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Avoiding Plagiarism Exercise

Holography has clear advantages over other optical and measurement

techniques for analysis and identification of marine organisms and particles.
The ability to record in 3D, over a large field-of-view makes the technique 9
invaluable to marine biologists for studies of species populations and
dynamics. By digital recording of the holograms the benefit of the time
dimension is added. Our subsea holographic camera (eHoloCam) is based on
a pulsed laser so that holograms and holographic videos can be recorded of
fast moving particles. A range of algorithms for numerical reconstruction of
the holograms have been developed and compared for application in
eHoloCam. We have shown how the algorithms can be subjected to pre- and
post-processing methods for improving quality and reducing noise levels of
the holograms. The camera has been deployed on four occasions in the
North Sea and Faeroes Channel and the results of some of the recordings
are shown. The angular spectrum algorithm is well suited for reconstruction
of in-line digital holograms. The exact and approximate formulations of the
angular spectrum method have been implemented for underwater digital
hologram reconstruction of plankton. The Fresnel algorithm is well-suited to
off-axis reconstruction since its scaling properties enable large object
distance to be reconstructed with the limited sensor size. Preliminary results
show that data extraction outwith the in-line volume was possible but the
effectiveness of this method is largely dependent on the object shape and
size. The method was demonstrated to be effective in extending the
reconstruction area up to 50% to the sensor size.

H. Sun et al, (2007) Underwater digital holography for studies of marine


For each of the following texts say:

a. Whether it has plagiarised the above extract or not
b. Explain why it is plagiarised or cited incorrectly e.g.
direct quote from extract, but no quotation marks or reference
a paraphrase of authors work, but no reference
incomplete reference etc.
Or explain why it is correctly referenced e.g.
direct quote and includes quotation marks and cited correctly
paraphrase with correct referencing etc.

1. The angular spectrum algorithm is well suited for reconstruction of in-

line digital holograms and formulations of this have been implemented
for underwater digital hologram reconstruction of plankton.

a. Yes it has.
b. It contains a paraphrase with no direct quotes or references

2. Marine biologists could find holography a useful tool for analysing and
identifying marine organisms as it has several advantages over other
optical and measurement techniques. These include digital recording
over time, in 3D and the ability to capture species that move quickly.

a. This is plagiarised

b. It contains sections and paraphrases from the original source and it is

not quoted or have any reference to the original source.

3. The eHoloCam designed by Sun et al, is based on a pulsed laser so

that holograms and holographic videos can be recorded of fast moving

a. This is plagiarised

b. Although it contain quotes from the extract, there is no direct

reference to the original source

4. Early results, after four trials, have indicated that the effectiveness of
data extraction from outside the in-line volume depends on the size
and shape of the object (Sun et al 2007)

a. This is not plagiarised

b. It contains no exact copy of the sentences I the extract and it contains

a reference to the source it was taken from
Critical Thinking ism Exercise

An ill wind blows for UK turbines

The UK is not as windy as the British government thought. The country's first
generation of wind farms, are delivering less power than predicted,
according to an analysis of official data on their output. The finding dents
government hopes that wind turbines could generate up to a fifth of the UK's
energy by 2020.

While Scottish and offshore wind farms generate more than 30 per cent of
their theoretical capacity, no English region does better than 26 per cent, 4
per cent below government predictions. However, the national average of
28.4 per cent, while disappointing, is still the highest in Europe, says the
report, which was released on 8 December.

The study is published by the Renewable Energy Foundation, which

represents many local groups opposed to the construction of wind turbines.
It blames the extreme variability of wind, coupled with the fact that power
generated is a function of the cube of wind speed, which magnifies the
difference in output between windy and calm days.

Most worrying for government strategists, though, may be the discovery that
a network of wind farms across the country would do little to even out total
wind-power production. Much of the time, the weather is either calm or
windy across the whole of the UK. So on some days less than 10 per cent of
capacity would be produced, and on others above 90 per cent - making it
tougher than expected to compensate for the vagaries of the wind.
New Scientist, December 2006: Print Edition (19)

You are familiar with the above from a previous assignment where you
summarised it. You are now going to look at it more critically!
Remember Critical thinking is:
Analysing what we read/are told
o Identifying the underlying line of reasoning the argument.
This is a series of points leading to a conclusion or conclusion
with supporting evidence. It can be:
Brief one sentence
Sustained essay, article, book
Strong leads reader to agree that conclusions are
Weak leaves reader unconvinced
Looking at questions/issues from different angles
Asking questions
Think critically about the above item and answer these questions:

1. Do you think the title is biased or could influence your perception of

wind farms?

Yes as the title states An Ill Wind Blows for wind farms. This gives us the
impression that the use of wind farms is a bad idea and that the writers are
not very for the use of them. The word ill enhances this impression.

2. Who has published the study? Who does this represent? Do you think this
may have had an effect on the bias of the study? How?


The study was published by the Renewable Energy Foundation that represents
many local groups opposed to the construction of wind turbines. This may effect
on the bias study as the groups that the Foundation represents are against the
wind farms.

3. Has all the relevant information given? What further information would you
like to have?

The views of the community and their thoughts on wind farms.
A study produced by people that are supportive of wind farms, making the
studies less biased.
Alternative solutions to renewable energy.

4. Could the data provided lead to a different conclusion/ another



Yes, the data provided could give me two different interpretations. The first being
that although the wind farms arent doing that great at the moment, there can
still be time to improve and move forward and the other being that there is no
hope for the wind farms and that they should be discontinued and abolished

5. Do you think on the basis of the above evidence building wind farms should
be opposed/ stopped? Why?


No they shouldnt be stopped. Even if they only create 28.4% of their theoretical
capacity, they are still a good source of renewable energy and they do not
produce anything harmful to the environment.

6. Do you think the author of this summary has been unbiased?

No as the author does not include anything good about wind farms and only has
a biased study in the article. The author also uses negative words such as
disappointing. This gives me the impression that the author is also against
wind farms