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Boundary Layer Theory

Boundary Layer Theory

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layers and thin layers of fluids in which viscosity dynamics

are formed along the surfaces of the object.

o The behavior of these boundary layers under the

influence of pressure gradient can drastically alter the

flow.

o The flow of the streamline can be predicted from the

inviscid flow theory the Reynolds number are

influences of the viscosity are confined to a narrow

region close to the surface of the object.

What are the causes the boundary flow, effects of

boundary layer.

o The flow of the fluid closer to the surface, the

velocities are much lower and thus vorticity is present

in the narrow boundary layer region adjacent to the

plate the shearing forces and inertia forces are equally

important in determining the motion of the fluid

element outside.

o This thickness of the boundary layer increase along

the length of the plate and fluid deceleration id

transferred from one fluid layer to another by viscosity

moving

o The velocity in the boundary layer is less than that in

the free stream there is no slip between the plate anf

the layer of fluid immediately adjacent to it.

o At the plate the relative velocity is zero and this is the

no slip boundary condition of the viscous flow.

The displacement of the bubbles corresponds closely to the

velocity profile in the boundary layer.

The thickness of the boundary layer is sometimes defined

as distance delta from the surface to where the velocity U

reaches some fixed percentage of the freestream value.

o We consider from 95% to 99% of the pre-screen

velocity to define the thickness of the boundary layer.

u

o Gradient of the velocity where = is the skin

y

Greater the velocity gradient normal to the wall

greater the shear stress

For the upstream the velocity gradient is large

than the down stream

o Stokes theorem state that the area integral of the

vorticity Omega founded by a close contour is equal to

the line integral of the velocity around the bounding

contour.

d a=

V d s=

Separation point - when the laminar flow occurs the flow

after the boundary layer tends to reverse the flow while

the turbulent flow, the velocity gradient makes the layer

to move continuously.

Molecular diffusion is more effective in the turbulent flow

than the laminar flow, thus there is no slip separation

but in the laminar flow due to the slip, and low molecular

diffusion the boundary layer tends to slip and thus have

a reverse flow near the surface unitll the very high angle

of attack.

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