preformative are without a vowel e. J$. "^ T . vB. part. . is neither confirmed by examples nor found in Amira.-. CUjJlD. imperat. plur. ^ APPENDIX TO 8 32. masc.. fut. Alfl. g. Aph. finally in the plur. 2. where the reg- ^ x * *e 9 ular form exchanged with <-_ g. tO(Jj. where Q quiesces in . also in the 2 plur.. of verbs ending with l_.g.g. . Inflection of the Verb U-M to live. plur._J . e. Instead of Pa. occurs. fern. infinit. pret. g. pret. act. **Ul. 6). tjiy. movable. l]]j. T-. fut. V*^ 5 f r ]*Vf Sometimes this verb takes } between the preformatives and the first radical. etc. pret. imperat. and Ethpa. The 3 plur. which are at the same time ]L (comp. differs from the 3 sing. In the Verb |JUM with j. Pe. g.^. masc. 1). writes a I 7 double u a~ I n ^he imperat. and in Pa... fern. Acts xxviii. ^(JJ. -X f> and 3 plur.. only by taking Ribui (vid.quiesces e. of the part. Nun sometimes with ' retained ^ e. are inflected like Verbs |J . M). the 3 plur... 30. pass. besides the form . . Aph. . fern. OLAPH QUIESCENT. 1|J.74 VERBS 3 BAD. --\t m . e. Q-Xt (with paragog. etc. f . Pe. j. e. ^A^tf. Pe. . pret. g. . Pe. ^Xt* REM. 266) in verbs 1 i ending with wk. occurs the 2 plur. e. }]]. e. where . Verbs |J or w^A. e. olk. i* But the form &Xt which Buxtorf adduces. - ^\ 1 X j*^ given in the paradigm..

liQjGI we have believed. tOZAMJ ye have descended. 76 (better perhaps U*]^)* fut - U^ for Jl**J and with ) inserted Aph. . Ol . . a) Verbs Med. g. -r^Vn *Q2>1 The fut. The exceptions to this rule are . b) Verbs Med. part.J . and part. )AJ f. imperat. sometimes take and . masc. e.. * * T * Aph. * * for . 23. 33. **-**). Verbs ivith Med. ]+** for ( t > The form (Matt. pret. REM.. Rad. - ->". takes its pret. Pe. e. g. (j*i>O and A also falls away when no preformative precedes. Pe. 35. infinit. Rem. B. and infinit. Verbs with the first radical Nun -<-* to go out. . JOU. e. U ...2). Pe. e. DEFECTIVE VERBS. infinit. ]o]2 for ]aj.g. That the middle radical falls away in the pret. and its vowel falls back upon the first vacant radical x i . the first rad. Upon retaining the characteristic 1 in Aph. fern.. Pe. e. Rad. g. e. 1. g. i . xv. g. doubled (\lL) %mflD> to sprinkle. imperat. Comp.] . and in all forms of *.*>' ^ * ^* i * ? fut. IMJ and IA*P. J falls away . 27) is found in the part. In respect to these verbs it should be remarked : 1. 71. e. as in Hebrew. \y*u. plur. from -<"> MT> (vid. DQ2U. TheVerb nmi to mount up. ^.. DEFECTIVE VERBS. Quiescent . Those verbs whose third radical is . Rad.. T f doubled ( 34) . part. e..g. Rad. y * * c) Verbs Med. are not changed by assimilation. or 2. >QIU.. . imperat.C0. and imperat. ClJuV) or ^cu. fut. *Doa. 34. (^2>) The irregularities of these verbs are the following : Tn the fut.

). Heb. sq.lD . with the retention . **L] . **>]] . This class of verbs consists of (vid. e. b) Verbs ]z> and ]] . . 5. )> . and fut. p. 340. and Ethpalp. de Dieu. The last remark holds good also of Shaphel. 1. has ^- ? . g. 2. Aph. imperat. above). Pa. Pe.. g. Aph. of the middle radical. Pe. 7 * 77 in the ! . Palpel. g. plur. *XQO] to approve . In the inflection of these verbs. 1. mnnit.^ . . Doubly Irregular and Defective Verbs. v 7 7 )\* ^ jao>ZZ| The part. In the part. j2] to come. Lud. and Ethpa. .. 7* . (having over the preformative) Pe. <-4 and imperat. JEujaci . is | are exceptions. how- ever. flOO> Also Aph. the characteristic ( sometimes remains after the preformative. plur. from the e.). 23. fut. e. Those verbs whose 2 and 3 rad.J . takes \ in place of the middle radical. ( 25. * 7 f . *QDO. n 7 f * ** * e. By Doubly Irregular Verbs are understood those in which occur two of those letters which usually give rise to irregularities. g. g. pass. imperat. fut. D) are more in use. g. Pa. but } falls away again when a syllable is added . Ethpe. Pe. sometimes the middle radical appears again. REM. *CD>). e. d). e. with their passives. ]flb} to heal. either one or both of those letters may retain their peculiarities. Verb ^\i to go in. 1. ^J1 . Q*^*lO from -*^*~*-* (Comp. The part. Pe. act. e.76 DOUBLY IRREGULAR AND DEFECTIVE VERBS. forms with The part. Rem. e.. (not) >P> in the appear. are inflected according to the rules for quiescent verbs ( 35. Aph. and Shaph. act. 1s>] to boil. . ICQJ . e. *CO. which occurs more rarely (Comp. . pret. g. Instead of the last two forms. e. g. fiD) . iM. 1. g.rr>frZ] JCQCOJ are regularly inflected. ix. 35. c) Verbs Jia and U'. g. ) In Aph. g. but it is marked by Linea occultans e. which has fallen away . a) Verbs ^S and ]] . and . Ethpe.

d) Verbs |i and U . 1. To Defective verbs (see Lud. fut. 2. Agrell. o it is disagreeable. imperat. act. apocopate ICTU l(Jl2.*'* *V infinit. g. HL. 46) . infinit. 11 f . impcrat. imperat. Rem. -offn^rt . -rtmi y . in so far as they occur in the language. . 2. it befits. ]j]lo and the 3 eing. or. finally. fern. **!*>ol . fut. infinit. . and its . From )& appear the 3 sing. e. 1A* to drink. ^l] to ^<? aw?ay and ]Z| to (see 28.). 77 e. Ethpa. iop. the part. U-~ (see App. 3. occurs only the part. **|a . . ^>1 Aph. iiV)i. ^S>Q*oi to believe .OCX) y . imperat. with } wiAl lA fut. IOCTU and loou also from ]ooi is found a . tllojZ .j-U I . ]AaJ infinit. x ^^ ^ " \\ tf \\^ and . 344) belong the following. Offft ^r> Aph. n\rr> the other tenses of this verb are formed from act. prosthet. . Aph. A [li. . 1. fut. part. vary from the regular verb in inflection and interpunction. imperat. Otiola Syr. fut. V^ . de Dieu. Rem. ^A/ from ^Aj. ]lu to sprout. act. and 38). b) The following defective verbs are completed from others which are synonymous : . . . r r r part. Ifc^O . pret. fut. e. fut. imperat. imperat. Ethpe. OCD[ - > .. .r>VAcp| T A similar complement is found in vOOii to give (see 29. . to 32). *oau2|l c) Those which differ in form and inflection are to run. either in individual forms only. p. part. also 16(31 to fo (see 32. in four verbs 3 rad. Aph. fern. Olaph. -^f*) 1 71> . ^&G . |p to cAzdk. flo and 1)1 it is suitable. Rem. From o>1 to be bit. p. which merely occur in Pa. Finally. l^Zl (1>2). DOUBLY IKKEOULAR AND DEFECTIVE VERBS. . ^ioi . tOOU . <-iAl . or have borrowed their defective forms from synonymous verbs. infinit.having the signi- fication of the conjunctive as well as of the usual future (comp. to //uc. fern. lAaLo . and from |lo and ]\* appear the act. *]] to be displeased. part.n\m to mount up. **L*. etc. UQ* f<> swear. plur.. a) Impersonal Verbs. g.). . g.

part. while its vowel falls back upon the preceding vacant consonant . as in Verbs 3 Gutt. and 1 is retained in all of the tenses and moods. (see 13. Bern. e. 1.78 DOUBLY IRREGULAR AND DEFECTIVE VERBS. infinit. g. fern. pret. the second syllable quiesces in _L. .). Pa. pret. U>A& . fut. Ethpa. infinit. passive. oKnV> . part. 3 sing. ]*Xj . The formation is as follows . "Ua . |*a . fut. imperat. olIoAsi .


j i ^ -Q O y f<3) f-^p r-<3i r- o \ 'I & O s f_. } 3Q f < ^ *1 g . T *^-' A 3 Ethtaphal.80 PARADIGM I. *g ^ like Aphel. S - .

* ^1 -_ 1 j s ^ s . ^ ! ^_4__. sa si Jvj < vj id vq ^ -Q <i ^Q <j "Q vg fc Q ^j n <s k Q Q -Q . q ^ '"a* Ji f-9> ^ 'Vd.n ^si Cj -3 Q ^ f < "51 q q i f-d> f ^P' f *<j> V I ^f A* A* * ' < r X. ^f ' i V r ^ ?=x : *^" 1-3 ^ *-vi a '-vj -a *^T -3 -3 q *Q -q -a . r s. 81 < 5 1X1 ^ < '' ^ y ' 'D -Q *Q -Q .^ ____. a ^ .

co co c i i I Q' CO CC Cl (N t-i -X ."3J fl t-Q jgj if ' -' v " F f f f f f * f .. O ooo 'I tTv| O 13 3 -n ia 00 <M . f f 4 1 a I 1 s Q. .82 PARADIGM II. .

Olaph. Verbs First Rad.Si .4 1 * 2 33 M . 83 ao 3 O o " '\ -I 'I :l a 1 4 ^ * J.

1 O5 <M 093 1 .84 PARADICrM III.

* '-^i /I ^ ' ' "<] "<! 1^1. 4. 4..-15-iil"li3: ^ "^ ^ '.H: 4. ~ V ' ^^ Vj *"^~ x| f f*^! "vl ^J *< '. 4.t^. 4. ^:H: 4. ' ^. 4. Jud. 4. I. 85 A H ii f ^3 f 'o ^ ^ ^ *f ^i ^ '6 "b " L ^ "v Q y\ ^i ri i I _ ^ QO -_ -i fl >. -" x ^i -4. ^o^ . sd. 4. H. 4 s i ^H-iM. i" T^'5J : 4. 4. o . . i.: i.4.'-l r !vj r iT>4 O O ^^ r" O . V g ^ -! I . s'L ^ ^ <o. PI"'v i. Verbs First Rad.n O v| Q iT*l / l.

3 1 ^ ^ ^** 3 ^1. f i "-3 ^ ^2 ^ 3 ilt <O <l *3 3 1 1 ' .vp t-'^p tTsj) o j<3 "d <i <J 9 'd <j Q Of q ' CO f f f f f t f ^_ _^ f^. * 3--S3 ^ 4 . 1 V3. la < < ^ < 3 ^s * :1 i . ci xi ra IT "Q * ^ 'T JI *X *a : .< CO t <S -c f**f k *d *f rf 7j T* d a ^d f ^ a ^j cT* da*T f a . VS.t : 7 a d < O .^. \i_ ^ ^^^^ '^2-5^^3 3-1-S-5*\ 1 t f q '^cj. 8-1 v a . ^ e a " 6 c5 S ^ Q C^ TO TO (M i I ^ g TO TO Ol % .86 PARADIGM IV. 'oi T/ 'ts ^ fc .1 t^>i) ^i> * ^ i.vD t*- (.a :t 1 s <o <j ' -J -<J ' 1 <i t"^ ? O .V 1> K .

0. "T '3 4. /i'i'1. .0.- ' t* a a' s 3 -i II 41 81 1 1 "5 t ' . i a : a n -a i -\ ^ . Verls Mill. '4 '4 ' tfl '4 '4 '4 ' '41 a 44' r i "\ <3~ -i -3~* -t 'IS V 44 i l r^ 4i -xi -3 4i f n '1 f i 4 T3 r^i : **>! : 4-jl * n i -I -g r<g -ri 'U * u.^n fc *N >- *-v t 7 "1 1 -! n 44 t. g CO CO C< <M 1-" ?T* CO CO O* <N r-> a . 37 * _ r 3 -4 i '. Quiescettt. a %i g .3. .

co eo o< CO CO (M <M rH .88 PARADIGM V. 3 fa g a 2.Q U Q 3 Q 'I "i J1 ^-3 <d I ^ . H Q HQ M T/ i ! 'J 'I -I HQ H Q H<J HI g |2 * H HQ HU H H H *t 1 S s I oQ aQ ..

Vau and Jud. Verbs Mid. '3 '3 -C 5 '\ - \ '1-4 H J | *%*J/li 4 13 iii ? v IT % T/ a ' >! SI si n "s l 1 -I '8 '8 1 '1 -1 -i - ^ a ^ ~ s ^ B ^ ^(N(Nrrw <N <N rH r* CO CO <N C^ 1-1 . Rad.

v . n^l.90 PARADIGM VI. f 1 I <O- 1 & I ^ V TTy =3 "oj S3 \ V* .<w 3^1 i *J 'I 7? "1 ? <= 1 <0 f f <=_ f <= *_ '.

Olaph. 91 * 1 -a * -a - -a V -a a ' 'V' V ' i-i eo co ft. Verbs TJiird Rod. I . ft.

1 -61 161 ll 1 -a j co co 61 . 4 -a r^ -Z & -61 . V f i * *^N| "~M '^J rt '^ '^ '3 i .92 PARADIGM VII.

'I ' i . > q 9 *<H i.1111111 q 9 <. .rv| f "t v -r '* - 111.8. f . Verbs First Rad. Nun.

*. 3 *j ^S W i J s (M .1 J - i 1 -I f if 1 1 : V" 't Q ^ I 'I I l S y S S . < -5 -*> K^ f J*> *J I SQ Is *_ *_ ' t*'* ^. PARADIGM VIII.r\ I I 'I '1 1 .^ *s ^ **s fc * '^ c_.

. ._ -* f __^ * .i / f .a -. a -n.. Doubled.^. . Verbs Middle Bad. M M 'I -| i. ^^ S| . i fl Q in !*+l ^xJ (1 *v ^i J * *M n . 95 11 a s < I a 1 9 < . . eceo <N 4<- .a ~ " ^3 -I J M ' a H% d i .

^The forms of the verb which are omitted in the foregoing fable are not marked with diacritical points. . \ Imper. Preter. ^o4^ ^d4o jPlur. ( Compare 4. Plur. ). Sing. ^^4^ A^& ! Al^4^> | Plur. r>\/\oVn e t c Part. 3 /. 3m. 2 m. m Infin. since they may easily De recognized from their formation. | 1 c. Rem. PARADIGM OF THE VERB WITH DIACRITICAL POINTS. Fut. m. Sing.Sing. \>4QiO Xy^QiO \\f\oVo \\f\oVr.96 PARADIGM OF THE VERB WITH DIACRITICAL POINTS. Act. ^4^3 m REM.

excepting before ^oa . c. e. g. 3 sing. 3 sing. 1. 1 sing. in the same . ^^2 in the 2 plur. and Gu . a. The verbal endings ^ and O quiesce in and * Verbal forms. masc. masc. in which of the first syllable falls away. and fein. fern. The others with suff. . and Q in the fut. Pe. 2 sing. 16. In respect to the the following should be remarked (see particular persons Table of the pronouns. or with . \^o before the suffixes tQO . ANfin before ^oo . The other persons ^^o with sun. in the 3 fern. or the vowel of the second syllable . . VERBS WITH SUFFIXES. PRETERIT WITH SUFFIXES. and Aph.. Q. A^n forms A\{j>n with suff. The union of verbal forms with suffixes is much more simple in Syriac than in Hebrew. with suffixes. ^2* 3 plur. masc. fern. iA^n is changed into ufto with sufi*. . 1. It should be remarked in general that the vowel of the first or second syllable * either falls away . remain 4t "* unchanged before the suffixes . pret. *. unless they terminate with k*. fern. per- n sons of pret. 97 36. b. and table of the verbs. Verbs with Suffices. A. and 1 sing. are attached to verbs in the form of separate pronouns. ^2* Also the character- istic vowel of the syllable of Pa. . masc. . 3 plur. n ^Q n becomes ci\fln with suff. a. b. a. **^& cither ^^O with suff. c. 2 sing. remains first unchanged. falls back upon the preceding consonant e. A\^n unchanged. and the suffixes of the 3 plur.OS . or with t parag. g. 36). and by way of exception with sun. com. > ^ parag. 1.

. . and 1 com. which. A. So the vowel .. c. Throughout the sing. retains . in the first person.. with suff. Rad. g. g. in the regular verb. and in the 1 plur. | and quiescent. and fern. sing. but in the 1 sing. t > i with suff. 7 like the 7 * form v^O The 3 fern. masc. OlAoj but they remain . instead of which. since no similar example occurs. Ao> with suff. remains . and 3 plur. *) B. with suff. it should >e observed that where Pe. this class of verbs retains it in r - -i. and retain where the latter retain . E. fern. retain in the pret. change into .. are hence all similar.98 FDTUBE WITH SUFFIXES . e. Olaph. jt that where. and can only be distinguished from each other by their signification in the context . stands over the consonant (vid. But where. Defective verbs. unchanged before tOO and ^i2 . sing. is lost. retain the vowel of the first syllable unchanged. in some forms with 3 fern. . and Pa. ^Al^ ^4 . 4). the punctua- * tion should perhaps be The same is the case even in Verbs Med. in the regular verb.. retain the forms . 3 sing. e. The 3 masc. OlAoj. 167. In respect to verbs 1 rad.oAl&o. e. e. e. In respect to of the second syllable. g. Verbs Med. 2 plur. g jiof with suff. belonging to ^J* is changed into over Ol^(s . * V *. and Aph. | retains its and a its _. * unchanged. REM. g. it should be remarked. cxviii. i the same manner. with suff. doubled. Pa. with suff. inserted.Q3Ao> Pa. and fern. but where falls away or falls back upon the first sylla- ble . and I ' 7 A A* sing. stands over the first radical. g. Q which has been . (from vy^O or \^O) But these forms are exceptions to this rule when standing before tQS and . e. in Pe. The masc. Quies. 2 suffixes only distinguished from each other by the diacritical are point. g. 7 retains . and 1 com. remains unchanged before the suffixes tQa and . or those with Med. masc. follow the form of Verbs Med. OlAl^Q. . FUTURE WITH SUFFIXES. Yet the form OlASQ*j> occurs in Ps. Oljlo| . e. the first radical is without a vowel.

Erpen. and plur. . with ^ remain unchanged. and plur. g. . In the 2 plur. Amira. 172. The persons of the fut. The other persons are treated according to the rule laid down. is in the 3 person. g. *- quiesces in _. . 99 Before the other suffixes it falls away. refers exclusively to quadriliterals . is also true in Pa in respect to the falling away of the vowel of the last syllable. with suff. 2. ed. masc. only the suffix. and of the 3 sing. 25. of the form Xofrf) with sufl'. - C. e. ed. a^o&o passes into n\^nn with buff. 9. Ps. c. e' g. RKM. fern. a. *\**l\{* Amira adds that this form is found particularly in prohibitory negations. masc. and is connected with the suff. The 2 sing. b. sometimes takes JL before the suff. IMPERATIVE WITH SUFFIXES. . sing. falls away. Ps. of the 1 per. Matt viii. c. is used. but examples e. a. In Verbs Med. 2. excepting before ^Q2 and ^>O In the 3 sing. masc. -* 1 <"><>*">*/ |] . g. g. e. masc. after the form \y^oZ. falls away . but if the suff. 389. remain unchanged with suff. and the form takes the suff. the form of suff. The 2 Aph. The same is true in respect to the imperat e. i. In the plur. sing. 1. _ appears sometimes over But this form is neither mentioned by Amira nor Q* by Sionita.. which remark is likewise confirmed by the examples given. lu the 2 sing. in Pa. -*<"n. . the middle * r radical retains _. b. is in the 3 sing. of the 3 per. and in Verbs 3 Gutt. E. fern. fern. a. w parag. of the 3 sing. iiin*"lZ and . p.. .m\^rM sometimes . Paris. cxviii. masc.This peculiarity. What is true of Q in Pe. Ixxi. is used. f *. of the 1 sing.. e. Z* 01OL 5 ll" (J put me not to shame.^ are also found in Pe. ^O1Oi\^ni . the 2 and 3 masc. . of 3 person masc. IMPERATIVE WITH SUFFIXES. But it should be remarked that if the form ^oN^OI takes the suff. "When the suff. . Q&o remains unchanged with suff. and fern.

Q\OO| with suff. excepted.100 INFINITIVE WITH SUFFIXES. T Verbs 3 Gutt. Also a form with t parag. g. 1) loses its vowel _ 7 But in those 1 " (> Verbs whose imperat. it should be remarked that 1 of Verbs \S) ( 28. e. j HEM. e. and 48. . and Aph. as the form w>JQ\O^O 7 sometimes occurs. The infinitive Pe. >i . but in Pa. sometimes occurs . is rare. Verbs p. V the other persons are attached to the form \4 1^ D But > . and in the other T T vowel unchanged . D. e. which are attached with Q) they take. e. e. . declension 1). plur. the infinitives of the remaining conjugations with d are treated as feminine substantives. - of the 2 per. _. rn v io the more 1^ t x^no* i n tlie tern. The suffixes of changed before the suff. g. R EM . J2JM be reminded. 7 7 -x y with suff. in its place. the paragogic form is usual . this vowel is inserted after the first radical . ^4^ with su ff. pass. vVn^ ^ ear me conjugations. and omits . before the suffix. O^3| with suff. falls away. . ^ 1 7 >uOli V">O receive him. feminines.. and Aph.. in . *01Q\*">O| lead him hither.a ! remains un. some A "\ O Buxtorf adds grammarians *^S>I|> In respect to the transposition of Q in the plur. are an exception. 7 In Pa. where of the second syllable falls away. g. g. wiOlO*jJQ* praise kirn. does not take Q . e. tOSn^n with suff. -JQlD]-4) do me good. retains its .. plur. g. as they retain . The imperative with and in Pe. g. *. B. O **") with suff. also remain unchanged . . the feminine suffixes of which (those of the 3 plur. Ol\ftnV>\ yet two other forms with Q a Q inserted after the third radical . In Pe. . e. e.. The forms of the imperat. both forms occur together. g. with an 7 * active signification. attached to the separately to the form termination Zol (Compare 45. * *. The 2 plur. 2. g. fern. INFINITIVE WITH SUFFIXES. ^CnojLDO| Yet this transposition of Q does not always take place.

Participles. g. >A supporting. or with afformatives ( 20) form the present tense. seek thee. 101 an j ^oin\flnV) If the vowel be . which are considered as nouns. act. as in Verbs . more rarely in the part. y\ v '^ who . PAKTICIPLK8 WITH SUFFIXES. On the contrary participles with separate pronouns (vid. e. e. however. oiio^ his helper. OlSOCuQ^* E. or a noun formed from the participle is joined with ' * * * * the suffix. it remains unchanged . where either prepositions are used . * i ' Cll . PARTICIPLE WITH SUFFIXES. \. g. This occurs. e. g. . Rein. 1*.). take their suffixes.

2 f. . . i c. . Plur.1 \Ar^ Infinit. n VA o 3f. 2 m. "> V^ Q m*"V"\Ap. >. X^ ^ Pret. &&0 . 2 f. Plur. . Sing. \rA Fut. ^ 7 > Imp. sing.Pa. ] c. Pret. 3 m. | 2m. Sing. . Pa. i\Ao Infin. \r> 2m. 2 f.) 3 m. . Proper Form.) .102 REGULAR VEKBS WITH SUFFIXES. ) 2 f. 2f. ] Plur. 3 m. . T 2 m. ^n . 2 m. Pe. sing. 3 m. .

1 c. Plur. * T *A k ^aol^o * * *>t i r < V * ' ^r.sAn ^qii\A^Q ^o K^^A ^ ^fn \r> Ao . \r> Ao t \oAr> rninV^oi . 103 3 m.nVAo . . 2 f. 2 m. REGULAR VERBS WITH SUFFIXES.<nn .

3 plur. to the form ^. It may be remarked in general : 1. and '^ Buff.t loses } and appends suff b.JL eitlier omit entirely. masc. c or ) is changed into _. b. In respect to individual persons of this class of verbs with suffixes. Aph..104 SUFFIXES TO VERBS WITH THIRD RADICAL OLAPH QUIESCENT 37. with -i. remains also in the first case before OD . with JL movable. Forms which end in . excepting before tOa . 2.. Pe. b . e. as to demand a separate treatment. pret. as 3 sing. <-i_ . take for Q the * r r i > forms OQ (and o]_) . The 3 sing. imperat. pret. The forms which end with Q otiant. Pe. PRETER. and for Q^_ the form CU unchanged in all the preceding cases with suff. of all the conjugations excepting Peal. movable.. masc. a.{_) with suff. Verbs ]] ( 32) differ so widely in their mode of connection with suffixes. as 2 sing. 1. g. *> . according to some. . Pe. b.. x without exception . as in the infinit. jj. masc. and Aph. or _ remains with suff. Pa. and. fern. with suff. So the termination of the fut. 1. 3. or in the sing. (and sometimes Pe. and into J-i with suff. a. Table of Verbs |J with Suffixes. b. f p ^ T ft ^v > are changed into A. where the *.t . masc. and connect the suff. The terminations of the imperat. Pa. is ft changed into . That the termination )_ either loses ) as in the 3 sing. masc. >Q . c. . pret._ with suff. final). masc. *aLi of the 3 sing. with suff. masc. Suffixes to Verbs with third Radical Olaph Quiescent (]J). (or . from regular verbs. WITH SUFFIXES. \. (Comp. of the imperat. the following should be remarked : A. which has arisen from \ also falls away. Shaph.

3 plur. &. to the form ^A^A. with O doubled (see Amira. and Aph. and fern. with suff. as in the regular verb. A^M takes. as well as of Verbs U with the same ending. and are connected. 105 The 3 sing. |Lj and nil the persons which terminate * ^ * * with | . with the falling away of . GuJ*I with suff. in both conjugations. masc. c. c. p. r&*r . FDTDKE WITH SUFFIXES. ed. where _ remains. a. 0*M with suff. remains unchanged in Pa. g. A^-\i 2 sing. The ^ takes. Q-A^l. given in the table. in the simple form. The 3 sing. masc. ^.. remain unchanged. liv. 1. given in the tab. unchanged. fern. 372). The 3 plur. take no suffixes in Peal. The 3 plur. in Pa.ooll*. masc.^ they have sought them. 3.. oXi" is changed into ocA. transitive signification. Verbs 3 rad. R&m. e. 16. b.. Ps. 1. . occurs mostly before the suff. In Pa. The 2 and 3 plur. QJL ^M and Aph. affix to the form -\J suff. **O1 Vtl* The paragogic form of these two conjugations takes suff. takes the suff. . suff. c. suff. Ixxvii. T same is true of the 1 sing. fern. masc. and fern. Ps. tOD . and x becomes movable but .. of these verbs with a. )Q3CuLJ(. oA^V. g. e. % * 3 plur. and Aph. The 3 sing. take. they have seen thee. and 1 plur. e. unchanged. fern.. b. B. g. c. The same is true also of the 1 sing. attaches suff. b.t) with euff. . j as they are mostly intransitives. Q quiesces in . take suff. g. masc. Ax. FUTURE WITH SUFFIXES. Sometimes the original 1 appears before both OO. falls away before the suff. fern. a. fern. suff. without change. But Pa. e. Erpen. *-Xi remains unchanged with suff. 2 masc. (and ol^. 2 sing. unchanged.. with the falling away of over wi . * X excepting before ^a .. A--^ and Aph. c.

(Compare 20 and 36. Plur. INFINITIVE WITH SUFFIXES. IMPERATIVE WITH SUFFIXES. xj. In respect to the falling away of -. c. The same is true in the plur. Sing. a. Pe.) B. fern. oX. 2 sing. masc. yyt and Aph. The imperat. E. is changed into V i (and oJJ. . the paragogic form with suff. de Dieu. doubts. In the infinit. In the fern.^ v . e. b. -K her. 3 sing. 2 1 ^is x into l* with suff. 6u.. oixLojj I shall liken it. b. above. Pa. 395. PARTICIPLE WITH SUFFIXES. VM^ m place of ] . The infinitives of the other conjugations are treat- ed as in the regular verb. e. above. Plur. masc. (Compare 36. . in connection with the 3 or 1 person . Active. doubts. --^v is unchanged with suff. 20. jj. Sometimes also takes the place of in the take the suf- fixes of the pret. or in Pa. e. Luke xiii. g. g.) > 2 plur. Matt. --\ changed A^y 7^ * 7^ vM 2 plur. fern. o -7 Oicoj heal her. of the same conjugations." OQ^ v with suff.106 IMPERATIVE AND INFINITIVE WITH SUFFIXES.i affixes suff. . before ^QO . 1. ** without a vowel is inserted with suff. to the form J-^Xt* Rem.) D. Sing. fern. and Aph. (see ^2 1. p. . de Dieu. . Rem. And with the falling away of ** . (Compare 2.*J that he should dismiss I 7. masc. g.) Passive. i.Q2CU] / will show you. b. D. is the usual one. This mode of formation also occurs in Pa. 398. c.. the correctness of which Lud. ^ 1. e. .) Lud. 19. p. g. C. 18. k i^S. sing.

7 r * v Pa. 2 plur. *. Verbs of the form of |a to console. . masc. 107 The participlevS of the other conjugations are inflected in a similar manner. Ethpe. ^oV^a. masc. *_jjo]^o.. 3 sing. l ifiQ. . retaining the characteristic vowels . fern. General fiemarfc. Aph. which. . g. 3|*-). ^r . g.r r 7 t sing. but throw back its vowel upon the middle radical. e. PARTICIPLE WITH SUFFIXES. never lose the third radical letter ] when taking a suffix. imperat. usu- ally stands vacant . ^L*>oLo we thank. fern. 3 . rr iry TTT jtOU)^o. 2 sing. *jJ|^j3J. IjUi. ~u)u^ . according to 36. e. tut.o/uA^lo ye ask. uCTiCLi|jjD . 7 * A ^i i I ^ASo w<? />///* about. pret. masc. fern. masc. r r . aOu|l2. ^(i*^i. act. o)_-a . masc. .

] Pa. 2 . .108 VERBS ]] WITH SUFFIXES. i c. 2 f. . 2 m.. Pret. \O r 7 1 3 m.. PZwr. l wQ>j P. Verb j] Proper Form. Sing. P/wr. j Pe.^r>i . OXQJ . 2 m. 3 m. Pe. 2 m. Pea/. 1 c. ( 2-0 Pa. nn ^ en i 3 / /mp. Pa . Sing. j . 3 m. Futur.

. Plur. 01*^0 fc X 7 Ol7.'O 1 . k 7 0100*0 A r rt.O o *.* . VERBS U WITH 109 3 m. 2 m.mi .^rno. 1 c.<"> oiol-o A >n. 3f.^o'vn 0140 .

^. in Hebrew. One of these. g. The same tense is also expressed by ]ooi looi. sAe is) 2. The other. which is inflect- ed similarly to A"f . or Verbs Substantive. A* being. substance. |ooi -. There are in Syriac two auxiliary verbs (verbs sub- stantive). e. Auxiliary Verbs. Rem\). has begun. ]ooi Ai] or looi . . with Olaph prosthetic A*] . C. exists as Van conversive. i 7 P added merely for the sake of emphasis e. ]ooi to be. F. F. M. g. I am not. e. A*] in connec- tion with looi forms the imperfect. 1. Aooi A*OO1 / had been.jOio^uY^ was. is used to form the moods and tenses which are wanting (see 18. it is to be particularly observed. p iliary verb to be. looi doubled marks the pluperfect .* he . that. but in respect to which . belongs to Verbs |J like which it is inflected. e. 35. fool . IOGU and IOCTU see . which. preter.or future. essence (essen- tia). The inflection of A*) is as follows : Plur. 4. g. Upon the double formation of the fut. C. * 2 T are) * T >V (thou art) ^AjT i Y I (&ey are) *OOLiAft| (Ae. g.110 38. the Ol (with Linea occultans) isnot pronounced this is also the case when the verb is . Sing. c. The former of these. which is properly a noun. M. 2. (we are) **L$ (7 am) 1. takes the place of the aux- . *jk*. In connection with p is formed A. when connected with the participle.

ed partly from verbs (verbals). ]A^2O1\ jlame. they are always recognized as nouns by the nature of the object which they designate. they are . or by a mere change of the vowel . e.i SSn king. p. final. dominion.CD| fetter . e.. are 1 So A. . e. metals.\So counsel. P3-^ the heart. Derivation of Nouns. as in Hebrew and Chaldee. . Lehrgeb. Z Several of these formative letters are some- X . from >*a*"i\ . and sometimes compounded. The which are by far the most numerous. Vf) to counsel . plants. . ] AL sleep. Ill CHAPTER III THE NOUN. \>)\ mourning. 1 Aa care. Inasmuch as they coincide with simple verbal forms. The derivation of nouns is effected . are primitive. are form derivatives. if initial. JZOlj gold. Those letters. DERIVATION OF NOUNS. and partly from nouns (denominatives). 39. from > i . L if medial. 478. etc. . 1. g.g. from <-Ju . \Sb& flesh. To primitives belong nouns of one and two syllables. ^amo silver. 12oiSfii. f.). derivative. Nouns. times found in the same noun . g.V) compassion. from . g. and Q . which indicate ani- mals. a) without any change of the original word .*. (See Gesenius. e. b) by the falling away of the radical letter . numbers. 1. . f> . sq. but especially e) by the addition of formative letters or of entire syllables. 2. members of the bodies of animals. .i . e. . t A^Q-^Z scholar. from ^\a} to mourn . g.

But frequently in the formation of these nouns. rare or obsolete forms of the infinitives and participles arc chosen.112 NOUNS DERIVED FROM VERBS. Nouns derived from Verbs. and receive the significa- tion of the action or quality itself (Abstract Nouns). Verbal nouns are kindred either to participles. . The following tables present a collective view of the modes of formation. and de- note the subject or object of the action (Concrete Nouns). 40. or they are kindred to the infinitive.

- i'np urc > t"" From these are derived Abstract Nouns . PARTICIPIAL FORMS. g. ( V&O ^O. >.. a man. ^AltAO hardness. I. quiet. The simple but unusual Participial Forms. OF PEAL. ( Emphat..OJ ^>wrc. |JQCD foolish. . ^ Ql and i * mournful |.. state. UO12 rural.. e. multitude. a. Absolute state. U and -k-^ r hard. TABULAR VIEW OFDERIVATIVE NOUNS. an associate. A. ^iLO cXr. 118 or NOUNS DERIVED FROM REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS. leprous. which are most- ly Adjectives.

Absolute state. . ]2o>l* freedom. concealed. a herdsman. beautiful. j < Emphat. m. "JAjjS f. |3" and ]l * beautiful. as *)2cLkQol healing. I hireling. V ree. * 2) f so/15. Usual Participial Forms of Peal. Here belong also AbstractNouns. /oft^-SMjfmny. /3. a herdsman. rr--y and ^*A an inhabitant. Q^ renowned. . a.i (fry. Active. 13" and _a \ r*"n prophet. |A^*-n prophetess. y -\* rare. (>*S.\ cursed. 13" s and la 0"and U a physician. and -A X X 7 reviling. o JOICD a witness sound. (ft z i* ^7 black. |*^i*^ > 17 beloved. >] righteous. Passive. dry ness. state. |2oLi^ publication. given.2) ". ^i. QCL>1 and IZoCLijl righteousness. # # (JOl>j a landlord. 114 b.

' 1 i ? a judge. T ^ "*. / ry\ ' ^phemer. ^ T . ^* |OO> a . ^ASQx> a friend. -X %*'' '* * < |IO>Q11 littleness. > ^ ^ U and ]> !. O&O Q^T) OD & with Emph. . |JQA.<> ft y a ^06. JjQSOQflD a . 7 x .. oi and ^A T P > * . **. TABULAR VIEW OF DERIVATIVE NOUNS. j O 0&> . . k IMrih \L^ >** * . like /r> ^ | rejection. (*CLi) a destroyer. jZQJOul giving. ft^xgi a plough. From these are formed Abstract Nouns. llOUi barber.*. |*O j] a Aaw. (color). MO^ creator. a *^y. etc. . * divorce. pQ-1 a ///''/-. With Immutable Vowels. ^ Q$0 flo&O ]]o4^ ]Ta&^ ffoo Jl CT . and <-kA ^2) dL and i^A ppMOja possessor. " . |QO)| division. _> 2) (2) lj a carpenter. JQil MMMii l jao a MM. * f t J 11"*. p i a c/e/(f. . \1)CL& fortunate. stat. . \\ozi\a preacher. ilQQJ damp. > a combatant.A 7 . V ^V x IV ^* ^ 11* U and wA 11" U and * U and POT p>7 . Ab. a "'" '' MH 'mournful. >Q*j a spend.. a rabble. 115 c.jlooo] 6/acJt. 5 > p . > ( k . Jjioj a 6?7/ o/" l?ryt an orator. OL and jkl /7tr//Y. a youth.0 . |^O>] a 5ower. . \LQ*l mortal.

lZoi*rf)flb healing. P-^liD Band despairing. Aphel. Pael.116 TABULAE VIEW OP DERIVATIVE NOUNS. a l^h an offense. a comforter. Ql and *j-L ]t\M<^ ^rOM rf. Of the other Active Conjugations. sf) doctrine. a torturer. r/cA. changing. From these are derived Abstract Nouns. Shaphel. r^ Part. &c. |J and a confessor. a watch-tower. . high. 7_ form a leader. as direction. PARTICIPIAL FORMS. ^^SDiSo com^^erf. B. pass. U and "i^ a a physician. poor. a. LiOliO united. in>ncm S . a dwelling. It takes the usual ^ form.rn^n a deliverer. pincers. A o o 7 7! Vf) a [I* teacher. j P P 7 Vand (lajGllD a leader. Vn. Qi and wA Vmm and ^-^ SC?i/tOMS. "6 oVn %. and the form j Usual form and ) Usual form and l> F 7 f -X 7?" with IL_ and the j V^^ ^.

]!' f those with t . Taphel. Quadriliterals. Uyir" + f^ r if \. Ethpeel. . TABULAR VIEW OF DEBIVATTVE NOUNS. <m Parel. Ethpaal. 117 b.*1 sudden. Eshtaphal. Usual form and Usual form and i Usual form and j j those with T. Palel. Pealel. ]A ) those with T. C: PARTICIPIAL FORMS OF LESS FREQUENT CONJUGATIONS. ^Vf>\/ a ( t pupil. a farrier. a pitcher. U and %A_^ entreat- renowned. pL.)Z a/i interpreter. treasurer. Paiel Usual form and ) Usual form and ) Usual form and ( r r ** 7 \0m i "^ ^ 1 (^Q^OOI a church. pL ) 01 and curdled. Of the Passive Conjugations. eloquent. Usual form and Usual form and ") 1* L p an accuser. |V)\V)\0 unhurt.

* * * 9 |J^> a dwelling. INFINITIVE FOKMS. . L sea-grass. ) a f dl and wiA and wiA Ql and -iJL peace. j ' Emphat. OF PEAL. e. a child. > morning. U^LM a pestilence. state. > rain. oftener two forms. as JJl aw oak. \1C1** a rope. It is seldom that all three forms are found derived from one orig- ' * "' }V 11' \\ inal . Absolute state. \1\ a storm (from ^1). Simple Infinitive Forms Segholates. g. a. A.118 TABULAR VIEW OF DERIVATIVE NOUN'S. > 7 (ai the soul. B'and |J and wk2> anguish. \ a way. (HOD an end. P 7 r* herbage. holiness. diligence. . ySQ^j <7t7^ . bread. 13" and I] 'and treasure. goodness. coldness.

UfO* ) talkative- 5 5 *^' ^ favor. a sprout. ing. indecency. o ^ % 0. arrival ]3 and ]i .stat. U and _> K k ^0 fj_Qj error. ( . p*)OniO affiance. JJ and A^ nature. ^2} a. IZ.girdle. ]e> (and B) U><^>V a fetter.Qal) orna- U and -*^ dence. ] Ql and ~_1 ness. 1) * |i. > 0* t ' a MOfm /"/v.) a kiny- gleaning. Abs. \LQn. Ol and -iA tradition. Ml ]NnV> fullness. * . . seizure. Q\~ltt) folly. a question.CL*OV*j appear- Vand ance. Ql and a vessel. |>Ui a. Infinitive forms with Immutable Vowels. > a flowing. .. 119 b. . stat. * r l'l (LOQJLO posses- sion. herd. \ Em. TABULAB VIEW OF DERIVATIVE NOUSB.

change.2 y and jh2> U and w^2 a drawing lA^joZ doctrine. mer- "\LyQ. ) ijfi a speech. struction. Usual form Usual form Usual form and and and or thought. 'jZo. *o/ (of water). (^lOQji deliver- Ql and wkl ^. 7 ^^ *" A ^ QSO a thrust.jjjOQ* a joro- elusion. . sembly. u 1 . (A^CTIQiba ^{/Y. j^plZ * Ae/f/>. 2.2) departure. misc. I^OSO a Aoe."jZcuAAiD an as. IT and ]a arrival. #0.rf>V> ri saw. ]] and . fjAoSo a concussion. g> insight. lAxQ2Z a wan. USUAL INFINITIVE FORMS OF PEAL AND OF THE OTHER CONJUGATIONS. fi\Vna con- in^. Aphel.120 TABULAR VIEW OF DERIVATIVE NOUNS.-i-S V and *j. B. ^A*Q^Z rubbish. bellows. elusion.'"^* slavery. l. " a desert.^\ chandise. \ODOL combat. ShapM. ]n * \ ef)L flattery. Peal Pael. "\*OLdespair. and -i-l V and *j-^ U (and ]a) |J and harken. O a led. ]Zni fc^QSo con. g*i . ^> .

Parel. JQCD swiftness. .. \9 9 fc contam- ination. motion. Pamel. shame. ment. " i and -iA nocence. TABULAR VIEW OF DERIVATIVE NOUNS. 121 C. Palel and Palpel. INFINITIVE FORMS OF THE LESS FREQUENT CONJUGATIONS. )lXo2 a worm. IjicAoZ doctrine. (J and -iA . (Ali b a mystery. splendor. Pali. Pavel and Paiel. Pealel. Taphel.

i masc. ^i. a) without any formative additions. . (Patronymics or T <\ f f P V Gentile Nouns) e. with the falling away of the syllable *CDQ in names 7 an Ephesian. b) with the formative syllables U.* . from (\V> salt . e. also a double formation |jQCOO*a. and }A*JQ fern. Here belong : 1. + e * pound nouns also occur . U**o> masc. 145) mentions a form with the third radical * * * i"i k ^ doubled. e. Nouns . p^' from 7 . ^Zoi\ youthfulness. derived from some other nouns. )/cu*l'a little brother. lAoJUiOj fern. .. g. .t a * 9 * * V-'A T garden . pj. -y>^ Diminutives from com- . from ^idL blind . |g)nn\n a young dog. Adjectives belong here. 41. e.. g.. fjkSQAQ. (JQAJ^ irom paJ^ . which are formed . e. from |*">V\ Sometimes we find both forms in use ]jo^. from *COQQaf of towns . a very -*. Amira (p. e. g. D. g. }2o^OL blind- ness. attached to the noun . |u>Vf> a seaman.ffl* )] . g. (Ax.a or DQ masc. g. g.masc.. from ]]!_ a youth . and Q inserted between them < letter e. ^ fr^yt* V'^' 7 ^. and l** (CDO^yi 7 a manikin. f assembly. Denominative Nouns. \Lt^fL^\Israditess . j^ioocnj Roman. fern. from t&^^* 2. E4n{)nN a little . spiritual.g. REM.. from la .122 DENOMINATIVE NOUNS. e. e. principal . or Feminine Abstract Nouns. and 1/UJ fern. .g. from U*> 5 b) by* affixing v !*** i * * the terminations M masc. fern. e. fAoJQAjoZ'rQ a very little daughter. a) by affix- ing the terminations \3 masc. from W. from pQl.g.t a gardener. terminating in ]2a and }Aj_L . which may be either primitives or D a 7 ** * derivatives of verbs . e. g. _<?V 1/L. c) diminutives with . fcob a little son. from sa_o $ Aeac?. T/uJoZ^ a lit- tle daughter from 12^3 . ^ little man. }LLJL*J beginning.

fern. e. e. COMPOSITE AND EXOTIC NOUNS. In respect to the cases under a. g. ordinal numerals (see 50. Composite and Exotic Nouns.O> fern. k. 151 . - The following are examples IK 7. e.g. UoZjGtwce. more or less. e. from ]^2 . e. e. (see Michaelis. or both parts are changed into the feminine . (ZoAAQ Ao5 house-holding. 73. de Dieu. In changing the Concrete idea into the Abstract.n\">] adversary. man. 3) . |AoJU.. V*-L**O> masc^ >. **j J principal . g. p. sometimes ^a] eating . g. e. The formation of words by composition is more frequent m Syriac than in the other Semitic dialects. e.g. r * " " YA i firstling.. . . corporeal from JSo^Q. e. 123 .\V") enemy. The Syrians have introduced many Greek words into their language. (AxO house. 1. L** (mao corn-house. e. Lud. Upon the plural inflection see 44. 42.g. and c. The words most fre- quently used in forming compounds are ^ son . ]Ax> *3 y householder. }AjU fern. Amira re- marks (p. the Greek forms. ^\1Q sir.1 . j i r t - -. *|^r>*">*"\VO^ hostility. c) by affix- ing the terminations V*-> masc. g. 2. RKM.. g. 1 . g. There are some peculiarities . l[*LL the third. fcia. pp.g. above.J . either the last part of the compound word only is regarded . L.. M-y! ^ 7'. 74). yet he also admits the interchange of the two forms. 106) that the latter is rather used in metaphorical lan- guage. and given them either Syriac terminations or permitted them to retain. '"" t Q -\^ I su jxaXXov.

The Syriac language has but two genders. >. and members of human and animal bodies. 8. for which see 12. I y\LL\^\ Prince. t pO|J Germany. g. masculine offices. 'months and rivers. which are found double although they have mascu- 9* - < t ^ line endings in the plural . it is usually given with the termination ]2 . e. g. *|Aa^V) the queen. g. form from the masculines.. ^-Xi ' feet from ^o. etc. The forms with ol and *JL. as the only mas- culine form in use. wt) JG1 Henry. Gender of Nouns. which is particularly used for the for- \? 7 mation of feminines from masculines (e. To distinguish this fern. mountains. etc. England. |^M female com- panion from ^M masc. g. 7 ivs 7 O*A v1 i y > the Franks. At the time of the Crusades. the gender is fixed by the same rules as in Hebrew. 5. countries. Rem. AjiD part. g. Feminines are the names of female persons and ani- mals. ^ But the first of those final syllables. e. nations. The latter is distinguished partly by the signifi- cation and partly by the form. 2. In respect to the signification. ">*^ I c/oodness. and 44. e. 45. in the formation of these words. Masculines are the names of men. 1.. have -j * Os ? x 9 arisen by apocope from |Z . **. e. 43. cities. Q .). g. the Syrians introduced words also from the western languages . The last of the above mentioned endings L is seldom used .124 GENDER OF NOUNS. In respect to form. the feminine is characterized by I*<? 9 P Pj the terminations U ( K )> . must not be confounded with a similar sounding termination of masculines (the emphatic state. masculine and feminine. e. 3) usually given in the lexicons. .o learn.

nO herd. jAxiQs ?/. pb_& ship. 1. O <\ ' : ' ' "i A CO. |. |>ni fern. tion into f. * P 7 ^ ^ff T 9 T leather bottle. e. '_r. in the emphatic state. The feminine ending \. \ml* coin. (L fern. (2^M sword. (guv branch. com. (OjAj) ^ia^r)XT]. (AjiZ) com. f^*^ A-O/. e.JQCD tfuvodoc. REM. e. 3). g. ?T ^ we//. ending in H~T. (l^l com. heaven. vQj_ hades. Many nouns with a masculine ending are feminine or common.. |A*1 ofo've. \ff^m com. V*JOCTL fern. (i>*| earth. g. . e. this -. g. /" r^//< wmr/. wOCTLi masc. !?^i. ornament. l tongue. //y. those nouns are considered as feminine which come from the feminine of the He- brew. . g. *d masc. (A&O bow. 2.g. |Ao. |^3 talent. 3) . : e. /tm. terror. If the word ends with | . firma- ment. t T letter is changed into *.t a ca. |. MW. |>. . They are usually given in the emphatic state ( 45. GENDEB OF NOUNS. moon. (MO* com. Names of animals also are of the common gen- ? r ^ der . Nouns with | final are masculine when Z is a radical letter of the noun . X ^ "!*'? )* * t^O'rL &/. is generally found in adjeo lives . ? ^ ^ pOICO com. (jlSAs com. 125 REM. 6. In general. P-vil pitcher. ^*^* ^'^y. J 7 ^ *. (J-^. i Gentile nouns and numerals ending with w change that termina- x * x if f y.>0j way. mo/A. also the cardinal num- \4 bers from 20 to 100^ Greek nouns retain their gender . ( v * com.Vn a ass.?ie/ .. . 1 Icop ] JQJ ^re. and all of those nouns which. tl^QlD burden. ^'we q/" battle. and forms t. g. end in "|2 ( 45. lU masc. 1 *^. |JL_^ rib. (JHCD shield. e.

indeed. UQO member. varietafo generis et numerl. (as a part. e. " ''V ^'*1 "T ^ "j" 7 ( . IjoAo virgin.. e. that of the feminine by ^ (instead of ( ) . P7. plur. " herdsman. ]]. boy. ^-OCL mountains. from " *" *f A *" io . plur. g. terminate in ^JL_ e. J* cup-oearer^ plur. e. mvr> kingdom. 44. the singular and plural. fj>| MOTI. ^. There are. . and upon the absolute and em- " form and 45. 3. two. 1> 77 . * . Number of Nouns. Some masculines form the plural in the same manner as feminines. 7 g. 2.and -*-. Comment. plur. The plural of masculines is formed by annexing the syllable ^i_ to the noun sing. 1.) use. froos throne. V i\ n plur. g. Plural masculines of derivatives from Yerbs U. ^'fjalo dwelling.-X mwte.. . plur. and ^-> *So Egypt] but they cannot be considered . plur. plur. 68 .* > 'i 1*1 7 T 1 " ** 77 . plur. four dual forms. ^u^So* Feminmes X J^ p $. plur. consonant appear again in the plural. Item. phatic states. ^i^> . 1.XoA^). ]2on &c. -. see . (loow . f> f 7 I i> x Q"AV> : those ending in ^ take ^ . *0. 7. iO>^| . plur. taken from the Hebrew. and duality by the numeral two. plur.n\ i N .7 first D7 .OO3|. ending with J.p 7 C .a0>c3 . as a special form of the language. Here belong : fco) physician. |Zcujo| . ^J>-1') ^Qi> . IZalao . Rem. +*\> creature. plur. fZajjas .O. g. ^*SnVu from lki sea. e. P.. g. ^'". g. plur. . take Linea occultans under the 07 of the similar letters I. plur. two. There are two numbers in Syriac. ^-2]lo two Tt Ti hundred. ending in ^_ (^-*2 masc. JuOM snake. . ^-i2>2 fern. plur. 7 ending in Q and L take tQ .7 7 . p.. ^-tV^^S from pni people. de . (jjo| cno. (Compare Agrell. tli" . 07*.J26 NUMBER OF NOUNS. e. 7 -7 t> * * * * \\ ifl *Z night. Pairs are usually ex- pressed by the plural. ^->'r^ Nouns derived from Yerbs Ml if the doubled . "/l^ 7 -i " "" l"? " 5^1 J9to<?^. Jl> V T.

V> and ^OpO . "JA^O* (see Agrell.) REM./. NUMBER OF NOUNS. tff. ]]io . T f rr breast. ^V)CU and ^LoCLi . jZ| ugliness. Some nouns form a double plural (the feminine form IT father. The following feminities form the plural like mascu- lines . (o/ paper). ZfA noxious means. ]lO\ . ^ i.-M . etc. ^-)OU and ^O9OU : : T * * ' 1 1 and ^>(1 iS (t'omi- .. lAiy. j'fiD lord. . VZ^DD ftar/ey.. \ heart.S eye. 1'Al* hour. 1^25 ^ *. \l . window. ^*r+* "W ^O. l^li //'</>. ]Q> . "jAl^ cry. |Z]\ . ^2] mni^ ^a1*^l and ^1^1 (times. ]&) . lAoji i/tow. j tear. * / 'r^ (corner) (LQ* . 3). (1'ZAl)' woman. coaf. Aor. "j^Q* r?/sf. ]*/Sn . . Ijioa ./<c. seve. ^>SfiV. ") bridle.-| (gripe of the hand). 15\S\ care. by retaining Z. V^Z /y. 7 z V ' * > X < tn repetition) . ^>\> and ^O\i . |Z| . ^i. ^>1*S and ^1 X - .r> \1* .* almond. (1 *.t. a) by rejecting the feminine ending of the emphatic singular ( 45. sq.. ^_OllQ* and ^OliQ* .g. pi Aawc?. }^O calling. . 1^ f t . l^Sn SarAr. e. ^JL!* . 4. }An^ ft'fe. \&>* fig-basket. \L*M army. booty.7 . \hsrfiwall. Hf/.. ]a>f } . ^->r*| and iOl. TT 7 1"C T V > * ' V* >OGU (/ay. etc. J^SOJ . 1>i^ . IJl cluster (of grapes). x <> 7 p j . l^p. 3. T ^*">n\ and z^OHS p^O and heel. passim. yar. 70. ]mj) . 127 REM. UJjl . p. 9OU stream. . ^\*~\\"~ and iO*"l \ : *D I T . x T r y ^ and iOlo| . ]}& ^ fi}^ . lA^lD wore?. \\OMD . t&fell.

REM. e.g. or . g. l2ol. (j-1 sheep. J ?. take the Syriac * * -x T< 1** plural ending of masculines in (_ . g. |^i > i*"> ?an- TV . V. . 9'* ^ * ^ (\ * ^P. e. (A^2O> . (CDOSQJ vo|aoi from vojxoj.-AO draft-cattle. |*r CiO cattle.g. |U)O2> . REM. without regard to gender. is in- ^Pf *> ** *i&t. |LQ. or . jAflOQCO mare. Some words only occur in the plural . Greek nouns. g. e. (first declension) by JQD. v* i yi> from i? and 0. REM.(> . f ZjQOj 5ee. D -.iO) ^o^jxara. Amira ?' ' P" X (p. 8. \J-QL13 tattling. \S5\face. . 6. e. e. etc.7 7 !> Hibui ( 6) .. ZoiiO . e. fASDo") people. 01 and ou (second declension) by Q and . f **><"> water. 6) the first part . 5.5. |AxCDQ0. g.. CD|.g. ^fmother. c) both parts . Sometimes a. -o ff 7 granary. M^D) worth. (IQIO^O /u-yj^ava/. The plural terminations Sss and reg. g. are represented by | r and J4 . e. but in some instances retained. e. f A30> p&u*. handmaid. fiDO and e.g. 95) also places here 1^4 ^^^ and |. 7 yl.g. |Zo)Aco| which constitute the Greek singular rfra^ia. e. Less frequently do they take ^ ^ ^" ^"* r ^ x the plural terminations offeminines in \L . Lk^2) ^aXayysj. ]4l^9 r]') av^iavrss from av^iaj:. ^>QOQ^2>| eifufxotfoi. - . (*2) horses. g. The composites (42. lASl offering. 128 NUMBER OF NOUNS. Also some feminities in (Z take Q and Ol before the plural ending . a) the last part of the composite is inflected . take Q or Ol between 1^9 the plural ending and the last radical. 7 V""l 7 1*'" life. e. The Syriac often re- tains the termination of the Greek plural and of the cases. Some singular names (collectives) take the plural mark. P *X serted . REM. masculines as in some of the above examples. (ZoiSo] (compare 49). e.1) form the plural in such a man- ner that either .g. Letters terminations are commonly omitted. d-kAo xXsjJej from xXsij. represent- * 7 1* ing the accusative a.

Agrell OtioL Syr. sing.^ and e. bull. 1. r or by . e.J&1 and . for P- The same r ^ is from 45. U^* .. CDpQJ| (comp. are represented by (4 an d J4l . The indefinite article is expressed by the absolute state. p. ]2a& death. e. The construct state . nouns ]Al '. e.. e. a) of nouns masc.O9 (5oy(jiaTa. %flP^CiD Kaitfa^af.% g. f r ^ occur in the absolute state .m*. Different delations (States) of the Noun. there is in Syriac and Chaldee..ICO . DIFFERENT RELATIONS OF THE NOUN 129 <">. g. an emphatic state. n^oo Zrwixoi. T T * "> YlV" neuters of this declension by |. . .g. m>fT| ai^erfeij . e. There are many nouns which never. Some of these plural endings occur in Latin ^\ -r f ~* .\rn from the singular in DjO-i2)*Xaxaj. garden. jlDdO situatio/i. REM. . g.O> and |^]iQ. g. tOPQ 'EXXr. but in the . <i>/Xjflrirou. and the neuters r T f T T T > ending in a<ra. Besides the absolute and construct state of the Hebrew. eig iff ~X I ^** is represented by -***-- . e.g.x. ' castra..nnot^. | |JLO x69aXeca . *CD. e.g.-w one. e. etc. 7 7 * * * 1 . t ] i are represented by . It also occurs where we should not expect to find the definite article. It originally marked the noun with the definite article. or very seldom.o) . the genitive ft >n *l ax twv an(l as of the third declension by . g. (2Q* heat.vaf . g. of which the latter marks the genitive. . 2. does not differ from the absolute state . ^ good . annonce . D(^0(O 4649). ^SQ.7 .

e. ]A^oA^ from A^oAo. g. struct state from ^^L Nouns masc. In the sing. Ephes. . in nouns 1. e. .o In the plural. g.. QnS>V> . jALoAa from constr. V* t^ > Hr*** The emphatic forms |!JL^O water. pQl from ^(XL people. e. 6) in the emphatic state fern. r In.9 7" 7 which take ^*_ in the plural.. M r *So from 1\. and plur. ends in (A. takes T* 7 the termination (_ with the falling away 7 of o^. . of nouns masc. l-*ifi). Buxtorf cites yet a third form. \^ ..g. Rom. for both gen- ders and numbers.. A^2 from \4>* To the ter. with -j f -f (>. Q^ con. sing. from the emphat. . plural. e.l) . change that termination into -. ( 44. and ( ip** breast. belong here. 26. 11.e. 1. 9 *> i-. 7 $ *(> > fcj-ipD from ^-r. e. g. . ("!> (I.l).130 DIFFERENT RELATIONS OF THE NOUN.g. 24. masc.. 7>. ix. The fol- forms lowing should be noted as irregular emphatic plural : .g. Rem. n.Rem. g. ^ifO.. is retained before 2. ft) in the fern. 2 is appended i 9 9 instead of t .g. ].A KO frogmen ts. a) attached to the sing. |I is attached to the construct state. sing. e. 7 i' REM. and the form in should perhaps be restored in these cases.Vn heaven. (from the con str. with JL preceding. Aa'pO from w. and ] .. This is . Ari from 3. g. . In the plural the noun masc. is final } (= |-j the Hebrew article).. 7 *f 1" 7 1 * . minations Q and w_ only 2 is added e.. state A^oAa In the plural. _ r alO Only three nouns take M instead of M_ . g.07 V e. But these forms are not recognized by Amira. viz. fi\ithemen. g. e. of the absolute changed into L state is e. which form the plural * 7 by ^ ( 44. the ending ^* * ' is changed into -. sing. r -^-fo . state fca^yi) from 'r^u. _!_ falls away before 2 .. The emphatic state plur. 7 ?. as more correct. The characteristic of the emphatic state. 2nnVn from .

.g. p>>Sf)> |p^ servant of the king (vid. e. 2.OU from (ni sAeejs.g. * *S T 1 *O T e. 131 .2). pUxj) from IMUI) ocfor. y0 . Some take Q . REM. of the fern.1 * t f -. e. 9 .. form the emphatic state like masculines by attaching the termination (1. form the emphatic state fern. emphat. ^> I earth. etc.. ]Ao.. like from r^ii. g. state Jl) ] .. . . 1 V T which is formed by > . Adjectives in (1 change this termination into -i_ . . g. 9 e.1. 3. . REM. Forms with Jj take lA^-. g. g. |Ai\4 from |J^ dull. some words change A 0l f"T V before | into Q . g. The emphatic form is found even before the genitive. 0.V> compassionate. j^O^O /w. g.^*^0^. . absol.i i> from JZ-'rCDflD bundle. l-JOp* from .V) from ^^n. * from JOf //'//'/. \LO r^t from (0. state > . Before the ending (.ft f from |A^2 AOMM. Feminines which are formed from masculines. e. g.* * r ^ D t quiesces in . DIFFERENT RELATIONS OF THE NOUN. Rem. e. e. and especially |Z^l. e. g. Some words in the emphatic form take Q before the last radical . absol. |Al^fl. emphat. Syntax. Othei-s insert A . by affixing the syllable (2 to the masc. e. 73). |A^Q2p0 from \j3feofood. e. pjOO. (l r. i ff r f r Those in ^ take A after 1 .(from ^ masc). |Z. Feminines_with masculine endings ( 43. In the emphat.^ adjectives. . Q is inserted and * *. state plur. j (ZoiiD from AllD /*"/V.

48). B. -? 7 Witness. Nation.?01 Hand. (Decl. Nouns in which and of the ultimate syllable fall away. -.. Singular. 7 7" 1 rOD -r Talent. 7 "7 -X Herb. MASCULINES.L0) '* ) ^ . Nazarite. emphat. o }Im ^ f < . Table of the Different Relations (States) of the Noun.m y Head. Plural. . II). .. Thief. A. 1. r> jfcfl Vessel.132 TABLE OF RELATIONS OF NOUNS. and absol. (JOTED w. ( 45 and 48). Nouns of one and two syllables with immutable vowels. emphat. constr. absol. but the vowel of the penultimate is retained (Dec!. >. constr.

Tf. f 7 P 7 "P . Holiness. ^LOOi ^^iDCLi pOOi ^OOi Day. . in which | passes into wi and is movable as in both the other forms (Decl. . Segholate forms. 133 r C. D. which the original or reappears in inflection. over F *.-/-. DECLENSION OF NOQNS. Nouns derived from Verbs (J ending with (-. r r . .**. T T 7 IV' ^ * ' E.(> > Herdsman. Nouns in which (in gutturals ) of the ultimate syllable falls away.. /:. (iDCL. (One dead). S 9 ^- k-^' M^' ^' ~.. mOr> .0. VmVn .\^n t* |^\Vn King.D . T 7 + e r . or Q is assumed in their stead (Decl. *A_. IV). (Decl HI). > . which begin with a vacant consonant. . JI/ii*^. * f UA 9 . and the vowel appears over the antepenultimate radical consonant. "i < . VmVr) * 77 Prisoner. "I n V. t 7 t" 7 t" . V).

p. emphat. absol. I). Virgin. Nouns. constr.^l 12'rfiM iiy Ay . *_. A.) before the ending \L (Decl. Nouns with immutable vowels (O. state sing. emphat. JlLi Chariot. have _I_ or Jl_ inserted between them (Decl.0. in whose emphat. Plural. Cow. iO City. A^oAa . constr. ]oy] Alms. Singular. whose final syllable begins with two consonants. Ill ). which. * |Aoji C. . absol. Aiu io B. II). Nouns. if Widow. in the emphat. the vowel of the first syllable is moved forward to the second vacant consonant ( Decl.etc. o Bride. ^Qjs* Partner. state.184 DIFFERENT RELATIONS OF TUB NOUN.oAo VAloAa A^ /ffia A'"*. FEMINIZES.

beginning with two consonants.ft .10 .FT" /n . ^Jsl* xAj ^k_Kl . Derivatives of Verbs |J ending in )_ and |O . - r 9 r f i e.Dominion. . O^D . . . 135 D. . state sing. Ct Request. Q^^> Plague. |Z. and __ ( Decl.Qj_K | E. and having O wnd -i movable in the plural ( Decl. DECLENSION OP NOUNS. > Thing.0. IV ). Derivatives of Verbs |J ending in Q and . ft J Animal. ff ci . whose ** and O in the emphat.( 2 ).r . Ujt>jO . quiesce in_i.aiiD lAilo Aiio Aiio o-j > .. O o > ^ AliD Parf. Qr3 Q:> A ^ i ' i > 1'2a*lD iio ZoiiJD . . V ). ^'r-^ Creature. /![' i //>'.

x of Verbs fy' 32.nn. undergoes the following changes : 1. \^ .vn\v emphat.V). jOl-CD. * 7 V 7 1 T 48 masculines. i . V).g.g. and table of suffixes.inVn In decl. pVf) (from V . . . KiOi reflection. tT f c (> . Ol^ . the general rule is followed . state *aA*lD pronounced .001^0. having a vowel preceding. etc.g. wi before the suffix of the 1 1 7 * I r i sing. e. in taking suffixes (see 16. The same is true also of nouns ending with * (passive participles of Pa. ^oouA*SD. grammarians. a vacant consonant preceding. A) the radical vowels are not changed. . g. in the sing. IV. e. with suffix . 46. my drink. i> *x emphat. Finally. . is attached to the emphatic state. g.^^n (**> from jo).. These nouns with suffixes of the 1. ( 48. V etc. g. So also monosyllabic . III. fjoico with suffix . ^A*LD (.g. appears before the suffix of the 1 sing. e. with suffix . . (V)NS. e. which lose _l or _L in the emphatic state. . emphat.\^ from |J. . derived from Verbs U ending in ^J o emphat. with the falling away of ]L . g. emphat. . B. a) the suff. Decl. In nouns of decl. . g. in emphatic nouns ending in \+. (*AD)QD my throne from jff>9Q2 is an exception). XL-AL. 16).A^^) from wA*lD drink. V. e. . e. take it again before the suffix of the 1 sing. II. quiesces in _1 . oi.1. Aph. and 2 and 3 plur.>V) .. e.OCljOiflD. are like the absol. excepting ]ao master. which with a suffix is as follows : ^^ ^D .io p . 2 and 3 plur. ( and according to Syriac wi is movable even before the suffix 1 sing . Here belong all the emphatic forms ending with V having . 2. ii i). '^iN^ . I. and 2 and 3 plural . but before the other suffixes _ is movable . e. 7 9 e. The noun.. . . with the suffix . 5>Q .. and Shaph. the final vowel of the absolute state _JL or r re. In nouns. sing. )>\(^ . nouns. state V (Decl. ]Sn.SV)). .136 NOUNS WITH SUFFIXES. In masculines . Nouns with Suffixes.

sing. 2. and in the plur. ]lAjfcLo drink.. Collective nouns sing. as in ]]lD . g. *^QQ. 213.. 163). nearly).. ( 16.. g.. T . with Ribui. de Dieu. g. o.. .2 creator.. masc.. are attached to the construct form ( 45. etc. only by taking Ribui . Lud. g. 1. with suff -lAmio and jjAjtVo my drinks. a) with which the suff 1 sing. T i^^ . N I and . i. . fc ^ . Plural nouns with ^1 .. .. before ** passes into . g. J>l> > . ^oaUa> . . 1 sing. with the suffix of 1 sing. 1 takes Lin. ^OIQAj]* Amira p. wi^iQO .i\. wiCTinnV/) (also ^O1Q_ = Germ.* * T. e. . **. differ from the sing.0 ^O^D. NOUNS WITH SUFFIXES. e.-.. however. and 2 and 3 plur. ]JLJ] e. plur. etc. but not according to Amira) .. 4lD . Illwith suff. with the same suff. forms a crasis . and in the 3 fern. plur. attach the suf- fix to the construct form ending in JLJ . . b) Plural suffixes in the masc. . aii (Engl. passes into Q . So also in the emphatic ending with V- e. . supposes that (j'Q.g. the vowel of ) is thrown back upon the preceding vacant consonant e. . REM.CO* . In the othersuff. etc.g. . ^Uoa.jj. in suff. 160. . The same is true of nouns with f| for * .iOl . * f JjQO with suit. de Dieu. p. according to Lud. emphat.g. -TlP^ ~V* "t?^ "t T Tf ' Also plurals with |A. plur. w ' tu both suffixes belongs here. U-X. e. occul. with suff. *^i]liQO But in Ceases where the termination ]\ does not stand for Vi . e. or MO. Olil . >*^yi ^Oio^yji (see . T p. B). ff with suffix w_i. wiOiCL*^. e. - -^^ 7 and those plurals which. with suff. * *Av> In the sing.. g. . wk2(4O2. take the suff. e. 18'< . oi. ^*t with suff . Only takes the suff.. g. e. T J with suff..g. j^il.with suff. e.

g. REM. and plur. and of the 2 and 3 plur. two. JO | father.g.g. forming with the first. e. *<> " from |^U . e. -^^>r Final | before the other suffixes is changed into Q . wk>| The last takes . 01 00 1 . ? L'^ with 7 the is sufF. . e. if the above suffix occur . g. constr. etc. b) In the plural. oiA^k5>1 from USDS') widow. r . The first two.^5 It should be remarked that the letter marked with Linea occultans -a i is to be pronounced. of the 1 sing. state REM. e. change 7 k0 * T\ into . ^OQJ . demonstrative T * 7" j 'j" J 7 his ten. pO** father-in-law. 2. g. a) the suffix in the sing. REM. The suffixes of the 1 sing. to avoid the concurrence of three vacant consonants . . e.tOCTlAla. etc. T^A with suff. it should be remarked that they take both the sing. state with a union vow el preced- ing . e. In Feminines . e. iOOL*A_LZ those three. is attached to the form of the emphat. wiZ^L Arnira asserts (p. e. those pronouns . with the suff. g. e. and with the last. 2.. . found iO of the 1 sing. are attached to the construct state without the union vowel. 190) that the laterSyrians have the form. g. -iZ..iO . feminines take singular suffixes .188 NOUNS WITH SUFFIXES. p y In \L'f> daughter. emphat. are formed anomalously. possessive pronouns. those two. state) mistress._ ^7 moves forward from the first to the second consonant . state. * 7 * 7 1 . \*j>] brother. (Al^rSo with suff. From |2jSsD (emphat. OlI^CQl ^OOU>Z ^_iOUoZ. In respect to the cardinal numbers ( 50. constr. state ]A^oV). 2).g. etc. suffixes.obAL^D. g.

X $Qnation. o master. _f_ falls away in the inflection and A with _y preceding. emphat. Q.^0 lean.) jxtradise.. ^CID^ herbage. Here also belong nouns derived from ^il Verbs with . viz. ^ Q. 48). I. e. emphat.But monosyllabic nouns . state. * g. emphat. e. (gentile nouns with *_ e. syllable is either a close one . g. forte) . and together with the former class. state (SfliNs . g.IV). e. belong to x i segholate forms(Decl. with immutable vow- x . g. T . g. **> head. This includes all monosyllabic nouns as well as those having more syllables than one.g. To the latter class ^ Vv belong likewise those nouns whose penult. v-1QL //'. either with or without any vowel changes. may be arranged under several paradigms. if the Syrians employed duplication of letters (= Dagh. *^Lyi thief. . and *OL>. REM. state jj>OO. g. midst. on account of its diversities. *2ZoZ native.. 7 x 9 *. having Q and ./. t r eye. In ^ i\\ young man. with immutable and with mutable vowels. as do those also in which under the same circumstances Q is transposed . . which in the plural. Nouns are varied in respect to inflection (44. ^OCU day. forms _ at . *o. those . emphut. takes the place of the declensions of the western languages (comp. or such as would have a close penult syllable. 4t-Xo2) partition. e. A. els (A. which change and into . 48. Declension of Nouns in General.) e.46) accord- ing to their form.state pOCU ^i\ . Exhibition of Nouns according to Declension. P * 0% T. occult. T IT <^nv. state p_A. DECLENSION OF NOUNS. -^J Nazarite). Decl. ^sOpD holiness. e. double the final radical letter. The latter class. . plur. MASCULINES. etc. g. and in the emphat. Q. . 139 47. e. and mark the first of the two doubled letters with Lin. Thus they are divided into two principal classes.

So (see 15. }\ . etc. Such for the most part in Syriac. e. which appears first in the emphat. j. Here belongs also ^ 7* Acme?. III. viz. ^Q\L eternity . This includes nouns. Aph. state V4a ^D * Decl. throughout their inflection. of the 1 sing. JOICD witness . iVlSy and . is either a mixed one as in ^^nLo (part. and have for their characteristic vowel _L or _1. OlSoll .). In this form the noun remains unchanged throughout its formations. 1^ *7 . A<y>Vn : ojJ. In these nouns. e. 4).g. g. appears the empliat. emphat. . . lose _1_ (before gutt. and f^>.->V> mighty . are monosyl- labic nouns which begin with a vacant consonant. emphat. emphat. i^. . They ** of may as in Hebrew.lD morning. the vowel of the final syllable falls away. which have two consonants . e. IV. The following are examples . . etc. before the suff.lO tar. Here are to be enumerated all nouns which cor- respond with Hebrew segholate forms (see Gesen. with _L and JL. Lehrgeb.state 7 . e. or whose middle radical must be 77 7 doubled. To this belong those nouns. in participles Ethpe.^b belong here. and derivatives . of which the penult.g. _^_ over the first radical letter in V * f \ consequence of an accumulation of consonants .. which. pass.. REM. e. From v^r> fountain. g. II. ^4oASo dea d. and be- *i t fore the 2 and 3 plur. or two syllables. plur. but take _L as a helping vowel over the antepenultimate radical consonant. 7 7 opening.OGlSoXl. e. or has an immu- 70 f> 7 x table vowel . g. state ]l i W) . . Decl.22 a talent . pjJS. 568 sq). _I_) of the final syllable . $OL name. Forms also like >^.g.140 DECLENSION OF NOUN'S. J2> sparrow . be divided into derivati verbs with and without gutturals. wheel. ^-^. which take a new syllable with. state fV)\S with suff. i \V> Decl. p. plur. excepting in the sing. state over the first radical.

with suff QinVf) .>/oo. B. IPH^ . The same applies : B) In forms with gutturals . 15. emphat. \ZL^ ship.g. yt^^p counsel.g. But . and before the suffixes with the union vowel e. . 2. forms |JS| mourning. state pioa (comp.state (AxQ constr. Here belong derivatives (mostly participles and infinitives) of Verbs P (comp. ^1Q master. . . plur. JDCU. take _^_ . The following forms take . . wkand**. * ' 1 constr.M slave. : . first class state ]n\Sn . and Q form the dipthongs ai and au . state !*JOQ. e. state. emphat. etc. state 1'^. \'^G\ lamb. . from ^\Ol. and 2 and 3 plur. | is considered as a guttural when at tho end of PL impure. I quiesces in.\ * ^* V v\ r ^ ^ - ]>jj threshing floor. state |pQ^. Some words which would in Hebrew. and the emphat. PCX>|) *<*a. emphat.ooi. T v r ^-^ eye. emphat. state p-iA.O holiness.g. ^Mi^. emphat. ^rom the absolute form f>2 grass. if V 1 * \. Jtao] food. emphat. 40. phat. l*>o) way. absol. state lrH. The distinguishing characteristic is..g. * ^ the form with Hholem in Hebrew corresponds *O. state |Jl3* Here belong also emphatforms like ]i>1 earth. e. ]\y\ cedar. . and in the emphat. b). viz. emphat.state Wit' > etc. emphat. e. emphat. of the 1 sing. wipD^ i empliat. oiL . REM. form (|>Z. take Pattah.aff> ^ ^ r l~.. and is movable as well as both the other endings in the emphat.. state )*1CD rV 1 child. plur. ( also ^?K ) DecL V. emphat. vw. ^iO^D knee. To . state H^i with sntV. that 1 is changed into *^.) ending in \L. in Syriac. . derivatives of Verbs ^A and oi lose or belonging to the middle quiescent radicals ^ or Q* In con- nection with _1. \ZXD book. emphat. before thcsuff. state sing. DECLENSION OF Noi 141 i A) To the belong forms like ^V<^> king. emphat. Jiouse. em. C) Finally.

7 * 7 also (^>* from the obsolete form pQ*.} .(part. and Aph. 4) from |D2 Also from |J^ we have the plur. cccur . ^Qi5. while thenoun. The part Pe. g. U.0 7 */ .i. ]*^ 1 . lose _L in the emphat. while the adjective . (i> pasturing. . and | is changed into Q movable with _!_ preceding . state sing. f ^^ as though from >. . ZdL5. which is true in ends with -i> y ( 44. constr. e. * A P From |jlb master. contracts A and ] into . becomes in the plur.\ ^ Here belongs >. on the contrary. ^oou-^. e.iCP takes yet another}. . mute likewise retain their vowels . of Pa. state plur. IV. (i> p 7"? D r. . from |]. plur.g. in the plur. vi.. 7 herdsman.J T t7 ' 7 |* \rnVr) from >i\mV) abandoned. but appears again in the emphat.takes __ in the emphatic state. it should be remarked \* ' that the form with |. e.* J " l>^ T ~0 . . we find forms with . e.takes the form of feminines of decl. ^ mf V the preceding vowel remains unchanged e. differs from the noun of the same form by being inflected as usual. the plur. if it be a monosyllable and begin with a vacant consonant . 17 -1X7 omphat. . state plur.. both. f ^*^ from --^^ wine. emphat. 142 DECLENSION OF NOUNS.g. state ending with ** In respect to the changes of the vowels. emphat. constr. fpft^ (Matt..?. ^-*A' .. The some the plur.. . g. g. Monosyllabic nouns with UX^ASo *. Finally nouns ending with *j. (MfiD . 1) ^ with the falling away of ] e. act. . g. Eem. g. g. revealed.g. JjA> . |ZQlJ. U-Xi from In words of two or more syllables ]]. UL^O*. * S> . pass. ^*Xt The suffix is attached to the emphatic state ending with )JL as well as to the constr. ]v*So. The noun f >*"** prophet.Ak>. e. f^VMJk) from . plur. the latter form in throne. see 82. forms of the plur. 1)...

[iS&Ofall. /hat between these two consonants. in other . irfdow. g. plur.g. Ui. U-i. I. sing. (also ]\\^ pretense from ^il .iO city. e. 143 B. .. ]ta bride.&LoAo . e. j.g. So too "\D"*L tt'iinder. or J falls entirely away as in P^M! another. Thiri includes those nouns fern. They have the peculiarity.). %^A^oAo. Here belong all nouns fern. DECLENSION OF NOUNS. **t&&o and OlAS^O. e. In the reception of suflixes this declension agrees with decl.state with- out the union vowel e. emphat.g. FEMININES. e. state under J . and takes Linea occultans . The suff. 46. state lA^^. OlA^Loi)]. the first of in the (injilicafe radieals reappears. The sulK of the l. emphatic state Decl. III. state (from ^^^ masc. ^il Zo3 as if from jjuJuZoD or _iJ-2a3 Some forms with final p take Linea X occult. emphat. . or the noun is a derivative <>!' Verbs Mi. This includes all the Feminines ending with )-. ^Ab^DiV. I . appended is to the constr. g. whose final syllable begins with two consonants. >. This vowel is determined by the vowel belonging to corresponding masculine terminations. ^VSn. the plur. in which case the plural. J T 11 i ^ > lii:M. Some insert Q. state to . From )j-Zo2 icaistcoat. ]]oAoi?i/v/m. In this case tin. in the emphat. whose vowel of the first syllable is moved forward. emphat. emphat. If. state ]Al_t. (from ^O> mase. or is inserted. j**. persons is joined with the form of the emphat. emphat. etc. (eomp. e. state e.?. state lA^3 5 before guttu- rals is always the vowel inserted between the two conso- nants in the empliat. jA\f>^^>. appears REM.. in the emphat. which have an immutable vowel in the penult syllable.penult syllable has either a vowel with a letter quieting in it.*^*/ love.g. in the emphat. g.sing.lO. 1 )<>!.)/ou. (M. e.). 2).

AQ 0. AJLA*O . g.0 1\ *- J*"im woman. The following contractions in the " 7 %Pj 9 ^ %^A ** emphat. state. Ouio calamity. and a. [ZLkxiO . If the masc. taking a suff.J . participle pass.0 > . emphat. . g. has three emphatic forms . plur. with _. }Aojl . etc. and II. . 7 7 7 7 ^ . ]Aoj1 . g. derivatives of Verbs |1 end- ing in ]a and ]o It should be remarked in reference to them that the immutable vowel of the penult syllable is retained.). }h for ]5\LDl from ]l^ Jricfc Dec/. e.r * for I^I-M wew. I. 7 * 7 7 7 7 j. ]A^. state sing. g. |Aoi2 terror. ending. and Aph. of Pa. But in the constr. g. but the fern. e.*^* female companion. With this vowel a. "jAojl. and in all the plurals. e. $4 masc. _ Some nouns have several emphatic forms.\.144 DECLENSION OF NOUNS. REM. ]/<>.. takes instead of in the emphat. (A i N. from \*-**O .0* fl*' T in and e. . etc. Ott . Nouns of this class. To belong mostly monosyllabic derivatives this of Verbs |) ending with Q and JL (some end in L ). and Q in the emphat.. g.i V) from wA. state should be mentioned : \t. V. .>> . in the 7 7 X masc. . jfi crea. I A^vt for VAl^u fro Usiyt vine. ^ from (QJLM animal. forms the dipthong ai . quiesce 1 *" 1*A . "\L\zi** .. e. a In the same manner also are inflected p*2> offering. x * .. L\ A 1 . ).. Also dissyllabic nouns belong here with immutable .. KEM. reproach. |Jxi> fear. This includes fern. g. state. emphat. emphat. Thus j!b>l alms. in the sing. in the same conjugations. the second vacant consonant . | . T Zcu^ . TY. which begin with two consonants e.07 . lA^!l from }*\ girl. Decl. are treated like nouns in decl. ture. Wi^ cow.lD. 9 and -X a are movable . be monosyllabic the vowel of the first syllable falls away . e.Il. Here belongs also the participle act.

REM.? . and some others. 146 > T vowels in the penult syllable .) take after the second radical letter .. iOif ZQJ* . f T tOM^o. . OS] victory. Some nouns of very frequent occurrence are inflected in a manner varying more or less from the above mentioned paradigms ( 47. > y plur. IZoioj. which in the plur.T . . (*ni ci^qp. e.anNV) . plur. f. Zoic >. take Q with the falling away of L . (Zo^. *k*~ So also in 11" some nouns which are not derivatives of (J . Anomalous Nouns. they take . e. But in the plur. oL. plur. entreaty. where o and <a are movable. tOOJ and ' ^"7^^ " k |(lO a hundred. O)GIQD testimony. plur. These nouns are the following : . throughout in the sing. . O. 48). Nouns ending with . e. g. etc. g.) take after the first rad- ical letter .. plur. 49. etc.lD . plur. r * . .0. . This arises either from an attempt to unite different ground-forms. e.g.g. tQAl ZQA^ iZoSl. e. some nouns (derivatives of Pa. t. tQSo> . ANOMALOUS NOUNS. or from the simple ground form conforming less closely to the general laws of inflection. or with gutturals following. besides . ^ Other nouns (derivatives of Pe.on^Lo . t<"> i ^^ . plur. a f "T ff . The same peculiarity of taking a new vowel is found also . . *>oZ thanks^ whose o and * quiesce. and even T ^o r . T..g. ASl offering. j in O^Oauthority. 2 belong here. plur. plur. g. oSo> resemblance. (Zo(S0 as if from OOJ and OD. |^O)GICD. e. o*iD blow.

O"* . |Aao> . MASCULINES. 7 . 7 Ml. nft ADO> po> Place. *s] JD) Father. absol. |Aiao> Alaoj x .x1 *"* ^_iAo p 0" . . 7 . Daughter. constr. Plural. DO- DO * ZoiSQ FEMININES.146 PARADIGMS OF NOUNS.(>!). ? " oia| iOis -.. 7 > ZOM| "7 tOwf "%' ^p |Ax t . i7 * ^* * .7 Al pL Fear. !>.7 I 7 7 y*. Sister. constr.. emphat. . . absol. emphat. Singular. ^'i'.


JOICD . . ki>G1D . ^ . ^-ijOlCD ^ n Vn i 2 m. Decl. 1 sing. dijoico Suff. 2 f. 148 NOUNS WITH SUFFIXES. 1 c.QSU JOICD tC 2f. absol. OljOlCD 3 f. i ni. -*p 2 m. SINGULAR. JOTCD J&D ]]^ wA*Lo Witness. ^_JOT2D ^in\So 7 P 7. and wiAak) add . of the forms y. OOlJOlCD tOCJLd^lD .AaVn 3 m. IV.tuuujuujj < 3 f. II. i\4 and PLURAL. King. .. 1 c. 1 c. V. sing. MASCULINE NOUNS.Sing. ~_k3>Gl0 . . nnVAn f *i. _iOL5OlCD _ . Decl. 1 c. . 3 m. 7 # 3 f. Paradigms of Nouns A. 2 m.t n>V) 7 P 2 m. Drink. 7 Suff. Boy. t^k>Gl0 2 f.nm \ / _Q (To the suff. Decl. OUJOIOD Suflf. Stat.plur.V^ r ^. 2f.

Vrt a * CTUlD ^ . 1. *i n\. IV. Father. Decl.ooiZo^* .\i ^> AGIOS) 01 oi'Zol. Petition. >r rs ii. IV-A v \/% t. NOUNS WITH SUFFIXES. Decl V. Comp. * rt* *i ^ * i ^t?" . B. . Waters. 149 I with Suffixes. Decl. Virgin. FEMININE NOUNS. 01*2 oiAloA^ cnZoX.. * ^ Flood. Table. |JoAs | Son. Maiden. r. J&a . . r T ^ooiAiS^ . 49.

11& signifies 100. etc. on . The tens from 30 to 90 are expressed by the plural of the cardinals from 3 to 9 . 48). REM. Upon the union of these numerical words with suffixes. em- phat. 2. 5. . ^i^^s. g.-1. as in Hebrew. & signifies 1000 (instead of a^s. Masc. Masc. and 1. have feminine endings but feminines. 'JX& 1-J2O1 10. o. A |A 6. are inflected ac- cording to the same laws (see 44. ^i^i^ ^a!k ). ^-iA* 60. Numerals are either cardinal or ordinal. The numbers from 1 to 10 are the following : CARDINALS. or 2llL. we should notice the peculiarity. have masculine endings. see 46. ^-^aif 40. In respect to denominative adjectives. For the manner in which these are expressed. see Syntax 77. l]SoA^ or ")Zo]SD AlkZ 300. ^V^i 50. 7 Jloi") 4. ]a!Sv . 90. plur.150 ADJECTIVES AND NUMERALS.1x11) represents 20. Adjectives being derivatives of verbs (see 40. 45. REM. ^RLl 30. ^->2 signifies . From 20 to 100 there is only one form for both genders. . Fern. All plurals are of the common gender.. that masculines from 3 to 10. ^iSn 70. e. ^ZJlD 200. Fern. Adjectives and Numerals. i. the contrary. In the former 2. ^i1^>Z 80. \i*Z \L 9. ^12 The plural of 10 (. Rem. with the preceding unit in the fem- inine. 2. b. The Syriac has no special forms for the comparative and superlative. 50. tables)and having the same form as nouns. see 41.

first. >>. the first. VZ\iStZ ] t'% i Z . 33. Fern.*^a ]i\in* tin* seventh. (with the preceding unit in The intermediate numbers from 11 to 19 are formed by the union of units with 10 in one word.i ")'>! ]'. T T . I . etc. g. r J J 13. Masc. r QlZA > ^>. are formed by the numeral representing the number of tens. before the ultimate radical. m ) " f ? I ' ' VA 1ft JOHjZ 12. the second.msn . and inserting A. 31 to 39. 151 2000. (AlZo ^-lA^Z masc... ^y the fourth. -^^ 3. Sometimes x * _ ^ the units precede e. ADJECTIVES AND NUMERALS.0-. . etc. ]Lno ^. "|A^uA ]l/uA the sixth.. A 3000.mio p^3> 24. Foi tfo. a particular word is used. are formed from the cardinal numbers by adding the terminations V masc.v. ]A. Masc. Fern. a form differing somewhat from the form of the cardinal for 2. the greater numerals are always placed before the smaller e.. and for the second. etc. Fern. s . /t* rxt't *' x . * . ]AA.^111^2 ) I I T 1? f I 1 ft >'l 16 -rmiAisoZ) T f .7 jV)Z ]A. followed by the numeral under ten preceded by o e. r-rr%CiVA.fern.m\n 17. '. Masc. So if the | number of numerical words combined be large. J I rnva/ mva/ 19^ The intermediate numbers from 21 to 29."rmlo IJSniioZo 1827. ^s*. g. from 3 to 10. Q the masculine). j^OwO ^-A* fern. The ordinal numbers. the third. 14. g.. in the following manner : Fern. . 11. Masc. ORDINALS. . 65.

express the idea of apart. Upon the other relations of numbers comp. The tens of ordinals from 20 are expressed. etc.152 PARTICLES ADVEEBS. REM. ^O^ there. The following may be considered as primitive adverbs: _] so. T fem. are formed by uniting the ordinal number 10 with a unit of the cardi- nals. etc..-M masc. g. The Syrians. Adverbs. f . and AJI] are the following . as in Hebrew. e. I |iii. |a here. JiOOi. like the Hebrews. the unit preceding . etc. The last are by far the most numerous.1 | . e. . g. Sometimes the ordinal 10 is united with a cardinal number and the word is preceded by > . the eleventh..\L*\ i msZ>Z fern. A*. PARTICLES. fern. e. prepositions. by a feminine form and the insertion of Q after the first radical letter . 1.^>. Syntax 78. .mv . o o * r. 51.oVj . masc.. QUk not. _ P x _7 I . .. . the twelfth. either by cardinal numbers or by the addition thereto of the * "f 9 . CHAPTER FOURTH. or transferred from other parts of* The intermediate numbers from 11 to 19..masc. v.. ]] .0 o terminations I*. e. ]*SOOM third part. The units are put after . derivative. etc.g. 2. conjunctions and In respect to their origin they may be interjections. g. into one word. . i .Those derived from nouns and adjectives with the characteristic endings A_ Zo. l^oZ . considered as primitive. e.g.ims. J> > i 7 . . To Particles belong adverbs. etc.

p. JQ^ >A. e. AAiOjjQ at first.m . and are vacant when the noun or pronoun begins with a regular consonant e. which is usually _1. as the infinitive. tA> r lto anew . Some adverbs are transferred from the Greek e. D ". As transferred from other parts of speech are to be considered those : ) from substantives . interroga- tion. -^*"* ^aw) rzo. ^tT>i\V) (AaXitfTa. 7 r . r**^!? Ir**^! a ^ o?icc. |r*-*0 immediately. . ) in short. <\v-^ inwardly. To Prepositions belong the prefixes *S the original . ft) without a preposition. g. ^ and ace. ]lQ]Q once.. (AfioSo enough. also in the plural ]Al2] sometimes . a ) with a preposition . g. "\J\M& truly.1L Ifcbraically. RKM. 3. finally. is expressed by |J and |O1 |J. g.)." >CUiAo o?^<y. wiALo]] ]lbp^ /""'' long ? l*Ol mnr. b)from adjectives. The Syriac lan- guage is especially rich in compound adverbs. etc. V>**~> ]r>VOr>V . Such are the fol- lowing : l^jil where ? PJ|] ]^b^ wherefore? |J ^Aa^ not yet. 2oilj2 again. very. 4ujOl2L godly. oiXo . or participles almost. Prepositions. IT numerals and pronouns . j (gen. T *f how much ? |jV^ QlSo tf /ty ? c) from verbal . r at or by the addition of wtD the negative : expressed all. compound adverbs may also be placed the Among circumlocutory Aj|\ not to be The simple interrogation is either not (see 38). y ftVeZy. e. g. noun or pronoun. T 4> ^ mediately. when . 153 at last. e. IQ^] e/xrj.A ^CTlX n^<7 now. g. The syllable -i") prefixed . . . g. forms. |H | ^"> whence ? 52. e. ->T 4jT .) which are always joined with a (dat. nWvn aaXXov. P5. 1. . *aoZ again . en- ~t. " i to pronouns and adverbs expresses an interrogation . Prefix prepositions take the vowel. PREPOSITIONS. ^3 wholly. . A^(..

15. and the following paradigms). 2. 2. ZoL to. ]l>Ja . or when the vowel falls back from the quiescents or oi. REM. the vowels. iAcQO according to. >]. a- " ' x \? i gainst. 2. g. ^0. these prepositions take .** ' and ^>rx about. \L >o ._. Among the original preposi- tions may also be reckoned the monosyllables ^CLL with. e. 16.g. OlXQQ. Aoo> instead. _ and Al.i^SiS* joil^ from . ^i^ over.. in the constr. fjj f. **i\t. B. as X is not a quiescent (see 13). Most of the other prepositions are considered as trans- ferred from other parts of speech a) substantives . .state . ^nooL against. . in which case the of the second syllable falls _^_ away and the original form reappears . *Instead of saying that ^ quiesces in Q the author should have said that ^ takes the vowel with Q quiescing in it.00^ before . after. Several of the prepositions seem to have been origi- nally plural nouns. Here belong Clover. l)Sfla from D for o . 3. >. v*icooi. >Ao after . TR. . * * 9 " 7 -X * . 154 PREPOSITIONS.** ^LO around.\^^ ^^> without.*aXk*/or. g. g. e. etc. 2ox2 and LjL**L ^Lo (fromAlLo part) from. Before |A 6. on which account they are united with plural suffixes. * or oil . c) compounds . for Before words which begin with } . ^ I^A wnfo7 to.n\ etc. b) substantives with prefixes . . >. ) e. and ^-A. in which these letters quiesce.O before. the following consonant is vacant e. x^onN ^O against.tfor. e. e. iOpO before. about. and the tables following). ViorinV ^OfOClL except when . C. }1>V.1 quiesces in Q . iO.. e. Zo^iZ under (comp. suffixes are appended with a union vowel.g. c. fall back upon the preceding prefix . ZoiX 6y. e.*"> between.g.g. g. pro- bably because they were also written lA1 and _iA*f ^ In 7 *> y * t * \\ XS^QO and >O>QO the preposition . * which falls back (comp.

. against. tOLD i"" /O^ . 1 c.. in. \~ion\ 11 . over.* without. tQQO tdoZo-^ tQ2>Ao f>*^V*~>on\ .m . 2 f. . Fern. \v _/ 3 in.\*^no\ \. Sing. and except. II.rnCAX .r>n .rTrnVoonV ^nm . . The following take no suffixes : A^3 /. A. Kv 3 1H. to. . 155 Prepositions wit// Suffixes.A <<7 /o. Vv 1 . Plur.OOlJAiD ^ 3 f. . <A*^ . '*"> wi^oA uiAo .^\-> V t ? . on account of. .^/r>\ * >n<A~> .. . after. and 52 ). ]iD. xv. Old OlZo^ 3 f.mV^>r^nV ^ . A*AL n</er. B. PREPOSITIONS WITH SUFFIXES. ^iL o<rr. Masc.rn REM. ( 16.OO1O ^OOlZo^ . OF THE SINO. WITH SUFP. within. 1 c. 2 m.* *"* -L /o x . t*t .^^ . C. IP ** 1? 2 m. OF THE PLDR.

From the Greek are borrowed (j ) aXXa. > ^\4^o . ^-i> ooul and 5w<.g.]o t }o 5e ^ be it .). Interjections as primitives are mostly onomatopoetic . v^. . 2)oA*] . g. > that. Conjunctions and Interjections. O and J . > po^ ^until. ! jiO w. tl if. g. n^ e. 3. ^Q^ if yet! n\*"i*"> I pray you I . ^O> lest. The original Conjunctions are the copulative O . p therefore. . 1). ^ 7 > 8s 3. -i^> hence. e.o / |O1 behold ! wicru 7*e?/ / 7m / They are sometimes borrowed from other parts of speech . 53. b) with > . 1. t> i ^ 7 J \>i^V> now. g. a) with ^ . ya^. > ^So i ?e5^. 13> lest. o] or. VJLSOI Amce. ^. .. . Compound Conjunctions are . REM. e. ^ |J] and]]a^v unless. like *2 and ^. especially after prepositions . since.0 although. because (^before infinit. > ^1 and > >a\j because.) namely. e. * c) with other conjunctions . -J> x* P <\ P ff P e.g. ^af although. -7 ^oii (for this preposition in questions see 51. > ^JL} as. 2. Hem.156 CONJUNCTIONS AND INTERJECTIONS.Q. Oj ^Of .2 05. e. are prefixed (see 52. g.

denote a certain emphasis. by the accusative e. Acts xix. John xix. 0.41 . 11.g. Kirsh. CHAPTER FIRST. Matt. and stand in various relations to the verb which follows in the same person. e. i>. xiv. . . ivhy judgest tJiou thy brother ! Eph. iv. These pronouns at the beginning of a sentence. 2. iv.JD U p|o but no one comes to me. SYNTAX. Ephes. k. ^-^^ u'hat you seek to find in tfie night. \ *O.g. * ^V \ ^ * * * *v V * ^OM]J AJ I . e..f. 54. g. but it may be also represented b) by the oblique cases . j8 ) by the dative .7. *vi. g. 20. PAKT THIRD. .T 9 --B t 1> *j| . 11. 10. A. j> pV ^_> AJ| but thou. and find it not. iii.iv. 20 . I seek to find in the day time. 15. Kirsh.. Rom.-9. This relation is not only . ^oAjf> ]k) ooi 7) . 5 . Use of the Separable Personal Pronouns and Suffixes. . \i\ - IQ ]3> 7 ff wiOlOJEQio whose shoes I am not worthy to unloose. a) that of the nominative absolute e. 1. II Tim. THE PRONOUN. a) the genitive r>Vo<^>V ooi by . SEPARABLE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. e.g. Luke xxni..

Also Qjf and ^]] follow the 1 and 2 . iii. 18-20. OOl p>Ol he is here . e. g. 1. 26. * . iii.V)SV) JJ| / baptize . 11. I. 33 . They are also emphatic after the verb. ^1*4 a) . 18 . Barh. Gal. xiv. mark the Present a) of the substantive verb }ooi (see 38). 148. Matt. 73 . 20. T 7 ' * 1 'ri'r* she is true. I. REM. c ) The pronoun OOl . AJ] HhS thou art born (comp. g.g. ^Q*j ooi pi lam Jesus. Gen. i . e. 14 . Rem. 214.3. 15.>* ^So iOAj] ][aVn*| whence are ye ? we are from Haran . iii. MH* I beseech . Luke xxii. ive read . 13.Matt. e.ll (comp. oAj] ye are in me . Acts xxii. . \i\ p| / am . 64). verse 23. 173. Farther in these cases the pronoun of the same . g.. may follow the 1 and 2 person as subject . xxiv. adjectives or adverbs they 2. (Upon j and Ol see 12. t oAj*| **} . xxiv. verse 70.158 THE PRONOUN.V) ooi AJ} /| if thou art the Messiah .] / say. 8. b) In the simple pronoun may be contained both the subject and substantive verb . B. REM. 1. 16. e.E). plur. so that the former will denote the subject and the latter the substantive verb . ]j] . It is "t v*' also found sometimes in other persons X 97 . 1>t . O01 -xr "" IOM> he 1 is i7 * in the desert . 13 . g. g. e. e. and the preceding table. g. Eph.g. The contraction of the pronoun with the participle or adjective into one word is found in the 7 TI p y i i y 1 pers.QM plSo what then shall we do ? Upon ^Qj") and * n l as accusatives. 14. p| . 3.v. (1O* ** he is guilty . Assem. present of the finite verb is placed be- * C * 7 K p** tween . xxvii. 12. ^o ioe are holy. ) person may be doubled. 16 . as substantive verb. xxvi. John xiii. xxix. b) of the finite verb with its participle . comp. 67. 4. B). Ephr.and37. Matt. 105. Barh. 20. ]. e. 20. Luke iii. 13. e. United with substantives. . 68. John i. or the part.

204. g. I. e. Acts.29. g.v. 1.g. 296. rarely. g. 16. Barh. e. Cor. 13. ^jAoou for jJ^ A^xru tkou hast given to me. 4. as subject . Ephr. 9. II. ^iniQCDj |V)\ our necessary bread. . in.g. 4. OliLj ]]^^kAa) his commander 146. REM. Ps. xxiv. C. A. REM. e. vi. T. the dative . PRONOMINAL SUFFIXES. 5. 14. * 1* 4"'* k 9 wfcOAoo p pio thy embroidered garments. Ez. Matt. e. 11. xx. xi. g. *|2o^Jl> wi^AljJOf ^SsO of thy lewd way*. Instead of the pronouns. Zach. g. is neglected in passages of the O.oAjfye are. Exod. and C.of his good treasure. SUFFIXES 1. with II. and for the most part in translations from the Hebrew. g. ^QO^AjJ . e. B) . I. The suffix to the noun is often understood objectively. Possessives are also expressed by ^o with suff.I7. B. 18. |n oii.i. and (J2CD the left . . ( 16. 65. Matt. e. Ixxxvii. 7. The suffix is seldom found with the nomen regens . 133. I. vi. i*-r oi>a&s ' f * \ ^ in his holy mountain'^ Ez. . OiA!LL>year before him . thy first born.T. e. T 7 * ^ X |l Sn. 2. e.-^ in remembrance of me . with Ephr. ^OloAaf p| /am. 20. literally of thine embroidery or ornament vii. 27. REM. 25. e. liijj oiVf) . REM. the suffixes are attached to the nomen rectum or to the genitive proper. comp. This imitation of the Heb. Barh. 159 pers. I Cor. The pronominal suffixes of the verb denote the accusa- tive . Ez. 7. 3. Sometimes a double suffix occurs . v. e. g. Matt. 284. . ye are the salt of the earth. iii. In the relation of genitive. 1.g. 10. Ephr. 1. The noun taking a suffix stands before an > T 7 ** adjective connected witn it .. usually in con- X T <> f nection with (1 Sf)i the right. thePhiloxenian version of the N. B. wijpo. B. vii.j) Olpi^ on his right hand. 218. 10. xi. uioo+* love to'him\ Barh. e. M T T A ^ 1*l* * T * 4 *A V with Mill'. 20. xvi. comp. 17. John xv.g. literally of our need. and'lsa. Rev. 27. 49. xvi. 15 xxvii.

. while the latter marks the pluralis majestatis. John xxi. g. . in _. Also w^O stands connected with the f "* *"^ second and third persons . xvi. e. 37. 16. e.. A. . 12.iO *D. II Cor. ^ ^ i (ID TI irpo -Jjjuiaff . g. 16. g. Matt. 22. It is found still in such . I John ii. Pleonastic Use of Pronouns. g. Gen. 1. Acts i. p. v f v xxvii. Gen. to thenoun be also repeated. SEPARABLE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. and in certain forms of expression. ^. 1. Barh. 8. B) united with nearly all persons of the sing. * Here belongs the pronoun of the third person 001 (Oi) (comp. 19. v. e. 146. 55. 739) or when . e. Gesenius Lehrgeb. 8. 13. e. viii. "and in reference to God. Rom. P 7 REM.7. and differs from ^jSo in that the for- his . r 1 for the pronoun of the second. and plur. (ZciQ^lO w01 ^-^->> thine is the kingdom .for the pronoun of the firet person. ^. verse 32. the noun itself is repeated instead of the pronoun. e. xiv. 9 . We should mention the use of the suff. Genesis xliv. ^** jAoj l^r^ our great church in Haran.a .jQL. g.160 PLEONASTIC USE OF PRONOUNS. 3. "77 4 7 ff .2> . ^A. which is disregarded in the later language. *' -X 7 X l^ T vi. mer is the common form of salutation. John iv.g. &c. Rom. 3. 1.ALDj . (Ol^js* our (thy lord] ? t servants') iniquity . So kings in speaking of themselves use ]SL& . This manner of expression is used particularly when a stronger em- phasis is required than is indicated by the mere suffix . : <""- ^t7 ^ p is used . and is used of Christ in the version of the New Testament e. when the discourse is addressed to superiors . 4.JQL. g. it indicates (emphatically) the Greek possessives s^s fo. vii. Mark xii.\j> ^-O v fyuv . xv. 2. >i\i> *aAXobjl> (JLOV /3w/ji. REM. If the sufF. 1 .g. Matt.A i^DM piD what shall we say *^^^- to thee (my ^i. The same repetition of the 1* x 7 suffix occurs also in prepositions . wi^Lo 01^ |JO ' * he calls him (my) Lord. g. and in w*a. Esth. l^Vf>> ]^>^^> QQoAo write in (my) the king's name. by which an emphasis is denoted. when the suffix relates to a noun which does not occur till later in the discourse (comp. _rrSD. 6 . be considered as an imitation of a Hebrew It is rather to idiom. e. e. v. e.34. g. 2.

L\+* TA*Jr . Heb.dJOl Assem. xv. 2. The suffix is often used pleonastically with the verb. verse 28 . . f . e. 214. . PLEONASTIC USE OP PRONOUNS.1 ^i. iii.I. xxvii.37. The pleonastic use of OOl is confirmed from the fact that the Philoxenian version omits it altogether. vi. .3. . Barh.6 .5. . B. fcOoZ CTQk ]Zlo ami lie came again . Matt. 17. OGlfor he . 3 Assem. ]Sn\sn p] \\Vsn V> 001 that (exactly) I speak before the world. 25. g. 8 Heb. coming. e. D.1QO OOl .7 ^0 3. 1. It is to be considered merely t 7 x . Ephr.. Johu xi. Matt. 9. ii. iv. 47. 9 r 77 '* ' r f* 1 . 2tf.^rrtVo QOI ^'r^U of Rom. xiii. k r > 77. Rorn. e. I. Sometimes also the fern. OlX -0^1 1 he went out . ^ ^| go . Luke viii. g.. 5 I Tim. e. OOl is sometimes connected with a plural . 1.30. especially . . v. . 221.g.A. e. 20. <fec. Gen. Tim. Asscni. iii. ^i . REM. . xxi.44. 11 Mark xiv. REM. xxv. g. where it occurs with a feminine noun e. 43. 19.31. Rev. . ai ')Ai-i r in^o * " * and I saw (it) the holy city . when the object with ^ as though by way of explanation 7 r 7 * follows. OOl and OOl are sometimes united together without * y 7 7* emphasis . OISQIA ^O1QM. 22 I or shall we wait for anofJicr ? . 31 . 186. (iOQa OOl OO1O and this day .g. 16 . A.x. The suffix also occurs pleonnstically with ^ after vorbs of motion. ix. Barh. e. 21. . verse 24. and the plur. shall bless his people . Matt.-7 r as pleonastic in Luke vn. 17. i. John v. 1.9. 19.. 26. Qj>1iO OOl (ZaiSn*aia by faith is a man justified. i. xxii. iii. 14. A. A. ]V] Ai*">^ OlS loOl AliJ he had gout .g. g. Without ^ in Matt. 148.4. Rom. I. 1. xiv. Also in the plur. (it) 6. SUFFIXES. 133. going. 21. ^jaa OuJu^ I buried (it thy talent . 161 passages as John viii. is found . tOJOl ]A!DQAS ^ij tOOl^ ^ ^ but in these days. X *7 7 7 X -X 1\ _7 -ft OOU. OlS ^lll> therewith he departed.OOLkJ A\^*") on account of his wives and children. _cn (still more emphatic). xxvii.

4 . 114. OikiAQ * p p x *x -R * 11 fupkM^) in the name of the only begotten. e. verse 31 . Gen. ^QSO OlS ^QO Moses stood up .) the kingdom of heaven is near .l. Finally. On the contrary.162 PLEONASTIC USE OF PRONOUNS.^. Acts v.g. after A. I. B. e. g. 49. j the feet of Jesus . Here belongs also the repetition of the suff. ^\O fJSD every word . 226. ^-uOl^O _iACF1 all these things. 3. Rom.5. Matt. and even after JOOl John i. a ) > is placed before the accompanying noun and ia . 10 . In many verbs following each other the suffix which is to be repeated falls away . 424. John xi. xii. to the Aramaeans . 367. ^L ' to make. e. the suffix in active verbs. REM. Ol-^O ^i> (SQl but * ^ t" o the whole people . 9 . without > following it. e. 18. g. Matt. other the suffix is usually added to the latter verb e. Matt. 26 .3. xiv. vno 7 7 V | t 1. 22 . Without the suffix vJ3 signifies each.7 *"). g. 1) and after ^\O = all. g. every . U^*? IZmVf) Ol^ Ao. to M&w . B. sometimes with verbs which have not the signification of motion . 2 .g. 87.^ AA!O 5]A^ Lazarus is dead . Barh. 33.So ^aOl^D all cities. 2. xxiv. Assem. xiii. John xi. Barh. the same is true frequently. vi. OlJk i 71 . Eplir.Vn ( = to depart from this life) . B. me thereof. 217. Ol. Kirsh. * e 7 ^> suffix occurs after the noun . iii. i. 24. 2. 2. Where two follow each .g. The suffix is also pleonastic in the nomen regens^ which precedes^ the genitive with > . 71. Matt. 9.0. \ to be *4* foolish. lAJL. 19 I Cor.Lo VlO ^naf he brought out all of the silver coin and heaped (it) up before him . 4.*>. 2. **"^ 7 . e. e. palD OlXo the whole multitude. falls away when it can either be easily supplied from the context. e. Mark ix. Ephr.g. 3. John iii. Acts xviii. Matt. .6. xi.204. before ^o ( 54. ^OlQiO^O |*OO _ IfoiO . particularly the X 7 7 neuter. or the same object has already preceded . iv.A . a pleonastic suffix is attached to prepositions thus . 4.. 14. 419. 15. I. Rem. sometimes. ^Q*-i? wOlo. 23. g. 4. *-ftJO|CUj inform e. Barh. 31 .I. e. Sometimes ^3 with . 10. REM. g.QSo we esteem and honor it. Barh. Ephr. ii.

^k&Lo Kom . )coaSQJ> OlZos] according to (if) +. In Sjriac.2>Vl50. ^So Acts iii. MO^> ^OlO-H against (him) the tyrant. 35 . 6 . <iCULij Ol JAs to (him) Jesus . 9.I. 26. 1. g. e. e.87. 19 . Chr. 2ol Luke xxiii. r . ^.n o^)j .l. oi^S^io for (it) sin . 11 . Barh. by collec. 2. 6. and these also they led into captivity . 6 . g. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. ]2oAaVi\ oil to (it to) the * 7 ft x feast. Barh. . etc. .. Barh. i. OlA^So _V> ^ *j aaOlj a ^tlo -j ^Ae vail 1 o/ ^e temple was rent (in its midst) in twain. 6) or the preceding preposi- tion with the suffix is repeated before the noun . f tfie law . I Tim. fern. 2) or as a relative . 15. Ephr. 12. 7 . \i Acts ix. Assem. c ) of gender and number together.g. 11. e.g.-? ^lD> diAiOjjr the treasures (of it) Egypt.7. 7 ^oi 76. ]Zaj] a*n1 "\n\ .192. h ) of gender . xviii.^cD they found a gnat many men. 3.oai^k a|o ]ZV. General Remark on Personal Pronouns. John i.g. Rev. g. viii. 2 . fAi^^ 591. 8. ^*rDl tOOLD *jOioA*| . 166.8. 2 . xiii. Luke xxiii. 11 . Hebrews xi. 5.6 . 20. e. 1. men or inhabitants . 18. e. Barh. a) of number in A*] e. Y** fr^i* |jQlo (AJ ^ere were among tl>em twenty women and ten children.]z> OlL in (it) the fold.(> * * yi. The same is true in the dual . ^ John ii. 45. 21. ]\2. ^So Acts viii. 74.18. ^OlQ l2o>2V^OOlLs a!l places in these . 108. g. Luke ii. 19. if tives sing. 580. 565. * ". Michael. e. ^i Rom. 29. 27. v. 42. y>rO Luke v.B . we also find in personal pronouns enallage . are signified names of countries and cities. 163 considered cither as a sign of the genitive ( 52. 10. Barh. in words whose plural only is used.

John i. ]i] where? y V^\ there. In a similar manner the relative is united with the preposi- tion .i. 9. a relative signification. 8 (Ephr. with reference to a preceding subject of the same person. qui . 2). 36. i. as . f 7 1> p| *Sa*k) Olju> w/zora I serve . Gen.A^Lsjj A/) ^U*mji thou firt Israel whom (thee) I have . John iii. ]V^ how much ? y ]SfiO so much . John ix. e.2. c) the accusative. S . 1.. e. e.g. e. 56. 198. 27. according to the following example Rom. e. 4. olLo> whose name is Jesus . like the Lai. thus . 2. OS > fe">"> as much as they would. Num.g. I. e. ^QLSQjUj waALo] w/ien they hear . where. g. REM. xiii. g. The Relative > gives to adverbs of interrogation. The oblique cases are formed by some mark of the case followed by a suffix . John i. 30 . In connection with the suffix of the 1 and 2 person. verse 31 . xli.^QlSo? fa*1 there. OliQl 1oi^> with whom is God. 11. 28. 165. 13 . a ) the genitive is indicated by the suffix added to the nomen regens .6. John i. added to the verb. 2. etc. whom.88. iii. Assem.-xlj! ]]'^oAj]j whom ye know not. place. John vi. v. ^Ol. the oblique cases who. Barh.I. me. e. e.I. . 26. g. 8. 11. it (the relative) forms. time. Ol^ ^oAjf . Assem. xlv. by ^So Rom. verse 40 . E) ^. 14 .s . y gives the same mean- ing sometimes to nouns . John iii. Ol>. g. where John baptized . g.82. g.34. e. b) the dative.! louL> whom God hath sent d) the ablative by .2 . E . Barh. ^L^CU Tool .164 RELATIVE PRONOUNS. g. ^jLUoAlOlj *21TDCLi l l I am Joseph whom (me) ye have sold . 14 . 25.3. e. 11. !> . \LHSwhiiher ? y Jiu]] thither.v. where.g. etc. e. John xiii. g. John iii. The accusative is also expressed by the suffix at- tached to the verb .g. e. e. xxii. v. \i\ \\\y p^V whither Igo . A. *uASc| when ? shall y ^lALo} ivhen. 33 . >2) place . Use of the Relative Pronoun ( 17. Isa. y >2] where .48. g. 26 . Jiiuf how ? ? fcLT wsi! ff.

7 7 which time l'l* <> 'iiV f 12. ///// she ass .g. oi>A*)> . who. ^oAlf ^^I| (hat ichich . 6. who has sent me.-J7 1. The re ^^ lativo is sometimes used before" the mark of the case e. . > Vioi masc.0101 t/iose who were sent. Amos vi. Finally tli. \}] ^Jir*) OO1> but his. Rom.*^*Vn pufo and he (or who can.17. xxii. a) by > 001 . Matt.l. g. e. shall be given . 1.30 vii. John vii. 18 Mattxiii. 14. 2 . Ephr. e. vii. Ol. Barh. > <-iJOl fern. r^>? e. REM. g. *.-monstrative is wanting. . ^aioAjilj 1>O1 that.29. . e.'2. viii. particularl} f 7 . etc. 165 made strong.g. 31. ii. 43. j oai . g. g. and plur. 34 . or t/iis. g. b) by ? ^Lo masc.iv. like the Greek attraction. g. . ix.. e. |001 2Aa> OOl QJO1 this very one is he who sat. this) loss frequently arc both wanting.. Heb. Job xxiv. and fem.II. e. The same occurs with prepositions. Rom. The Syrians express the relative with a demonstrative preceding he. .. If a particular emphasis bo indicated the demonstra- is to . Gen. the . 8. 85. . which. ICOQSQJ wLLpA those who know the law.. ii. 12. The relative alone sometimes marks the accusative. 30.. 3 (1) frequently by the participle . i. >^ Aj| *"1**3>> upon whom (me) thou hast ridden. Barh. 7 v. 170. v. John i. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Phil. .. OOl |^mnoj ]i^\ he who is inwardly /John 2. Rom.. > ^Ol . e. 8 . A^j ^Sp\ %QOi~4Aj ot^ to him who hath. 4.^1 fem. 28 . John iv. * that he mad(. ii. according to llebrew usage . . > ^OJOl masc.1>. c) by > U-1 masc.^ \>L\ Pfj jJlLo roj {jSarog w lyu Sutfu aoToi . iv. e.f -f r r live is doubled . and in the plur. Sometimes. John iv. 3 . as follows . ^o^> ye see .g.. > ]joi fern. John ix. |OO1 \ fi\> which belonged to the Arabians. 25 . 17. g. g.vii. Num. .17. 3. and j ^O^o neut. 14 . Rom. i. 5. ff O toot to those who dtpiseZion . T -. e. e. xiii. 137. > v \} com. that.l. > 1.6. 5. Barh. e. relative occurs pleonastically before participles. OLL4>> to . which was. Rom. \. the neuter. 16.24. 19.5 . or the relative is wanting . g.

^1} ^^ to whom shall I give ? Matt. or by prepositions . \99 Rem.? 7 . 2. or so that ^D follows with j preceding . Sometimes pOl may be translated by hicce . 1. John xix. in the genitive. John xviii. 21. Pronouns for which the Syrians have no special forms. h) often.QJ I _SsDO wkio] *aOl V> who is my mother and who are my brethren f The oblique cases are either so expressed that. 38. . as in Hebrew. g. The interrogative pronoun ( 17. xii. xxiv. Assem. I xii. llSflQ whereby ? * i" *f REM. e. v..). g.. particularly in the third person. 2). 19. . e. g. a special emphasis to particles and numerals (comp. 3. 47. Sometimes P-I| occurs instead of the relative in the indirect question. e. 750 sq. . 3 ) is united with nouns of both genders and numbers e. . g. 1. Matt. It is used only in its proper signification. 2. 48. II 7 1> I 7 . the noun in the constr. by the personal pro- . xxii. 27. A. 20. Matt. e. Gesen. Matt. 58. Use of Demonstrative and Interrogative Pronouns. 24. 34. nor does it give. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. 57. Matt. The demonstrative is neither used for the relative. . g.166 DEMONSTRATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. uAj) ^Lo L\* whose daughter art thou ? Sam. g. 22. e. g. 2. It is emphatic in connection with OO1 and _O1 ( 17. Lehrgeb. 20. p^ OlV) what is truth ? vii. REM. without > following it . ^Lo> |r H ^ofrom whose hand? or QlSoj stands before the noun e. |Z| |Al* \fA\^ at what hour your lord will come ? and ^* "j4' r7 includes fOOl . state precedes .>j . 4) as fol. The Syrians express the reflexive pronoun ( 17. }L Aao pal QlLo> ]&i whose linage and writing is this ? The other cases are form- ed by the special case-signs preceding.g. e. Gren. xii. 23. xxiv. fows a) by the passive (comp. 6. p. 42. g.) e.

Phil.g.19 .g. the latter is doubled in Acts ii. The pronouns (*^' and pOQlO by - j X way of periphrasis for other pronouns. This. 5. by . 84. Lukeii . g. g. 12. e. Gal. 3 .OOlmSUj their own righteousness . see 56. 12 ^ ^So he less frequently. i. ix. 17 .^Ao Assem. II Cor. ]a\Lo <ooll oV^nf they chose themselves a king . g.5 . 19 . x. Barh. e. iv. & Oi OO1 he killed himself. 3 ^k> . 33 .is adjrctivcs. 16. xi. 1 John iv. Sometimes they are expressed by -"" ^o Rom. in reference to things Barh. 3. ^ **jl ^3 Luke xiv. xxiii. ix. 83.AaAsb oiLDQlO a house which is divided against itself. vii. Barh. 56. 1 Cor. ^) by a re. 15. every. petition of the noun defined by each. v.Vr>ftir> \}\ I myself . iii. 3. 1 H" r" ^^ Eph. 164. 5 . xii. fj-^j //e/ Ps. I give myself. e. Less frequently occur in i reflexive signification. . *aJ] I Cor. 3 . **J. 88. 5. e.g. c) by \?*i and ]Looio. The former is used in reference to persons . 28. Each. e.g. 2 .g. e. * V C T (O^> heart . v. 33 . 167 noun . g. 2. 3. 77. xii. ""? T ff *. OlMZU !>0^> 15 144. every . Heb. vii. or **! ^ Eom. 54. Gen. I Cor. who exalteth himself-. REM. 4 . ^ . that. 17. OTHER PRONOUNS. -. ^m^? head . vii. vii.51 . 17 l>) . B. I. Rom. . tOOijJ^l oiL|o and they lead by themselves . 9 . . 6. Dan. ]k)Qio is used in reference to both persons and things . xl. xiii. I Thess. 10 . OTHER PRONOUNS. a) . p^O) spirit . 4. a) as substantives. 2. 45 .4. e. by ^O Matt. 18. A. Luke xi. *. 11. by prepositions . vi. e. 8 . II King? . are expressed . e. Luke xi.12. 17.ii. Matt. II Cor. 21 . Rom. dla2U w AaZ'Zj o-A^ ^5o every kingdom * 9 * which is divided against itself. The other pronouns are thus expressed : 1. |1O(J2 *> T .rilo . 15.

*jl J] Matt. Mark xii. is expressed by ufcj] ^O or John i. 3 . 16 .( e't TIVS^. xxii.ii. ^ |L A^ no one A l' is good. The neuter is ex- pressed by Vo. in interrogative and con- % ** ditional clauses. Ir23 ^ every morning .iD ^\a John iv. The neuter.17.43. 23 . lfNum. vi. by X>^ ffor iTlx^k) Phil. 3. 3. Nobody. 15 6) sometimes by ^li) Lev. ^ooilLo . 5 . iii.ll . 4. v. or simply by Ao^ with an adjective or participle " fol- P lowing. 7 . xxxvii. John i. I John iii. 'rO. (= -Q^T ^J T ) Gen. 195. 3 . Ol^ Aa]> ^> hath any one? c] sometimes by vii. 7.9. ]So> ^i . 4 . Jer. x. or more in ac- cordance with the Hebrew idiom. 3 . g. '2.16. > ^S Matt.vowe (of the] blood. 4. > ^k) Mark vii. 27. Matt. *j1 A^) . anybody (aliquis). ^Ql i<ii every nation . Barh.xix.g.. iv.12. xiii. 25. 19 . a) by X>D * Acts P t * v.v. no one .49 . xx. e. vii. Amos iv. 33. 5. ii. by ]<*" Lev.3. 168 OTHER PRONOUNS. 13 . James **l\ j]'jer. xvii. a) as substantives.. sometimes by the singular which is to be considered as a distributive . > Matt. 198. I Tim. 10 flCor. 29.j1j A^X John xv. or UQO.22 . I John ii.4 .18 . A^ fol- . *S> OOl ^jio? ^/ia/I /ie ivas something (great) . are expressed . 27.g. e.13 . xviii. J] *jl Acts xviii. iii. John vii. 2 . 48 . sometimes by . Whosoever. . John vii.xxxi. The neuter by > l Acts iii. Somebody. o io) o Aj dfcj Sak hath any one brought him aught to eat ? vii. 1.14.ix.13. vi. 10 . (quicunque). 1 Cor. I Tim. 21. jk>Qj^> each day. Matt. 36 . iv. 16. v x *^ w 1* ^^ Rom. Eev. | S^oy if any one teach . The neuter is expressed . e. are expressed by . 7 ) by the plural . 18 b) by > ^So Mark .4 . a ) by AJ| and \r^\\ John iv.

II Cor.iv. 10 without So^D James iv. Dan. 10. Hem. Z!A U p ^ no eye hath seen it . by AA\ with the noun following. I. ^)aii\*\ >Q1 ^oouSolo OL^Q **? .' . Horn. 2 . g. 7 . 15 . e. v. xxviii. 6. ^i^l? >. f > AJ| some say . John ix. Zooi A<Ji they would have had no sin. Mark xii. shall ye kill . also in verse 8. . any. are expressed a) by > Li] Matt. 27. ]>ni A^ wo prophet . Matt. with the verb. i. viii. repeated. . Luke iv. 2 . vi. . iii. 32 . 5 . 10 .9. or by AJ) ^ml] _ ^j] au] Phil. II Thes. Heb. c) elipti- cally. 9 with words interposed. others he blinded . p 7 after the noun. Assem. iv. by ^k). 32 . x.'v^. ^So fiu] John ix. others. OTHER PRONOUNS. John vii. 12 or with > Auf . finally by Mr**] _ Barh. some Ihey hilled. before the noun. REM. d) sometimes by the plural of the noun . 105.oouSo Acts xvii. by U . The neuter is expressed by > A* preceding. When some signifies tlie greater part. Some. 39. vii. 22. poll . c) by t oouio . 11 . Some. Matt. ^2U> L*\ some fell . 14. xv. a) ^*J( Acts . 34. Barh. with the sign of the case prefixed. viii. xvi. Gen. viii. 24. 34. 24 . *P. John xv. y ^. .. Eom. it i. xxix. ii. Acts xvii. 4. 1 .bouSo some. 5 . 3 . Eph. 1. xxiii. i. 20. 18. 16 . > Jju] A**} I Cor. 12. 26 with iO. 93. VSr**l ? Ajf) Matt. 114. are expressed by Pi-**! . lA^^o 11 no creature . b) by ^j] ~^j] Phil. i-xj. xiii. J ""*^ |Ak5CL some days . ^pAj") ^iS^o . iii. OOOl A*f for some said . I Cor.14.13 with the noun preceding. xvi. with the words standing between. 169 lowed by 5o) Matt. I Tim. b) as adjectives. ^ ^ "1 "*9^ 7. ** p. 14 . 15 b) by .

vi. Barh. xxiv. JjpJ} _ pM Matt. 24. 10 . lAlaC) oia at the same hour . by 'r^\\ masc. 4 . 8. comp. c) of the same Acts xxi. also without e. . John xiii. Heb. a) of persons. herself. John vii.) . the other. or by )j. ii. or by \^\\ 1r^* Isa. John xiii. 11 .44. xiii. xii. Phil.i. Matt.g.-M p**. repeated. 44. 170 OTHER PRONOUNS. oi2. 19 . 3. ix.g. Heb. iii.. . y**. 40. 34. one another simple preposition with suffix. p . by the pleonastic suffix before the noun. are expressed .13..xii.I.7.24. . e. 24. ISoioi OlJ^uI ^i ^tf A*f^J* if one hath an accusation against another . . OlS into heaven itself. 7T>**^W a ? iCUOl P tQJCn /Ae same sacrifice . xiv. 42.ll. e.^ r** ne to the other (=eachother. Remark) Matt. itself. _ ]AJ! one <^w. 13. .^ Matt. 41. (alter) are expressed . 18. 13. 1. with a preposition interposed between. ^^1 ^>>*1 John iv.j ^f Alo2o ovj\4*2> he stretched forth his hand and it became sound as the other. The one. 21.01(712 jOOlQ at the same time . feltM* or in like manner by (Jr** John xvi. Col. himself. Assem. xxvi. 14. 5 . Some this others that. 35 also by . 9. 36 . \^ t^yt ' W % <V Gen. with p placed between . g. 7 7 R EMt One another is represented by . xxii. 1. Gal.Mark c) * v%9 & > i. b) by . "\L\i** fern. also of inanimate objects.l.js. 32. 37 .vi. 34. Rem.10. ^OOIQ among . QH^O /ei owe bear another's burden. . ii. Heb. \ 7 ^A-JOl the same. another that . b ) by a compound- ing of the demonstrative pronoun ( 17. 14 ix. 57. Rem. by Acts xix. . sometimes by the X Rom. Rom.-w or ^JOl 7 7 repeated. The same.iii. I Cor. by the repetition noun. a) by a personal pronoun doubled. Phil.x. iii.2.

Assem. This latter idea alone is also expressed by ^1 and a pronoun folio wing. OTHER PRONOUNS.** fem. 178. Assem. g.g.39 17. Assem. ]. so is he. ' k* 10. Barh.3. v. As threat as (tantus quantus) is expressed e. 416. e.g. 3. e. </) sometimes by f^on and JLOOLO with suffix (58. HEM. 26.g. 1 . Of which nature of such. 23. 43.-** ]ADOJ a certain ^i place . ~iOloA*f ]i3Ol . John iv. 46.18. I. 18 . 93. Matt. 2. equivalent to just the same. with ^So following. . Barh. 2.g.10 . ]Al*> oilnj J/te sawe year .g. Assem. e.l 16.Barh. 170. iv.AfcA <AOM Afl^ seen. 33. 194. In proper nouns it is sometimes expressed. Barh. ]. * T % *. by circumlocu- tion. f/. 1.3 . OO1 llDOi'j ]j^lo] OVM \[ they saw ^V no need so great as on this day. More definite are OO1 QJG1 . with ^>-i> and the noun following. 55. 171 )lo> ^io Oilio with the same blood . ^Ol >**1j such.IjoSoil AjVliil' ]ioa1 . 3. A certain (one) . T 19 REM. 26.g.v /An . 27 . A). Barh. 25 . 22. 190. 2. 16.v^////r w. r** (rAk) a certain king. a) by HS* masc. Barh. 351. 350. b ) by o& relating to things . John iv. f2> Xf> ^1 p when he had entered into a house. by OlSo*j aufje. 6 . or so (ix (tails (jualis). 18. 2. 13 . 70. vii.415. John v. ^niie /John i. 1. e. 15 . exactly tin. 117. 6 . . are expressed by pbd > 1^3 ) : e. 11.

g. oiX3Q2 toe have seen his star. Use of the Preterit 1. Mark xi. Bark " 68. a) mostly before the sub- ject. ) after particles (when something actual is denoted). is usually in such a manner that the preterite designates those tenses which stand in connection with past time. line 4.17. 5aS*lol] Qaa/^I Jesus came to Je- rusalem .2. L 31. as iii the He- use of the Preterit brew. however. e. This. e. 11. so comprehensive. e. Q\r>n \f p since they did not receive. Ephr.g. 16. 26. THE VERB. L 196. Mattii. 59. John ii. L 361. 60. ft) the Narrative tense (Aarisf) . Barh.O. I . 6 . 24. while the future has the same influence upon future time. 3. Assem. 27 ship . In the Past it designates . 21T. /L^OJ fcoi "w<i7 Ae died . The and of the Future. . 18. John iii. ^010. Ol!^ _^ms2A ^L\ w are came to wor- him. Assem. General View. r a) the absolutely past tense .22. that by them almost all tne other is relations of time are designated. Matt i 25.1 Vl\/ Opj2^ his disciples remem- bered. in accordance with definite rules (comp.g. > "jSoi until that. 65). brought forth .12. 213.

6. ou> . Terse 8 . John iv.g. us be vxttch/ul. &4. only in translations from the Hebrew). principal action. ^-'H-^ ^-COI let. xvii. It a) in verbs of quality and Matt condition . > >Aa q/2er tfa/. *n** M^O Zorrf ^ db^cn . Barh. sometimes after verbs in which is involved the idea of a future action . Matt. 6. (for the prophecies. precede it . g. e. Barh. and i 24. ii. It marks the Future Tense . John ii 22 . after particles. Isa. e.8. ix. ^ oiocj ]lo 4. e. I denotes the Present Tense . is red . RE*. e. Eph. L 3 . 10. however. Barh. 3. g. More for the stands the frequently. XX T participle or adjective) . 9. e. In exhortations. Ephr. denoting simply what is usual and customary . 172 the Pluperfect . B. e-g. 2. xxv. v. IL 117. 25. b ) of . 24 . Matt iL 1. a) in relative clauses which define the c) in point of time. 23. e.S*2] . periphrastic form of the preterite with lOOi ( 65 ). Ps. (]oci with a . 35. 2. lVn^ art thou iv. vi. 2 . ]l$a* OKjffifi OlX lliif he did as the angd jQ2> yQi of the Lord had commanded . A. Mark xL 6 b) . 2. 90. > Vr**> *> **> a* . ibid. 80. L 213. xvi." Barh. 6. 20 . lo> 1>O1QJ OV* they shall see a great light : Gen. and in clauses which contain condi- tions or conclusions. 79. >2kd %CDCU>^ after that he hadslainDarius. verse 9 . Assem. and the like.0 trfon Jesus was 'born . most part. W^Q. xiv. A.g. g. the preterite also expresses the rela- tion of the subjunctive a) of the present tense. John iv. ^JL *li^l ( why angry ? 3. a) in asseverations.0 ichen. I Thess. 39. j >Ao ^So.7. Assem. g.25. c) when it denotes a state or condition : e.g. b) the completedfuture (futurum exactum) after > . Mark xii. e.iof he promised that he would give . USE OF THE PRETERIT. Isa. however. which are viewed as already fulfilled and accomplished .g. ]Alio KD tchen they shall rise from the dead. pluperfect. 1. 6 ) in general designations of time. $Qa* . 11 . after . O>a*> ]&i\ the jieldswhich are white. Tit ii. 25. . Gen. 9 . 164. 12.

22 . Finally. * 7 ' " A \T A "i' the imperfect : ^oA^OOl (. . Barh. g. 5 . I. 415.. wi_jl fool 2p> ]} AjOOl ^jZ O-L. 21. poi (J) *Ae bottles do not thereby ^-i^^So burst . e. g. . g. 10 Ephr. Oil . John ix. etc. 9 . a) looi occurs as an Imperative in connec- the preterit tion with an adjective or participle e. 34. ii.oA^OOl love your brethren . 19. AaOOl l^JO *J<lL oh. iii.T If _ **A2> . 37.-I'P* Ae be^-f/n to open a/jrf /o offer up. nn. AA^ lAjt^M tO^\ Zooi if ye were blind. . iv..\I ^SD AiOOl B^ol would that I were not of her children.o>| they sent to entreat . 9. xii. after preceding imperatives . xxv. e. 68. especially after **\ . with the copula.2.V jA*OOl itf&i uyirjff . ii. This idea seems also involved in the cases under c. . and sometimes the preterite with wtdA oA. 8. o&oo. denotes the optative ( 65). Mark v. c ) of the pluperfect . 21. \v.g. 93. Mark i. e. that thou wert cold . then would ye have had no sin . iv.. Barh.. Barh. QOL ^A ]{m ]2T he came to besiege Acco . 284. 24 . ]Vn. 16. hadst thou been here my brother had not died . that. g. b) the preterit stands as an Infinitive after verbs signify- ing to come. 10. i 10OO1 is sometimes want- f ing. to send. 402. without the copula e. iii. 17.>Wx) e. II Tim. 15 . 44 . . e. . Matt. 225. . 15. 17. 1. Ephr.. the preterit also stands for the Imperative and the Infinitive . to go. John xi. g. Rev. g. e. g. 403. Luke x. 36 .174 USE OF THE PRETERIT. Barh. . E. 5. Rom. Luke v. I Pet. ix.jl . 41. 13 ^^n. I Pet.y . III. the imperfect subjunctive is more frequently expressed by the future ( 61) .

> 5*0. Jud. they went. g. Luke xviii. 21. with tf verse 48. . 20. A ) the Subjunctive . e. viii. Z ooiL oiaaj y>*^ ]2p* r >-} . The Future stands . g. e. ^o^o Luke xxii. I. b) the Imperfect .0 before .l tm!0. 175 REM. John xiv. o2) OVlf) they arose to go \. John iv. v. 13 . g. g. a) the Present although more rarely than in Hebrew e. Luke ii. 1. 23 . ^au tf. b) for the Complete Future in conditional clauses. a ) in general . a ) of the Present . e. I. e. 61. But this union frequently denotes merely the aorist . (with the future in the conclusion of the sentence) John v. . i. 8 . Isa. 8. c ) more rarely the Perfect . a) for the Absolute. e. 7. 288. It serves to express the following Moods . ]oi ^J *ooZ ]"<^ ^Ani ^o *)AaJ > ^3 xa$ o iflvuv Ix TOU ZSaros TOUTOU. Future . Asscm.g. 10. 13. have come in his own name. d) the Pluperfect. Use of the Future. > ^)pD (oegfan to spea&) . /3 ) before . it denotes. after . \L ti-J>2' IJQJ after > > ^o^a fr^re <^e cock crows . 17. g.f ?/ another shall . loi& l^iH d hath chosen. 2. 35. xi. but my ward shall not pass away. Jer. him will ye receive . S^qtfet -jraXiv . . USB OF THE FUTURE. the following relations of time. a ) after such verbs as X F t* *i ' T* j tVr* . Matt. i. Assem. CTI^ ^op > ^^ Ae <" apace to him * after particles > po. Barh. )m. 28. xxiv. 15 . 21. 61. 5. 3.22 ^^Aj > io^o before he was conceived in his mothers tvomb . xliii. 2. e.}U ]Ly]o jlio* Heaven and earth shall pass away. xv. 43. 27.i\V)0 ^o. Furthermore. 19.

John vii.g. Luke xviii. 1-1 . Rom. ii. g. 223. after a preterite. 7) sometimes with (OO1 appended. 22.xxvi. should. I. /3) after > . Ephr. F. I.41 . i. v. 7 * * T **P P JOICQJ k*J|> (OO1 . I. and the like. vi. 10. 237.I. after the pluper- fect e. 28 . May. looi Ol^J U=uf how he would do . i Of * " * 1 he might go and see . can. 37. !>O^2) . As- sem. e. a) in conditional clauses . e. and E .377. 3 . e. John v. g. U-? i*"^ ]oou> CTl^S*! he gave him authority that he should execute judgment ." It001 |AjkJ ^^? U^? (?O12 (001 |OOU p'rCDdM (Ik) what harm would have arisen because it had brought forth good ears ? REM. 8.g. 31 Barh. C. 31 . John ii. | ing him .10. . Assem. Ephr. B. g. in con- ditional clauses. after ^ and \\ \\] (in case that) . .27. 2oSoi ^ > nV) now let him die. vi. 7 . 40. 203. I. 297. 359. 51 . K . 30. I. more _ p rarely. . /3) after a preceding imperfect e.* e p .Oiiro (J zV tGS not needful that any one should testify. 5 . 3. B. 1. 40. j^ST'fl ^QQjTZj j^ *&*^ "ffit is not lawful that thou should'st carry thy bed. g. 25. are also ex- pressed by the future . v. 1. verse 47 . John vii. Heb. John * i \ *t OLD IjQJ *J \\ if any man should confess concern- <f - ix. Ephr. b) of the Imperfect . John iv. ^QQJ o)j P^O what shall we say. IVwJO ^lV? that . 79. Barh. B. e. d) of the Pluperfect. and only with ]ooi appended .OG\LCL f OOU> OllSO "^*^> they entreated him that he would remain with them . OOOl oLl they were gone . 16.. might. E . . r oo . . g. Matt. U> with a preceding present or imperative . 1AJO ^Lo^ ]L\3 let him come to me and drink. ^Qirspj (7 that they might buy .0)] ])> -_ nf*) gather jAart nothing be lost . 12. I.i>. shall we continue? Gen. John iv. v. 11. Assem. John vi. e. 176 USE OF THE FUTURE. 80. Ephr. must. c) of the Perfect sometimes.00 > 1".13 .

tf /ear not . 4. 6 . 14. xv. Jla he sought to kill .^^f> U he cannot see . 5. 14. B) The Imperative . 33. 6 . 20 . 90. Assem.J V> ^3 every one who of- fered not should die . QLoiZASo^ ^Al (1201 even . John iv. John i. J] sm wo . 35 . 3 . . REM. C) The future marks the Infinitive after verbs which in- volve the intention of some action e. 5 . 19. 6) after a preceding imperative . 34. I Cor. a) in Prohibitions . Luke xxi. 33. 177 i. vi. rQa Luke viii.Matt. In like manner occur )ZJ Matt. vi. g. Matt. 1J> Uj> he feared to x r M-r f . ii. The third person of the imperative. 40. 11. ]>O1QJ ]oGU let there be light. |V"J> **>. Matt. 49.g. g. 24 . 20. Com- pare 63.e<r&6 xai iSsrs. John iii. ZoiQJ ww^D. xi. \^f>"> every sacrifice should be salted with salt . 08. i. is always expressed by the future . xx. *T so ^e Son q/" 3/an . 1. Barh. \Vn7Z |*. I Cor. *(>*. 7 . ^r-I xvi. the future is also expressed by r-iAl ready. Finally. Prov. i. iii. 2. ) . 7 . iii. . e. e. e. xi. g.8. 28). B. Mark ix. in the plural . r go .g. 55 . USE OF THE FUTURE.17 . 5>OO ^J> +*\ he began to fast (J ^JO and John v * iV to pray . Acts i. *px. 63. viii. verses 4. 4 . jSop ^3 By way may and should are expressed by > *")i M . to be lifted up . 9 . 4. ]2u*O> ^3 ^f. e. I Tim. and many others. 18 . vii. 3. xv. which is wanting. viii. Matt. 22. v. 4 (without > following. 3. g. 34. \ about to be ( = ^XXeiv and a following infinitive e. The infinitive with ^ also follows these verbs. Barh. 25. ^opaZo o2 verse 47. ^ he thought to kill him . ' * i tiki can say? of circumlocution. REM. Gen. * 11 twus< by J JJO with a future following . John iii. g. e. ? oijri 12|k2L rAl> he who is to come .7.

and oZ in the plural.22. oVoo*r>V oooi \Lo'j ^j^Alj the spirit which they were to receive. |VU(") >O*r>1 \L let us make a covenant . 15. Mark i. a ) with > and a future fol- lowing. REM. e. l. 7. meant .g. v. 2.Rem. Barh. 8. or without > . John xi. John xi. especially of |Z and -Z in the singular. xix. D . 9. 1. 37. In the same signification the Syriac appends the impera- tive of ]2f (vid. I. g. are in- * * \m' V> tended . e. ^1^1 o2 let us go. purposing. 178 USE OF THE IMPERATIVE.g. 39. 197. 68. Ephr. 1. The imperative standing after the future. j^cno siCO^ arise. f.481. 62. Use of the Imperative. . John i. some- times acquires a future signification. take up thy bed and walk .g. The idea of willing. . John 7 V ? 9 \\ * ^QQ X>QO * ._j| ^r"A^ <At* tezV? cowze to pass. b) with an infinitive following . verse36. when several are. xxxi. 32 .44. fooiSo^ ^-lAoi . _}Arb |2pj H^t? ^O whoso will follow after me . 28. xvi. 40.AJ> JjOia /Alj the priest shall begin. * 1 v l * 11' Luke xviii. 38.<) lift . 13. Gen. e. The Imperative expresses either a command . g. 24. v. is also expressed bv Js .J |OO1 JO U Ae would not up ?. e. e. e. e. e. Rem. -especially Matt. The implied idea of the imperfect is expressed by IOOT ap- pended. J>Q-. r>n\rn O i n to the g city . g. 2. Also occurs > ^Al with a following future . 44. when two. xlv. or encouragement and permission . in the plural John vi.17.. 0X00)0 _ ^Q2^ ^2} / will give to you and ye shall eat. John vii. Assem. Gen.) to the future of the finite verb. C\ e ^fl\ \3t he would ffo forth. 15. g. g. 18. REM.6 .

22.o ^] go to call . and in connection with its finite verb. e. 14. following each other with- out a copula. 179 or the latter of two imperatives. . 3. OVM o2 come to see . On the use of JOO1 to designate thii person. OlX p^)j po^o he is very like him . Concerning the third person of the imperative. 63. 26. B. if ye would live. % > John ix. *. Isa. e. Gen. 11. 16. A. 3.Soo w^l go find henceforth sin no more . In this latter case the future also follows the imperative . it is expressed by the future ( 61. . xx. see 60. John iv. e. a) a strentheninp of the action . . E. Acts v. The infinitive without ^ is mostly used adverbially. which has not. g. 20 . . Ephr. Use of the Infinitive. Hebr. iv. 3.Z )J ao2 ]O1 ^. it shall not be fulfilled._x4*s. I Sam.^D^f QO^aSo 7 will bless thee exceed- yut^-CoV cL^lmSoo inly and multiply th> ^nntly * ~ * . which itprecedes. B. John viii. REM. e. a double form for the infinitive absolute and g. viii. verse 29. L 201. 6. when one Of two is negative. Eom. denotes the infinitive . e.Al ]>ai do this and /iue. xxiii. xi.10. 5. 9. 18. Eph. INFINITIVE ABSOLUTE.. successive imperatives. g. g. g. i. denotes the latter by ^ prefixed (compare 19.A/V ]]'o ]ALs2> n\Sv speak a word. com- pare 61. a. USE OF THE INFINITIVE. B) e. xlii. OtAo o. 3). or with the copula they stand in the relation of cause and effect . REM. -*n. like the Hebrew. denotes . Rem. The Syriac.

byit is no means . ii. xxx. -*^*") they sought to catch something. g. f> ^*"> ^""Ao weep much . command. More frequently it is merely pleonastic. Neg- atively with ]] before the finite verb equivalent to. B. indeed . Pkilem. confirmation . <!>>/ ^. iii. and it is appended to the imperative . ^_OCT1 ^^r* ^r^ could we then know ? per- haps. Acts vii. Rom. c. e. xxi. 34.g. Barh. 6. 19.180 USE OF THE INFINITIVE. g. A). 9. also expressed by the noun formed from the finite verb . 45 . g. rather how- ever after the idiom of the Hebrew. 5. INFINITIVE WITH ^ OR THE CONSTRUCT FORM. Gen. 10. truly. somewhat. Gen. ^oLo^oL ASnSo U ye surely shall not die. in translations of passages from theOldTestament. g. ix. 15. 7 i> 7 MSDa^O Q^Q hear The negative sometimes stands before ye. Luke xi. verse 9 . e. a) after verbs which denote a purpose. etwa ). John thou shah know with certainty. 7 . 28 . Exod. mj * 7 *.17. . The case a. ZoSoZ 12oSD FnfaFl fllfa thou shalt surely die (compare Ephr. . xxii. A^pa |U*iO / have indeed seen. Jer. 13. much. 29 . Isa. The Infinitive with ^ stands . Matt. 8. wish.g. e. Luke i. . see 67. as Xg I*^S> !^r* Ir** rejoice exceed- ingly . much more. 9 7 > ^^ AJ I *4\SnVf) O^l ^flV> wilt thou indeed rule over us ? 7 T 7 then. e. John xiii. 7. xxxvii. ^1 U ^\iiO he by no means went in . vi. xxxiv. e. which is closely connected with the ordinary Syriac 7 * * 7 i \ "k 1'y i' mode of expression . xliii. 71. b) certainty. . By the infinitive absolute are also expressed. g. c) it sometimes denotes continuance .g. 54. indeed ( Germ. e. e. ^oaoZ U ]n*"W? ye shall not always weep . it . e. Isa. 22. etc. 1. e. 46 .7. Gen. other minute points of the 7 *? ft language.g. I. 24. Acts vii. determina- tion^ capacity. 4.

ii. Gen. e. 1. 4) and after looi. i. ^apo brought to eat . <k * V T * *P v. in ll-br. 10. 1. joined with a preposition or conjunction. to be accustomed . or wlten .*"1SV)S loilL 1^? which God created. vi. xiv. Assem. B.ji he began to preach . 42. 2 . 21 . Ephr. 38. But of the llebrew idiom. (WsnaSfA ^-iJlSo Mey were ac- customed to changes. Barh. 13. THE INFINITIVE.12. than can be forgiven me. REM. 5. 5 13. 17. 15. I. iv. 18. 1. 3. 2 .g.8. Gen. vii. b) after verbs signifying to begin. oJOUiol _ sAa// take to kindle . be rendered by while. e. in infinitive ^ passages translated from the Ilehrew. 16. 5. OlpVlS -. when he made it).g.SV>\ ^aSQ ]6oi the sun shall go down. Q^NSnN OOO1 ^>\s U M^// censed not to teach . by which the infinitive.20. is explained by the finite verb. negatively. 1 wZ. Barh. e^ who should not enter . Mark ii. Barh. Aere #foo could he not remain . 2 . 5. 230. forms. oaloiSo^ looi ]T he would not }z>^ go. a cir- cumlocution for the future . Barh. 192. I. 12. 6 . 83. Gen. 1. e. xv. T * ' 7*1. Matt. Matt iv. only the construction with > ^lO before ^ . after rtAl ( 61. 7 . g. John iv. 14. 1. x. John iii. Tn the poets we sometimes meet with a Iran-it ion . ]nnV& V}]' that she goeth unto the grave to weep. REM. 20 Acts . e. iv. 24. i. 31. 21 . I. . without > . _ i* AJJ \\ no tiiftn can serve .Vo refrain from entering. xvi. Eph. or comparatively. i t " < * "v " \\ *(>> who should vVr>\^ ^.20. he sent him to feed . O^shS) ^Lo ]oOl ]]* \\O and he ceased not to teach . *"). Luke xv. 181 John v. 16.with The (which can sometimes. Barh. viz. there occurs in Syriac.g.O N^CO wiOl (2> in i/ crime is greater. 42. Assem. to cease. Matt. John xi. D. 2.

instead of drinking to measure fountains (literally. 52. g. thus a) the . ii. 32. O^i rv\^ . in a genitive re- lation. in the construct state. 5 . 14. which seems to be done for the sake of the metre (compare Hahn et Sieff. 129. i. 29 John iii.). b) the Passive Participle. . Oio ^LOiOiSoj . blessed of the Lord. 2. |Jo jAaioi> ]liD Ucn^ *si 001 . Ephr. 3. and doves . ii. 74. Ibil^v ^I*> InVf) a king who fears God.. Ir*! . a ) the Active Participle . with or without * prefixed ( 61. >o . 7 . Lev. Anm. e. Participles may be considered either as Adjectives or as Substantives : A) As Adjectives. 14 . from the infinitive to the finite verb . and take their object in the case or with the preposition of the verb from which they are formed . Chr. before the noun .182 USE OF THE PARTICIPLE. e.aiSn . . sheep. 1. John ii. and we will not measure) . 7 * * * ' * r P UaO i> (OrLO pOZ ^il*")lV>> ^iNCJl those who sold oxen.^i yap footer t's i. B) As Substantives participles stand. Barh. Ez. 4. III. ff y ^P 7 9 *. 20. viii. 170. Assem. Acts vi. Barh. 3. 108.15. F. B ). than. with the case or the preposition of its active . t <me of thirst to drink vi water. 1 * ^' i 19. 6 . 3. g.18. C ) or by the participle ( 64. they assume the number and gender of their subject. 64. > x- i cakes anointed with oil I Sam. Holy Ghost . e. ix. verse 16 . Vt QQ ---^V clothed in Syssus .jL*z> maimed in the hand . thus . 44 . p. Eem. 4. and likewise conversely . 9 V'*r&? oiLoi ^ t Sv> full of the . i> o. A. Horn. 270. g. ! v* . I. every one who believes on him . The Syriac also expresses the infinitive by the future. Use of the Participle.

iii.rt went in at tiie gate. A. . e. I 75. c. e. iv. REM.. 2. II Tim. 3. ]A ]!Zf 11'} but the time cometh. John iv. Rom. jfnnVn ^xl^ those who know the laio (literally. ried ivith them and baptized . . AJ I ^|i thou prayest ( art praying ) . e. verse 6. 31. ]"l i m . a) the Imperfect . Ol^ ^\QO and he beareth it (the theep) .36 . g. xxiii.\ l^DO ^iA. I Tim. John. 2 y) after the . B) The past . 18. 29. 183 Active Participle . . 15 . 84. John vi. ^Vn who had drawn tfie sword. 5. 27. 36. |AS>OQii> ^\l *-*r^>> breaker of their oath . rii. 5. even before prepositions. 31 vi. oTZoX )Z)i 1U-V&0 \*ia li^o unJ he saw a great com- pany who came to him . I. vii. 9. xxiv. in connection with the separable pro- noun denoting the subject ( 54. 23.**">g> ]] / have no commandfrom our Lord. Gen. g. ^io ^io Jj] .10. .*->\ 1^|o and cometh into his house and calleth his friends . re/wse to acknowledge) favors. IZn^aft*") ^r2^ who deny (i. joined with o copulative . g. 4. preterite in a relative parenthetical clause . 10. /3) without "JOOI after a preceding imperfect. iv. John iii. a ) in connection with looi ( 65) .ioliDO ^oblSfil looi ^oriAi he tar- 22. l*o? Oia*jO blessed of God. iv. ]i>2 *\li those who * t . viii. the separable pronoun ia omitted . 47 . e. 20. 1 . iii. Assem. 1. xv. . Luke xv. Barh. 2. xxvi. Participles mark the following relations of time : A) The present.g. 9. In the third person which is usually already rendered definite by a preceding noun or pronoun. e. g. Barh. the knowers of the law}. e. USE OP THE PARTICIPLE. 11. 17 .*mr>Vn. verse 11 Assem. 214. i. 2 ) . 195. . t . g. 6 ) the Passive Participle] Gen..

iv. . (3) after a present ."JALZ he said to him. Exod. and not as a constant idiom of the language. shall rise again . ^OD) \3\ V^r* -^ /^wo?<. 362. 7) after a preterite.*r>. believe that ye shall receive . 184 THE PARTICIPLE.. John iv. ^^^f my Father will love him. viii. Assem. jJDQjsj| y>(o thy brother propositions . S ) after ^1^2] OlZoLo a future John xiv. I Sam. It is to be regarded as a mere imitation. John vii. I. ^ffiLo oboi ^Aff U^oo ( liom spbn vn tr^m ) and the waters. e. vi. ^oAj*} ^xJQOUj coicuoi loi. is indicated the continuance or gradual progress of an action). REM. V) IOGI U-i^^P . ^7iai lie shall rise again . is expressed in Syriac by the participle of ^1 1 . 80. 25 .ij lAl_i^S& OlS )J1 JXl^iiD ^lk)O. 26. e ) after an imperative . and we will come to him . 8. >Ao> OlS . John xi. ) ) in general ^ . Gen. 23. a) the Absolute Future . ? b ) the Perfect * .? " souAj /)* if it shall lie granted me that then will I become a Christian . g. 24. 20. >j> they went up on Mount Herman and abode . 17 . -rnr>. 52. when the Hebrew infinitive pin or tne participle ^n. 24. Mark xi. 5. 81. 23. John xvi. Barh. decreased more and more . that in three days he would surrender the city . % ) after " "" ' "A 1"? 1 |Al ]^Z| 1 01 behold the hour shall come . ^ the boy JD-IO ^iT U^o to ( ateiT bim T : tibn "i53m / ) rf grew from day day. 5. g. ^ ) in direct and indirect questions . e. ii. Gen.4 . CThe Future .'i . l^ ^ ^> U^? vi -V"O ***> i* * 11* Soja (J search and see. 1. John xi. coming before the finite verb. ix. 25 . 0*7 which. 18 . 32. xlviii. that out of Galilee hath arisen no prophet.

6 ) tkefuturum exactum . 185 e. l>l^n ftf fl^yt ^ Jiol? shall the M< i^inli. besides that they would not sac- in relative clauses ?///''? . 2. xii. Beb.03 he ordered that If dtniild be given them as Bishop. 8. 10. < i AJ] rilj iOjio ?/. whom they should ask . after verbs signifying to begin." T Zooi ]^0-> " . e. g. 45. ) after particles. 27. xi. Gal.g. viii. c) T e. I. f^o ^poil ]J1 water. e. Luke v. 12]> ^ASo) w/ien fo sh<ttl/i(n. b ) of the Pluperfect. g. g.g. 379. in command. 1. 218. xiii. 38. with }ooi in conditional clauses (compare Iff . 41. ** +. Assem. 133. Barh. 27. /3 ) in conditional clauses . . . 19. . to be able. 15. verse 81. A ) The Subjunctive . ^-^U? ^D |annm^)V ^OOll ^odu2J> . come out of Galilee ? verse 31 . after > II ). I. In like manner. Barh. Barh. participles indicate various Moods . Assem.'7*ff tfio?* tw'ft ofo . Matt. 56. a ) of the Imperfect ( with }ooi . 21 : .s7/o//A/ //-: Zi'ye. 15. viz. 22 .. compare 65 ) after J .TC 60. F. *^Aj| U^o? Jio as won as tliou shall have heard . g. x. \ B ) The Infinitive. 4. joZALo ]3 _ "jiZ")^)ZASo IOJ-M ^| even though the vessel broke. John vii. 12. 2.* they began to pluck. e. e.e come. I. Q^ V *A *n\ ^. g. 7ie should die . USE OF THE PARTICIPLE. 362. Mark i. i/??o/. Ephr. to per in it. to cease.*^m. 19. etc. IJohn ii. 2. iv.r> . and given them to me. depending upon a future (= imperfect subjunctive). e.John vii. the ground would not break .oA^OGI _ ^AJ GlLJ-iA had it been possible f i ye irniilil have plucked out your own eyes.

160. y^oiSo . Barh. 12 . REM. . c.* lioidl they began to see the light . 73. 5 John xi. 6. g. jCJJ . 8.30. 83. 7. Matt. Luke xviii. Matt. xxvi. John v. I John ii. VZ]? ]**]* OTpTQ^ ^OV**J they shall see the Son man coming . 37. 4 .4. 9 v lu* 'i. 11.QQ ^. ^D\ p bound hand and foot. 1> P *> l^o 7 Ae came seeing . g. Matt. xv. A. 7 180. 44 . 6 ) by > preceding . g. 64. 32. **Ol(Ay^O ^cncy") . ii. 96. If to sucha participle. I. 44. >>^r>% 0-> r>\r of . 20. 16 . O*~lflS verses 9. this con- struction sometimes expresses the Latin ablative absolute . }Lr* ^>in ^& ^4r> he ceased to build churches . Matt. John x ix. ff > 30. Luke x.^ASo disquieted by war he died . e. Matt. e. Barh. John xi. \& *. xiv. OOO1 4. Mark ii. 40.OOl^ ^Aj we will give them to eat. . ]frnV> A^o o2uj sitting at the receipt of custom .15. 8. 10.7 x p o -\%P r Matt.*! . xiii. John v.n] P it could not hold them . xv. vi. a noun be appended. xxiv.3 ^ou ^oaiZaL 12] ]lv> ^l /e5MS came to <Aem walking upon the sea . REM. 15 . xi. 2. xv. ^-t nonn* suffer to grow. 26 . 19 . 43 .^" 1 CJiS ^o\ bid her help me . 8 . 19 Acts xxi. 5 . ^*fttvV .g. vii. Sometimes 9 also stands before such a participle . 62. e.* he began to call . 14. lv**Ao **. 7 . 2. 108. . Mark ii. 13.<r> |Q... p ]Lo> p l3Ty>lrJ r3 B not standing^but bowed to the earth. 14 . Acts x.25. 37. wOlOjj| ^Mr*^3 V unwashed hands . Assem. The Absolute Participle is ** distinguished ^ 3*1*rX a) %Cb !>** * by p pre- ceding it . e. the participle is sometimes to be understood as in the person of the * r finite verb following it . 19 . 50. 32.47 Mark . P ** Mark vii. 5 . viii. In the translation of the New Testament.186 USE OF THE PARTICIPLE. 2. g. ^L ft.xiv. xviii.

Participles sometimes have the signification of the Latin participle in -ndus .20. 2 223. loiiLj IrOll l]a ]3 i/ behoveth not a servant of the Lord. John iii. Assem. xvi. Finally participles are also used impersonally thus . Luke vii. vi. Acts xxv. 37.9./XSI tfoi. xii. Mark iv. 2.2 sitting upon a bed. Ol^ OOOl ^\in> those bearing him . e. ^*2 ^L ji^O I deny as I will. 187 6. 2. a ) those from transitive verbs . especially to denote the neuter . Barh. x < '. 30. 4. Heb. 170. ^ Vj]io Zo'oi \f let it not be bur- densome to us: Barh. ~* v* ? ^ " t. L * itp f a) the Masculine. 30.-otJ . tfxL ff. 24. ** T \\ 7 * V "A lJ.r 30 John . 6 ) the Feminine . USE OF THE PARTICIPLE. xxvi.9 . 128. Barh.I T . 41. g. g. I. 2. Mark vii. 455. Matt. I. OOOl ^-4-*M they were come . ^\1 (CC)| ^SuiU . Assem.7 ^ *lxD> rirfm^r M/JOW a/oa/ . John v. viii. 377.^n\ |OO1 MilLo troubling the water . Matt viii.n\ *Ojl> j^| as it becomcth saints . Philem. 33. blessed are those who mourn . it behoveth thee . ] i. 18. 19. Gal. xiv. e. ^1 )>! wi^ TTiy son.ooujJO.^1? ^ ^^u^S U <>y H. T. xi. 5 ) such constructions as I have forsaken all . 4. air*]& oil Zooi ]A.^>V she drew him by the hand . ^AA*> timendut. Acts xxi. Rom. 8 . 1. Sri a-iroXXufjisSa . 1 . 38. V"^*^>V "jooi ]]o OOl OOll he must increase . 4. g. 15. v.8. flo ^ / must . 27 . 4. . t r i 7 14. e.16 . 34. A. The passive participles frequently have an active signification . 45. Oil ^AfAfM} those surrounding him . ]. r ^x . "U^^-^ P bearing the child. U^> 1?0l 'Aw is probable j . Here also belong ( compare No. 13. REM. 3 . 6. ix. - . b ) those from intransitive verbs e. g. Eom. 4.

4.24. 519. Matt.2. 2) .4. ooi in the same 10 person and number added to the preterit .22. P ' J3 ) ?? .g. A). e. Here belongs also Rom. A^OOl r i I kept. 2. &)by the participle (64. John xvii. Luke v. 2. xiv. c) usually by the participle ( 54."B. 482. c). iii.3.9. and Optative in particular. also without the substan- tive verb. a) usually by the participle joined .b). b).. besides cases noted in ( 60. 2.188 MOODS AND TENSES. 5. a with |OO1 ( 18. 65. B ) of the Imperfect . a) . b ) by the prete- rite ( 60. of the Imperfect. ^OlO^po ^lo ^ comes into his hands . 1'ocn ^ff he went . P |J ye cannot. by the future a) rarely (61.1 79. 1. >OOU CTlSo Zooi fn^l all Judca went out. A. A ) of the Present is expressed . Fz'eitf q/" $e manner of designating all the Tenses and Moods . he can . e. 2. and 64. The Indicative . ii. 2ooi 1^!& it was necessary. 4. b. \fa Olmsu 0001 v wAo sought the l> ( -*~'j ^QJOI child's life . c ) by the future ( 61. Assem. Acts v. and in the feminine. 39.e. 2. i. Pluperfect. C) of the Perfect. 12. 2. g.b). -0 *K~ verse 20. and 38 . 64. lo>1O ]lo it is honorable and right . and rarely . 1.B. 9 . a) by the preterit (60. Kern. 1 ) . . 1. b) sometimes by the future (61.

a) usually like the indicative of the same tense. some- times . MOODS AND TENSES. 8. very often . 2. g.oA*ool -^1 ra&Ji ^ o!& 7 X * *A 11* jOAjOOl ^-^r -->U if ye knew me. a) . by the participle with looi in conditional clauses . times . participle with ]ocn ( 64. a ) . d). 3. //. B ) of the Imperfect .c). }ooi wiJ. 2.. 22. 3. 4. a) by the preterit (60. The Optative is expressed . 6) by the future ( 61. b). .. b). 6) by the preterit ( 60. e. * j . a) by the Preterit ( 60.2j he had * s \9 N^ hidden himself. The Subjunctive . 3. a) by the preterit ( 60. verses 39. 2>f . c) . c) by the participle ( 64. x. ( 64. 2) . A ) of the Present is given . a) . John viii. 25 b) by the . D ) of the Pluperfect . A. a ). OOO1 QA1 they had gone into . c ) . b) by the future ( 61. c) by the participle ( 64. 2. a ) by the interrogative . C. 4. more frequently c) by the . 8. |OO1 |OO1 ta Arf ftee/i .. . A. some- . |OO1 OlrMl |OliO terror had seized him . A. c) rarely by the future ( 61. ///. 1. 3. d). F ) of the Futurum exactum . b). 3. 3. 1. 1. a)by the preterit of looi ( 60. *. 8. future ( 61. C). v. more frequently ft) by the future ( 61. 6) by the impera- tive ( 62. sometimes by the future ( 61. A. 13. A. 30. 42 xviii. b). A. 19. John iv. 36 xxi. b). ye would also know my 1 father . E ) of the Future besides cases noted in 61. sometimes c) by the participle alone . C ) of the Perfect. 189 .

a) . 3.l. Sometimes instead of r 7 the Hebrew 1JT|1 1^3 occurs the almost correspondent J . Luke.7. C) and more frequently . B). b) by the future.ix. Fs. The Persons of the Verb. Gen. Exod. of the active and passive conjugations is sometimes used impersonally thus j . II Cor. e. 66. |Ol_i(J f Zu*Q^*2 glory toGod. e. V>\ O-SX would that my people would hearken to me . The third singular masc. A i (001 . 3. oh that that wert my brother.g.g. *jA ^oA^ooi ^-ijnimV) aoA| may ye yet hear with me ! REM The optative is sometimes also expressed by /} or Q_x\ .18. a) by the preterit ( 60.14.11 ^Lo . The Infinitive. e.-i oh that I had {who will give over to me) this people. iv. T T r *tf T1 e. . viii. and fern. 3. 5. iA*iOj ^_iOOl ^iO would that we were dead! When the substantive verb denotes a wish. besides the cases under 63. finally.lxxxi. especially negatively (61.g. IV. but it is literally translated in Cant. 29. 17 or the participle with * . e. it-itta IJOI JVnS OlV7\l ^j . ? r ** .190 THE PERSONS OF THE VERB.13. V. b) by the fu- ture ( 61. xi. 1. in my power I Ps. g. it is omitted . 3. b) .g. by verbs that denote a wish with a following > . b) by the particles widL and that. il\V> . is ex- pressed a) by the preterit of looi ( 60.the Future.). pronoun with a preterit or future following . * ^ * ^ VMM aoA I oh that he might * live . xvii. 7 T T * e. 4. besides the cases under 62. g. with a pre- >oA*] oh terit following ( 60. B).Rem. 1 . 3. . c) by the partici- ple ( 64. g. Judges . ii. e. Job xxiii. xvi. is expressed . lv. The Imperative. 1. 5.

John L 28. When the subject of the verb is general or indefi- nite. Aaa. Isa.vull ]3 there will be no for thee Barh. e. i . 3. THE PERSONS OF THE VERB. 23. Zooi ]f** IJa] there ii'as not any thing . wiA ?7 grieves me . xxiii. vi. ^QStL aipoj it would harm you . 12.ll. --^. Ixix. 362. would be good for us ^k a|j it . 380. in Syriac. 3. 24.> JL* Ajpo t'J shames me. Jer. ) of the preterit. g. erf) of Mw generation .6. Ol Ip2> ^V>!^ whom it grieved. 13. 84. 01^ Au'pO it pained him . T .2OuAj ^| it shall be permitted to me. rest OlS jiUI it VHIS said to him. pas- ^\ . 6) the third person singular mas- culine . I. -T133. xxxi. (I am asham- * Am . e. to .34. JjiOiO . ft ) of the future. 34. 191 a ) the masculine. In like manner in Syriac. AlLoA| Me report was spread abroad. vi. a ) by the third person singular . 481. the neuter is usually ex- pressed . 298. . in various ways. it is expressed. 20. A. b) the feminine . 9.g. . ^CTIOAI Ol^ ^4oZ| he cured for him . A*iIZl \o>) it seemed just to us. i. 2.9. i^S . 4. * T _* Assem. I. /3) of the future. Gal. ) in impersonal phrases. Ps. g. Deut.aaL ^oja it pained you . as Luke vi. a) of the preterit . Ephr. with the demonstrative pro- noun or with adjectives as subjects e. 1I< l>. Assem. Barh.g. Ps. F. ^ tV^ll B ft will not be grievous to us . I.14. as in the English. xcv. ZoiyJ it was light . x. John vi. 7 ft ) in connection . it was dark . 8. thus . OOl {>. 17. Assem. * t* A* 1 Ps. ^"> ]ya\ L\Zi it seemed good Moses passively. a) by the third person singular feminine of the verb. 240. 7 * Luke xviii. . Luke x.? 7 i* sively. Ajbyi Ol it was revealed to him . ^S we also find for the neuter . e. . vii. Yet I. .10. 5. . this came to pass at Bethany . thus .

t looi jSof he (i. after the Hebrew idiom.e. Jl they ( i. Acts v.g.192 THE PERSONS OF THE VERB. sometimes the verb is in the second plural. Barh. i. 1. 58. or Jkjf and e.27. ix.17 . that ive (i. Matt. they say ."^^ tluf how can \* one be born when he is old? or passively Matt. xii. . 29.Sa^o __ -^foVr>V xxii. to which is also appended by way of explanation. e. I Tim. r XaAj> itf. Ixiv. no one shall tread). xi. g. Matt. it shall be told .g. xlvii. e) more fre- quently by the participle alone. 24 . e.. John iu. Acts xvi. e.nV> looiZj that thou of- ferest (i. J&JJO *QQJj (or by the infin- itive with ^. and im- personal phrases with an g. x. that there be offered ) . I Sam. ^OOl -^ nfl what they see e. 16. f 9" * f Heb. Matt. I Cor. Mark vii. e. ]vn\ ^>^o\ do men gather ? v. GuS0. e. 15 . l^b he calls. 13. men in general ) have not heard .16. d ) sometimes by the first plural . nrftk ^vVnV . any one sees.^X one may do .g. Here belongs also |^O|ASo they say. Dan.4. e. xxvi. 15 . j*Q-i? jo. Gen. 10. i.12 . any one) IrQy. it is called) . Isa. the participle or participial noun of the same _ k t * verb . o2 . vi. 4. one calls.vii. xvi. . e. 58. Ij^. 29 . any one) should take and cast . ^AVn\ ]]Q we (any one) must obey. ii. iv. 3. xi. b) by the third person plural . e. 3. xxiv. 26. Isa. Luke ii. o^oZ p w^en ^AoM bringest. also with an explanatory parti- X 7 %**?* ciple or adjective . Matt. 1 . what is seen ) .g.J the wine Ireaders shall *0 % tread ( no more wine . e. 13. what ^VAS0> v (i. Barh. xv. e. infinitive following . g. (i. Qi^M Ucil they fail- * r f i ed c) by the second singular . \*^rt\ ]^Q . 13. it is said . * * * T 1 1 * V T T ^ f * if said .17). 9. L^ ]ooi liwASo ^L there prayer was wont to be made . ix. 9. e. 9. e. 12. 12 . Isa.6-2. >Q. A REM.g.

26. Matt ii.OOOU9 \sysre fioi. . viz. it appears to be rather according to the Syriac idiom. I will} make man. * OOLkJA f\ Vr ' V _ CJLaV 1 r \.37 . 24. ]*j] . 1 . Sometimes though for the most part only in passage* translated from the Old and New Testaments. g. ii. I. ^ ^DoAs ivrile to us (me) . 1.\ ^i(j>> ^oA because we have sinned against T him. 6. . Justinian). not to indicate more particularly the difference of the subject . and remitteth the remnant of his heritage. 9. hath he poured out upon them (us). 67. and retainest not transgressions of the (compare Ephr. REM. VERIJS WITH THE ACCUSATIVE.13. xlii.g. 21. . e. I. 6. the construction changes from one person to the other. 6 ) from the first to the third person . 90. A. When several verba having different subjects follow each other in the same person. xi. in the first person plural. VERBS WITH THE ACCUSATIVE. Barh. have written . II Sam. 7. Gal. i. xxiii. 18. ^oiQoAp ooi} . g. ^inAo 101 be- hold we (i. or vice versa . e. g. speak of themselves the first person plural denotes the > pluralis eaxellentice. With an Accusative are construed . - 9 Ym OlO IpwJ ^D^ then did we rejoice in him. e.e. 15. a ) from the third to the second. When the Deity or those in high stations (e. 11.^1 Uo orZoZ. Kings). . e. IL 284. . in what they declare of their ancestors. Isa. Matt. Here also belong the instances where writers include themselves. iv. a ) Transitive Verbs . B ) Mai. g.^ there is no God as thou. ii.g. 25. xi. 193 4. e. who forgive th sins. Psalm Ixvi. Micah vii. ol uiro vo'fxov ^eXovrgg g/vai . Rom. ^*Zo2| |O AJ] .}U lei us (i. Gen. Construction of the Verb with various Cases and Prepositions. e.

Barh. to gird. 'O teoQxA!^ ]2. ments . ( with *2 John ii. 20 . 12. John iv. 23 ) . .194 VERBS WITH THE ACCUSATIVE. V ? P ^ 2 * * 214.g. 72 . 4 . Acts xvi. Eph. 285. 17. Ephr. \0 7 |ll to answer . i. 10. 12. 1. ja&lZ] Acts xii. 8 -'**/} Ps. 39 . 10 Eom. Acts . Luke i. ]l Heb. ii. 2. 20.**] to . vi. (Zoni JOO1 ySD iJjk. xv. g. formed from the same verb . having at the same time a transitive signification . even intransitives. as their object. SdiOl to . 38. 16. g. viii. and finally . rriQ** lOO 1 ^3> fo rode upon an ass . 11. yS>O\ Luke ii. 38 . viz . IZ^o) . civ. Matt. who shall feed my people . 14 . etc. . to cover with anything . 7 T> 7) verbs of remembering and forgetting.*"><** to announce. 8. ) verbs of coming and going to a place . e. c) several neuters also take an accusative. \ Col. xxviii. iv.!> 7 P. 12 . pj2f John ii.rn*i Olma/ t } if he suffer harm as to his soul.g. . e. Mark v. 51 . .*jO (^ he was full offaith and pow- er .nSrr> v. Romans x. ' % ' John vi. iv. og> to command . .44 . Judg. ^jl Luke iv. John ii. 22 . 53 . to adorn. xiii. <s 7 -- vi. Here also belong such verbs as in other languages govern 7 1> 7 other cases e. >OIL John xv.0| I Sam. Luke ii. a ) those signifying to put on or put off clothing. REM. g. e. 215. vi. 42 . 8 . 1 . Matt. -*^V I Cor. 3 . 29 Mark . ^1 xviii. / 7 l1 ^ x lV* even passive verbs e. 9 . III.21. iii. xiv. 36. 223.*Vsi> that he put on our gar- 7 7. t believe . Barh. 10 .}o he came into the region of Tyre. Acts xii. a) in connection with a noun. 2 and /3) those denoting a ivant or excess . e. Furthermore here belong . 11 . xv. . .33 . John xii. aaj i.g. 16 . 5 . |k> Acts ix. ^'nnX . 6 ) Here belong the following classes of verbs . .

e. ^Q. C . e. 2 The following govern a double accusative . 17.and /S'Aa. 10 . 6. E/. adorning. a ) Pe. 2. Acts xxviii.SnV) o /eacA yow all things . y>V to have visions dreams . 253. Matt ii. xvii. 1. Gen. % . 24 . 14. I Tim. Here belong a) verbs of clothing. to happen to any one.. Ephr.. 195 . xvi. ~ a . also governs the accusative of the object . 34. 2 . Luke i. plo what has happened to him . A. Mark xv. Acts vii. 239. 4p^. xxvii. II. \L*> CfcoL A. Ephr. or showing . g. e. of which takes an accusative. 18 . ** W* * 9 % P 7 9 tdj| JOO1 112O1> because this has befallen them .. 26. g. I. gry he fills loith good things . ft] verbs of filling up. a) verbs of putting on or off" clothing. e. i. Zach. e. 53. covering (also with . 251. s] tC show us the Father . I. g.John xiv. y) those which denote teaching. viz. . John xix. 32 . 362. of S the thing) . 17.9|> |A*jJ ^oldjkCQOO they put upon him a purple robe.20. Matt xiii. OO1 10 . satisfying . Acts ii. 6 ) verbs in Peal with a double accusative signification. g. Ez. VERBS WITH THE ACCUSATIVE. Ephr. e. John xiv. iv. covering with anything.'\V> <Ae vessels with oil. 178. 527. MOV** ]wi>. 239. fri'ii he clothed them with garments . 6. ]Aa> l^OpM CU^ they rejoiced exceedingly. John iii. ia the sense of to befall. 5. A. A.. Ephr. verses 10. I. verbs in Pa. 8. Jil^OT ^djf \a?\ he . A . * f propose a riddk . 29 . 10.? YV T * r i pa. 2. ]W> I^S^V^S-V^ lamented sorely . Assera. especially f3 ) when the noun ia more' accurately defined by an adjective. g. D . g. 40. I. Luke xiii.

Mark viii. Lev. John ii.So Ja pi ^jjl he built of (them) the stones an altar . John ii. about. I John iii. g. 2 . VERBS WITH PREPOSITIONS. 89. e. John v. *&)] to sow . 15 . 47 . 19 . it v 21 .g. i Matt. g. *Q Zois io 6e ashamed of . Assem.?)]* & ^jfoSLo /K (tfiem) ZAe water pofe wi^A i^ater . xxii. v. concerning. Here belong especially . Mark i.7. Barh. 2 . *s pD to have pleasure in some- thing . Ps. I.53. Ix. 18 . xix. Al- so with an accusative of the material of which anything is formed . Assem. Gen. oi^QSoo OrMj t they shall rejoice * o at his birth . 12. 38. Gen. i. 11.g. /3) verbs ofJilting up (also with *o and^-So). e. (also with ^Sr> and ^loi * * ft * the person and thing) . y <y> * AJJ r^^ Olio t^/Aa< mak- est thou thyself? Heb. Verbs are construed with -JD which in English are joined with in. upon. Heb. Assem. 190. or making a person or thing to be P f % 7 thus and so e. iii. . e. vi. oipQSj \o all that he had commanded him'. A. V*a. Luke ii. 17 . 5. any thing to any body. A. g. E. 1. 33 . 4. "jZ] OlS OOOl r*-M* < they demanded of him a sign 5) verbs of showing or doing . i. a) verbs which denote some state or emotion of the mind . A. to anoint. xvii. on. 332. 32. I. I. Luke i. 1. IT. ordering. Q \>& to hope in . John viii. 43 . xii.45 . ^A^OU Ja] / 7iave ?nade 9 7 7 > * jr /Aee a Father . 36. *Q ^0*01 to believe on .ll. e. 17 . . s) verbs of naming. verse 9 . 346. *Q OlLo22f to wonder at. x. 7.20. {l'.22. ^"> girded them with girdles . Barh. Matt.90. 212. y)verbs of commanding.14. Barh. Rom.xlv. John i. Matt. 13 . *a *rJ io /oo^ at . I Kings viii. etc.196 VERBS WITH PREPOSITIONS. Isa.

Of verbs of motion. 53. 28.*. xxii. swearing 6) by. 27 . ^orA p] OCTL-mT wtlto lV)X my peace *^ T gt'ye 7 ?o you . I Tim.B ajA* Ae marfe an overthrow among the Philistines . John xiv. 17 .. Rom. Acts xx.iO O1Q |A> 1^*^ the cup from which my Lord drinks. Matt.. 10. Here also belong . 9 . 41 . xliv. bring) something . Luke iv. viii Assem. xxvii. 33. 197 16 . . 10. \ . commending. Here also belongs Q ]A* to drink from . Some times J2 denotes a part of the object e.. *JL> >aa2J> ^So whosoever shall deny me . VERBS WITH PREPOSITIONS. *Q o*VS to mock at . 32. 5. 372. Matt. .31. Mark v. x. T r P Aa\^~> I. c) some verbs which denote a doing something for or against " x ir x T j some one e. Psalms Ixvi. . 26. Acts ii. I Tim. 7 I Thess. Mark i. v. xxvi. Barh. Deut. d) *Q VLjS to encoun- \ iV ter . 23. A. v. viii. prove against some one . . 13 . 1 Tim. 23 . i. Matt. verbs that denote acknowledging. 33. to rebuke . 5 Acts xxiii. and *> \L\ to come with (i. xx. permitting. 27 . and here are to be placed 2 ^*. 13 . Matt. 32. 3 t^H. II Sam.19 . v. 34 . 8 . 9 . 26. The following verbs are construed with ^ as a sign of the dative . ^>| and *uOw to . denying. xxv. Mark v. 31. calling upon . Luke viii. I Kings ix. r Matt. or threaten . Acts xxiv. 13. e. ^ ^A C* Q2>| permit me MS .21. Gen.27. g. I. Matt. g. Gen.-*"> 1?QJ> -ViV5 whosoever shall confess me . -. a ]p to call upon . * * %^A p * j. x. xxvi. a) those of giving. \LL 1'oCLfi ^S )j| kooLo / at/jure thee by the living God . 9. 10 .27. 10 . xxxi. JD . 63.g. xxiii. 2. 1 ]]s ibid. Rom. 341. 32 . 8. 2 JOICD (also with ^A) to testify against . *O nV) to laugh at . viii. Luke viii. x. ix. g. and x^Soi to 7a6or at something. e. . here belong . REM. 16. e. iv.

66. 14 . or c ) those that denote likeness. e. REM. g. 01 A. 4 . a ) verbs which denote to fear. Heb. releasing . oo^2 of God. Barh. Barh. Barh. 170.g. 15.29 John x. Luke xxiii. Luke xvi. #p7x* not ^OL^J OU^> ^SsD i/a< thou shall escape the judgment ii. iii. 29. 3. x.^_. I Pet. 28. Matt. Assem.l. Heb. ]!") ^So jOl") j^2> that thou shouldst It * * T 7 m yrom eu?7 . Barh. (with the accusative of the object in relation to sx siv . Rom. Aj| ^\**> ]oi!$L ^3 tf af fearest thou God? John ix. "With ^So are connected .9. Matt. Johnxiv. I Peter iv. 6. 3 .3. 19 . tCioL pi / commend you to God .9. 17. 40. and ^ A*| equivalent to to have . " -1> -I iv. 46 . 5 ^Lo QO^)Z] ? abstain from lusts of the flesh . vi. 4. 20 . I Peter ii. 21 .g. Luke xiii. Acts xv. xvi. e. 17 . e. 12. refraining. Here also belong impersonal phrases.22. xv. xiii. 9 . 3. 18. JllO OlS OOO1 1'ASZ he had three sons. Ol Alt IQ thou art like him. 11. e. |C3l4** ^O OlA i\ . 16. Matt. t. I. 16 . 15. rnV r2iy VOfLo that which pleases him . ceasing. similarity. ii. 29 .30.g. 198 VERBS WITH PREPOSITIONS. loi-^? IZaolk) Uio> ]*&\ to what is the Kingdom of God like ? verses 9. e. All> I Cor. x.i"> ^> beware of men . 94. xx. John xvii. 12 .102. such as ^ |]O it is fitting /or. Luke xii. g. O>OT>l| ftf". xiii. 137. 42. he ceasethfrom sin. iii. In the same signification occurs also ^ loOl . II Thess. Rom.. }i*"> ^D t oaoicuaj he . and ^ AA^ equivalent to no< to Aave . ^ ^*V 15^ V^Uo Voi ouVo xai rdv irars'pa xa< TOV uiov e'^si). n Jotn 9 . 18 . John viii. 2. 8 . Barh. b) those of pleasing and displeasing . guarding oneself. . Jlee.

10.OTL. 46 . John xviii. c ) those which denote a doing for or against. 31. 1. II Tim. or per. 4. I Tim. John i. John viii.20. 35. with vA and -^\**> John > x. xxiii. 26 . OllLo OOO1 ^ . g. ^A joimjj J tJiat he might bear witness of tJte light . 34 . 14 . Acts vii. vA ^AloZl to take counsel concern- ing .J to be anxious .g. e. Matt. xxvi. 15 . ^A J. . may be followed by about. Rom. fZoiSOiOT . ^A >] and . vi. . ^oA pa to iveep over. press an affection of the mind. verse 40. Matt.i> xviii. ^Lo also expresses the Latin prce . ^OlQAl Ojoifloj v i\i| those who testified against him . 199 will keep you from evil . . xi. ix. 69. Luke xii. v. 58. John i.22. beseeching.. xxvi. Matt. l to accuse . b) those which denote power or authori- r v l l* f ty over something e. iii. Matt. ami failing . 28.2. a ) some which ex. xvii. poi ^i\S ^AlQj> that this person should rule over us . 15 . Lukexxiii.-io &L& they came short of the faith . . 4. vo they besought him . ^oAjj r^s* U^> laol V>A why take ye thought for raiment . e. g. Matt. 14. -Ai XLM>A| be merciful to me . With A are construed verbs. 18 . Rev. vi. Barh. c) those of * r t asking. 26. 32 .27. Luke xxi. * thing . 62 . vii. 25.28. in English. John iv. viz. lao^ ^Lo OlflDp yV)Sn\ to Jill hit belly with husks . ^A >QAs in icrile of. VERBS WITH PREPOSITIONS. concerning. which.1 . 46 . Matt. Acts xxi.22. it r T r if ^ it J *f ^OA 5<imoZ| to rejoice over _. 40.f . 31. 1 .v. Barh. b) those of filling up. 16. concerning. g. 46 . 6 . or an occupation with some- ~ V t> T . Luke i J . Rom. ii. T t ? * %^ t * woia\l A\u |A^A> fear fell upon him .S^ ]*Z]j shall come vpon you . _l A^lO to die before . e. REM. 8. Luke xix. lacking. 4 . v. r . I Peter ii.xv. Luke xv.

1 1 . 7. ^A \& and ]iQD have the same signification Jer. xii.*"> and Al iO between. ^1 ^J* to ash after . With AxO . i. e. ii. Here also belong phrases compounded with nouns derived ? -tf 7 from these verbs . ^JL *aAo to prescribe for one . e. Barh.4. iii. -^.. 25. xiii.7 7 J>. Matt. II Kings xxii. protecting. 13. 30. iv. speak of. d) verbs of covering. xix. 50. I Peter v. . g. Assem. 23 II Sam. 35. Mai. xv OOO1 ]Z. i. 6. fioiOJ ^) Ae separated be- tween light and darkness . x g. 12 . i.200 VERBS WITH PREPOSITIONS. e. 14. are construed Gen. Mark x. g. 22. 13 . 19. Ol\i* the . 6. J/n\. 2 .\v jo]j J]> 50 that we shall not burden thee. GliAo o^i| /Aey followed him . 18. |O1_^ cosi yowr cares upon the Lord . Ruth i. . xix. or burdening . John xvii.n \ they are a burden to me . 9.ff 7 //em Luke -. II Sam. I. xiii. Matt. iv. are joined verbs which signify go to * r o i "* (equivalent to to follow ) . 22. A^jQ ^>r an(i lv** <o see. 35 . * ***'* verbs which denote dividing. to perceive a difference between . Isa. . "With >Aa after.7 . to vii.*>. 15 . ^i \1O to pray for . xxxvi. 5. Job vii. I >. t oouAl A\l IZj^ou Jill a 6ri^ cloud covered * 7 _ p. .g. g. 20. 77. xviii. \v. . II Tim. John i. vi. 23 . 7 . e. 22. John viii. distinguishing pnt>\ Zu) ' . command or petition . 25. e. 17. wjAo oZ follow after me . 32 . ^ ( power of theMost High shall cover thee . And finally . >Aa I Tim. ^\i r^21 to charge one . II Chron. about. . e) several verbs that denote a charge. j^^ they took care for the King . Matt. \A \T . 5. P xvii. separating. i * '*" * A ' ^ 5. REM.

I Kings xiv. permit. 21. . 16. 27. 3 . Barh. 10 . to appear. I* "">V 1 t oV"Aj? that they may be seen by men . 201 RKM. e. by . The active cause in passives is usually expressed by ^. 2.g.* to cause (without the copula following) e. are expressed.. or in " connection with . looi . or j. e. 1. 15 .17: Luke x. 14. Matt. Luke viii. xxi. III. or vlo2) without ill V) . 25. e. PASSIVES AND THEIR CONSTRUCTION. Ephr. vi. Rom. xxi. SoxsT is usually expressed by . 3.* ' ^*~> relation of genitive -L in the or with the suffix be longing to the person . xxi.g. ^*"* . Barh. II Sam. 28. 240. i 1 \Q ]ooi f r wolQjA** he seemed to his sons-in-law. Acts vi. xxi. xvii. Off) to com- mand. xix.* . x. i . v> (he) seems to thee. are expressed either by . g. . I. 72.So . destroy: e. When rendered more definite by the adjectives good or bad. e.F. g. 36. as in Hebrew. Gen. 11 . e. PASSIVES AND THEIR CONSTRUCTION. . they are expressed either by '' ^ .-*> ]l. ^o *3 would this seem good toGod f In the trans- lation of the New Testament. g. Matt. 29. 14. the thing to be done is implied in the imperative itself . 12. xxii. Ol^ }ooi ]^ he was caught by . g. xviii. To seem. 12 or they are expressed in such a manner that .2i and \*~i . xv. Matt. Gen. To suffer. GENERAL REMARKS. 2.g. 5 . More in accordance with the Hebrew idiom we find >Ao with verbs signifying to put away. 114.

5 . Mark i. Rom. I. o 01 ^oA**) there was a voice heard ly him . Matt. 27. l7QjO> ]1*0> A. MioA*] to obey. .a). 13 . e. 3. 22. xv. ] . and hence may be explained why participles also passive of the Pe.^ ^L*p>ALo twe 7 f 1*^* remember you in our prayers . 16 . j*1^0> . .. especially in verbs relating to the mind. 15. * * . 1. 223. e. Eph. 11. When passives. 32. xxiii. g.J^f REM. 13 . John viii. to turn around. 59 .VrtZ^ she was filled with the Holy Ghost . 28. Acts xix. 58. A. ^joA*] to recognize. ^. 14. QQ . e. they are joined with the " tZa^^a '' V ' * 1 x 7 accusative .<w clad in Byssus . Yet we also frequently find ^S0. 14 . Barh. . A.2.Z] to chew the cud.*"lnZ] to ^Ain^. 41. ii. ( 64. Luke i. have an active signification. 7 I Tim. iii. iv. REM. xx. 7 22.iQl2] that I should be baptized of thee . 6 . i. 5 . I Thess. xi. 108.2. tOl. . v. ii. 152.V> > are young shall marry . Assem. REM. Acts xix. sometimes retain one of them . verse 8 . 40 . 6. vi.g.. I Tim. Here also belong such passives as >>Q. 24. . and 16. v. 1 Col. John viii. i^Zl to Ai'cfe. Matt.14. 14. 90. 2. 3. Lev. vi. 3 . Passives have also frequently a reflective signification (21. iii. ^aa. Many neuters take a passive signification . Assem. g. 22 to t^wA. 11 . e. 10. 4. 39. 15 . 86. 2. him.202 VERBS WITH THE ACCUSATIVE. etc. Passives whose actives govern a double accusa- tive. ix. \x**Z| to wax strong. 14.2. 5) take the accusative of the\> li^Ui o wa?i w/io w.*Z| AxA^ ^CLM-I Jesus bowed himself down . PL to . 23. y J-^-if those who . ^yiO?P o'^fo 7 7 . Barb.g.

r if J^l Acts xxvi.O_i to burn. Matt. HUM avt^rtfiv. 14. MODE OF EXPRESSING GREEK COMPOSITES. xvi. g. or by verbs which . Rom. By simple verbs.40. uO1OAl CTlL ^4^21 xai tirsps\i)i\ aurou . |OX iQ w irXav^rs .10. 1. e. ^xoaL = avr< .10 . AuJ . r * t o .lY. belongs also the manner of rendering Greek Composites.2. iii. see 82. 2. Q2GU avaovr . e. By verbs . Appendix to 67. are express- ed as follows : 1.xiii. Rom.g. Luke xiii. MODE OP EXPRESSING GREEK COMPOSITES. < " 1 ' *' rupi xalsrai . oxcft vin. 5. which in the Syriac translation of the New Testament. . . a) the idea of the Greek preposition is included . answer to the simplo Greek verb . 8. Luke XV. Acts xxiii. ^M ava/SX&rourfi .32. 24. . in the signification of which . a ) with a preposition answering to the Greek . ])QL2 v/. 9. xv. xx. 5. 4. * -i -' . 203 r. ai\non\ 0001 ^kli^bj e} avnxsijxsvoi auru . Q2o2 fi<ravoM. Upon the use of verbs for adverbs. 5. Luke xxi. g. *oAaZ( -Trposypa^Tj. Acts vi. 33. ^J to fall. To the subject of the construction of verbs with cases and prepo- sitions. 2. . 34. viii. Rom. etc.2 xarapavn in. 32 .- ^r ^ v _i)OUQLO x T xaTafxaprupouO'/v tfou . x. . 18. ^Ql T = a'Cv . . ^oA = ^*i' andxara. e. Matt. b ) without respect to the Greek preposition. n ^t JireXa^ovro . Luke x. ouf. avrorapjjXSiv . ^-^H *poyivw<fxovrff . xxvi. xi.xiii.31.C2. Matt. Matt. 12. 1. Rom. AyapcMvofMv .

4. 4. 2 . 4. Rom. By another verb representing the preposition. iOipo ^So = -irpo . 52. g.*^\^\ 5 Matt. 5. 20. John xx. it is usually resolved into its components . 23. in the same tense. where in John ir. e. the Syriac . USE OF looi . ii. vi. e. Mark xiii. or b ) by an adverb of similar signification . OliQl M*J tfu^rjo'ofxsv aura). and D.204 PECULIARITIES OF VERBS. Acts vii. 4. ***1V c x p X 7 O 7 p |2> ^jkOOLi xaprfoipopouo'iv . and gender with the finite verb .3. 6. ZojOlCD jOlCoZ ]T REM. A. o| ASOpO irpos/p]xa. x JLO> ^LD * = ava.8. Mark iv. xiii. vi. iv. Col. and some other Peculiarities chiefly relating to the Construction of the Verb. 15 . iii. 40. e. 2 . I o' Trpotfopsuo'ov'r Matt. II Cor. is translated by J 68. xix. 8. 9 . xi. The Substantive Verb. It seems to be merely pleonastic. 18. f ^iV)^ ^Q^lp> * *V. 1 = irpo . Acts vii. This verb sometimes follows . iii. II Tim. e. g. g. Instead of }ooi to be (with which. A*f AND AjjS ( 38). Heb. I Peter i. iO) O| 2L&> . ^OpO ( to come be- J* \* A * * fore ) tfpo . If the composite is formed from a noun or adjective and a verb. i. according to 65. the imperfect and pluperfect are formed). i. i. g. which usually stands first. number. B. without any connective particle. 9 . "poi'pT]xa . Rom. 35. 3. f JU9> ^LO iA r 7 Heb.

|OOI sometimes stands pleonastically with the preterit without giving it the signification of the pluperfect . he would ( I will) be no King of the heathen . e. AlSoij ^o]" p as he said. Luke i.g. 11. 32. ]ooi ^Oio/u] he was.10 . or when it would be a mere copula between the sub- ject and object e. Concerning ]ooi .g. according to 54. g. e. g. etc. It seems to mark emphasis after |J (in the Philoxenian version Q\ nowise). A*| and A*_^ with ^ = to have not to have. John iii. 223. 12. 17. Barh. Rem. e. verses 38.16 . or in interrogations with Jj = nonne ) . Matt.27. . Heb. 2. 11. 8 . . e. xvii.) . John ix.6 . Barh. 3 . . xiii. III. commencing with j ( = 15 on ). ^QH\ *)OU )*OlO ]oO1 11 Moses has not given you.5. The indirect discourse is usually expressed directly. and with them also in connection with the former (]ooi). 31 . Mark vi. I have VfiT3 taJal AjAj <->^'r^O( 'r^Si no husband . 9 REM. 51. 2 .3 . 11. vi. xiii. 13 . REM. 40 . John iv. 69. 17 . II. e.9 . 13 . JjOl looi ]] is this not ? xx. 135. ^j ooi he swore. I (he) have heard. 106. 25. g. g. Loci ouA_i] they were. B. xxvii. It is sometimes omitted as present or imperfect. 205 also uses A*) . 12 . verse 53 .g. Mark i.45. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. 11. 55. jj] IOCTI |J ]g>i>A ]nVvr>^ fo. compare 67.7. e. Barh. Sometimes > is wanting at the beginning of the direct discourse (especially before 61 ) . 17. 29 ( 65. 18 . 183. ** verse 1-i. 443.g. forms the imperfect . 8 . 58 . John vi. Luke xi. Luke i. Matt. ' T IfOO1 **'f* fie began . 131. 219. ii. ii. e. r t 1 A t7 l 7 V T r thou hast riijhtly said. Rem. INDIRECT DISCOURSE. 374. and in negative phrases A^X with suffixes. more frequently jioV .24.

1 3 . Rom. e. omitting the > in the apodosis. g. 6. it is usually omitted in the apodosis. 206 ELLIPSIS. 97. 31. Con- r Y* iteming the omission of ^D| see B. and concerning die elliptical use of |OO1 see A. 10 . g.i. John xx. ]2l^ ^OCJl^ ]aaCD J]> Ol^ O'^sfthey said to him. viii. 19. by its signification. g. 19 . e. C. 11. *> i ' i* tn*"imi> . I. 5. 4. 19. where it would proper- ly be repeated . v. 22. 1. . Horn. 166.22. Barh. 276. so that to the other noun another verb must be mentally supplied. 479. JJjsoAjj Zooij oils . v. ^cnnVHQ* yL>| as it (is written ) in our law.6. IP * * ^* * * ' 1 fy &OOI QUO*) (jOI TOUTO 5s bXov y^yovev . 31.25. 243. e. REM. II Cor. Matt i. xxi. Sometimes a verb. A. Sometimes the verb is to be supplied from the context Matt. Bern. 1. 596. 6. adheres strictly to the Greek words . 27. vii. ZEUGMA. AND PUNS. The ellipsis must be considered as a peculiarity of the Sy- riac language. T * f T ^i^\ T us. I Cor. with 480. "When a verb has previously been used in the protasis. 3 . 79. John xx. Sometimes the direct discourse passes over into the indirect. The indirect discourse also occurs. 11. 19 . ELLIPSIS ZEUGMA PARONOMASIA. 513. 486. 5 . 20 . g. 94. Heb. 1. Acts xxiv. OlSo> his blood (come) upon . Matt. 20 . can belong to 2. . I John iii. where the Philoxenian translation. ix. 13 . only one of two connected nouns (Zeugma)._k_oi>> ^jkAOl those who run (run) that they may obtain . 8 10 and vice versa . e. 25. 543. ETC. the tribute is not sufficient for thee . 24. Compare Assem. I Peter iv. above ._> ]>oi but what has happened (has happened) that it might be fulfil- led.

**^>ZZ| |io V>|> |AiooU ike roaring of the lion (is stilled) and the teeth are broken . . xlix. ^pfMJb 1U^ <OU*J> (iBT'n D^ai 1T) that many see it and rejoice. xv.J stone water-pots . g. Use of the Noun in General. 1. 207 T f_ _^* . with J .*> I^vi the true vine . occur with adjectives which denote the material or substance of which a thing is composed . e.g. ix. as in Hebrew. John xv. CHAPTER THIRD. Especially does this union. g. Heb. 6. 8. 3. 12. I Cor. . The former is a mere imitation of the Hebrew original in Ps. 3. USE OF THE NOUN IN GENERAL. x.. iii.o with the HolyGhost. THE NOUN. Matt. 10. xl. 69. 4. ]>. Puns occur mostly in names where the language does not require any such alteration to be assumed e. verses 16. fOjcu ^L ]>OOU Judah (thy . Abstract nouns not unfrcquently in Syriac take the place of adjectives and then they stand in the relation of genitive to the noun. ff _ T *-0 ** ap> p. * ** * %/ * * % f * t?OO> V**o.l. * %***** * e. Job iv. John ii. Paronomasia and puns occur but rarely in Syriac. 19. Gen. brethren) shall praise thee. 44. 11. e. g.

Barh. Barh.g. a golden box . 88. g. Abstract nouns with J in connection with a pronoun. 8 ..Am. i | jj_i_2i0| a brazen celestial sphere . jisvoff. In respect to the use of these nouns it is to be observed . 7. 228. >i and A*> prince. 198. 17. 167. ii. vii. do occur . DJ iVuCUDO many writings.g.13. . 5 . precede as nomen regens . e. pf JdO> _> pj <\* but I am carnal . Barh. 11. vii. 20 . or with a preposition prefixed they supply the place of an adjective to which a noun is to be supplied e. 172. ^\1O and IjLo lord. Luke viii. 14. and in the same con- struction adjectives of quality with J prefixed.22. xi. Barh. 4 . expressed by way of circumlocution. ]>Z1 +jji> 01 ^vToirioi . Chr. 59. 170. used for substantives . II Cor.rj * \*> 7 x daughter . custom. 80. 10 . xxiii. Acts xxi. species. master .2 .208 USE OF THE NOUN IN GENERAL.16. by means oi the nouns ^O eon . Here also belongs according to 55. REM. Tit. 2. 91. ruler . 20. ? f 7 e.4. 20. Rem. 7. Rom. 4 . Rom. Vo -"^ Cretans. I Cor. Heb. e. 8 . p|** r . Especially are adjectives or concrete substantives de- noting possession. e. 85. ii. however. * J one of the household . Adjectives of material. 172.14. B.g. even with suffixes. 2 . 2. a) }> designates . /3) the idea of race. 2. ]oi_-:L r 2 in divine ( things ) . II Tim. and AA> house. in the relation of genitive with > following. i. 178. Some abstract nouns. g.. supply the *P* 77 * *l e place of the predicate . etc. 17. g. %^J> citizens . similarity. . 12.1 . x. 2 . %*% X ' 3 a kinsman . e. g. 49. Michael. ]^J-. 195. (>CU> |Aa week of the white (clothes). > ^^ *> in the remaining fortresses . Deut. a) Gentile names. kindred . inhalitants. 1>O1QJ> fjoSoi a fiery pillar. etc. 12. Barh.

]iOL -**"> heathen . *> *J f T yxjljnj Zja Hebrews-. xxi.a ^um on sea-weed . xiii. ) mostly concretes . AlQ forms . 35. e. (== ofAog) . 28. Phil. U jo con- temporaries . e. xiv. e. 34. y) implements. 14.o OJJLO'TC^VOS . ii. I Mace. more frequently concretes in the feminine. xi. Rom. C .io debtor . 5. xix. g. John xviii. )Zoiioo} . e. y) participation. Michael. (I) V^D Luke vii. iv.oi . g. 11. xxvi. a) rarely abstracts . and other circumstances . . g. 6. xi. Luke xiii. Rev. X * T Chr. 3 . |LDQ**Z ^AO neighbor . 20 . and tropically po Z^3 voice . 7. x. g. . 20. ^r rm<7 descendants. 1O . 1. Psalms cxxxii. 14 . Acts xii. lAl_o^ Z^ grapes'.a a necA. immediately . 18 . Assem. 360. and in the plural. Rom. b) Z^D plur. 24. USE OF THE NOUN IN GENERAL 209 . clothing. Gal. s ) the adverbial phrase olAl* \szfortliwi1h. xiii. . o . ii. 14 Acts xviii. the o. i. !>]** 2. ]>a* ^ a moat. i. II. chain. ]^V^> ^AS counselor . Gal. *'/' . iv. v.g. ]Ali3 L\& napkin 1> *** . 20 John v. etc. In like manner . /3) sometimes nations . Z^i e/er?^ salem. a) principally concretes of masculine offices . e. 16. 41.p. 2. 33 xxi. 9 xiii. 30 Acts x. or its inhabitants. ]sD>] A^3 circumcision. ^CLiOl. e. a courtier . ClxCD9Ol \z* a heretic . 22 . Eph. And finally . 5. 32. situation. g. e) *o> forms . (Here also belongs tfuv e. an Ethiopian. . II Chron. ]ASQjk Z. 5) nations. a freeman . 39 . 3 tfuyxXr]p(5vofi. likeness. Matt. 10. or it denotes. Matt. Matt. <" I Thess. . 5) locality. . 5.g. . 16. . /3) the product of anything . * * f ' mi |ZoZ^i ..248. Ephr. e. ^AQ denotes c) . Dan. Isa. 25 . iii.o one born free . g.

g. it denotes . . ll!&ooi> A*o the Roman dominions . x ?. Michael. ^ 'A * REM. iv. x /3) Sometimes . . II Tim. Luke xix. Hub. |2oA*r3 Aoj o/xovofjLia. Gender of Nouns. |AO13 **-> ap^itfuva/wyoff . John ii. 4 . 16 more rarely abstracts e. 150. Here. Acts. Barh. cities. /3) abstracts . (Snmo A^Ti censer (literally. II Sam. A*ry*| Tagritians. Matt. 29. 4. iv. Nouns which in the plural take the termination of . 1. "fcLij A*> judgment hall. etc. Acts ii. and . a) concretes of masculine offices. 1. 2 . in which a thing is found or kept. Chr. Finally . *1*\2)\ Africans . ft r . 29. 248. Luke viii.. | pLoOD 2D> ap^iepguj . g. Of the latter only occur (JLO) |So"| ^Ae crown of the head. where AxS signifies between..-* . ]Aii A*> oZwe ^ar- _-*. pSOQ^flD J ***} orifice of the 7 J stomach . house of in- cense).. uses the names of countries and cities for nations and I I . do not belong ^_DGU AxS Mesopotamia. ix. **" . 2. and Vo} moth- er. e. 169. ) *o> a chiliarch . I. In like manner . I Pet. 9. 13 /3) countries. v. Luke xix. xviii.t *.7 inhabitants .> T - V 1 |^k)> P>D( hydraulics. 17. xxiii. e. Assem. Heb. #) Aa2 denotes . g. 6. e. g. e.g. /) afcjij . Luke xvi. though more rarely than the Hebrew. "(Alk) AaI3 grave. . 14. Acts xvii. |l^l ^au) aperture of the mouth. iv.7. however. Matt xiv. xii. X 41. * * / (AjuO ojxovojuios . e. UCD^ A*Jb Persia. 2. and ] f . 19. 7) \ * <* z the extremity of a thing . The Syriac also. More rarely we find similar compositions with *2>"\ father. 210 GENDER OF NOUNS. Js/Qio *A-O tfpwroxaSsfyi'a. g.B. a) the place or receptacle. g. v A*d forehead. g. 1. WiraV A*o prison. 70. * efen . 8. . e. Luke xvi. 10. 6. I Thess. 12. e.

. g. in the plural. 8. beast of'tooth] = ovn'^pitfToj:.. xxviii. ]2oOM jQj| OfSo] the serpents destroyed them. is regulated by the sense. is desig- nated by the feminine ( 66. axov .35. the gender in both cases. verse 14 . etc. 43. b) feminines with a masculine termination . 236. 19. 10 . e. Barh. Acts xxi. Matt. xiii. (from }AliD) x. 20 . xvii. 218. Matt. or Jl 2cLi^I (literally. 1 4. e. and in this case respect is rarely had to the termination. ^xi (from }ta) Acts xxiv. 548. . 34.13. g. 2 and 3).\ (j^0> fZo>M place in which there is no water. B . I Cor. When the abstract stands for the concrete. 395. vii. (from ]LbL) Matt. Rev. GENDER OF NOUNS. "r * 1 T %'" * *' r t^ f 7-17 tOOlS A. etc. John i. 1 . 18. Rom. xvi. 2. flic (from }2^b) xxiv. 2 ) . vii. 7. r r * y wOlQlk)> jiOO1 tears came into the eyes of Jesus . ^iZf . 25. as of verbs. 30. = inhabi- tants. 9. l2oaS (from laS) Luke xxi. 334. 13 ( f&ool ( from fcocu ) . 10.. a ) masculines with a femi- nine termination in the plural . Here belong . g. to the lat- ter belongs ]A^o Xoyos = Christ . 20. John xi. 2. 17 . Ua/. Concern- ing the former of these cases. 65. in the plural. 3. or when the noun takes another than its proper signification. g. }2b>ou (from 1>OU) Matt. 30 .. I. )ALk> IOOT ^oioAu) it was the word. etc. e. 8 . xiii. 9. Kern. Assem. 26. ]2ollL from 1LJ) Luke ii. In Syriac the neuter of nouns. 35.. retain the gender of the singular. 20. compare 80. 211 another gender ( 44. i% (from ]Al) xix. 159. Barh. xii. oai a myriad (of men) . e. 6 . 34. x.

I Cor. 5. ly part) remainder. g. 63. members .<>? 7 30. e.100 barley-corns . 6. form a plural only when they may be conceived of as consisting of several .. or with the singu- . 01X0 fvvn* |il ^Ae sAeep Aear Aw . in like *. Matt. 37 . 2. . ZiVft&er . 3. merely by im- itation of the Hebrew 7ff7 -iJ>{ or wiJOjj 7 *. T^ \ 0% % < ^f p| ( ^ AJ09|O / T szi'ore 6y the Lord.g. As collective plural forms. metals and the like). Number. 72. iii. the following sometimes occur. verses 4 8. Michael. 71. g. . <>- ^0 parts. xv. 12 . John vi. manner |4** from |A&* wheat . l&lio (proper- l^tQO .212 NUMBEK. particularly those which denote cohesive materials (liquids. REM. usually includes a more accu- rate definition or explanation of the previous noun. 11. Eem. Some nouns singular have a plural signification (col- lectives 44. 7 = 15^^ . plur. 30. 1. 13 . and | .11 79. (JL)| QQ2UO <Aere came out people. A noun in apposition. . 1> . As such they are joined either with the plural . REM. and then they take Ribui 6. 2. 12. 1. 1. as for . 7). Michael. locust . (. Chr. . 2. 7 " I Cor. 8. P lar . 102. Some nouns. As pluralis excellentice. e. iii. (Z^LOD barley.. the Syriac has. Apposition and Duplication of Nouns. \LLfLo ]AcLiAl^ r A'tWf they despised the old and ike new. John x. John iv. e. B. Chr. .

^'iVf 9 and time. 7. g. i. 7. . b) the distributive sense expressed in English Matt. 32. 13. ]OO> JaO^ xara To-roug . every ( 58. X AV^ with different tongues . g. v. a) a great num. "jAoi lAi^^ UDQA^J] Antioch. d ) a diversity. APPOSITION AND DUPLICATION. a great city. e. e.k) from Mekhisedeck (from the) Ca- naanite. lAo>. y^Vo ^Aio Matthew the Pub- lican . 85. tip* by each. 2. e. r r ber or quantity . 191. 10. Barh. Sometimes the noun in apposition stands before the principal noun. xxi. Mark vi. Ephr. ^jJQJ ^iO OlO A^l ^iJOJ ^ere are many fish in the sea . ]lMn . Tit. I. 19 . Mark ii. verse 40. Matt. l]So }]io a hundred each . E. by . xi. II Cor.^ various diseases . Assem. V l> f ^> . 6. e. so too with nouns of weight. e. John v.^mi he took for wife Roxane . 39. 12. 11. 165. g. Acts x. A. v. > i . 11. 3. 24 . e. 46.V^ . xxv. Jx>QLftJQ2 \L\\L *(> T I ACD? three measures (of) barley. vi. xxiv. 9. measure. The noun in apposition takes the number and case of f T its subject . Rev. e. ( Assem. 213 At example in the names of cities }A*^O. Barh. 2. 19. 34 . ]\*>~> 1ov& \\~> IpAa the image of Baal (of a) god of the Babylonians .JL> a penny each . 154. 2) . 1. *>Jk> *>>o ^1? l.- x> . in the genitive . g. Especially in respect to * * * numbers . e. 280.)>] nSv> ^. 3.So]io discourses having various contents . E . ^i*> ^in by heaps . Matt x. A. 4 . B. 6. 7. III. 10 . ^_>Z ^-> two each . 5. variety . JOLBO^ VZAjj . REM. Barh. P-ij^ pLir^^ a iroXiv . 7. g. The duplication of the noun denotes . -. xx. 349. 6. 8 . c) it forms a circumlocution for all. 424. g. 17 . g. g.

Acts vii.214 THE EMPHATIC STATE. ^ yt a man. 37 . OOl f^yi ^Q-lMZj the man became whole. g. e. E . Hence also the emphatic state with > following is used in the relation of genitive . From this should perhaps be distinguished the cases in which r+* is used numerically . g. In the first case the absolute state usually occurs. g. e. 3. Matt. 33. Sometimes also it supplies the place of the indefinite article . 16 . 2. or fol- 7 7 \ o ? lows it . Eev. e ) a strengthening of the sense ( 77. John vi. fern. g. r r 7 . Luke xxii. . 13. e. Luke xix. ix. xi. 24 even with H* masc. 6. e. Eph. which is no longer in use . 7. from the fact. r 2. . e. iiL6. that in many nouns this form also denotes the absolute state ( 45.g. John xviii. e. REM. The Emphatic iState. 12. The Emphatic State expresses the noun with the article with less definiteness.||* \*'r** OO1 vlLo the dumb spake . ix. g. B. e. 27. T * j r v when 9 follows OOl . appended . 1 . 73. b) . 1. Matt. B. VuXo ^*o very little . It stands either before the noun . xviii.^>^ Vr> "jZAjj 22] there came a woman of /Sa- . John v. REM. iv. 9. 7. 9. g. e. 1). Hence to avoid any ambiguity OO1 is also sometimes joined with the emphatic state in order to designate it as such. II Thess. . g. John iv. r maria . v.V)V)> OOl the servant. g. . ^^>. x. e.

CJal..g. iii. e. 'js. or a more accurate . in the plural of the masculine and the singular of the feminine.g.255. 37. xiii. . Tlie Construct /State and the Genitive. Matt. c. verse 50. . the deficiency of their faith. B. followed l. pL ^IfiD >\1 on the shore of the *ea . xi. 40. In the Syriac also the Construct state serves to denote the relation of genitive. i. T T Matt.g. where it can at once be recognized by its special form . fo - -. r " fi * \\ \yA <-*r^^ violator of an oath . xiii. fl. however. by which is denoted either tlie genitive & * * r i ]m An^^ . 2 ) it also occurs in Q. 4. 4. Assem. x. etc. II Tim. . 41. g. 1>). literally. Here ^ . more'-Ao Av. and r h<nnl.*"^*^" iii. IrMO A^Z Ala wOl that is the thirty- * * t* * 7 yirsZ year . > shires of jxtssion I Tim. IJarh. e. 2. Yet the masculine singular of the noun occurs also before tlio gonitive in tlic construct state . in the interior the jmlace. Matt. ^JLuCLt wLiOO* ^So since the days of John . . e. 215 Uo> Voj IZjo&lo 1o->? l'io a habitation of devils and a hold of all unclean spirits. 2. Messed of (among) women . In addition to the nouns which supply the place of adjectives ( 69.ffi* Q^2 of belongs moreover the use f tin 1 construct state in adjectives and participles ( 04. * 9 7 . xiii. 3. miitst. Luke i. 12.ooiZaiifluOl 2o^^!D i/iez'r deficient faith. 1. lAyi'A -. THE CONSTRUCT STATE AND THE GENITIVE. Acts xxiv.y tlie noun \vith a preposition or particle belonging to both. <' ^. 1. 1. 10.^m the shores of the sea . 1 .^no ^ //ie rmcfe/ q/" /fe cZerws . 19 . REM. relation . * r * tt T f*^< UlAO w the name of the Prophet . 16 . I. 74.

xii. Luke i. Barh. 11. I. . e. verse 15. 47. 7 "7 I ' ornAVo^. xi. |Ol-^> (Jk) <Ae w. 2 ) e. g. 0*m 7 ** * xxiii.orc? o^ ^oc? . 21. |*">1 ^JCLa? OIL] the sign of Jonah the propJiet. > stands before proper nouns. or b) with a pleonastic suffix referring to the genitive following. jiiQaZj IA^VV> the queen of the south . 83. 3 . . xiii. Matt.. and chiefly in foreign words. . e. 2. 2. ' r * 7 x ^* ^ *k |i)| r^n i < *">! redeemed from the earth . e.g. xiii. xxiii. 23. 8. Pk>|> Oli^2 in the . x. Far more usual is . xiv. and the genitive is then to be distinguished by > . 7. 81. . > stands after the construct state before the genitive . John viii. 8. 39. g. B. g. Sometimes J is wanting when the noun forms an apposition " with a preceding i f "tV genitive . Rom.g. heart of the earth. g. J 7 V < v t^Dj the Lords are we . g. Rev. the convent of the Mother of God. of the Syrians in the Scythian desert . g. t> . e. Matt. Matt. f IMUL*LO> * f ^oiOpdl ' ^ i t* ' the work of the Messiah xii.o tjJj. that is of Jerusalem . But it is commonly used when one or more words are interposed between the nomen regens and the genitive . or when several gen- itives follow each other . xii. 421. Matt. 4. with a following j before the genitive . especially the names . a) the connection of the emphatic state as nomen regens. REM. verse 42. ( 55. 21. ^aL>o]? OO1 1>2j the region. fol > kjo|> into the way of the Gentiks . o . 23. Assem. B.20.nV)>\> l<l&fiol the porch of Solomon.13. xxiv. fcjjj ]LOQ^JD at the day of Judgment . *f -x y > (>Zoi> -* Vft ^e deceitfulness of riches .2. The nomen regens is sometimes wanting. e. Rarely. Acts. 45. Matt. 22.. 35 . * e. xxii. 42.216 THE CONSTRUCT STATE AND THE GENITIVE. r . e. Barh.|ID far advanced in their years . xiv. 18. }AQ> OTjSo Lord of the Sabbath. 5. xii. 40. definition of the adjective or participle. John x. .

Barh. Barh.g. 8 . xi. T f vii. Bethlehem in Judea. 4. In some instances. by the) Lord . iv.20. Assem. 1. Barh. Exod. xx. loi^j* ]AoiScuoi faith of(\. from which the nomen regens is derived . 22. 40. especially in the super- scriptions of some Psalms . ^Ajui? OUl^ the zeal of (i. e. xxxv. Isa. ^ (^ auctoris) sup- plies the place of j. 372. very rarely elsewhere . that attached to him). 17. 217 of countries and cities. xi. REM. ii. when they thereby acquire a more de definite designation Matt.9. 271.g. 5. e. e. . P T P John ii. Not unfrequently is this genitive of the object connected with the preposition of the verb.g. i*29O ^lo many of tin IM-\*ffi Turks. 2.!) (j)OO cities of (about) Aroer . |i.. l' "t %** * HH-^ pLO>Q2) the deliverance of the (i. . xvii. i* ft _9 . Sometimes. Barh. ^ one of his slaves .^rni he took fifty cities of the Franks . e. 6 . g. 1&. e. 25. 346. The genitive is sometimes to be understood objectively. in) God . Markxi.**n/ .7 * li^-Loj |l>| ^S>o from die land of E<jypt . 4.for) t/iine house. Ez. 13.g. i-kAO. JjJvJ^S ^So lAj_^ib ^. e. Ps. 26. e.e. f>OOL> ^QjjJL A^*~> .01*4 the reproach of Christ (i. our Lord e.V)> 01. THE CONSTRUCT STATE A$D THE GENITIVE. 1. or when there is indicati-1 :i choice or selection from several.liv. g. when origin or descent is indi- cated . an oath of (by) the Lord .g. 13 . 26. 114. 0. 3. 1. So too with ^O. 1. Acts vii. g. 347.xxii. iniquity of (at) their downfall . 16. Assem.18. ^JnK? ]yQ^ o&al the whole mountain of Lebanon. Hebr. v. the genitive occu