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# Boundary Layer Theory

## Real fluid flows the flow pattern changes and boundary

layers and thin layers of fluids in which viscosity dynamics
are formed along the surfaces of the object.
o The behavior of these boundary layers under the
influence of pressure gradient can drastically alter the
flow.
o The flow of the streamline can be predicted from the
inviscid flow theory the Reynolds number are
influences of the viscosity are confined to a narrow
region close to the surface of the object.
What are the causes the boundary flow, effects of
boundary layer.
o The flow of the fluid closer to the surface, the
velocities are much lower and thus vorticity is present
in the narrow boundary layer region adjacent to the
plate the shearing forces and inertia forces are equally
important in determining the motion of the fluid
element outside.
o This thickness of the boundary layer increase along
the length of the plate and fluid deceleration id
transferred from one fluid layer to another by viscosity
moving
o The velocity in the boundary layer is less than that in
the free stream there is no slip between the plate anf
the layer of fluid immediately adjacent to it.
o At the plate the relative velocity is zero and this is the
no slip boundary condition of the viscous flow.
The displacement of the bubbles corresponds closely to the
velocity profile in the boundary layer.
The thickness of the boundary layer is sometimes defined
as distance delta from the surface to where the velocity U
reaches some fixed percentage of the freestream value.
o We consider from 95% to 99% of the pre-screen
velocity to define the thickness of the boundary layer.
u
o Gradient of the velocity where = is the skin
y

## friction or the shear stress on Tau.

Greater the velocity gradient normal to the wall
greater the shear stress
For the upstream the velocity gradient is large
than the down stream
o Stokes theorem state that the area integral of the
vorticity Omega founded by a close contour is equal to
the line integral of the velocity around the bounding
contour.
d a=
V d s=

Separation point - when the laminar flow occurs the flow
after the boundary layer tends to reverse the flow while
the turbulent flow, the velocity gradient makes the layer
to move continuously.
Molecular diffusion is more effective in the turbulent flow
than the laminar flow, thus there is no slip separation
but in the laminar flow due to the slip, and low molecular
diffusion the boundary layer tends to slip and thus have
a reverse flow near the surface unitll the very high angle
of attack.