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Basics of mobile communications technologies and standards

Definitions and High Level Architectures

Marius Iordache
Agenda Orange Romania

 Basics of mobile communications technologies and standards

 Networking
 Routing
 Switching
 QoS
 Layer2 vs Layer 3 Applications in Service Providers Networks

 Radio Access Networks


 2G Networks - GSM
 3G Networks - UMTS Introduction
 Access, Handovers, Interworking 2G -3G
 4G Basics
 Wi-MAX Introduction and Basic Definitions
 Wi-Fi Introduction and Basic Definitions

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Agenda Orange Romania

 Transmission Networks
 Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH)
 Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
 Micro-Waves Ethernet
 Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (WDM)
 Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS)

 Core Networks
 Circuit Switch Networks
 Packet Switch Networks
 IP Multimedia Core Network Subsystem (IMS)

 Services Architecture, devices evolution to smartphones, VAS platforms


 Network Planning and network resources management

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Basics of mobile communications technologies and standards Orange Romania
 Definition of Mobile communications
A communication network which doesn't depend on any physical connection between two communication
entities and have flexibility to be mobile during communication.
 Definition of standards
A definition or format that has been approved by a recognized standards organization or is accepted as a de
facto standard by the industry. Standards exist for programming languages, operating systems, data formats,
communications protocols, and electrical interfaces.
ITU-T - International Telecommunications Union
IETF - Internet Engineering Task Force
The mission of the IETF is to make the Internet work better by producing high quality, relevant technical
documents that influence the way people design, use, and manage the Internet
European Interoperability Framework
ETSI
 High Level Architectures
Represents a general purpose architecture for a distributed system
Defines
Architecture
Models, Rules, Information, System Functioning
Key Design
Requirements
Analysis

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High Level Architectures Orange Romania

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Mobile Communications Evolution

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Mobile Communications Evolution Orange Romania
 Old Mobile Communication Technologies
1980s there were few mobile communication (1G) technologies like:
AMPS, Advance Mobile Phone Service deployed in USA
Total Access Communication Systems TACS deployed in UK
ETACS Extended TACS - deployed in UK
Nordic Mobile Technology
Each country had deployed their own set of standards for communications
operating system hardware was no compatible to the OS of other communication technologies form other
countries
Very expensive, there were no concepts of International roaming do the limitations of the systems, no
international calls were possible using these technologies
Telephonic systems were analog, the biggest challenge faced by analog systems was inability to cope with the
growing needs of telecommunication industry with cost efficiency
Challenge
evolution in this industry and need for digital technology was realized
better receptions of signals were experienced, low level of interference
transmission, switching and improved levels to meet the needs of current telecommunication industry
challenges
The first-generation cellular networks were made obsolete by the appearance of an entirely digital second
generation 2G

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GSM Networks (Global System for Mobile communications) Orange Romania
 Key Concepts
The second generation of mobile networks : the first generation of cellular telephones by switching from
analogue to digital
Standard uses the 900 MHz and 1800 MHz frequency bands in Europe (dual-band)
Standard uses the 1900 MHz frequency bands in USA
Multiple Access Techniques:
TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access), using a technique of time division of communication channels
Orange, Vodafone, Cosmote
CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access), using a spread spectrum technique that allows a radio signal to be
broadcast over a large frequency range.
Old Zapp
 New Services :
Text Messages SMS (Short Message Service)
Multimedia Messages MMS (Multimedia Message Service)
Data Rate: 9.6kbps
 To improve throughput GSM standard has been extended
GPRS (General Packet Radio System) service, which allows theoretical data of 114 Kbit/s, but with throughput
closer to 40 Kbit/s in practice. The standard is referred as 2.5G.
EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution) referred as 2.75G
data rate of 384 Kbps
Complete ITU-T2000

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GSM Functional Architecture Orange Romania

 MS Mobile Subscriber

MS  The Base Transceiver Station (BTS), contains the equipment for


transmitting and receiving radio signals (transceivers), antennas,
and equipment for encrypting and decrypting communications
with (BSC)
BTS BTS
BSC BSC  The base station controller (BSC) provides, the intelligence
Abis Abis Radio behind the BTSs. Typically a BSC has tens or even hundreds of
BTSs under its control. The BSC handles allocation of radio
channels, receives measurements from the mobile phones, and
A A controls handovers from BTS to BTS.

 MSC Mobile-service Switching Center


MSC MSC
E  HLR Home Location Register the main database of permanent
subscriber information for a mobile network
B C F  AuC Authentication Center

D H
 VLR Visitor Location Register a database to a MSC. The VLR
contains the exact location of all mobile subscribers temporary
present in MSC area.
VLR HLR AuC EIR  EIR Equipment Identification Register database contains
information on the identity of mobile equipment
PSTN / PSTN  Um, Abis, A Interfaces
ISDN ISDN
 A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I Interfaces

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Third generation of mobile communications 3G Orange Romania

 3GPP - 3rd Generation Partnership Project


collaboration between groups of telecommunications associations
globally applicable 3G mobile phone system specification based on evolved GSM specifications within the scope of the
International Mobile Telecommunications-2000
3GPP standardization encompasses Radio, Core Network and Service architecture:
1. Specifications to define the service requirements from the user point of view.
2. specifications to define an architecture to support the service requirements.
3. specifications to define an implementation of the architecture by specifying protocols in details

 Key Concepts
High transmission data rate up to 2Mbps
World compatibility
Compatibility of 3rd generation mobile services with second generation networks
Ppening the door to multimedia uses such as video transmission, video-conferencing or high-speed internet access.
Frequency bands: 2100 MHz
 3G standard used in Europe is called UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System)
W-CDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) encoding
5 MHz bands for transferring voice and data
Data Rates from 384kbps to 2Mbps
 HSDPA (High-Speed Downlink Packet Access)
third generation mobile telephony protocol, dubbed "3.5G
data rates on the order of 8 to 10 Mbps
HSDPA + up to 42Mbps dual carrier access
Starting 2005
Allows simultaneous transfer of voice and high-speed digital data.

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3G Functional Architecture Orange Romania

 UE: User Equipment (MS)

 Node B (BTS)

Node B RNC  RNC - Radio Network Controller (BSC)

 CN Core Network (MSC)


Iub Iu
 RNS - Radio Network Sub-system (BSS)

 Iu-CS - Interface between the RNC and the Circuit


Switched Core Network (CS-CN)
Node B CN  Iu-Ps Interface between the RNC and the Packet
Iur
Switched Core Network

Iub  IuB Interface between RNC and NodeB


Iu  IuR Interface between RNCs in the same network
Soft handovers
UE Uu Node B Iub
 Iub, Iu and Iur - carry both user data and signalling
RNC

RNS

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RAN Functional Architecture (2G & 3G) Orange Romania

2 / 2.5G
Um
GGSN
BTS SGSN

Gb Internet
Gn Gi
Abis
BTS BSC Iu-PS Iu-PS PS
CP UP
A HLR
MSC-S
MSC-S
UTRAN
Uu Nc
3 / 3+G
Node B CS
Iub PSTN /
Iu-CS Mc Mc
ISDN /
CP PLMN
Nb
Iub RNC
Node B Iu-CS
UP
Iur MGW MGW
RNC

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Multiple Access (2G & 3G) Orange Romania

FDMA TDMA WCDMA

Power
Power Power
cy
ue
n y n cy
Tim e q e nc Tim ue
e Fr Tim qu e q
e Fre e Fr

 Time division multiple access (TDMA)


Time division multiple access (TDMA) is a channel access method for shared medium networks
Users share the same frequency channel by dividing the signal into different time slots
Used in 2G
 W-CDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access)
Radio channels are 5 MHz wide.
Supported mode of duplex: frequency division (FDD), Time Division (TDD)
Used in 3G
 FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access )
FDMA gives users an individual allocation of one or several frequency bands, or channels
share the time simultaneously but each user transmits at single frequency
allows multiple users simultaneous access to a transmission system
Satellite communication

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Broadband Wireless Access WiMax (802.16) Orange Romania

 IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)


IEEE 802 refers to a family of IEEE standards dealing with local area networks and metropolitan area networks.
IEEE 802 standards are restricted to networks carrying variable-size packets.
The services and protocols specified in IEEE 802 map to the lower two layers (Data Link and Physical) of the seven-layer OSI
networking reference model.

 WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access)


IEEE 802.16 standards: WiMAX is an IP-based Radio Access System configured in much the same way as a traditional
cellular network with strategically located base stations using a point to multi-point architecture
non-line of sight (NLOS) applications in bands in the sub 11 GHz frequency range and sub 6 GHz frequency range for mobile
WiMAX
IMT-2000: family of standards in the IMT band (2.4 2.6 GHz)
using Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) with 256 carriers at PHY level and supports fixed and nomadic
access in Line of Sight (LOS) and Non Line of Sight (NLOS) environments

 Features:
Long Range, High Data Rate
Less susceptible to interference
Very viable mobile alternative to DSL and Cable
Subscriber receives wireless broadband data delivery to the home
Plug and play Installation

 Applications
Fixed last-mile broadband access as a replacement or substitute for wired DSL, cable or E1 connection
Hotspot Subscriber and provider for backhaul connections
High Speed enterprise connectivity for businesses

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Rate Summary WiMax (802.16) Orange Romania

Modulation BW

1.75MHz 3.5MHz 5MHz 7MHz 10MHz 14MHz 20MHz

BPSK 0.7 Mbps 1.4 Mbps 2 Mbps 3 Mbps 4 Mbps 5.65 Mbps 8 Mbps

BPSK 1 Mbps 2.1 Mbps 3 Mbps 4.5 Mbps 6 Mbps 8.45 Mbps 12 Mbps

QPSK 1.4 Mbps 2.8 Mbps 4 Mbps 6 Mbps 8 Mbps 11.3 Mbps 16 Mbps

QPSK 2.05 Mbps 4.2 Mbps 6 Mbps 9 Mbps 12 Mbps 17 Mbps 24 Mbps

16QAM 2.75 Mbps 5.6 Mbps 8 Mbps 12 Mbps 16 Mbps 22.5 Mbps 32 Mbps

16QAM 4.15 Mbps 8.4 Mbps 12 Mbps 18 Mbps 24 Mbps 34 Mbps 48 Mbps

64QAM 2/3 5.5 Mbps 11.2 Mbps 16 Mbps 24 Mbps 32 Mbps 45 Mbps 64 Mbps

64QAM 6.2 Mbps 12.6 Mbps 18 Mbps 27 Mbps 36 Mbps 50 Mbps 72 Mbps

 Fix and Mobile WiMax

Mobile SS
IP Core IP Core
Fixed Network Network
CPE Base Station
Base Station

Mobile SS

Fixed 802.16-
802.16-2005
CPE Orange Romania 16
LTE Fundamentals Orange Romania
 Key Concepts
Increase in the use of data carried by cellular services, and this increase will only become larger in what has been termed the "data
explosion".
Increased demands for increased data transmission speeds and lower latency, further development of cellular technology have been
required.
The UMTS cellular technology upgrade has been dubbed LTE - Long Term Evolution
3G LTE will enable much higher speeds to be achieved along with much lower packet latency
Reduced cost per bit
Increased service provisioning more services at lower cost with better user experience
Flexibility of use of existing and new frequency bands
Simplified architecture, Open interfaces
Allow for reasonable terminal power consumption

 LTE technologies
OFDM technology - incorporated into LTE because it enables high data bandwidths to be transmitted efficiently while still providing a
high degree of resilience to reflections and interference
MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output)
multiple signals arising from the many reflections that are encountered
using MIMO, these additional signal paths can be used to advantage and are able to be used to increase the throughput
System Architecture Evolution
necessary to evolve the system architecture to enable the improved performance to be achieved
LTE include download rates of 100Mbps, and upload rates of 50Mbps for every
LTE must be able to support at least 200 active users in every 5MHz cell. (i.e. 200 active phone calls)
latency for small IP packets has been set

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LTE Architecture Orange Romania

 LTE contains only one Node, named eNodeB

EPC  eNodeB supports all the features

 X2 Interfaces support data traffic and signaling

PDN-Gw  S1 Interface communication between eNodeB and


PDN-Gw Network Gateway

S1  EPC Evolved Packet Core corresponding to Core


S1 S1 S1 Architecture in UMTS
eNode B  PDN-GW Packet Data Network Gateway
X2 Interconnection to others networks

 All IP Network
S1
already defined
eNode B
 Advantages

X2 X2

eNode B
E-UTRAN

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LTE Architecture View Orange Romania

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Orange Romania

Transmission Networks

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Transmission Networks Orange Romania

 Data Transmission Network - telecommunications network is a collection of terminals, links and nodes which
connect together to enable telecommunication between users of the terminals

 Transmission Networks
 Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH)
 Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
 Micro-Waves Ethernet
 Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (WDM)
 Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS)

Microwave

BTS

BSC

Microwave

BSC

BTS

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Transmission Networks - PDH Orange Romania

 Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH)


Is a technology used in telecommunications networks to transport large quantities of data over digital transport equipment
such as fibre optic and microwave radio systems
PDH combines multiple 2 Mb/s (E1) channels in Europe and 1.544 Mb/s (DS1) channels in the US and Japan.
The basic data transfer rate is a data stream of 2048 kbit/s. For speech transmission, this is broken down into thirty 64 kbit/s
channels plus two 64 kbit/s channels used for signalling and synchronisation. Alternatively, the entire bandwidth may be used
for non-speech purposes, for example, data transmission
E1 signal constitutes the first level of a hierarchy of signals that are each formed by successively carrying out the TDM
multiplexing of 4 lower level signals
Standard G.703
G.703 is an ITU-T standard for transmitting voice or data over digital carriers such as T1 and E1. G.703 provides
specifications for pulse code modulation (PCM)
G.703 also specifies E0 (64kbit/s)

End to end - TDM

Abis interface Ater Mux interface

BTS PDH/SDH BSC PDH/SDH TC2/2.5

- Electrical Interfaces
- 2Mb/s (E1)
PDH/SDH MFS
- Standard G.703
- Electrical Interfaces
- 2Mb/s (E1)
- Standard G.703
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PDH Point View Orange Romania

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Synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) Orange Romania

 Synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)


SDH has been standardized by ITU-T in 1988.
standardized multiplexing protocols that transfer multiple digital bit streams over optical fiber using lasers
an international standard for high speed telecommunication over optical networks which can transport digital
signals in variable capacities
SDH (and its American variant- SONET) emerged from standard bodies somewhere around 1990.
these two standards create a revolution in the communication networks based on optical fibers , in their cost
and performance
replace the PDH system for transporting larger amounts of data
transport the data on SONET/SDH are tightly synchronized across the entire network
carry many different services in its virtual container (VC)
protocol is an extremely heavily-multiplexed structure
The basic unit of framing in SDH is a STM-1 (Synchronous Transport Module, level 1)
~~ 155.52 Mbps
STM-1 frame is transmitted in 125 s, there are 8,000 frames per second on a 155.52 Mbit/s
The SDH contains the following bit rates:
1. STM1 - 155 Mbit/Sec
2. STM4 - 622 Mbit/Sec
3. STM16 - 2.5 Gbit/Sec
4. STM64 - 10 Gbit/Sec

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SDH Overview Orange Romania

 STM-1 frame has a byte-oriented structure

 9 rows and 270 columns of bytes, for a total of 2,430 bytes

 The STM-1 base frame is structured :


Length: 270 column x 9 row = 2430 bytes
Duration (Frame repetition time): 125 s i.e. 8000 frame/s
Rate (Frame capacity): 2430 x 8 x 8000 = 155.520 Mbit/s
Payload = 2349bytes x 8bits x 8000frames/sec = 150.336 Mbit/s

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Wavelength-division multiplexing Orange Romania

 Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (WDM)


is a technology which multiplexes a number of optical carrier signals onto a single optical fiber by using
different wavelengths of light
commonly applied to an optical carrier
Frequency applied to a radio carrier
wavelength and frequency are tied together through a simple directly inverse relationship, the two terms
actually describe the same concept.
WDM allow to communications company to expand the capacity of the network without laying more fiber
Capacity of a given link can be expanded by simply upgrading the multiplexers and de-multiplexers
Extension
CWDM - less sophisticated and thus cheaper transceiver designs
DWDM
WDM works by combining and transmitting multiple signals simultaneously at different wavelengths on the
same fiber.
one fiber is transformed into multiple virtual fibers
single fibers have been able to transmit data at speeds up to 400Gb/s
based networks can transmit data in IP, ATM, SONET /SDH, and Ethernet
WDM-based networks can carry different types of traffic at different speeds over an optical channel.

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WDM View Orange Romania

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Microwaves Ethernet Orange Romania

 Ethernet microwave backhaul solutions (more efficient because it only uses bandwidth when data is transmitted)

 Radio design and Ethernet Applications (Packet Networks)


cutting costs by eliminating the need for overlay networks that require different equipment for different service types
such as Circuit-Switched, Frame Relay
 Geographic Limitations

Legacy TDM

wave
BTS
Copper BSC
Carrier
Node B
Ethernet
Network RNC

eNB Fibre AGW

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Orange Romania

Networking

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Networking Orange Romania

 Networking
Routing
Switching
QoS
Applications in Service Providers Networks
 What represents a Network?
In information technology, a network is a series of points or nodes interconnected by communication paths
 When Appeared ?
ATM Networks
Frame Relay Networks
Ethernet & IP
 Considering the spatial distance, networks can be as follows:
Local Area Networks LANs
Metropolitan Area Networks MANs
Wide Area Networks WANs
 Hierarchical Model
Access
Distribution
Core (Backbone)

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LAN Ethernet Orange Romania

 Ethernet widely-installed local area network ( LAN) technology

 Ethernet was so named to describe the way that cabling, a passive medium,
could carry data everywhere throughout the network.

 Specified in a standard - IEEE 802.3

 Ethernet was originally developed by Xerox from an earlier specification called


Alohanet (for the Palo Alto Research Center Aloha network)

 then developed further by Xerox, DEC, and Intel.

 An Ethernet LAN typically uses coaxial cable or special grades of twisted pair
wires. Ethernet is also used in wireless

 Devices are connected to the cable and compete for access using a CSMA/CD
protocol

 Fast-Ethernet 100BASE-T

 Gigabit Ethernet And 19Gigabit-Ethernet

 Data Packet transmission on Ethernet Links Ethernet Frame

 A data packet on the wire is called a frame and consists of binary data

 Based on MAC Source and MAC Destination

 Ethernet frames may optionally contain a IEEE 802.1Q tag to identify VLANs

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VLAN - virtual local area network Orange Romania

 Virtual LAN or VLAN


a group of hosts with a common set of requirements that communicate as if they were attached to the
same broadcast domain
VLAN membership can be configured through software instead of physically
VLANs are created to provide the segmentation services traditionally provided by routers in LAN
configurations
Protocol Standard VLANs is IEEE 802.1Q
Reffered as switching
VLANs are broadcast domains defined within switches to allow control of broadcast, multicast, unicast, and
unknown unicast within a Layer 2 device
VLANs have a variety of configurable parameters, including name, type, and state
LANs are defined on a switch in an internal database known as the VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP)
database
VLANs are created by number, and there are two ranges of usable VLAN numbers (normal range 11000
and extended range 10254096)
Offer Virtualization
IEEE 802.1Q header contains a 4-byte tag header
2-byte tag protocol identifier (TPID)
2-byte tag control information (TCI)
Twelve-bit VLAN identifier (VID)-Uniquely identifies the VLAN to which the frame belongs
Range 1000 - 4096

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Ethernet Structure Orange Romania

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Network Example - VLANs Orange Romania

Physical Ethernet
interface

Match
VLAN: 10

Match
VLAN: 20

Match
VLAN: 50

Match
VLAN: 100

Match
VLAN: 10

Match
VLAN: 20

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Routing Orange Romania
 What is Routing ?
The process of moving a packet of data from one network to another
network based on the destination IP address
devices that perform this routing function are referred to as routers
Routers maintain a list of routes to as a routing table
Based on IP (Internet Protocol) - IP was the connectionless datagram
service in the original Transmission Control Program
Hosts or devices have IP adresses
IP is considered to be a Layer 3 Protocol
Today IP Protocol version 4 and version 6
IPv4 defines an IP address usin 32 bits
IPv6 defines an IP address using 128 bits
 How Routing is achieved
Know the destination address
Identify the sources it can learn from
Discover possible routes
Select the best route
Maintain and verify routing information
 Route Learning
Static
Dynamic
RIP, EIGRP
OSPF
IS-IS, BGP
Connected

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IP Orange Romania

 IP is the principal communications protocol used for relaying packets across an internetwork using the
Internet Protocol Suite.
First octet in Range of Network Number of Number of
Class binary first octet ID Host ID networks addresses

A 0XXXXXXX 0 - 127 a b.c.d 27 = 128 224 = 16777216

B 10XXXXXX 128 - 191 a.b c.d 214 = 16384 216 = 65536

C 110XXXXX 192 - 223 a.b.c d 221 = 2097152 28 = 256

 Private IP Space
10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255 -> 16.777.216 addresses
172.16.0.0 172.31.255.255 -> 1.048.576 addresses
 OSI Open Systems Interconnection 192.168.0.0 -192.168.255.255 -> 65.636 addresses

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Basic Functioning Orange Romania

ARP 10.1.1.1 10.1.1.1


Saying
MAC A
10.1.1.3 is MAC C

10.1.1.3
MAC C 10.1.1.2
MAC B

A P

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MPLS - Multi-Protocol Label Switching Orange Romania

 What is MPLS ?
A way of improving the forwarding speed of routers
MPLS is the generation of a short fixed-length label that acts as a shorthand representation of an IP packet's header
MPLS is:
As a code for an address: house, street, city
IP packets have an DA address to which packet to be routed
Traditional Routing is made Hop by Hop
When MPLS enabled, the forwarding decision is made using labels
MPLS is more complex Algorithm
 A forwarding scheme designed to speed up IP packet forwarding (RFC 3031)

 Idea: use a fixed length label in the packet header to decide packet forwarding

 Label carried in an MPLS header between the link layer header and network layer header

 Support any network layer protocol and link layer protocol

 Used in ISP networks

 MPLS is based on another protocols to learn and distribute labels:


IGP
TDL (Tag Switching)
LDP Label Distribution Protocol

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IP/MPLS Network Orange Romania

4G eNB

ETH 2G/3G
STM4 ISP Fixed
T1/E1
MSC Wireless

4G G/W GigE Router Router


4G eNB
2G/3G
IP/MPLS ETH

T1/E1

Router

4G eNB
STM1
ETH 2G/3G
MSC Ethernet
VLANs T1/E1
4G G/W Router
GigE
Management
Switch Router

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QoS Quality of Service Orange Romania

 Key Concepts
Allow the transport of traffic with special requirements
Defined by the ITU in 1994
Starting from Telephony needs
 An ISP Network must assure :
Throughput
Dropped packets
Latency, Delay
Jitter
Out-of-Order Delivery
 From Best Effort to an ordered delivery scenario

 Assuring Qos:
Best Effort
Efficient sharing of bandwidth
Relative importance depends on traffic type (audio/video, file transfer, interactive)
Challenge: Provide adequate performance
 Techniques

 Identify and explain QoS strategy

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QoS Techniques Orange Romania

 FIFO
Traffic packets placed on outbound link to egress device in FIFO order

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QoS Techniques Orange Romania

 Priority
All packets in a higher priority queue are served FIRST

 Rest of traffic
Served as required

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QoS Techniques Orange Romania

 Weighted Fair Queuing


Different scheduling priorities to statistically multiplexed data
Based on the weight of the packet

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QoS Techniques Orange Romania
 How to prioritizing the traffic:
Voice
Video
Data
 Do not affect the traffic profile

1920 lines Vertical x 1080 lines Horizontal

16:9

1080 x 1920 lines =

2,073,600 pixels per frame

x 3 colors per pixel

x 1 Byte (8 bits) per color

x 30 frames per second

= 1,492,992,000 bps Orange Romania 44


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Services Architecture

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Services Architecture, devices evolution to smart-phones, VAS Orange Romania
platforms

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Core Network

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Core Network Orange Romania

 Key Concepts
Central part of a telecom network that provides various services to customers
Provides path to exchange Information
High capacity communication facilities
Defined as providing communication any-to-any according the network requirements
 Main Activities:
Circuit Switching CS
Packet Switching PS
 Functions:
Transport
Signaling
 Sub-System Architecture
MSC, MGW, VLR, HKR, AUC
STP Signaling Transfer Point
OSS Operation Sub System
NMC(S) Network Management Center (Service)
CDRC Call Detail Record Collector

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Core Networks CS Distributed Architecture Orange Romania

 Signalling SS7 set up phones calls

 Signalling System No. 7 - defined as an international standard -> exchange of control information associated with
the establishment of call.

 One channel (either analog and almost always digital) is used only for sending the signaling information

 Physical layer E1, Layer 2, Layer 3

 Message Transfer Part MTP L1L2&L3 Protocol

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Core Networks CS SS7 Orange Romania

 MTP1 represents the physical layer. The layer is responsible for the connection of SS7 Signaling Points into the
transmission network over which they communicate with each other.

 MTP2 provides error detection and sequence checking, and retransmits unacknowledged messages. MTP2 uses
packets called signal units to transmit SS7 messages.

 MTP3 provides routing functionality to transport signaling messages through the SS7 network. Each network
element in the SS7 network has a unique address, the Point Code (PC )

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Core Networks PS Distributed Architecture Orange Romania

 Key Concepts:
Communication network based on transmitting data ito packets
Core Network PS
Mobile clients should keep the connection active and IP address
IP routing limit this feature
Mobile clients connected IP need a Gateway
Mobile Data Networks use Tunneling

 Applications Supported in Mobile Networks:


X.25.
Internet Protocol (IP).
IPv4
IPv6 supported
IPv4v6 Dual stack

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Core Networks CN-PS (2G/3G ) Orange Romania

 GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node)


assures connection between PS Network
and fixed PDN (Package Data Network)
Functiile acestuia sunt:
Packet switching
Session Management
Charge
 SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node)
assures connection betweeen d Core PS
and RAN:
Packet Switching
Session Management
Mobility Manaegement
Charge

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Network Planning

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Network Planning and network resources management Orange Romania

 The Goal is:


The Network Interfaces and components (MSC, SGSN, BSC, RNC, BTS, Node B) should
not be 100% used
 Concepts
Network Architecture
Services
Traffic Forecast based on market evolution:
Clients number
Traffic profile
History on a specific cell
 Simulations

 Traffic estimators

 Software Tools

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Software application Orange Romania

NMS - Access Network: BSS NMS: Transport Network IP/ETh


NMS: Transmission Network SDH/WDM Baza de date inventar: loactii / clienti
NMS - Access Network: RNS NMS: Transport Network ATM

NMS: Transmission Network MW


NMS: Core Network - CS NMS: Transport Network FR

NMS: Core Network - PS

Software

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Summary Orange Romania

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Orange Romania

Thank you!

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