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Mexicos

Case Study: PumpTech


Growing Thirst Torsional Analysis Issue

COMPRESSOR
APRIL 2013

Dedicated To Gas Compression Products & Applications

compressor
maintenance
Compressor Efficiency
Drops With Black
Powder Build-Up

Managing
Screw Compressors
In The Field
www.compressortech2.com
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Page
A Member Of The Diesel & Gas Turbine Publications Group
President & CEO ..................... Michael J. Osenga
Executive Vice President .... Michael J. Brezonick

COMPRESSOR
Dedicated To Gas Compression Products & Applications
4
PUBLICATION STAFF
CT2 Founder ........................... Joseph M. Kane Joe Kane
Publisher .................................Brent D. Haight
Associate Publisher ...............Roberto Chellini
Compressortech2 Founder
Editor ...........................................Patrick Crow

An Issue We Should
Executive Editor ............................... DJ Slater
Senior Editor .................. Michael J. Brezonick
Senior Editor .............................. Mike Rhodes
Associate Editor ................................ Jack Burke

Lose Sleep Over


Associate Editor .............................Chad Elmore
Copy Editor ................................ Jerry Karpowicz
Digital Content Manager............Catrina Boettner
Advertising Manager ...........Christa L. Johnson
Circulation Manager ...................Sheila Lizdas
Production Manager ............. Marisa J. Roberts Our attention is focused mostly on emerging economies, not in the United
Graphic Artist ........................Brenda L. Burbach
Graphic Artist .............................Carla D. Lemke the economy, government spending, States. Carbon-dioxide emissions in the
Graphic Artist ........................... Amanda J. Ryan taxes, our national debt and a heap of U.S. have been declining, and by 2035
Graphic Artist ................................ Alyssa Loope
other issues that seem to be numbing will return to 2005 levels, the Energy In-
PUBLICATION HEADQUARTERS our senses. formation Administration projects.
20855 Watertown Road, Suite 220
Waukesha, Wisconsin 53186-1873 A carbon tax, that onerous item that Advances in climate science, mean-
Telephone: (262) 754-4100 Fax: (262) 754-4175 is expected to sneak into the govern- while, raise even more doubt about the
CONTRIBUTING EDITORS ments revenue quest again, is one that assertion human activities are the pri-
Ellen Hopkins - Midland, Texas
Norm Shade - Cambridge, Ohio seems to rest below the public radar. It mary cause of warming. Former NASA
Mauro Belo Schneider - Rio Grande du Sul, Brazil
was attempted during the Clinton ad- scientist Roy Spencer, for example, has
HOUSTON OFFICE
Brent D. Haight, Publisher ministration, but met with such opposi- shown that temperatures since 1976
Patrick Crow, Editor tion that it was dropped. have risen and stabilized in parallel
Mike Rhodes, Senior Editor
12777 Jones Road, Suite 225 The two reasons expressed for a car- with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, a
Houston, Texas 77070
Telephone: (281) 890-5310 Fax: (281) 890-4805
bon tax were to gain more revenue for natural climate pattern affecting all sorts
GERMAN OFFICE the federal pocketbook and to address of natural phenomena. An increas-
Lisa Hochkofler, Advertising Manager climate change. The public was advised ing number of experts now admit that
Gabriele Dinsel, Advertising Manager
Niemllerstr. 9 that it wouldnt hurt the large energy pro- natural variability is poorly understood
73760 Ostfildern, Germany ducers and it would avoid the necessity of and poorly reflected in the models that
Telephone: +49 711 3416 74 0 Fax: +49 711 3416 74 74
UNITED KINGDOM OFFICE raising taxes on American citizens. The are the foundation of so much climate-
Ian Cameron, Regional Manager/Editor former might be true because big ener- change dread.
Linda Cameron, Advertising Manager
40 Premier Avenue gy producers would pass the additional Sleep is beautiful when it comes at
Ashbourne, Derbyshire, costs on to consumers. So the American the right time but embarrassing other-
DE6 1LH, United Kingdom
Telephone: +44 20 31 79 29 79 Fax: +44 20 31 79 29 70 public would inevitably foot the bill. wise. Some people sleep through
ITALIAN OFFICES This whole issue was discussed classes. They sleep at meetings. They
Roberto Chellini, Associate Publisher
44, Via Delle Forbici more succinctly late last year by William sleep during concerts. They mean well,
I-50133 Firenze, Italy OKeefe, CEO of the George C. Mar- but they miss out on the important mo-
Telephone: +39 055 50 59 861 Fax: +39 055 57 11 55
Roberta Prandi
shall Institute, in a column for The Wall ments of life.
Via Fitta, 21a Street Journal. He stated that energy is Others sleep through life in other
I-38062 Arco, Italy
Telephone: +39 0464 014421 Fax: +39 0464 244529 so paramount to our national well-being ways. They are unaware of political
SCANDINAVIAN OFFICE that any tinkering with its natural product- issues, unconcerned for the needs of
Bo Svensson, Field Editor/Business Manager to-market flow could be disastrous. others, devoid of manners, aloof from
Dunderbacksvagen 20
612-46 Finspong, Sweden He said an energy tax would place people seeking their attention. Some
Telephone: +46 70 2405369 Fax: +46 122 14787
our manufacturing sector at a compet- people sleep through relationships and
JAPANESE OFFICE
Akiyoshi Ojima, Branch Manager itive disadvantage globally, causing a through events that impinge upon deep-
51-16-301 Honmoku Sannotani, Naka-ku further shifting of production and jobs seated beliefs. In short, they live in the
Yokohama, 231-0824 Japan
Telephone: +81 45 624 3502 Fax: +81 45 624 3503 outside the U.S. But, worse, it would darkness of ignorance.
CHINESE OFFICE have its greatest impact on the low- Our so-called main line media con-
S.H. Mok, Branch Manager
Rm 1405, Kowloon Building income bracket of our population. tributes too much to this snooze factor
555 Nathan Road Moreover, OKeefe asserted, The by not addressing both sides of the
Kowloon, Hong Kong
Telephone: +852 3118 7930 Fax : +852 3110 3572 climate-change justification for a car- climate change debate.
bon tax is bogus. Greenhouse gas May the Lord hold you in the hollow
emissions are rising in China and other of His hand. CT2
GE Power & Water
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natural gas reserves and deliver powerful gas compression solutions for global applications.
For more information on GEs Gas Engines business, visit us at www.ge-waukesha.com.
April 2013

COMPRESSOR
Dedicated To Gas Compression Products & Applications

Featured Articles
16 Compressor Efficiency Drops With Black Powder Build-Up
24 Caring For A Compressor
42 Mexicos Growing Thirst
46 Mecos Acquisition Opens Opportunities For MAN
72 Lubes Evolve With Higher Turbine Performance
74 Turbine-Driven Compression For China
88 IEA Urges More Competition In Asia Pacific Gas Market
90 Case Study: Torsional Analysis

PUMPtech
Cover Designed By 52 Warning: Contents Are Hot
Amanda Ryan
58 Wrtsil Pumps It Up
62 Unusual PD Pump Pulsation Solutions
Compressortech 2 (ISSN 1085-2468)
Volume 18, No. 3 Published 10 issues/
year (January-February, March, April, May,
June, July, August-September, October,
November, December) by Diesel & Gas
TECHcorner
Turbine Publications, 20855 Watertown 32 A Review Of Reciprocating Compressor Crosshead Pin Nonreversals
Road, Waukesha, WI 53186-1873,
U.S.A. Subscription rates are $85.00 per 76 Vector Analysis Of Crankshaft Web Deflections
year/$10.00 per copy worldwide. Periodicals
postage paid at Waukesha, WI 53186 and
at additional mailing offices. Copyright 2013
DIESEL & GAS TURBINE PUBLICATIONS. Departments
4 Page 4 An Issue We Should Lose Sleep Over
Canadian Publication Mail Agreement # 40035419.
Return Undeliverable Canadian Addresses to: 8 Global Perspective Russia Looks Toward Asia Pacific Energy Market
P.O. Box 456, Niagara Falls, ON L2E 6V2, Cana-
da. E-mail: slizdas@dieselpub.com. 10 Meetings & Events
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to: Cir- 12 About The Business Compression Industry Reports Strong 2012 Business
culation Manager, Compressortech2, 20855 Despite Low Gas Prices
Watertown Road, Suite 220, Waukesha, WI
53186-1873 U.S.A. 14 Monitoring Government Meltdown Looms For Europes Carbon
Trading Program
40 Literature
73 Prime Movers
86 Featured Products
MEMBER OF BPA WORLDWIDE
PRINTED IN THE U.S.A. 95 Snapshot Oklahoma School Tops Out Building
96 Scheduled Downtime
97 Marketplace
98 Advertisers Index
100 Cornerstones Of Compression Waukesha VHP Series Gas Engines
Follow Compressortech2
at www.compressortech2.com
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D A L L A S H O U S T O N L O S A N G E L E S O K L A H O M A C I T Y
Global Perspective

Russia Looks Toward


Asia Pacific Energy
By Roberto Chellini
Associate Publisher Market > Gazprom, Rosneft under
political pressure to exploit
gas, oil resources

F
or many years, Europe has been the primary ex- scale of the project. The final cost, including the develop-
port market for Gazprom, the Russian natural ment of Chayanda and pipeline construction, likely will be
gas monopoly. more than US$50 billion over five years or longer.
If on one side, the European marketplace is seen as a The gas export monopoly that Gazprom holds is in-
slow-growing area with high competition from North Sea, creasingly threatened by pressure from Russian Presi-
African and Middle East gas source. On the other side, the dent Vladimir Putin, whose political allies include Rosneft
growing economies of the Asia Pacific region ensure a fast- chairman Igor Sechin. In fact, Rosneft has made over-
growing demand for energy. Thats especially true for lique- tures to ExxonMobil, as well as Chinese and Japanese
fied natural gas (LNG), since Japan and South Korea are companies, for possible LNG collaboration in its conces-
the worlds largest LNG importers. sions, although a liberalization of Russias gas export
Strong energy demand has brought very lucrative prices, framework has yet to occur.
and several international oil companies are investing in LNG Gazprom is wise to speed its entry into Asia through the
plants to monetize the gas reserves of Indonesia, Australia, Vladivostok LNG project while Russian politicians consider ex-
the Middle East and the East African coast. The low price tending its export monopoly. However, rising competition in the
of gas in the United States has even prompted proposals to Asia Pacific LNG market could give consuming nations more
export LNG to Asia Pacific. bargaining power. Gazprom could find it difficult to secure
Russia is looking at this market area with great interest. It long-term contracts at prices that would give it a comfortable
has significant hydrocarbon resources in East Siberia and profit margin for the expensive Vladivostok LNG investment.
on the Russian Continental Shelf (RCS). The easiest, and Rosneft has also offered opportunities for cooperation on
the most economical, option would have been a gas pipe- the RCS to Chinese companies and is expected to make
line from East Siberia to South Korea through North Korea. similar offers to Japanese firms. Those deals will probably
Although technically feasible, the political situation in the follow the pattern of agreements it had inked with ExxonMo-
area could jeopardize the substantial investment required. bil, Eni and Statoil: entry into the prospective Russian shelf,
Instead, on Feb. 21, Gazprom decided to invest in the Vladi- which could hold 733 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BOE)
vostok LNG export project. The three-train export terminal will of resources, in exchange for the capital and expertise to
be built at Perevoznaya Bay on the Lomonosov Peninsula and develop the fields.
will have annual export capacity of about 15 mtpa (20.7 x109 These promise to be beneficial partnerships for the oil
m3/year). The first train is scheduled to start up in 2018. giant Rosneft. Thanks to legislation in 2008 that effectively
Last October, Russia had finally decided to invest in the granted it and Gazprom exclusive rights to the RCS, the two
development of the Chayanda gas and condensate field. firms have been sitting on licenses that could be rich with
It will build a 2000 mi. (3200 km) pipeline from Yakutia to hydrocarbon potential.
Vladivostok to provide feedstock gas for the Vladivostok However, due to the high costs of exploration and produc-
LNG project. tion, as well as the specialized knowhow needed to operate
The Vladivostok terminal also will draw on gas from offshore a relatively new area of operations for both com-
Sakhalin Island area gas fields and from the Irkutsk produc- panies they have been slow to develop the RCS.
tion center (also in East Siberia), which will be linked to the In recent months, both firms have been under increas-
Yakutia-Vladivostok (Power of Siberia) trunkline. ing pressure from political figures such as Prime Minister
Gazprom did not disclose a construction cost of the Vladi- Dmitry Medvedev and Natural Resources and Environment
vostok venture. However, it is likely to be greater than the Minister Sergei Donskoy to speed development of the RCS
US$12.7 billion originally estimated, given the increased or risk a forfeit of their licenses. CT2

APRIL 2013 8 Compressortech2


Its all in
the name...

A proud past leads to a new future


They may display a proud old name on the outside, earned Rolls-Royce an unparalleled reputation for quality.
but the driving force within the worlds best-engineered, Today, in a business where productivity and dependability
most efficient, pipeline gas compressors is Rolls-Royce. mean so much, the unsurpassed engineering experience
The heritage name, Cooper-Bessemer, still carried by older of the past makes Rolls-Royce the compressor name
machines, echoes the engineering excellence that has of the future. Trusted to deliver excellence

Cooper-Bessemer is a registered trade name of Cameron Corporation, used under license by Rolls-Royce plc

www.rolls-royce.com
Meetings & Events
For a complete listing of upcoming events, please visit our website at www.compressortech2.com

APRIL April 16-17 May 14-16


April 7-10 *Gas Compressor Institute *Eastern Gas Compression
*Gas Processors Association Liberal, Kansas Roundtable
Annual Convention San Antonio Tel: +1 (620) 417-1171 Moon Township, Pennsylvania
Web: www.gascompressor.info Tel: +1 (412) 372-4301
Tel: +1 (918) 493-3872
Web: www.egcr.org
Web: www.gpaglobal.org
April 29-May 3
May 14-16
April 10-11 *Gulf South Rotating Machinery *Sensor+Test Nuremberg, Germany
*Turkish International Oil & Gas Symposium Baton Rouge, Tel: +49 5033 9639-0
Conference 2013 Ankara, Turkey Louisiana Web: www.sensor-test.de
Tel: +44 207 596 5147 Tel: +1 (225) 578-4853
Web: www.turoge.com Web: www.gsrms.org May 14-16
Uzbekistan International Oil & Gas
April 15 MAY Exhibition Tashkent, Uzbekistan
*Gas Compressor Association May 1-4 Tel: +44 207 596 5233
Web: www.oguzbekistan.com/2013
Expo & Conference Baghdad International Oil & Gas
Galveston, Texas Conference and Exhibition Baghdad
JUNE
Tel: +1 (972) 518-0019 Tel: +90 212 356 00 56
June 3-7
Web: www.gascompressor.org Web: www.baghdadoilgas.com *ASME Turbo Expo San Antonio
Tel: +1 (404) 847-0072
April 15-17 May 6-9 Web: www.asmeconferences.org/
North Africa Technical Conference *Offshore Technology Conference TE2013
& Exhibition Cairo Houston
Tel: +971 4 390 3540 Tel: +1 (972) 952-9494 June 4-6
Web: www.spe.org/events/natc Web: www.otcnet.org *Power-Gen Europe Vienna

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*Indicates shows and conferences in which Compressortech2 is participating

Tel: +44 1992 656 617 september Sept. 30-Oct. 3


Web: www.powergeneurope.com Sept. 17-19 *Turbomachinery Symposium
*Gas Compressor Conference Houston
June 4-6 Norman, Oklahoma Tel: +1 (979) 845-7417
Sensors Expo & Conference Web: http://turbolab.tamu.edu
Tel: +1 (405) 325-3891
Rosemont, Illinois
Web: www.engr.outreach.ou.edu/
Tel: +1 (617) 219-8375 Oct. 1
Web: www.sensorsmag.com/ gascompressor
Pittsburgh Chemical Day Pittsburgh
sensors-expo Tel: +1 (855) 807-9814
Sept. 18-20 Web: www.pittchemday.com
June 4-7 *Wyoming Natural Gas Fair
Caspian Oil & Gas 2013 Jackson, Wyoming Oct. 2-4
Baku, Azerbaijan Tel: +1 (307) 234-7147 *Power-Gen Asia Bangkok
Tel: +44 207 596 5000 Web: www.wyogasfair.org Tel: +1 (918) 835-3161
Web: www.caspianoil-gas.com Web: www.powergenasia.com
Sept. 25-26
June 5-6 ChemInnovations Conference & Expo Oct. 6-9
Energy Exposition Gas Machinery Conference
Galveston, Texas
Gillette, Wyoming Albuquerque, New Mexico
Tel: +1 (713) 343-1884
Tel: +1 (307) 234-1868 Tel: +1 (972) 620-4026
Web: www.energyexposition.com Web: www.cpievent.com Web: www.gmrc.org

June 11-13 Sept. 30-Oct. 3 Oct. 7-10


Calgary Oil & Gas Expo *International Pump Users Argentina Oil & Gas Expo
Calgary, Canada Symposium Houston Buenos Aires, Argentina
Tel: +1 (403) 209-3555 Tel: +1 (979) 845-2924 Tel: +54 11 4322 57
Web: www.gasandoilexpo.com Web: http://turbolab.tamu.edu Web: www.aog.com.ar

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About The Business

Compression Industry Reports


Strong 2012 Business Despite
By Norm shade Low Gas Prices > More-or-less flat outlook sends
small, regional players search-
ing for new markets

C
ompression fabrication and contract services compa- and Asia Pacific markets, as well as unconventional applica-
nies reported strong results for 2012 even though natu- tions supporting associated gas from liquids production, vapor
ral gas prices were subdued. recovery and casing gas systems.
Enerflex recorded sales 22% higher than in 2011 due to Year-end backlogs and order rates were mixed. Dresser-Rand
strong activity in the southern United States, South America, reported record new-unit orders, a gain of 9%, driven by stronger
and other international segments. Cameron Process & Com- worldwide energy infrastructure markets, especially oil produc-
pression reported revenues were 21% higher, led by strong tion and gas transmission. D-Rs year-end unit backlog was 14%
process equipment sales. Dresser-Rands new-unit sales in- higher than 2011, and new unit orders are forecast to increase
creased 20%. another 10 to 20% in 2013.
USA Compression Partners, which closed its IPO in Janu- Exterrans compression fabrication backlog was up 11%
ary 2013, had record 20% higher revenues. Exterran Holdingss from the third quarter and 3% from year-end 2011. Manage-
revenues were 17% higher for the quarter and 7% for the year, ment reported the highest profitability in more than three
with growth in all business sectors, but especially in fabrication. years, and expects further progress in 2013, mostly in the
Compressco Partners increased its revenues 23% due to strong second half of the year.
international growth, primarily in Mexico. UE Compression, which Caterpillar and Ariel projected 2013 volumes would match
opened a facility in Denver to handle larger packages, reported re- 2012 levels. SEC Energy reported a six-month backlog with a
cord packaging sales in 2012. And SEC Energy enjoyed its highest full shop and a large expansion of its Houston plant and offices
volume since 2008. near completion. Camerons process and compression equip-
Nevertheless, tepid economies and low gas prices limited results ment orders and backlog declined 2% and 4%, respectively.
for a number of companies. Caterpillars Power Systems group re- Rolls-Royce Energy, dependent almost entirely on internation-
ported sales 6% lower in the fourth quarter of 2012, with soften- al markets, reported orders down 9% due to delays of several
ing in all geographic regions except Asia Pacific. Cat noted that large projects.
dealers are not building inventory like they did at the end of 2011. Enerflexs backlog decreased 31%, with orders slowing in all
Rolls-Royce Energy revenues decreased 11% due to the delay of areas due to lower gas prices, but especially in Canada and the
several large international projects. Small regional packagers, such northern U.S. The decrease was also affected by a large Omani
as Abby Services in the U.S., and Compass and Sage in Canada, gas processing plant that had been included in 2011 bookings.
reported slower activity. That sent them searching for more interna- The company expects continued softness during the first half
tional business and new markets, such as vapor recovery. of 2013, but is optimistic about opportunities in the southern
Exterran reduced its contract compression fleet (the industrys U.S., South America and other international markets. Enerflex
largest) by another 3% to 4,461,000 hp (3326 MW), but grew oper- doubled its Houston fabrication facility in 2012 to serve demand
ating horsepower by 3% to 3,907,000 hp (2913 MW) as utilization in those markets.
improved to 84%, nearer the industry average. International growth Low gas prices sent many small, regional fabricators and con-
rates were strongest. tract compression fleets searching for business in new markets.
USA Compressions fleet grew 27% during the year to For example, Bidell, Compass, Sage and Abby all reported their
919,211 hp (685 MW), although utilization fell from 95.7% to 2012 fabrication backlogs were down from 2011. Dearing Com-
92.8%. Compressco reported 3149 compressor units in ser- pression, positioned uniquely in the Marcellus and Utica Shale
vice, up 8%, with growth focused on Latin American, European plays, was an exception.
Niche companies, such as Cobey and ANGI Energy Systems,
Norm Shade is president of ACI Services Inc. of Cambridge, Ohio. are benefiting from strong growth in natural gas vehicle refueling
A 43-year veteran of the gas compression industry, he has written infrastructure. Vapor recovery compression is also growing as op-
numerous papers and is active in the major industry associations. erators try to reduce fugitive emissions. CT2

APRIL 2013 12 Compressortech2


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GCA - Gas Compressor Association - April 14-17, Galveston TX - Booth 116
High Performance Polymers for Oil & Gas - April 10-12, Houston, TX
Meltdown Looms For
Europes Carbon Trading
Monitoring Program > Approval for a backloading
fix wont come easily
Government BY Patrick Crow

E
uropes greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme is In late February, the imminent collapse of the ETS forced
near collapse, presenting the European Union with the EUs Committee on Environment, Public Health and
some tough choices. Food Safety to draft a bailout plan. To tighten the market,
The Emissions Trading System (ETS) was the first, and is it proposed backloading future allowances: deferring the
by far the largest, international framework for trading green- issuance of 900 million tonnes of carbon permits that were
house gas emissions allowances. due to be auctioned from 2013 to 2015. That would be
The fate of the ETS will be closely monitored in the about a fourth of the planned offering.
United States. President Barack Obama is pressing Con- The environment committee has sent a clear signal in
gress for global warming legislation and most plans to favor of a strong and healthy emissions trading system,
reduce greenhouse emissions include cap-and-trade pro- Committee Chairman Matthias Groote said. A stronger
grams like the ETS. carbon price will help catalyze Europes transition towards
Compressor manufacturers also should be watching with a low-carbon economy.
interest. They would like to see market growth for compres- That bailout plan now must be approved by the European
sors used in CO2 injection/sequestration projects. Commission, which represents all of the governments of
The EU launched the ETS in 2005. It affects nearly half EU member states, and the European Parliament. Their ap-
of all CO2 emissions in the 27 EU member nations, plus provals may not come easily or may not come at all.
Croatia, Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway. Some members of Parliament oppose backloading be-
Working from a 2005 baseline, the programs goal is to cause the temporary fix threatens to swamp the market when
cut emissions from targeted industrial sectors 21% by 2020. the deferred permits are ultimately issued in 2019 and 2020.
EU nations have allocated free carbon permits to 11,000 In the European Commission, nations that benefit from
industrial firms and power plants. the current low carbon prices will argue against changing
An allowance permits a facility to emit 1 tonne of CO2 or the trading program. In the forefront will be Poland, a major
its carbon equivalent. Companies can sell any permits that consumer of coal, which is the fuel that generates the most
they dont need. The limit on the total number of allowances carbon emissions.
available theoretically ensures that they have a value. The European Association for Coal and Lignite has com-
The paper-trading system is a good idea on paper. The plained to the EU that backloading not only is contrary to
market mechanism should allow polluters to either invest in the founding principles of the ETS, but also would make the
emissions controls or purchase allowances from companies program a scheme subject to political manipulation.
who dont need them, whichever makes economic sense. Environmental groups are divided. Some say the ETS
But cap-and-trade systems work best when demand needs permanent structural reforms to be viable. Others
for allowances is brisk. Thats not been the case recently argue that the ETS should be scrapped and replaced with
in Europe, where industrial activity still is recovering from tougher mandates to reduce pollution. They do agree that
the economic slowdown. In particular, demand for electric the abundance of cheap permits has removed any incentive
power has dropped and generating plants are the major for polluting firms to cut their emissions.
sources of CO2 emissions. The EU might consider some alternatives to backload-
Since 2009, the supply of ETS allowances has consis- ing but all of them are at least as controversial. It could
tently surpassed demand building to a surplus of about 2 reduce the 2020 target, permanently remove a large
billion tonnes and thus the price of traded carbon credits block of allowances, increase the annual emissions cuts,
has trended downwards. bring more industries into the program, or set a floor
Earlier this year, the price of credits slipped to a low of price for the allowances.
2.80 (US$3.75) for each tonne allowance of CO2. That Only one thing is clear. If the EU does nothing, ETS car-
was down from 9 in 2012 and 30 in 2008. bon prices will dip toward zero. CT2

APRIL 2013 14 Compressortech2


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All
All trademarks,
trademarks, logos,
logos, and
and symbols
symbols are
are exclusive
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to the
the right
right of
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their owners
owners and
and are
are used
used for
for reference
reference purpose
purpose only.
only.
Compressor Efficiency Drops With Black
Powder Build-Up > Preventative, restorative measures
can minimize iron sulfide, iron oxide
contamination
By Fred Mueller

Of those, black powder is the most


troublesome. Black powder contami-
nation manifests itself through re-
duced pipeline efficiency, clogged
instrumentation, fouled measurement
equipment and valves that cannot op-
erate due to an accumulation of debris.
It can clog compressor valves, com-
pressor cylinders, compressor pistons,
and filter/separators.
Additionally, black powder can af-
fect pipeline integrity programs that
rely on magnetic flux leakage inspec-
tion and geometry tools due to debris-
induced, liftoff of sensors. Sometimes
the contamination is dry and powdery.
At other times it is wet or has a tar-like
appearance. Black powder is not just
a corrosion issue; it is produced in the
gas stream from chemical reactions
or from microbial activity.
Black power can be an expensive
problem. One pipeline has stated that it
spends US$5.2 million a year in direct
costs associated with black powder re-
moval. A single compressor station that
n This compressor suction valve was fouled by black powder. has had a filter/separator compromised
due to filter collapse can have remedia-

T
he formation of black powder natural gas industry from the wellhead tion costs of more than US$400,000.
a chemical reaction of hy- to the burner tip. Its removal is nec- Other expenses would include fil-
drogen sulfide (H2S), water and essary to improve or maintain opera- ter element replacement, solid waste
iron is a problem for compressors tional efficiency and safety. volume disposal of filter elements,
that can escalate if preventative and This paper assimilates information increased horsepower to pump the
removal actions are not taken. from several sources and provides ex- same throughput, compressor valve
Black powder is a common chal- periences from operators perspective replacements and substitution or re-
lenge that spans all phases of the on the difficulties that foreign materi- pair of fouled instrumentation.
als in the gas stream pose for produc-
Fred Mueller is president of Mueller Envi- tion, gathering, processing and pipe- Chemistry
ronmental Designs Inc., Houston. Mueller line transportation. As stated earlier, black powder is
worked for several years in engineering, Typical contaminants in the gas formed through the chemical reaction
operations, service and sales, incorporat- stream are water, glycol, amine, of H2S, water and iron in a pipe. The
ing his company in 1991. He holds a patent methanol, compressor lubricating major components of these reactions
for a helical coil separator used to remove oils, salts, chlorides, liquid hydrocar- are iron sulfide (Fe + S) and iron oxide
black powder from pipelines. E-mail him at bons, sand, dirt, production stimula- (Fe + O). The resulting compounds
F.Mueller@Muellerenvironmental.com. tors and black powder. continued on page 18

APRIL 2013 16 Compressortech2


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P.O. Box 470248 Tulsa, OK 74147 Visit us at: GCA April 15-17 2013 Galveston TX Booth #310
n This orifice plate also shows black powder fouling.
mous surface area-to-volume ratio.
Subsequently, when exposed to air, it
is oxidized back to iron oxide and ei-
ther free sulfur or SO2 gas is formed.
This reaction between iron sulfide
and oxygen is accompanied by the gen-
eration of considerable amount of heat.
In fact, so much heat is released that in-
dividual particles of iron sulfide become
incandescent. This rapid exothermic
oxidation with incandescence is known
as pyrophoric oxidation and it can ignite
flammable hydrocarbon-air mixtures.
Iron sulfide in the chemical forms of
mackinawite, smythite and greigite are
typical indicators of microbial activ-
ity in the gas pipeline. Additionally, the
confirmation of sulfate-reducing bacte-
ria (SRB) and acid-producing bacteria
(APB) in the pipeline is a positive indi-
cation that microbial corrosion exists.
The SRB microbes Clostridium and
Desulfovibrio desulfuricans consume
sulfates and produce H2S. While APB
are black in appearance, therefore the ferric sulfide, smythite and greigite. Of microbes do not produce H2S, they
term black powder. these forms of iron sulfide, pyrrhotite supply nutrients and provide hospi-
exhibits pyrophoric tendencies. table environments for SRB to grow.
H2S + Fe g FeS + H2 Pyrophoric iron sulfide oxidizes
Iron sulfide exothermally when exposed to air. It is Reducing black powder
formed in the gas stream where H2S Regardless of the origin of H2S in the
2H + Fe g Fe2+ + H2 exceeds the concentration of oxygen. continued on page 20
Iron oxide As stated, due to the submicron par-
ticle size of iron sulfide, it has an enor-
Iron sulfide and iron oxide particles,
whether wet or dry, are extremely
small. Laboratory analysis of both wet
and dry samples indicates a range 0.2
< particle diameter < 4 , with more
than 81.6% of the particle sample
being less than 1 with the greatest
concentration of that particle range
being 0.2 < particle diameter < 0.4 .
Subsequently, dry black powder has a
smoke-like appearance.
Wet black powder may exhibit as
clumps, but when it is subjected to high
velocity or impinges upon hard sur-
faces, it may shear into smaller submi-
cron particles. When black powder is in
suspension as a liquid, it presents the
same characteristics as when dry. Typi-
cal density for iron sulfide and iron oxide
are 151 lb./cu.ft. (1.9 kg/m3) and 355 lb./
cu.ft. (4.6 kg/m3), respectively.
The common chemical forms of
iron sulfide include pyrrhotite, troilite, n There are many forms of black powder.
mackinawite, pyrite and marcasite,

APRIL 2013 18 Compressortech2


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P.O. Box 470248 Tulsa, OK 74147 Visit us at: GCA April 15-17 2013 Galveston TX Booth #310
filtration/separation. In the pigging pro-
cess, a tool is inserted and pushed
through the pipeline using compression.
There are two methods of pigging:
dry and chemical. The cleaning action
of the pig is a function of brushes or
cups that scrape the pipe wall. The
scraping action loosens black powder
on the metal and pushes loose debris
ahead of it.
Four aspects of chemical pigging
are important for optimal cleaning
results: solids penetration, solids sus-
pension, mixture viscosity and mix-
ture separability.
Solids penetration is the ability of
the chemicals to break the surface
contact of debris and loosen it from
the pipe sidewall. After the debris is
n This pig run removed a pile of moist black powder. loosened, it must be carried down the
pipe in suspension in large quantities.
gas stream, a concentration of 1 ppm ed into the gas stream. The chemical The carrying capacity of the chemi-
and a throughput of 500 MMscfd (14 x agent should be compatible with the cal agent and solvent is much greater
106 m3/d) potentially could produce as solids to be removed and is based than the original density. Therefore,
much as 3600 lb. (1630 kg) of black on pipeline operating parameters. the mixture viscosity is extremely im-
powder in a month. The important operating parameters portant; it must not increase greatly in
Operators who can minimize the include the type of compressor, dew viscosity or surface tension.
introduction of water and reduce the point, and waste disposal plans. The final aspect, mixture separa-
H2S content in their gas stream will In addition to operating parameters, bility, is the tendency of the debris to
see a resulting reduction in black pow- the nature of the deposit is critical. Hy- separate into distinct phases in order
der formation. drocarbon deposits comprised of waxes to facilitate disposal. Should an emul-
Microbiologically influenced cor- and paraffin are easier to remove with sion be present, the entire quantity of
rosion cannot exist without water, so an oil-soluble chemical while salts are material will require disposal.
water should be removed wherever it easier to clean with an aqueous clean- Optimally, three phases will pres-
is known to accumulate. ing solution. It is important to remember ent oil, aqueous, and solids. This
The best barrier to black powder that when using a water-soluble chemi- will enable the capture of the cleaning
production is tariff enforcement. Un- cal agent, the pipeline must be thor- agent for a subsequent chemical pig-
fortunately, even when some con- oughly dried after debris is removed. ging project and the removal of solid
stituents in the gas stream (such as Another important aspect of injecting debris for reduced volume of hazard-
CO2, H2S, oxygen, water, and sulfur a chemical agent into the gas stream is ous waste material.
compounds) meet the existing tariff solvent compatibility. Solvents include Physical removal of black powder
requirements of a few percent to a few water and methanol for water-soluble also involves a filtration/separation
parts per million, they still can allow cleaners or diesel and hydrocarbon function that typically is installed up-
significant corrosion. condensate for oil-soluble cleaners. stream of a compressor station or
The greatest impediment to black An effective cleaning agent must form gas processing facility.
powder formation is a conservative either a stable dispersion or a complete Multiple filters in parallel are placed
tariff that limits H2S to 1 ppm, total solution. A solution is clear or translu- in the gas stream to capture and retain
sulfur content of five grains per 100 cent in appearance with no distinct solid particles. They must be suitable for
scf, 5 lb. of water per MMscf, 1.4% by phases. A stable dispersion for pipeline submicron particle retention and they
volume of CO2 and 10 ppm of oxygen. injection applications must remain in a must be able to coalesce and pass liq-
homogenous single phase for a mini- uids for capture by the mist extraction
Removal methods mum of 72 hours to be effective. Should section of the filter/separator.
Under current technology, black pow- the cleaning solvent separate from the Most filter element designs are un-
der can be removed from gas pipelines cleaning agent, its performance will be able to perform both processes. A
through chemical or physical means. significantly reduced. primary problem with a filter element
In the chemical process, water or Physical removal of black powder that is designed to remove submicron
an oil-soluble chemical agent is inject- is accomplished through pigging and continued on page 22

APRIL 2013 20 Compressortech2


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particles is that it can become plugged line debris is sampled and analyzed, restrict the foreign constituents of the
rapidly and require frequent changing. it is often presumed that sulfides do gas of the gas stream.
If operating conditions do not allow not exist and only pipeline corrosion When necessary, operators should
bypassing or shutdowns, the filter byproducts are present. use chemical processes and pigging
element pressure differential may Type of analysis performed on the methods to remove black powder
become so great that the elements debris should include full particle iden- build-up from gas pipelines.
collapse, compromising the filter/ tification, bulk density, and particle size
separator completely. and distribution. Minimum capabilities of References
Several manufacturers of helical the laboratory should include: Baldwin, R.M.: Black powder in the
coil, swirl tube, and cyclone separat- Polarized light microscopy, gas industry sources, characteristics
ing elements are working on technolo- Epi-reflected light microscopy, and treatment, Gas Machinery Re-
gies to address these issues. Scanning electron microscopy, search Council (1997). See: www.gmrc.
Energy-dispersive X-ray org/technology-reports.html
Sampling spectrometry, Brownlee, J.K.; Dougherty, J.A.;
Testing of black powder in pipelines X-ray diffraction, Salma, T.; and Hausler, R.H.: Solv-
and compressors is essential to de- Attenuated total reflection-Fourier ing iron sulfide problems in an off-
termine the chemical pigging and/or infrared spectroscopy, shore gas gathering system, Nace
cleaning process that will be required. IMIX image processing software, International (2000).
Analysis of the chemical constituents and ASTM D 854-98 standard test Campbell, S.: The ins and outs of
and particulate sizes of pipeline debris methods for specific gravity of soils. pipeline cleaners: testing and evalu-
is needed for the selection of new filtra- ation for chemical cleaners, Nace
tion/separation equipment. Conclusion International (2000).
When samples are taken for test- Pipeline and compressor operators BJ Services: Improved black pow-
ing, they must be sealed immediately. should take a two-pronged approach der removal. See: www.bjservice.com
As soon as the debris sample is ex- to battling black powder. Sahdev, M.: Pryophoric iron fires,
posed to atmosphere, it begins oxidiz- They should minimize the content Cheresources Online Chemical En-
ing and potentially forming magnetite of water and H2S in the pipeline, pref- gineering Information (1991). See:
(Fe3O4). If that occurs, when the pipe- erably through effective tariffs that www.cheresources.com. CT2

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Caring
By Lee Levisay

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The PROS Company in Lubbock,
Screw Compressor
Texas. He is a graduate of Texas
Preventative Maintenance A&M University.

Shown here are two compressor packages Gas Expands And


that include separators. There are four stages
for successful separation.
Slows In Velocity
The First Stage of Separation

A
screw compressor can be a very fickle piece of
equipment, or it can be your best piece of equipment
and make your operations very profitable. It all de-
pends on the proper fit for the application and the mainte-
nance program.
Screw compressors were not designed for the natural
gas industry. They have been adapted for the natural gas
industry from the industrial air and refrigeration industries,
where the compressor works in a clean, closed system. The Illustration by Kathy Buxkemper of PROS Co.
natural gas industry is totally opposite, utilizing an open-
ended system that will feed the compressor package what-
ever comes from the well. Operators must be ready for all
the different gases, liquids and trash that the well will throw
at the compressor.
To ensure that you have a successful screw compressor
you must first make sure the compressor package is de-
signed properly. The screw compressor package must be
designed to control three items for a successful and profit-
able piece of equipment separation of the liquids from
the gases, the filtration system and the temperature of the
gas. There are as many separation system designs as there
are compressor packagers and manufacturers. Some work
better than others.
continued on page 26

APRIL 2013 24 Compressortech2


The separation of the liquids from the gases Gas Slows And
There are two separation systems on a typical natural Changes Direction

The Second Stage of Separation


gas screw compressor package the gas suction separa-
tor from the well and the oil discharge system to separate
the gas and oil after the compression process. We will dis-
cuss both because they both have to be working properly
to insure success.
The majority of the liquids from the well should be sep-
arated prior to the gas stream coming to the compressor
package. Sometimes this is not the case for wellhead com-
pression systems. The gas suction separator should be de-
signed with the four stages of separation working properly;
this will ensure the minimum amount of liquid carryover to
the compressor. It does not matter if the system has a hori-

Illustration by Kathy Buxkemper of PROS Co.


zontal or vertical separator system as long as it is designed
correctly for the application.
The first stage of separation is to have the gas enter and
immediately hit an inlet deflector, which forces the gas to
expand, change direction and slow down in velocity. This
will drop out a lot of the heavier fluids. The second stage
is to have the gas change direction and continue to slow in
velocity. The third stage is to have a mist pad so the finer
droplets of liquid can collect and drop out. The fourth stage
is to have the gas stream run through a filtration system.

The filtration system


The filtration system removes any particulate matter from
the gas stream so as to not damage the screw compressor.
The suction filtration filters should have a minimum rating Gas Passes Through
of no larger than 10 to 20 , the smaller the better. If you
have iron oxide or coal dust in your system then it is recom-
Mist Pad
The Third Stage of Separation

mended no larger than 1 to 3 . If your filters keep getting


plugged up, that means they are working properly.
Filters are designed very differently and have maximum
differential pressure allowances. Be sure to check with your
filter supplier and never allow the differential pressure to ex-
ceed the maximum design for that filter. If it does exceed the
maximum, the filter could collapse and send particulate mat-
ter into your compressor to damage the rotors and bearings.
That is not good and normally will lead to excessive down-
time and a screw compressor rebuild or replacement. Filters
should be checked regularly for proper operation. Illustration by Kathy Buxkemper of PROS Co.
Once the gas passes through the separator and is head-
ed to the screw compressor it should be free of liquids and
particulate matter. This is not always the case with an open
ended natural gas application.

The temperature of the gas


This is where the gas analysis is required. The operating
temperature must be 10 to 20 above the highest dew point
in the gas stream. This will ensure that the gas variables
will stay in a vapor state and not liquefy. By keeping the gas
stream variables in vapor form, they will move out of the
system with the discharge gas. If any of the gas variables
liquefy and stay in the oil, they will dilute the oil and create
lubrication problems.
continued on page 28

APRIL 2013 26 Compressortech2


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Prior to the gas stream entering the change in the type of oil will also come No well-balanced, preventative
screw compressor, it is mixed with the with a major change in the discharge maintenance program can be com-
oil. The oil serves multiple functions in oil separation system. plete without the incorporation of the
the screw compressor compression Regularly scheduled oil analysis is vibration analysis. Vibration analysis
process. It is the lubricant, sealant and the key to maintaining consistent oil can show the operator the existence
coolant. It will lubricate the bearings throughout the life cycle of the oil. Oil of an issue well before it becomes a
and other moving parts. In the screw analysis is the method for determining major problem.
compressor, there are very tight toler- the useful life cycle of the oil and com- In summary, a well-designed and
ances and the oil will act as the sealant pressor. By analyzing the components implemented preventative mainte-
between moving parts to create a seal in the oil you will be able to determine nance program will incorporate oil
for compression. As with any compres- problems before they become cata- analysis, vibration analysis and con-
sion process, heat is created and the oil strophic events. Oil analysis will point trol of the separation, filtration and
will help disperse the heat and remove you in the direction where issues need temperature of the screw compres-
it from the compression process to pre- to be addressed, whether they are ex- sor system. These factors will allow
vent excess heating. If the compressor cessive liquids in the oil (separation the operator to schedule downtime
has too much gap in the clearances be- and temperature) or too much particu- for maintenance and equipment ex-
tween the rotors and housing from ex- late matter (filtration). If there is a high changes, eliminating the midnight call
cessive wear or damage, the oil cannot metallic flag on the analysis, this may alerting the operator to a catastrophic
seal and there will be a loss in efficiency. tell you that the compressor is getting event. When all this is done properly,
After the compression process, the near the end of its life cycle, parts are the screw compressor will become a
oil and gas must be separated so the wearing out and that a rebuild or ex- very dependable and profitable asset
gas can be sent down line and the oil change needs to be scheduled. for natural gas production. CT2
can be reused. The oil must be kept
clean and free of foreign material,
whether it is liquid or particle, therefore
the importance of the discharge sepa- Coalescing And
ration system being designed properly
and well maintained. The discharge Filtration
system works similar to the suction gas
separation system with a more refined
The Fourth Stage of Separation

fourth stage of separation. On the dis-


charge separation system the filtration
is designed specifically for separating
the oil and gas. This is called a coalesc-
ing filtration system. The coalescing fil-
ter is designed for the separation of the
oil from the gas and will allow the oil to
return to the system. Coalescing filters
should not be rated for greater than 1 to
5 microns and should be checked reg-
ularly. In the opinion of the author, the
smaller the better. This will prevent ac-
Illustration by Kathy Buxkemper of PROS Co.

cumulation of particulate matter in the


oil and damaging bearings over time.
The oil is the life fluid of the screw
compressor package. Selection of the
right type of oil for your application
is very important. Please consult a
trusted oil supplier to get the right kind
of oil for your application. If the screw
compressor package is designed for
petroleum-based oil and a decision
is made to change to synthetic-based
oil, you could experience many prob-
lems, because the discharge sys-
tem was not designed for the lighter
synthetic oils. Be aware that a major

APRIL 2013 28 Compressortech2


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KB Delta manufactures and stocks springs for every major OEM valve type
Spring Shapes/Styles: Conical, Cylindrical, Barrel, Hourglass, and Special Spring Shapes
Dresser-Rand style springs (with and without nylon button inserts)
Wire Shape Types: Round, Flat, Oval, and Special Shapes
Material Types: Stainless Steel (17-7 PH, 302, 304, 316, ), Music Wire, Inconel (600, X-750, 718), Nimonic 90, Hastelloy (C-
276, C-4), Elgiloy (Phynox), MP35N, Waspaloy, Monel 400, Titanium Gr.5/ 6Al4V, Phosphor Bronze, Beryllium Copper, and all others
per OEM or customer spec.

Poppets
KB Delta manufactures and stocks common Peek and Nylon poppets. Sealing surfaces are precision machined and each poppet
is inspected for proper spring deflection and sealing.

Buttons, Nubs and Inserts


Buttons and nubs are compression molded, injection molded and precision-machined.
Styles: Buttons, Wear Nubs, Valve Strip Wear Inserts, Guides, Stem Guides, Inserts
Materials: Stainless Steel, Teflon, Peek, Nylon, Moly, Carbon

KB Delta Inc. is an aftermarket supplier of compressor valve parts. KB Delta makes no representation that the parts we
manufacture are OEM parts, however to our best knowledge, OEM specifications are adhered to on all of the parts we
manufacture.
TECH

corner
A Review Of Reciprocating
Compressor Crosshead
Pin Nonreversals > Operators should be alert to
risky operating conditions
By Dwayne A. Hickman

M
any operators of reciprocating compressors are crankshaft can be converted to linear motion of the piston.
very familiar with safety issues related to unit per- While the pin may appear to fit snugly, it must have some
formance, such as high pressures and high tem- clearance around it so that lubrication oil can prevent metal
peratures, as these are fairly straightforward to conceptual- to metal rubbing, and hence excess friction and the result-
ize and even measure in real time. Other issues, such as ing undesirable extreme temperatures to 300, 500, 700F
low-volumetric efficiencies and static gas force rod loads, (149, 260, 371C) and beyond. Repair costs can be minor
can be readily explained and operators are often provided (downtime to replace bushings and/or crosshead shoes) to
a clear method, like a maximum differential pressure or a daunting (extended downtime, new rods, new crossheads,
maximum compression ratio, to help them identify safe from new cylinder liners, and new crankshafts). Damage-related
potentially unsafe conditions. costs due to crosshead failures could exceed US$1 mil-
Other issues, like calculating rod loads based on internal lion per unit. Therefore, safety and good business practices
gas pressures and inertia forces, or determining when a unit would suggest that reciprocating compressor controls in-
is operating in pin nonreversal conditions, can be nonintui- clude the ability to keep a unit out of potential areas where
tive and complex. These issues become especially cumber- pin nonreversals may occur.
some to manage when dealing with higher-speed units due Pin reversal calculations and concepts can quickly be-
to their potential for operating over a very wide speed range. come complex, but the basic thing to keep in mind is that
For example, if a high-speed unit is rated at 1200 rpm, its the clearance between the pin and the connecting rod (Fig-
driver may be able to vary speed to the compressor across ures 1, 1A) changes sides as the piston moves out from
a range of 900 to 1200 rpm. Within that range, 900 to 1075 the frame, stops, and then moves back towards the frame.
rpm may be safe, from 1075 to 1100 rpm may be unsafe If the side with the clearance does not change (Figure 2),
as determined by the OEM, and from 1100 to 1200 rpm then little to no lubrication fluid can be introduced between
may be safe again. Thus, even if your OEM or packager the two metal parts. And when metal rubs against metal, the
had checked high (1200 rpm), medium (1050 rpm), and low resulting friction forces will lead to increased temperatures
(900 rpm) speeds, they would have not identified the subset extremely fast.
of unsafe speeds. The only way to get from 900 to 1200 rpm continued on page 34
is to traverse through the 1075 to 1100
rpm range.
The fundamental mechanical issue
related to pin nonreversal is ultimately
just a lubrication issue. That is, proper
lubrication of the pin that connects the
connecting rod to the crosshead as-
sembly so that the rotating motion of the

Dwayne A. Hickman serves as director of


Software Development with ACI Services
Inc. He taught university math and com-
puter science courses for 13 years, and
has been in the reciprocating compressor n Figure 1. The clearance gap between pin and connecting rod switches sides when the
industry for the last 15 years. piston changes direction.

April 2013 32 Compressortech2


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When forces act in the direction that stretches the rod,
they are called tension forces, while forces acting to com-
press the rod are called compression forces. To have any
degrees of pin reversal during a complete revolution, the
forces on the pin must reverse at least once between com-
pression and tension. This always happens when only the
inertia forces are considered (magenta curve in Figure 4).
However, since the cylinder is usually sealed and com-
pressing gas, the internal gas forces can make a good situ-
ation better, or a good situation bad.

n Figure 1A. This cutaway shows the crosshead pin referenced in


Figures 1 and 2.

n Figure 3. This chart displays 170 of pin reversal, with max tension
about 56% of max compression. All forces are within their limits (green
lines). This throws pin loading forces indicate safe operation here.

n Figure 2. The clearance gap does not switch sides when piston
changes direction.

OEMs typically specify at least two constraints when set-


ting safety limits based on pin reversals. First, each throw
must have a sufficient number of degrees of pin reversal.
The second constraint is that opposite forces (compression
vs. tension) must be sufficient to ensure that when operat-
ing in the face of real-world phenomenon like pulsations, n Figure 4. This chart shows about 40 of reversal, but only about
dynamic pressure drops and valve wear, the predicted 3% opposite forces. Most OEMs would identify this as a condition
amount of pin reversal should be realized. where unit operations are not permitted.
API618 section 6.6.4 states that the minimum degrees
of pin reversal range from 15 to 45, depending on For the engineers and programmers, inertia forces are
bushing designs. Most OEMs require at least 30, and readily calculated by the following equation:
some require at least 60.
API618 section 6.6.4 also states that during one crank-
shaft revolution, at least 3% magnitude is required of Here, U represents the degree of crank angle and WRE-
opposing forces, and as high as 20% magnitude de- CIP is the sum of the combined weight of the piston and
pending of bushing design. Most OEMs require at least rod assembly and the crosshead assembly for the throw
15%, and some require as high as 25%. being considered. (Note: No portion of the connection rod
When calculating the degrees of pin reversal, the internal weight is included in these calculations those additional
dynamic gas pressures are applied to the outside piston weights get used in other calculations such as torsional
faces exposed within the head end and crank end portions forces. Equation also omits unbalanced rotating weights.
of the cylinder. These results are then applied when deter- Units used are inches and pounds.)
mining the effective gas forces acting on the pin via the pis- Additionally, Internal Gas Forces are based on the equation:
ton rod (e.g. blue curve shown in Figure 3). Additionally, the
weights of the piston and rod assembly plus the crosshead
assembly contribute inertia forces acting on the same pin The sum () is across all cylinders on the throw being
(e.g. magenta curve shown in Figure 3). Those two forces considered (e.g. in cases were tandem cylinders are used).
are combined to give the net forces acting on the pin (e.g. The head end (HE) and crank end (CE) pressures are in
black curve shown in Figure 3). continued on page 36

April 2013 34 Compressortech2


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gage pressure units, not in absolute pressure units. Crank- need to calculate 12 PV diagrams (two ends per cylinder,
case and tailrod catcher (when present) assumed to be at one cylinder per throw) and then six throws of inertia data.
atmospheric pressure. Also, all load steps should be calculated so that the PLC
Actual prediction of specific head end and crank end in- knows which ones are safe and which ones are unsafe.
ternal pressures (PressHE(u) and PressCE (u)) during the Convolute this with the thermodynamic modeling needed
compression cycle depend on current line pressures, gas for the gas pressure calculations and you can potentially
temperatures, unit geometry, valves, pressure drops, gas slow down even a fast desktop PC. And as for PLCs, the
being compressed, unit operating speed, and a few other slowdown would be completely unacceptable. Most PLCs
items. OEMs develop their own unique approach for mod- do not consider pin nonreversal issues as they control the
eling these internal pressures, albeit most are very simi- unit. And this omission is not good.
lar. Figure 5 and 6 show some typical internal pressures Fortunately, pin nonreversal issues are not that common,
(known as pressure-volume and pressure-time diagrams). especially when the packager or OEM size the compressor
The compression (suction to discharge) and expansion frame and cylinders to best meet your operating require-
(discharge to suction) sections follow the thermodynamic ments. In general, pin nonreversals tend to happen when a
rules for the gas being compressed, are exponential, and crank end is deactivated or significantly unloaded via added
tend to be very consistent across the OEMs. The discharge clearance volume, or when tandem cylinders are used and
and suction valve open events tend to vary a bit more be- one of the tandem cylinders is double acting, or when small-
tween OEMs (based on valve designs, passageways, valve bore, high-pressure cylinders are used.
porting, liner restrictions, piston masking). Unfortunately, because high-speed units typically allow for
more significant speed turndown, high-speed units are poten-
tially more susceptible to pin nonreversals. Also, due to industry
changes in lubrication fluids to meet environmental needs,
some slow-speed units that survived running units near or at
pin nonreversal areas in the past may now have problems. Fi-
nally, the number of degrees of pin reversals can change quick-
ly with pressures changes and speed changes (Figure 7).

n Figure 5. PV diagram: blue = head end pressures, magenta =


crank end pressures.

n Figure 7. Degrees of pin reversal can fall quickly shown above


falling from 180 down to about 40 when suction pressure varies
only about 50 psig (3.4 bar) in some areas.

Thus, severe compressor-based dangers can lurk quietly


n Figure 6. PT diagram: blue = head end pressures, magenta = and then suddenly wreck a unit with little warning. Coding
crank end pressures. these unsafe areas into a PLC can be a challenge since
prediction of unsafe areas is nontrivial (Figure 8). Fortunate-
Since the results from both equations are required to de- ly, there are some reasonable options available for dealing
termine the effective forces at the crosshead pin, whenever with potential pin nonreversal concerns: real-time online
any condition of the unit changes (suction pressure, dis- measuring systems, and preventative performance control.
charge pressure, suction gas temperature, speed or load One option is to install real-time internal pressure sensors.
step) these forces must be recalculated. API Standard 618, Once calibrated, correctly installed and programmed to each
Fifth Edition (2007) section 6.6.3, requires checking these in throws appropriate reciprocating weights, these devices
at most 5 increments. If we had a six-throw unit, we would continued on page 38

April 2013 36 Compressortech2


Bringing energy and the environment into harmony.

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CompressorsTurbo & Recip / Steam Turbines / Gas Turbines / Engines / Control Systems / Expanders
can alarm and/or trigger a shutdown whenever internal cyl- happen. By preventing the unit from even operating in or near
inder conditions approach desired limits of safety. In fact, areas of concern, the probability of a pin nonreversal incident
even if something else, such as a broken valve, creates pin is minimized, with risks also significantly reduced.
nonreversal issues, these real-time systems can often react
fast enough to prevent serious unit harm. For compressors
running near areas of pin nonreversals, or for units where a
review has indicated that damaged valves can quickly put a
unit in pin nonreversals, these real-time systems are ideal.
Another option is to actually prevent unit operations of a
healthy unit near or at conditions leading to pin nonreversals
by having the unit controller change load steps, adjust speed
or adjust pressures to avoid letting the unit damage itself.
OEM performance software determines safe and unsafe
areas based on hardware configuration (load step), speed,
pressures, temperatures, and gas thermodynamics. A con-
trol panel does not have the luxury of being able to run such
sophisticated calculations if it was programmed to model
complex thermodynamics, then by the time it calculated the
results the unit might already be severely damaged. Howev-
er, those supplying the units or the performance can prere-
view millions of potential operating points across the defined
operating map and develop reasonable constraint equations n Figure 8. Unlike gas rod loads, discharge temperatures, and low
to prevent operations at undesired conditions. volumetric efficiencies, the predictability of where unsafe areas ex-
For packagers, operators, and owners concerned with the ist due to pin nonreversals is not a trivial task.
damages that pin nonreversals can cause, there are reason-
able options available to mitigate those concerns. Remember, Reference: A Discussion of the Various Loads Used to Rate
quantitative risk is defined as the probability that an accident Reciprocating Compressors, K.E. Atkins, Martin Hinchliff,
will happen multiplied by the expected loss if the accident does Bruce McCain. CT2

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literature
Altronic.indd 1 3/6/13 2:54 PM

Progressive
AC Drives Vertical Pumps Cavity Pumps Mag-Drive Pumps

Toshiba Mitsubishi-Electric Afton Pumps has printed Netzsch has released a Warrender Ltd. has pub-
Industrial Systems Corp. literature on its model MPV capability brochure, which lished a brochure on its
has literature on its TM- pumps, which are medium- highlights the companys mag-drive pump range.
drive MVG, a medium-volt- pressure vertical pumps products, technology and That pump range includes
age, variable-frequency AC that combine a diffusor application areas. The com- compact horizontal, process
drive for industrial power bowl assembly and a steel pany manufactures a range horizontal, vertical sump,
ratings up to 10 MW. The outer case. The literature of pumps, such as progress- horizontal molded thermo-
drive works with existing or includes technical data and ing cavity pumps, immers- plastic, vertical sump ma-
new induction or synchro- construction details of the ible pumps, and rotary lobe chined thermoplastic, and
nous motors. pump model. pumps, as well as joints and multistage cast. The compa-
www.tmeic.com www.afton-pumps.com other accessories. ny also offers replacement
www.netzsch.com spare kits and components.
www.warrender.com

APRIL 2013 40 Compressortech2


literature
Altronic.indd 2 3/6/13 2:54 PM

Vacuum Pump
Centrifugal Pumps Suction Pumps Rotary Lobe Pumps Systems

CPC Pumps International SPP Pumps has published Boerger has a brochure on Dekker Vacuum Technolo-
has released a brochure on literature on its pump range. its rotary lobe pumps. The gies provides oil-sealed liq-
its capabilities. The company The company offers end company has six rotary uid ring vacuum pump sys-
offers pump designs and suction pumps, horizontal lobe pump series with 19 tems. A brochure reveals
pump products to serve the split-case pumps, verti- sizes, as well as a wide se- the companys capabilities,
hydrocarbon industry. The cal inline pumps, split-case lection of rotors, including as well as its pumps and
brochure provides informa- pumps, and single and multi- dual-lobe and tri-lobe vari- systems. Dekker also offers
tion on the companys pump stage pumps. SPP Pumps ations. A glossary of pump spare parts and accesso-
models, which include the has locations worldwide. terms and a pump output ries, and repair and mainte-
Model HR/HOR, VP-B, VP- www.spppumpsusa.com chart is included. nance services.
C, VP-M, HDR, H2R and HM. www.boerger.com www.dekkervacuum.com
www.cpcpumps.com

APRIL 2013 41 Compressortech2


Mexicos Growing
Thirst > Rise in Mexican gas consumption bodes well for U.S. By Brent Haight

T
he Energy Information Adminis-
tration (EIA) released its Short
Term Energy Outlook in March.
The report highlights a rise in natu-
ral gas consumption in Mexico which
is great news for its closest neighbor,
which currently sits atop a glut of gas.
According to EIAs report, U.S. nat-
ural gas exports to Mexico grew by
24% to 1.69 Bcfd (47.8 x 106 m3/d) in
2012, the highest level since the data

Source: EIA
collection began in 1973. With imports
now accounting for over 30% of its to-
tal supply, Mexicos natural gas use is
also at its highest level ever.
Natural gas consumption is ris-
ing faster in Mexico than natural gas
production, and as a result, Mexico
is relying more on natural gas im-
ports from the United States. Be-
tween 2007 and 2011, natural gas
consumption in Mexico rose 4% per
year on average, while average an-
nual natural gas production climbed
only 1.2%. Growing demand in the
industrial sector drove the increases

Source: EIA
in natural gas consumption in Mexi-
co to a record-high level in 2011, ac-
cording to Petrleos Mexicanos (PE-
MEX) the state-run oil and natural
gas producer in Mexico. Bcfd (99.1 8 x 106 m3/d) of additional Although Mexico has vast natural
The EIA report shows that pipeline export capacity to Mexico, doubling gas reserves, it hasnt been able to
shipments from Texas to Mexico be- the existing capacity. develop them quickly enough to meet
tween 2009 and 2012 rose 34% on One such project was announced the countrys consumption, which has
average per year to 1.3 Bcfd (36.8 x in February. Houston-based NET been climbing at four times the pace
106 m3/d), which was about 75% of the Midstream announced plans build a of overall economic growth at times in
U.S. natural gas exports to Mexico in 124 mile (200 km) pipeline to trans- the past decade.
2012. Most of the U.S. exports to Mex- port natural gas from the Eagle Ford This additional capacity would
ico departed the country from Hidalgo Shale region to the Mexican border. serve an expected increase in natu-
County in southwest Texas, where the The deal is anchored by a long-term ral gas demand from Mexicos elec-
supplies were likely coming from the agreement to transport 2.1 Bcfd tric power sector. Mexico plans to
Eagle Ford play. (59.4 x 106 m3/d) with MGI Supply, a add about 28 GW of new electric
Several U.S. pipeline export proj- subsidiary of Mexicos state-owned generating capacity between 2012
ects that could support additional nat- gas company. NET Midstreams sub- and 2027, mostly in northern Mex-
ural gas exports to Mexico have been sidiary, NET Mexico Pipeline LP, will ico, according to Comisin Federal
announced. According to company re- build the 42 in. (106 cm) pipeline from de Electricidad (CFE) Mexicos
leases, these projects are expected to a hub in Agua Dulce in Nueces Coun- state-run electricity provider. CFE
be completed by the end of 2014 and, ty to a point near Rio Grande City in estimates that this could raise natu-
if they are all built, could add up to 3.5 Starr County. ral gas needs for power generation

APRIL 2013 42 Compressortech2


Yemen, although the vast majority
of its natural gas imports continue to
come from the United States.
The bulk of Mexicos LNG imports
over 90% in 2011 arrive at the
Altamira plant in Tamaulipas state,
on Mexicos northeastern coast. The
plant, which has a capacity of 500
MMcfd (14 x 106 m3/d), received its
first LNG cargo in August 2006. CFE,
the state-owned electricity monopoly,
Source: EIA

has signed a 15-year contract to pur-


chase the entire volume of natural gas
received at the terminal.
Mexico has two operational LNG re-
by 5.1 Bcfd (144 x 106 m3/d). This ral gas reserves. The EIA estimates gasification terminals besides Altamira.
level of growth would likely require that Mexico has 680 Tcf of natural The Costa Azul terminal near Ensena-
increased natural gas imports from gas including the worlds fourth larg- da, on Baja California, began receiving
the United States. est reserves of shale gas. LNG in 2008. It is operated by Sempra
Looking at the difference between EIA reports list Mexico as the worlds Energy. The current send-out capacity
demand and local production high- seventh biggest oil producer. State- of the plant is about 1 Bcfd (28 x 106
lights the need for increased imports. owned PEMEX has a monopoly of all m3/d). Most of the natural gas imported
BPs Statistical Review of World En- Mexicos exploration and production at Costa Azul supplies domestic cus-
ergy (June 2012) reported Mexicos and has prioritized oil over gas produc- tomers in northwest Mexico.
demand for natural gas in 2011 av- tion. Add to that the fact that PEMEX A new LNG import terminal at the port
eraged 6.7 Bcfd (189 x 106 m3/d). In also consumes up to 40% of natural of Manzanillo, also on the Pacific coast,
2012 demand increased to 7.8 Bcfd gas production for oil recovery in its reportedly began initial operations in
(220 x 106 m3/d) according to PEMEX aging heavy oil fields effectively re- 2012. However, Mexican government
largely driven by higher gas fired moving it from the market and reducing data do not cite significant LNG flows
power generation burn to meet the available supplies and we see why into Manzanillo as of September 2012.
countrys growing industrial sectors Mexicos natural gas imports are rising. According to industry reports, LNG sup-
electricity needs. Before 2006, almost all of Mexicos plies for the Manzanillo plant will come
By contrast, domestic natural natural gas imports came from the from Peru under a long-term contract.
gas production has fallen in Mexico United States. More recently, Mexico The plant was built by a consortium of
since 2009 and it fell again by nearly has diversified its supply sources by Mitsui, Korea Gas Corp., and Samsung,
5% in 2012. This declining produc- importing liquefied natural gas from with an initial capacity of 500 MMcfd
tion has come in spite of huge natu- Nigeria, Qatar, Indonesia, Peru, and (14 x 106 m3/d). CT2

COMPRESSORS and SERVICES


- Reciprocating Compressors for Process Gases - Services: Installation & Commissioning
- Centrifugal Compressors for Process Gases Overhauling, Engineering, Maintenance,
- Compressor Parts Spare Parts Management, Training

BORSIG ZM Compression GmbH


Seiferitzer Str. 26, D-08393 Meerane, Phone +49 (0) 3764 / 5390-0, Fax: +49 (0) 3764 / 5390-5092
E-Mail: info@zm.borsig.de
www.borsig.de/zm

APRIL 2013 43 Compressortech2


Borsig.indd 1 3/12/13 10:32 AM
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Mecos Acquisition Opens Opportunities
For MAN > Swiss magnetic-bearing specialist will continue
independent operations
BY ROBERTO CHELLINI

That is why, in 2005, MAN began


developing high-speed, variable fre-
quency electric motors and introduced
them in the market in 2010.
The Mecos acquisition has been a
further step in the same direction, Lau-
ber said. We started a very close coop-
eration in 2005 and since 2011 we have
on our test bed in Zurich a 24,000 hp (18
MW) motor compressor (Mopico) run-
ning on Mecos AMB. The radial bear-
ings feature a 10.5 in. (270 mm) internal
diameter and a 5850 lb. (26 kN) capac-
ity while the axial thrust bearing has an
18,000 lb. (80 kN) capacity.
Alfons Traxler founded Mecos in 1988
with the specific intention of develop-
ing AMB, Lsch said. The company
achieved the first application of AMB
on a 671 hp (500 kW) turboexpander
in 1993.
Volume production of AMB for laser
power systems began in 1997. Sys-
tems for the high-vacuum pump indus-
n This compressor end cover shows a Mecos radial active try were introduced in 2010. Mecos now
magnetic bearing. has three AMB lines: small ones for
powers up to 135 hp (100 kW), medium
ones up to 1340 hp (1 MW) and the
large ones to 26,800 hp (20 MW).
Although MAN acquired 100% of

L
ittle has changed for the Swiss more and more oriented to the use Mecos, Lsch said the company would
magnetic bearing company of high-speed, electric-motor-driven continue to operate independently in
Mecos since MAN Diesel & compressors for ecologic reasons its traditional market segments. It will
Turbo acquired it last May except (noise and atmospheric emissions) keep the name and logo that its cus-
for increased coordination with its and the use of active magnetic bear- tomers recognize.
new owner. ings (AMB). The latter not only en- Lauber said if other compressor man-
COMPRESSORtech2 recently in- able machinery to reduce emissions ufacturers wanted to develop projects
terviewed Uwe Lauber, CEO of MAN because they do not require a lube with Mecos, MAN would not considered
Diesel & Turbo Schweiz, of Zurich, oil system, but also extend the mean it a problem. As previously stated we
and Florian Lsch, CEO of Mecos, in time between overhauls (MTBO). have our own electric motor line, but we
Winterthur, Switzerland. Lauber said the market offers motors continue to buy electric motors from the
Lauber said MANs strategic acqui- designed for maximum efficiency that marketplace, and just to mention one
sition of Mecos reflected its philoso- can be used in sealed compressors name, from Siemens, Lauber said.
phy of having in-house all of the key handling mid and downstream clean Lauber said it is important for MAN
components needed to further devel- gas. But in upstream applications, when to have the magnetic bearing technol-
op its centrifugal compressors used in the compressor is handling untreated ogy in-house so that its teams of com-
the oil and gas industry. wellhead gas (dirty and/or sour), reli- pressor and motor specialists can work
He said future orders would be ability is more important than efficiency. continued on page 48

APRIL 2013 46 Compressortech2


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team of magnetic bearings specialists. MANs major interest in Mecos is the
Winterthur is only 18 mi. (30 km) from development of compressors for the
our main facility in Zurich, so we have oil and gas industry, but in perspec-
face-to-face collaboration, he said. tive, magnetic bearings also can be
Lauber said MANs philosophy be- of interest to other MAN businesses
hind acquisitions is to maintain the such as diesel engines or gears.
management and the team of spe- Mecos personnel focus on engi-
cialists of the company unchanged neering and electronics. Coil windings
in order to maximize the results of are outsourced to long-term partners
the deal. Personnel are the core of a operating in the area that have been
company, he said. selected for their quality standards.

n Large Mecos active magnetic bearings


have been checked on this compressor
test stand at MANs Zurich plant.

The final assembly of the bear-


ings is performed in-house, as are
the final tests. All electronic compo-
nents are tested for at least six hours
to discover possible early failures.
Functional tests are followed by en-
durance tests that include power and
temperature cycling.
For the large AMB systems, Mecos
has developed a nine-channel control
cabinet that allows simultaneous con-
trol of both the compressor (also in a
tandem configuration) and its electric
motor drive. The system, as well as

testo 350. being more economic than one with


separate controls for the compres-
Compliance testing and tuning sor and the motor drive, guarantees
faster tuning and simplifies the motor-
the easy way. compressor operation.
When the bearings must operate in
Superior performance for state and a wet or sour gas environment, sensor
isolation with special resins is essential
federal testing to prevent failures. Mecos has engi-
Menu-guided HD display neered sealed sensors that can be re-
Powerful on-board & PC data management motely set through an electronic system
without touching the sensor itself.
Wireless operation simple data collection Mecos engineers commission of
Rugged construction individual AMB systems although
in some cases (for bulk supplies)
the customer may commission units
O2 CO NOx SO2 CO2 under guidance from Mecos. MAN
teams now will take responsibility
800-227-0729 www.testo350.com for complete compressor, motor and
AMB systems. CT2

APRIL 2013 48 Compressortech2


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Pump
Warning: Contents tech
Are Hot > Coal gasification plant uses hybrid
pumps to handle gas liquor
By Sabine Mhlenkamp

n A performance test is being conducted on a KWP


pump destined for use in the new coal gasification
plant in the east Indian state of Odisha.

Credit: KSB Aktiengesellschaft

I
n the light of limited gas and oil re- (domestic) coal of inferior quality can be which coal is converted to synthesis
serves, coal is experiencing a renais- converted to syngas, hence reducing gas by means of partial oxidation with
sance as a raw material. In countries dependence on imported oil. steam and oxygen. The process takes
such as India, China, and Indonesia, The same trend is taking hold in In- place at high pressure and tempera-
as well as in Malaysia and Australia, dia, too, where Jindal Steel & Power ture. Seven fixed-bed pressure gasifi-
coal gasification in particular has been is building a coal gasification plant to ers and the requisite downstream gas
receiving lots of attention of late as a obtain synthesis gas for producing conditioning and desulfurization pro-
process that yields synthesis gas (syn- pig iron. Measuring upwards of 7.72 cesses are currently being installed. A
gas) for use in fuelling diverse facilities. sq.mi. (20 km2), the site has room for total capacity of 7.9 MMcfh (225,000
The primary advantage is that even an air separation plant, coal-pressure Nm/h) of synthesis gas is being tar-
gasifiers, a power plant and the steel geted for the downstream direct re-
Sabine Mhlenkamp is a chemical engi- mill itself plus all the requisite infra- duced iron (DRI) process that yields
neer working as a journalist in Karlsruhe, structure. The core components of the pig iron.
Germany. the process are the coal gasifiers, in continued on page 54

APRIL 2013 52 Compressortech2


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n Designed for use in a gasification plant, this cutaway shows the interior of a
special nonclogging impeller pump type RPKx 150-400.

INFO BOX 1
tem, Wallner said. Specially designed Process with perspectives
pumps were needed for handling the
Altogether, 149 plants with a to-
gas liquor, because they have to last
tal of 430 gasifiers are in service
at least 15 years, despite the harsh
service conditions. around the world, producing near-
ly 80.5 million hp (60,000 MW)
Handle with care Reliability required worth of synthesis gas, with other
The process demands peak perfor- Thanks to years of experience with plants coming online all the time.
mance from the plant and equipment, similar projects in South Africa, KSB
While the synthesis gas produced
the dimensions of which are accord- is familiar with the application param-
in Angul, Odisha, India is used for
ingly huge. Each pressure gasifier, for eters, the company said. The process
example, is nearly 13.1 ft. (4 m) in diam- is heavily dependent on the employed making pig iron, pressurised coal
eter. Temperatures of 1832F (1000C) grade of coal, and coal can vary wide- gasification is also used in fuel
inside the reactor and as high as 932F ly in composition, depending on its production in coal-to-liquid plants,
(500C) on the outside surface are just origin. This factor must be kept in mind and for power generation in in-
the face of the challenge. when designing the process and the
tegrated gasification combined-
The real problem for components components to ensure that each and
cycle (IGCC) power stations. The
like the pumping systems is the com- every solution is specifically appropri-
bination of abrasive, aggressive and ate to the task. latter technology is generating
corrosive constituents in the gas li- In the present case, the pumps are a lots of interest because it produc-
quor, said Thomas Wallner, a Pegnitz, hybrid type comprising the best traits of es electricity in a more ecological-
Bavaria, Germany-based KSB project the RPK volute casing pumps and KWP ly viable manner than in conven-
engineer who has been on the project nonclogging impeller pumps. Each has
tional pulverized coal-fired plants.
since the start. The fluids can contain a Norichrom wear plate and double me-
In addition, the environmentally
particles of coal measuring up to 0.23 chanical seals. Describing the specific
to 0.31 in. (6 to 8 mm) across and ac- properties of KSBs favored material for relevant CO2 can be captured at
count for as much as 10% by weight. the application, Wallner said, This KSB low cost. Finally, pressurized coal
This combination imposes particu- cast material is unbeatable in terms of gasification plays a major role in
larly stringent demands on the choice resistance to wear and corrosion. the production of biofuels.
of materials and the design of the sys- continued on page 56

APRIL 2013 54 Compressortech2


INFO BOX 2
Details of the pressurised coal
gasification process
Lumpy coal and other solid fuels can be gasified
in counter-current fixed-bed pressure gasifiers. The
vertical cylindrical reactor has an external water
jacket. The coal is fed into the gasifier from above,
while oxygen and steam are blown in from below.
A rotating grate ensures uniform distribution of the
coal. The coal is dried and the gases desorbed in the
upper part of the gasifier.
The reaction takes place at the next lower level,
where high temperatures and pressures act on the
coal in a reducing atmosphere to produce synthesis
gas consisting of CO, H2 and small amounts of CO2
and methane. Gas purification and desulfurization
Credit: KSB Aktiengesellschaft

equipment is needed.
The main advantages of this method are its reliabil-
ity, relatively low initial cost and long-term operational
reliability. Moreover, coal of inferior quality can be gas-
ified. The only drawback is that the raw gas contains
n A simplified cutaway shows the interior of coal- tar and the throughput is limited by the maximum di-
pressure gasifier.
mensions of the gasifiers. The only way to increase
the capacity is to install additional gasifiers. New ap-
The entire process runs constantly proaches, however, are already being developed.
in a potentially explosive atmosphere.
The KSB pumps need to be reliable to
keep the pressure gasifiers from fail-
ing, which is why specially developed would tend to become so homoge- the pumps motors and the inverters
auxiliary shaft seal systems offering neously distributed at elevated rota- and provided EMC effects, Wallner
increased redundancy are provided. tional speeds that they could no lon- said. The job of connecting the alu-
The KWPK nonclogging scrubber ger be separated out, Wallner said. minium cables also posed a challenge
pumps installed further downstream KSB pumps also serve in the down- because they have much larger cross-
have to contend with enormous loads. stream subprocesses. Altogether, 40 sections than the customary European
Consequently, they are made of cast KSB pumps are employed in the core copper cables.
steel and particularly wear-resistant process, and another 60 units in such
modified duplex Noridur DAS instead of peripheral processes as coal handling, Plenty of potential
grey cast iron. This type of pump is nor- air separation and coolant circulation in Coal gasification has plenty of po-
mally built to pressure class PN10, but the DRI process. The pumps nominal tential, and opens up new perspectives
the KSB engineers extended the range diameters range from DN 65 to DN 350. independent of fossil gas and oil as the
by modifying their design and materi- prevalent energy sources. To be cost-
als. The process high solids content is Sole source effective, the relevant facilities must
not only hard on the materials, but also In addition to supplying the pumps operate uninterruptedly for years on
means that the pumps hydraulic sys- and the auxiliary systems, the Peg- end. That, in turn, calls for robust, reli-
tems and geometry, particularly of the nitz-based specialists were also re- able systems consisting not only of the
impellers, had to be carefully fine-tuned sponsible for sizing and selecting the pumps themselves, but also of things
to the job. Moreover, all pumps had to motors and frequency inverters. For like frequency inverters and mechani-
have as much free passage as possible example, ambient temperatures of cal seals. The first few pumps demon-
and impart as little shear as possible to around 122F (50C) made it neces- strated their reliability on KSBs own
the pumped fluid. sary to install the inverters in air-con- test rigs in Pegnitz, and were delivered
The gas liquor contains sulfur and ditioned cabinets away from the plant, in April 2011, with the entire plant com-
ammonia as well as dissolved oils that which put 1476 ft. (450 m) between missioned that same year. CT2

APRIL 2013 56 Compressortech2


Pump
tech
Wrtsil Pumps
It Up > Company providing 43 pumps for
Norwegian Sea-bound FSU
By Brent Haight

n Wrtsils Svanehj range of electrically driven


deep-well pumps can be delivered according to API
610 standards.

W
rtsil Hamworthy Ltd. will served as operator for the exploration tance of roughly 870 mi. (1400 km).
supply a series of pumps to and development phase. A total of 76 Delivery of the Wrtsil equipment
be installed on a new floating wells are planned on the main field, in- is scheduled for February 2014.
storage unit (FSU) being built by Sam- cluding 51 producers, 24 water injec- The order includes 38 deep-well
sung Heavy Industries in South Korea tors and one gas injector. cargo pumps produced by Wrtsil,
for Statoil. When completed, the FSU Gas from Heidrun is piped to Tjeld- at Wrtsil Svanehj in Denmark,
will be located on the Heidrun oil and bergodden in mid-Norway and pro- three fire water pump skids and two
gas field in the Norwegian Sea. vides the feedstock for Statoils meth- ballast pumps. The latter items are
The Heidrun field has been produc- anol plant there. The field is also tied produced by Wrtsil, at Wrtsil
ing oil and gas since October 1995 to the sgard Transport system. Heid- Pumps in Singapore.
from a floating tension leg platform run gas is piped through this trunkline The 2012 acquisition of Hamwor-
with a concrete hull. Heidrun was dis- to Krst north of Stavanger and on thy added years of experience and
covered in 1985 by Conoco, which to Dornum in Germany a total dis- continued on page 60

APRIL 2013 58 Compressortech2


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nology to our in-house competences, contract between Wrtsil and Sam- yard for other floating production, stor-
said Timo Koponen, vice president sung. Wrtsil and Samsung Heavy age, and offloading (FPSO) vessels
Wrtsil, Flow & Gas Solutions. This Industries signed a cooperation for the offshore sector.
contract is further testimony to the agreement in 2010 to develop gas- For FPSOs/FSOs requiring a distrib-
reputation of our pumping solutions, fueled ships. The collaboration has uted pump system, Wrtsil offers the
and strengthens our position as a ma- been beneficial to myriad Wrtsil Svanehj range of electrically driven
jor player in the offshore oil and gas business units, including Hamworthy. deep-well pumps. Wrtsil Svanehj
industry. The reliability, ease of instal- Wrtsil Hamworthy offers a wide deep-well process and cargo pumps
lation, and cost effectiveness of these range of deep-well pumps for process are designed for continuous operation
solutions were all contributing factors and cargo handling for offshore appli- with pumping mediums such as crude
in the award of this contract. cations. The company has delivered oil and produced water and oil. The
type OPC pumps (offshore process
and cargo) can be delivered accord-
ing to API 610, and are designed with

Expert Engineering. a capacity from 706 to 63,566 cfh (20


to 1800 m3/h).

Proven Results.
According to Wrtsil, its shaft lubri-
cation system enables less onboard
maintenance to the electric system.
The pump housing is easily dismantled,
and cards on the converters are easily
interchanged. During the operational
phase, the electrical equipment offers
environmental sustainability, since CO2
emissions are minimal due to the higher
efficiency and lower power utilization,
and there is no risk of hydraulic oil spills,
according to Wrtsil.
Wrtsil Svanehj deep-well and
booster pumps have been developed
specifically for LPG/ethylene, small
LNG and combined LEG/chemical
carriers:
Fully pressurized tankers, with the
cargo at ambient temperatures
and a tank pressure of up to 261
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Count on our team. Were there when you need us.
Deep-well pumps are designed to
www.waukeshabearings.com/CT meet the requirements for low tem-
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gas-tight shaft sealing system with a
pressurized quenching fluid, and an
extremely low NPSH to pump gases
at a condition very close to their boil-
ing point, according to Wrtsil. CT2

April 2013 60 Compressortech2


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Pump
Unusual PD Pump Pulsation
tech
Solutions > Pulsations in piping systems can cause
serious problems that sometimes require
creative solutions
By Eugene Broerman III and Sarah Simons

Editors comment: This article first appeared in the No- A more unusual pulsation suppression device is a low-pass
vember 2012 issue. It is being reprinted because of errors that acoustic filter. The low pass filter consists of one large volume
occurred in the graphics during production, which now have split into two or more volumes connected with an internal choke
been corrected. We apologize for any confusion these errors tube (Figure 2) or two volumes connected with an external
may have caused. choke tube (Figure 3). The low pass filter attenuates frequen-
cies above the filter response frequency (Hicks and Grant,

A
coustic pulsations are not as frequent or common a 1979). The concept is analogous to a low-pass electrical filter
source of vibrations or dynamics problems in plung- or mechanical system where the volumes are springs and the
er pumps or other liquid pumping systems as they choke tube is a mass (Blodgett, 1998).
are for gas piping systems. For single-acting positive displacement pumps, the response
However, when resonant pulsations do develop in a liquid frequency of the acoustic filter needs to be placed below the
pumping system they tend to be higher in amplitude and first pump running order (pump speed/60 times the number of
can cause more severe problems (e.g. cavitation) than in plungers) to filter out all acoustic piping frequencies that may
gas piping systems (Heveron, 1978). Therefore it is very coincide with a pump running order. For low speed pumps or
important to have effective pulsation suppression solutions. pumps with a large speed range, sizing the acoustic filter vol-
One common pulsation suppression device is a gas-liquid umes to ensure that the response frequency is below the first
dampener (Figure 1). A gas-liquid dampener consists of a liq- pump running order often results in very large volumes that
uid volume and a gas-filled bladder precharged to a fixed per- are unrealistic to install at the pump flange. For that reason,
centage of line pressure. The precharged gas creates a rela- this type of pulsation control device is most feasible for higher
tively large effective liquid volume to absorb pulsations. The speed pumps and/or multiplunger pumps (where the first pump
gas volume acts as a spring compressing and expanding with running order is at generally 5 Hz or higher and therefore small-
line pressure changes and acts as a flow-smoothing device. er chamber volumes are needed) and/or onshore applications
This type of pulsation device is best for use in applica- that have the space necessary for large volumes.
tions that have little space for the dampener because it is a Acoustic filters need to be carefully sized and designed,
small device that has an equivalent volume many times the continued on page 64
size of an all-liquid volume. A detailed discussion of various
types of dampeners and how they work is given by Wachel
and Price (1988).

Eugene (Buddy) Broerman III is a senior research engineer in


the fluid machinery systems section at Southwest Research In-
stitute (SwRI) in San Antonio, Texas. He has performed many
acoustic analyses of machinery piping systems for compres-
sors and pumps. He also has been a principal contributor in
the research and development of advanced pulsation con-
trol system prototypes and other pulsation related research.
Sarah Simons is a scientist in the SwRI fluid machinery sys-
tems section. She also has performed many acoustic and
thermal analyses of complex existing and new machinery pip-
ing systems, and currently is involved in pulsation research.
This article is based on a paper the authors presented at the
recent Gas Machinery Conference in Austin, Texas. For more n Figure 1. This sketch shows a typical
information, contact the authors at eugene.broerman@swri.org gas-liquid dampener.
or sarah.simons@swri.org.

APRIL 2013 62 Compressortech2


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n Figures 2 (left) and 3 (right). These are examples of single volume and
two volume all liquid acoustic filters.

because they have internal choke tube responses that will charge operating pressure range that varied from 696.2 to
have the effect of passing relatively discrete, unattenuated 4550 psig (48 to 314 barg). The suction pressure was fixed
frequencies into the attached piping system. Therefore, it is at 36.3 psig (2.5 barg). The installed gas-liquid dampener
important to model the filter and attached piping system with for each existing pump had a gas volume of two liters and
a computer simulation tool to ensure that the pass band fre- was precharged to 80% of 4003 psig (276 barg).
quencies do not cause problems in the piping system (McK-
ee and Broerman, 2009). Because of the design complex- Duplex Pump Details Operating Conditions
ity and space requirements, acoustic filters are rarely used;
however, they are an ideal solution in many cases since they
2 Parallel Pumps 50.7 psig (3.50 barg)
are maintenance free and extremely effective. (Plunger) Suction Pressure

Unusual application of a gas-liquid dampener 80F (26.7C)


2 Plungers Per Pump
Two positive-displacement duplex methanol pumps oper- Suction Temperature
ating in parallel in the same discharge piping system were
experiencing small-piping connection failures and high vi- 700 to 4550 psig (48 to 314 barg)
1.65 in. Bore (4.19 cm)
brations even with a gas-liquid dampener installed. The du- Discharge Pressure
plex pumps are described in Table 1.
A field study (Figure 4) measured approximately 225 psi 140F (60C)
4.72 in. Stroke (12.0 cm)
(15.5 bar) pk-pk pulsation amplitudes, which could equate Discharge Temperature
to 4086 N of shaking force, in the main 2 in. (50.8 mm) line
170 rpm 11 gpm (3 m3/hr)
for the pumps operating at a fixed speed of 170 rpm.
The operating company wanted to install two additional n Table 1.
triplex pumps operating in parallel with the existing duplex
pumps. Before installation of the new pumps, the company The operating company also wanted to install two new
requested a pulsation analysis of the existing duplex pumps positive-displacement triplex pumps operating in parallel
to eliminate the current pulsation problem and a preventative in the same piping system with the existing duplex pumps.
pulsation analysis of future triplex pumps to ensure effective Before installing the new pumps, the operating company
attenuation of any excessive or undesirable pulsations. requested a solution for better pulsation control.
The unusual problem this station had was a large dis- continued on page 66

n Figure 4. Field study data is given for duplex methanol pumps. Note: High 1x = possible
valve leakage; unclear if dampener was correctly precharged when data was taken.

APRIL 2013 64 Compressortech2


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n Figure 5. Tables show
pulsation reduction data.

Since this was an offshore installation, there was not Unusual pulsation control device
enough space for an all-liquid filter for pulsation control. Eight positive-displacement triplex pumps operating in
Pressure pulsations can often be significantly reduced parallel at 303 rpm as described in Table 2 were experi-
by the use of an orifice plate; however, orifice plates encing high suction and discharge piping vibrations and
alone were not effective enough. Using a gas-liquid failures of discharge vessel drain connections and gussets.
dampener was determined to be the best solution for The discharge side of these pumps had a single three-
pulsation control. chamber vessel acoustic filter installed that was inade-
When choosing a dampener size, the large pressure quately designed. A field study of one of the eight pumps
range of this system had to be taken into account. To deter- captured a measurement of 27 mils p-p at 15 Hz (first pump
mine the optimal size, an understanding of how and when a running order) at the discharge valve flange and 19 mils p-p
dampener is effective is needed. When the precharge pres- at 15 Hz at the discharge recycle valve.
sure of a dampener is greater than line pressure (which was The vibration severity chart in Figure 6 shows a graph
the case for most of the pressure range with the installed with acceptable and danger or correction levels of vibration
dampeners), the dampener is ineffective. Gas-liquid damp- at each frequency; the vibration measurements observed
eners typically close off when the line pressure drops below during the field study are plotted on the chart. Each of those
the dampener precharge to keep from failing the bladder two measurements was in the correction range of the chart.
inside the dampener. The discharge vessel outlet piping pulsations were mea-
When the precharge pressure is less than line pressure sured to be 58 psig (4 barg) p-p at 15 Hz. This raised safety
the liquid pressure compresses the bladder in the dampener. and reliability concerns and SwRI was contacted to help
This decreases the gas volume, and therefore the effective improve the system vibrations such that the piping failures
volume, directly in proportion to the increase in line pressure continued on page 68
per the ideal gas law. Thus, if the gas-liquid dampener is pre-
charged to the lowest pressure in a large range, the highest
Triplex Pump Details Operating Conditions
pressure could compress the bladder too much, such that
the bladder ruptures and/or the equivalent volume of gas in
the bladder is too small to be effective. 8 Parallel Pumps 160 psig (11 barg)
Given the wide pressure range for this application, 696.2 (Plunger) Suction Pressure
to 4550 psig (48 to 314 barg), it was determined two gas-
80F (26.7C)
liquid dampeners were needed. One 1.3 gal. (3.5 L) damp- 3 Plungers Per Pump
Suction Temperature
ener precharged to 80% of the lowest operating pressure
would be open when operating over the lower half of the 3000 psig (207 barg)
pressure range 696.2 to 2103 psig (48 to 145 barg). At 2.25 in. Bore (5.7 cm)
Discharge Pressure
2103 psig (145 barg), the 0.9 gal. (3.5 L) dampener was
less effective, so a 1.3 gal. (5 L) dampener precharged to 140F (60C)
80% of 2103 psig (145 barg) would provide pulsation con- 5 in. Stroke (12.7 cm)
Discharge Temperature
trol for the upper half of the operating pressure range 2103
to 4550 psig (145 to 314 barg). Figure 5 shows the pulsation 303 rpm 75 gpm (17 m3/hr)
reduction data predictions for the new triplex pumps operat-
ing at 140 rpm. n Table 2.

APRIL 2013 66 Compressortech2


Sakhalin Island
LNG Plant,
Russia
Our customers dream was
to construct the most important
LNG facility in Northern Russia,
where the extreme cold and
the other severe weather conditions,
make the functioning of electrical
and mechanical equipment
a real challenge.

Nidec delivered.

The motors were custom


designed, choosing critical
components that guarantee proper
performance at -50 C.

Variable Speed Electric Drive Systems

Aleksandra dreams of the strong economic


development of her country and
is proud that her region is doing its part.

Nidec, turning dreams into results.


Nidec ASI

www.ni dec- asi . com


n Figure 6. This chart shows vibration severity.

pressure drop than the existing filter. The original pulsation


filter reduced the pressure by 100.1 psi (6.9 bar), which was
approximately 17.4 psi (1.2 bar) above the pressure drop
associated with the recommended vessel.
The client initially installed the new acoustic filter on only
one pump to verify its effectiveness at attenuating pulsations
in the piping system. After installation of this new design, the
client was so pleased with the system that they installed the
new filter on all eight pump discharge piping systems.
will no longer occur. By designing a better pulsation control
device, the cause of the vibrations was significantly reduced. Conclusion
When SwRI analyzed the existing acoustic filter (Figure Pulsations in piping systems can cause serious problems
7) to determine why it was ineffectively attenuating pulsa- that sometimes require creative or unusual solutions. Add-
tions in the system, it was noted that the resonant frequency ing two or more gas-liquid dampeners when operating over
of the existing acoustic filter was not placed below the first a large pressure range or using an acoustic filter when a
pump running order. This was seen in the high amplitude maintenance free solution is needed can solve unusual
response of the first running order in the field data. Also, the pulsation problems that are not sufficiently attenuated with
existing pulsation bottle had multiple pass band frequencies typical solutions.
associated with its multiple choke tubes. It is best practice It is very important when sizing dampeners to understand
to minimize the number of frequencies that the filter will the acoustics and filtering properties of each specific type
pass (not attenuate) into the attached piping system. of dampener to ensure pulsations are adequately damped
SwRI designed a larger diameter single-volume, two- and to avoid making costly mistakes.
chamber acoustic filter as shown in Figure 8 with lower continued on page 70

n Figure 7. The original, ineffective acoustic


filter design is shown.

APRIL 2013 68 Compressortech2


CATALYST EMISSIONS
EDUCATION PROGRAM
A scheduled series from Catalytic Combustions Catalyst 101
QUALITY CATALYSTS SINCE 1950
BLOOMER, WI 715-568-2882 GILLET TE, WY 715-933-2641 F T. W O R T H , T X 7 1 5 - 9 3 3 - 1 5 5 9

such as ethane, propane, butane, hexane, etc., are present.


UNDERSTANDING The chemistry of what happens in the cylinder when the spark
plug fires is rather complex. Because it is rare for a complete

CATALYSTS site specific chemical breakdown of the hydrocarbons in the


exhaust to be available, a simplifying assumption is made that
the hydrocarbons survive to be emitted in the same proportion
A Handbook for the User as they exist in the fuel gas. From this information, the required
conversion efficiency for each species will be made so that the
Part 22 More Sizing Details, Hydrocarbons catalyst will hit the permitted emissions.
for Lean Burn Engines
A Data Driven Process
It would be much easier if every molecule reacted exactly the Figure 1 is a graph showing the conversion efficiency of
same way when it reaches the surface of the catalyst. Since they various hydrocarbons as a function of the Gas Hourly Space
dont, the engineer sizing a catalyst has to evaluate what is in the Velocity (GHSV). This is the type of data that the engineer will
exhaust and what performance is required in order to meet the use to size the catalyst. The most conservative approach sizes
permit limits. The process is especially challenging when evaluating the catalyst by using the GHSV for the compound expected to
high-level hydrocarbon conversions for oxidation catalysts on lean- be in the exhaust that is the hardest to convert. Provided the fuel
burn engines. constituents do not change over time, this conservative approach
does compensate for
Defining the Target FIGURE 1 changes in their relative
Often a lean burn engines concentration so that the
emission of concern is CO catalyst will always meet
alone, so the sizing process the permit.
is straightforward. However, A more sophisticated
there are instances approach calculates
where the control of the a GHSV based on the
hydrocarbon emissions blended contribution
becomes the primary issue of each constituent
because of where the species to the required
engine is located. conversion efficiency.
After learning what Such a process will yield
engine is involved and what a higher GHSV and
to expect for a catalyst inlet thus a smaller catalyst
temperature, the engineer compared to the method
next needs to know whether your permit is written for Non- above, but it is typically used for sites where the fuel composition
Methane Hydrocarbons (NMHC) or Non-Methane, Non-Ethane is very stable.
Hydrocarbons (NMNEHC), and what is the emissions limit. Your As an example, lets stipulate that the raw NMNEHC emissions
permit may use the term VOC or Volatile Organic Compound, which for an engine are 0.45 g/bhp-hr and the permitted emissions
the EPA defines as NMNEHC. Because the EPA doesnt consider are 0.12 g/bhp-hr, requiring a conversion efficiency of 73.3%. In
formaldehyde a VOC, for simplification purposes this article will Figure 1, you see that the GHSV for propane is 71,000, butane is
omit formaldehyde. However, be aware that the new RICE MACT 83,000 and pentane is 97,000. So, depending upon what is in the
rules and individual states may have additional restrictions that fuel, the size of the catalyst can vary considerably.
govern its emission. Proper design for a lean-burn engine requires more effort, but
The engines spec sheet or technical information will reveal giving your catalyst company all of the appropriate information
its total expected raw hydrocarbon emissions. A fuel analysis for better enables them to select the correct catalyst to keep you
the site should also be provided to reveal what hydrocarbons, out of trouble on your hydrocarbon emissions.
For your catalyst questions, contact:
John W. Robinson Jr., V.P. Catalyst Group 715-568-2882 Ext. 127 Fax: 715-568-2884 jrobinson@catalyticcombustion.com

www.CatalyticCombustion.com IN THE NEXT ISSUE My Backpressure is Killing Me


Advertisement
n Figure 8. This is the newly
designed acoustic filter.

References trols Recip Pump Pulsations, Oil and Gas Journal, Volume
Heveron, G.C., 1978, Pulsation Dampeners and Stabiliz- 77, Issue 3, pp. 67-73.
ers Help Protect Pump Systems in Nuclear Plants, Power Blodgett, L.E., 1998, Reciprocating Pump Dynamic
122 (10), pp. 28-32. Concepts for Improved Pump Operations, 15th International
Wachel, J.C. and Price, S.M., 1988, Understanding How Pump Users Symposium Proceedings.
Pulsation Accumulators Work, Pipeline Engineering Sym- McKee, R. and Broerman, E., 2009, Acoustics in Pump-
posium, PD-Vol. 14. ing Systems, Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth International
Hicks, E.J. and Grant, T.R., 1979, Acoustic Filter Con- Pump Users Symposium, pp. 69-74. CT2
2012 edition XX www.ctssnet.net ctss
Lubes Evolve With Higher Turbine
Performance > Oils redeveloped to accommodate hotter firing,
smaller reservoirs
BY IAN CAMERON

light- and heavy-duty gas turbines and


turbo compressors. According to Shell,
Turbo GT has up to 50% better oxida-
tion stability compared with the indus-
try standard for gas turbines.
Shell uses gas to liquid (GTL) tech-
nology, utilizing the Fischer-Tropsch
process that converts gas and feed-
stocks to liquids. Shells Pearl GTL
n Shell has 60 years of experience in de- plant in Qatar makes synthetic oil
veloping oils for gas turbines and is cur- products from natural gas, including
rently redeveloping its top-tier Turbo GT cleaner-burning diesel and oils for
for use in industrial light- and heavy-duty advanced lubricants.
gas turbines and turbo compressors. Another trend we are noticing dur-
ing discussions with turbine manufac-
turers concerns the growing demand
for smaller lubricant reservoirs for gas
turbines, Smith said.
Not only do OEMs want to optimize
the power and efficiency of their ma-
chines, but they want to control the

I
t is widely known that the prevention deposit formation due to oxidation and cost of manufacturing their gas tur-
of a gas turbine failure is crucial to thermal degradation. Firing tempera- bines. They prefer smaller lubricant
operators and original equipment tures in gas turbines over the years reservoirs as smaller amounts of lu-
manufacturers. One of the key factors have gone up by hundreds of degrees. bricants can now be considered using
to a turbines reliability is also one of The temperatures have increased so the latest generation of top-tier oils. If
the least visible parts of the power gen- much because operators want to pro- the reservoirs are smaller, then the
eration process: lubricating oil. duce even greater megawatts of pow- turbines can be downsized and the
Theoretically, turbine oils should er. For example, a Siemens gas turbine cost of components reduced.
last for years, although exactly how can produce up to 375 MW [503,000 Good surface properties of the oil,
long is subject to a variety of factors, hp]; the lubricants have to be able to such as rapid air release, are essen-
especially as the fluid must have good withstand the demands placed upon tial. If these are poor, that can lead to
thermal and oxidation resistance. them in such conditions. foaming of the oil. Under changing load,
Modern lubricants need to keep As OEMs and operators try to entrained air can be released, causing
pace with advances in turbine tech- achieve higher and higher efficien- bubbles and foaming. In highly loaded
nology, said Peter Smith, Shells tech- cies from their gas turbines, we can regions, this can cause the air and oil
nical manager for industrial special- provide a lubricant able to help them vapor bubbles to literally implode and
ties, Shell Lubricants, which focuses achieve that, especially as some oper- burn, thus potentially causing cavitation
on turbine, electrical and process oils. ators want more than 50,000 operat- damage to the turbines bearings.
Gas turbine firing temperatures are ing hours from their lubricants before Shell has 60 years of experience in
increasing to up to 1450C (2642F) a service. Of course, OEMs want their developing oils for gas turbines and
and, although the oil is not directly ex- gas turbines to last longer and provide supplies fuel and lubes to more than
posed to this temperature, this means maximized reliable service between 1500 power plants in more than 80
that the whole gas turbine system is extended maintenance intervals. countries some 100 people work
under much more stress than ever be- Shell said it is currently redeveloping in its power sector product area. The
fore, Smith said. its top-tier Turbo GT using its propri- company has technology centers in
Therefore, lubricating oils have to etary additives and Group 3 base oil. the U.S., U.K., Germany, India, China,
be more resistant to such things as It is being designed for use in industrial and a joint venture in Japan. CT2

APRIL 2013 72 Compressortech2


PRIME Experience, Reliability, Integrity...
Movers
Hydrotex
Hydrotex, a manufacturer and distribu-
tor of lubricant and fuel improvement prod-
ucts, has hired Eric Cline as research and
development director and John Alecu as
research and development manager.

E. Cline J. Alecu
Cline had been CEO and chief scien-
tist of ZT Solar, a startup company that
286,000 SF Manufacturing
developed antireflective coatings for solar
Facilities on 38 Acres
cell and optical applications. He also held
positions at Merck and the Southwest Re-
search Institute.
Alecus areas of expertise include (918) 283-9200 Fax (918) 283-9229 www.axh.com
kinetics, thermodynamics, quantum
mechanics, combustion chemistry, at-
mospheric chemistry, physical-organ-
ic chemistry, computational chemistry, AXH.indd 1 4/16/12 4:42 PM
and free radical chemistry.

Cook Compression
Cook Compression has begun sup-
plying the Chinese and other Asian
markets from a new 11,000 sq.ft. (1020 RECIPROCATING
m2) manufacturing and service facility at COMPRESSOR
Suzhou, China. LUBRICATION
Cook China makes valve assemblies,
SPECIALISTS
rings and packing, with internal metallic
and nonmetallic parts supplied from Cook
operations in Europe and the United Custom built packages:
States. It also performs valve and packing our range covers 95% of
case repairs. It will begin full production all compressor applications
worldwide
of all ring and packing products this year.
Willa Qu has been named general
Built to your specication
manager of Cook China Operations. She
previously was China sales director for Easy to install and maintain
Dresser Wayne Fuel Equipment China.
Also, Cook Compression Russian Op-
erations has been established in Moscow,
five years after Cook first began opera-
tions in the Russian Federation. Sergey
Kalabekov has been named area sales
Antwerp Lion Oil Works N.V. Vlaamsekaai 2-5 B-2000 Antwerp
manager and Irina Benediktova assis-
T. +32 (0)3 237 00 45 info@lionoil.be www.lionoil.be
tant sales manager.
continued on page 75

APRIL 2013 73 Compressortech2


Antwerp_Third.indd 1 3/13/13 12:43 PM
Turbine-Driven Compression
For China > Rolls-Royce secures additional orders for turbine-driven
compressor packages in China
By Ian Cameron

n This Rolls-Royce RFBB36 gas compressor was installed at the Zhongwei


compressor station on the WEPP Line I gas pipeline in China.

R
olls-Royce has announced WEPP natural gas will boost Chinas ect and our relationship with and sup-
a US$75 million contract to economic growth and ensure greater port to PetroChina.
supply PetroChina with equip- security of electricity supply to Chinas Efficiency is a key factor in the proj-
ment and related services to move fast-developing cities, said Andrew ect, Heath said.
gas through Line III of the West-East Heath, Rolls-Royce president, energy. The high efficiency of the Rolls-
Pipeline Project (WEPP), the worlds In terms of servicing the installed Royce RB211 units and our compres-
longest pipeline. base, in addition to our in-country field sors means more gas will reach the
It will supply PetroChina with six service representative based at the consumer, ultimately increasing gas
RB211 gas turbine-driven RFBB36 site to provide ongoing service for the volumes and potential profit for the
compressor units for WEPP Line III. pipeline, we work with PetroChina to operator, he said. As gas prices con-
When completed in 2015, the 4350 train their operators before they begin tinue to increase, efficiency really be-
mi. (7000 km) WEPP Line III will link to manage the equipment at the sites comes the most crucial factor driving
Chinas western Xinjiang autono- along the pipelines. the value equation.
mous region to Fuijan province in In addition, we are providing licens- The high simple-cycle efficiency
the Southeast, transporting up to 1.1 ing support to a maintenance repair of the engine also makes it ideal as a
Tcfy (30 x 109 m3/yr). and overhaul facility that PetroChina is driver of pipeline compressors. Its low
Rolls-Royce has provided equip- building in Langfang, Hebei province, weight and the ability to quickly remove
ment and services to WEPP since not far from Beijing, expected to be the gas generator for transport and
2004. Including the latest contract, it operational in mid-2013. All of these maintenance is another key feature for
has sold 37 RB211 units to WEPP. factors strengthen our role on the proj- this application, which, like the WEPP

APRIL 2013 74 Compressortech2


installations, are often in remote loca-
PRIME
tions far from maintenance facilities. Movers
Commenting on the specific proj-
ect tasks faced by the engineering Ansaldo Sistemi Industriali technologies to motors for home appli-
teams, Heath said: Along with the The Japan-based Nidec Group has ac- ances, automobiles, office equipment
station design teams we faced several quired Ansaldo Sistemi Industriali (ASI) of and industrial machinery.
challenges, including the desert sand Italy, a global supplier of electric motors The ASI acquisition will enable Nidec
storm environment experienced at and generators for compressors, pumps, to supply a wider range of products,
many of the stations in or close to the turbines, and other applications. such as high power range industrial mo-
Gobi desert and in the winter months Formed in 1973, Nidec has expand- tors, medium- and low-voltage drives
extremely cold temperatures. ed from its original product base of mo- and industrial automation systems.
Heath said the RB211 gas turbines Corrosion
tors Ad_Layout
for information 1 6/20/2012
and 1:33 PM
communication Page 1 continued on page 93

Problem Solving
would have to operate in temperatures
from -40 to 104F (-40 to 40C).
Transportation is another challeng-

Synthetic Lubricants
ing issue, as on some parts of the
pipeline route the low loaders carrying
the turbines and compressors could
travel at less than 30 mph (50 kph) and

Corrosion Protection
sometimes down to walking pace. On
the western section of the line there
was no land access so roads had to be Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide
(CO2) are known as acid gases. If free water
built just to deliver the equipment.

is present, it will react with these acid gases


Rolls-Royce will make and pack-
age the equipment for WEPP at
its facilities in Montreal, Quebec, to form ver y corrosive compounds. These
compounds can quickly corrode coolers and
Canada and Mount Vernon, Ohio. In-

separators, result in bearing failures, change


cluding WEPP, Rolls-Royce has sold
56 RB211 units for installation on
Chinese and Central Asian natural the performance ratings of valves and reduce
pressure ratings for vessels and piping. Summit
gas pipeline networks. That includes

lubricants are formulated with high quality


five RB211 compressor sets to the
Shaanxi-Beijing Third Gas Pipeline
running from northwestern Chinas additives to prevent corrosion from acid gases
and saltwater. They are specialized gas
Shaanxi province to Beijing. The 550

compressor lubricants for gas compressor


mi. (896 km) pipeline can move 550
Bcfy (15 x 109 m3/yr) to Beijing and
other areas in the Bohai Rim region. applications. They are not gas engine oil, air
compressor, transmission or gear oils that are
Rolls-Royce also received a US$40

placed into gas compressor service.


million contract to supply equipment
and services for an Uzbekistan com-

Prevent corrosion and protect your compressor


pressor station on the Turkmenistan-
China natural gas pipeline. It will sup-
ply Asia Trans Gas, a joint venture
between Uzbekistans Uzbekneftegaz
and Chinas National Petroleum Corp.,

Summit
with three RB211 gas turbine driven
pipeline compressor units for a station
on the 330 mi. (530 km) Uzbekistan
section of the pipeline.
The 1140 mi. (1830 km) project will
Industrial Products
800.749.5823
transport 880 Bcfy (25 x 109 m3/yr) of
gas from Turkmenistan and across
Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan to China.

www.klsummit.com
Rolls-Royce also will manufacture and
package that equipment at Montreal
and Mount Vernon. CT2

APRIL 2013 75 Compressortech2


Summit.indd 1 1/18/13 9:59 AM
TECH

corner
Vector Analysis Of Crankshaft
Web Deflections
Deflections> can be converted
into calculated stress values
on a throw-by-throw basis
By Mark Noall and David Maas

C
rankshaft web deflection measurements have his- 10 integral engine failed. In an effort to better understand
torically been used to evaluate crankshaft align- why we had two crankshaft failures on the same engine, op-
ment and as criteria to take action to prevent crank- erating history, mechanical maintenance records and web
shaft failure [1]. deflections were reviewed from 1993 to 2010. The historical
Research has correlated web deflection measurements data when combined with optical, laser and wire-line frame
to peak stress levels in the crankshaft fillets. Web deflec- measurements made after the 2010 failure provided valu-
tions can now be converted into calculated stress values able insights into the root causes of these failures.
on a throw-by-throw basis. These calculations account for One of the pertinent findings was that both failures did
variations in pin and stroke dimensions and provide more not occur in a high-stress area of the crankshaft, as calcu-
reliable criteria to evaluate the risk of failure. lated from web deflection readings. One of the failure loca-
Web deflection readings from one throw to the next can also tions closely coincided with a web deflection reversal. The
point to a bending reversal in the crankshaft. For example a other failed where the crankshaft was bridging a bearing.
bending reversal occurs when the web deflection of one throw
shows the web opening at the bottom while the adjacent throw
shows the web opening at the top. Bending reversals in crank-
shafts may be part of the crankshaft failure mechanism.
Crankshaft reversals cannot be detected with the web
deflection to stress calculations, as they do not take into
account the influence of the adjacent throws. One effective
way to identifying the locations of these reversals is to con-
struct a maximum web deflection vector graph and com-
pare the throw-to-throw vertical and horizontal components
for changes in direction.
In 1998 and again in 2010, the crankshaft in a Clark TLA-

Mark Noall is pipeline engineer with KMI Pipeline. His respon-


sibilities include technical support for reciprocating and tur-
bine engine driven compression in West Texas and southeast n Figure 1. Web location is shown on the crankshaft.
New Mexico. He has 30 years of experience in the energy
industry and has a Bachelor of Science degree in mechani- Measuring web deflections
cal engineering from Brigham Young University. David Maas Web deflections are a measure of the change in distance
is a mechanical supervisor for Kinder Morgan Inc. He gradu- between the crankshaft webs. The change in distance oc-
ated from Colorado State University with a Bachelor of Sci- curs as the crankshaft moves through 360 of rotation. The
ence degree in electrical engineering and a masters degree maximum web deflection across a throw is the difference
in mechanical engineering. His graduate work was done at between the maximum and minimum distances between
the universitys engines and energy conversion laboratory. the webs. (See Figure 1.)
This article is based on a paper the authors presented at the When the engine frame and bore lie in a straight line the
Gas Machinery Conference in Austin, Texas, last October. crankshaft will also be straight. The distance between the
Contact the authors at mark_noall@kindermorgan.com or webs will not change and the web deflection readings will
david_maas@kindermorgan.com. be zero. If the engine frame is misaligned the crankshaft will

April 2013 76 Compressortech2


Recognized
n Figure 2. Web deflection is shown in three conditions.
Leader
not lie in a straight line. For example, if the frame sags in the
middle so will the crankshaft. A sagging crankshaft results
in the webs opening at the bottom and closing at the top.
(See Figure 2.)
Web deflections are measured with a micrometer placed
across the crankpin throw. The pointed ends of the microm-
eter are placed in punch marks on the webs. (See Figure 3.)
The punch marks are typically located at the diameter of
the main bearing journals. Prior to taking measurement the
gauge is spun to seat the points in the punch marks.
The crankshaft is manually rotated and deflection read-
ings, measured in mils (0.001 in. or 0.0254 mm), are typi-
cally taken every 45. Connecting rods attached to the crank-
pin prevent data collection over the full 360 rotation. Often,
deflections can be measure only for 180 of the rotation.

Innovator in State-of-the-Art
Pipe Supports & Clamps
Inventor of Flywheel Lock
Leaders in Field Machine Work
Pioneers in Casting Rapair

PRODUCTS: SERVICES:
n Pipe Supports & Clamps n Field Machining

n Epoxy Grout n Casting Repair

n Anchor Bolts n Crankshaft Machining


n Flywheel Locks n Machine Shop
n Figure 3. These punch marks are for positioning the micrometer n Temperature & Vibration n Broken Bolt Removal
to read web deflection. Sensors n Frame Reinforcement

n Spark Plugs n Alignment Services


Web deflections and crankshaft stress

When a bend or bow exists in the crankshaft, most 918-252-7545


of the bending occurs in the webs. The webs have the
www.r-f.com
smallest cross section of the crankshaft and are there- info@r-f.com
fore subject to the highest cyclic bending stresses. The Tulsa, OK
continued on page 78

APRIL 2013 77 Compressortech2


Reynolds.indd 1 11/16/12 12:00 PM
Gas Machinery Conference paper, An Improved Criteria deflections over the full 360 rotation. But what if the mini-
for Assessing Crankshaft Misalignment, developed this mum or maximum deflection reading occurs at an angle
relationship [2]. that cant be accessed by the deflection gauge? How can
The stress is concentrated in the webs at the fillets be- the maximum deflection value be determined if it cannot be
tween the main and crankpin journal. Elevated bending stress measured? The answer to this problem comes in the form
in the webs combined with hundreds of millions to billions of of a mathematical curve fit that calculates the maximum de-
crankshaft revolutions or bending cycles can eventually lead flection and the angle at which it occurs.
to a high-cycle fatigue failure. High-cycle fatigue failures are
almost exclusively across crankshaft webs. (See Figure 4.) The sinusoidal curve fit
As with many rotational systems, web deflection measure-
ments exhibit a sinusoidal behavior. (See Figure 6.) Measure-
ments taken at regular crank angles will fall on a sine wave.
The maximum deflection will be the difference between the
minimum and maximum values of the sine wave.

n Figure 4. This is the usual location of fatigue failure across


crankshaft web. n Figure 6. These readings were taken while the crankshaft is be-
ing rotated to generate a sine wave.
Maximum web deflection
Figure 5 shows a typical set of web deflections as ini- The sine wave for web deflections can be written as fol-
tially recorded. Connecting rods attached to the crankpin lows using a sine function that operates on degrees of an-
prevented data collection over the full 360 rotation. Deflec- gle rather than radians.
tion readings were measured every 45 from 135 to 315.
Measurements were taken in mils.
The maximum web deflection across a throw is the dif-
ference between the maximum and minimum measured
Where A is the zero-to-peak amplitude of the sine wave
and 2A is the peak-to-peak value or maximum web deflec-
tion.w (phi) is the phase angle and C is an offset value
from arbitrarily setting the deflection micrometer to zero at
the first measurement angle.
Fitting the web deflection data to a sine wave is a matter
w
of calculating the amplitude A, the phase angle, , and the
offset, C, to minimize the error between the data set and the
equation. This can be accomplished iteratively or by solving
a set of linear equations.
Three data points are needed to solve for values of A, w
and C. A sinusoid can be perfectly drawn through any three
data points. It is recommended that four or more readings
be measured on each web. This allows for a correlation co-
efficient to be calculated which expresses how well the data
exhibits a sinusoidal behavior. The correlation coefficient
R2 is a measure of the error between the data points and
the sine curve. An R2 value of 1.000 indicates a perfect cor-
relation, whereas values less than 0.900 could indicate er-
rors in data collection or other problems such as damaged
n Figure 5. This is a set of initially recorded web deflections. bearings or excessive crankshaft run out.

APRIL 2013 78 Compressortech2


The maximum web deflection, 2A , is used to calculate the
w
peak fillet stress of the throw. When 2A and are viewed as
a vector with magnitude and direction, and in conjunction with
similar data from each throw of the crankshaft, additional infor-
mation can be inferred about the crankshaft alignment.

Vectors
w
The phase angle , tells us where in the 360 of crank-
shaft rotation, the sine function, starts. Reviewing Table 1 of
basic sine function results, its clear the maximum value of a
sine wave is one and occurs at an angle of 90.

Sin (0) = 0.000


Sin (45) = 0.707
Sin (90) = 1.000 Maximum Value
Sin (135) = 0.707
Sin (180) = 0.000
Sin (225) = 0.707
Sin (270) = 1.000 Maximum Value
Sin (315) = 0.707
Sin (360) = 0.000
n Table 1. This table shows basic sine function results.

The phase angle simply shifts where, in the 360 of rota-


tion, the maximum value occurs. So +90 is the angle of
maximum web deflection or greatest distance between the Samsung.indd 1 3/15/13 9:44 AM

webs. Conversely -90 is the angle where the webs are


closest together.
The example below shows a maximum web deflection
occurring at 253. The w
value of the vector is 163.

So, w +90 indicates the direction of the maximum de-


flection vector and the amplitude 2A indicates the magni-
tude of the vector. This technique enables constructing web
deflection vectors for each of the throws of the crankshaft.
The vectors now can be compared from one throw to the
next. The horizontal and vertical components of these vec-
tors can provide additional insights into crankshaft align-
ment. First, consider three simple examples. The real world
is combination of these examples.
continued on page 80

n Figure 7. These are typical web deflection readings of the max


deflection vector.

APRIL 2013 79 Compressortech2


We Manufacture and
Remanufacture the
n Figure 8. This is the sagging crankshaft.
Worlds Largest
All throws have the same deflection.
Crankshafts All throws open at the bottom and close at the top.
All throws have maximum deflection vectors pointing
Ellwood Crankshaft Group down.
Irvine, PA, USA 16329 The vertical components are equal to the maximum de-
Hermitage, PA, USA 16148 flection values.
1-800-247-1326 The horizontal components are zero.
or 724-347-0250 Note the crankshaft is depicted with all of the throws
ecgsales@elwd.com at same angle. Real crankshafts do not look like this
www.ellwoodcrankshaftgroup.com but since web deflection angles are recorded with
respect to a specific throw it is a valid simplification
to visualize what is otherwise a complicated piece
Certified Quality
Management System of geometry.
ISO 9001: 2008

Precise Boring

n Figure 9. This is the bowed crankshaft.

All throws have the same deflection.


All throws open at the top and close at the bottom.
All throws have maximum deflection vectors pointing up.
to exceed your The vertical components are equal to the maximum de-
flection values.
expectations!! The horizontal components are zero.
All throws have the same deflection.
Visit our website at www.HahnMfg.com
All throws open to the right and close to the left.
All throws have maximum deflection vectors pointing to
precision boring, milling, drilling, tapping the right.
and grinding on ferrous and non-ferrous The vertical components are zero.
material up to 30,000 lbs. The horizontal components are equal to the maximum
deflection values.

APRIL 2013 80 Compressortech2


Hahn_April.indd 1 3/18/13 1:36 PM
Real world example
Table 2 shows as found web deflection readings mea-
sured during an annual mechanical inspection of a Clark
TLA 10 engine. The deflections were measured at 45
intervals and recorded in mils. At first glance throws two
and three have deflections of 2, throw six has a deflection
of -2.75 and throw nine has a deflection of -2. This table
contains the web deflections, sinusoidal curve fits, cor-
n Figure 10. This is the side bowed crankshaft. relation coefficients, calculated crankshaft stress, max
deflections and angles.
The sinusoidal curve fit of the deflection data shows
continued on page 82

n These tables show web deflections.

APRIL 2013 81 Compressortech2


The Energy Flows Through Us

little change to the max deflection on throws two, three


and nine. However throw six changed from a max de-
flection of 2.75 to 4.5 mils. The correlation coefficients
show a good sine wave agreement for throws one, two,
three and 10. The data for throws four through nine have
correlation coefficients less than 0.9, indicating question-
CONVENIENTLY LOCATED NEAR THE able data or potential problems. The calculated stress on
EPICENTER OF THE MARCELLUS GAS PLAY throw six is 10,216 psi (705 bar). All other throws range
from 1438 to 5113 psi (99 to 353 bar).
Services we offer: This example demonstrates the benefits of the sinusoidal
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tilting pad journal and thrust
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#1
Lufkin.indd 1 3/18/13 9:44 AM
The industrys
reference tool n Figure 11. The chart shows crankshaft deflection vectors.
for packagers, purchasers and
Crankshaft web deflection vectors
training providers is now online!
Now look at the maximum deflection vectors for each
throw and their associated vertical and horizontal com-

CTSSnet.net
ponents. The stress vector on throw six is primarily in
the horizontal direction. This indicates that something
might be pulling or pushing on the side of the engine
frame. It is important to note that the highest max web
COMPRESSION TECHNOLOGY SOURCING SUPPLEMENT
deflection on the crankshaft, at throw six, yielded the
largest stress and longest vector.

Predicting crankshaft alignment


The vertical and horizontal crankshaft profiles can
be approximated by using crankshaft geometry and the
vertical and horizontal components of the max deflec-
tion vectors.
The horizontal and vertical crankshaft profiles, shown
in Figure 12, provide valuable insights to the shape of the
crankshaft and what might be influencing the crankshaft
alignment. The horizontal profile shows an abrupt bend
at throw six and a crankshaft side displacement of 26
mils. The vertical profile shows the crankshaft is 10 mils
Visit Us At CTSSnet.net low at bearings two to five and bearings nine to 11 are
5 mils high.

APRIL 2013 82 Compressortech2


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n Figure 12. Horizontal profile (top) and vertical profile (bottom)


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continued on page 84

APRIL 2013 83 Compressortech2


There is a reversal in the direction of the vectors be-
tween webs five and six.
The reversal occurs at a point of inflection.

Case history (Roswell #3 1993 1998)


1958 engine installed.
1994 engine regrouted on epoxy chocks.
1998 crankshaft failed.
1998 installed used crankshaft and re-grouted on
epoxy chocks.
2004 engine regrouted on shimmable chocks.
2010 second crankshaft failed.

n Figure 14. This graph shows the stress occurring in each web.

The fracture location of the 1998 crankshaft failure did not


occur in the throw with the highest stress. The crankshaft
failed at throw nine. See Figures 14 and 15. For the five
years preceding the failure the average calculated stress at n Figure 16. The horizontal profile (top) and vertical profile
throw nine was 2700 psi (186 bar). (bottom) are given.

The horizontal graph has no indication of any problem


at throw nine. The vertical crankshaft profile shows a
slight S shaped curve at the fracture location. Based
on these two graphs and the calculated stress there
was no reason to suspect that throw nine was subject
to any undue stress levels that might initiate a cyclic
fatigue crack.
The only irregularity we could find was that the frac-
ture location coincided with an obvious crankshaft re-
versal between throws nine and 10. Resolving the max
web deflection vectors clearly shows a reversal in the
vertical direction. (See Figure 17.) It is strongly be-
lieved this reversal played a key role in the crack ini-
tiation, the fatigue crack propagation and the eventual
failure of the crankshaft.
n Figure 15. Arrow points at the web failure of throw nine.
Conclusion
The horizontal crankshaft profile shows a side bow of Web deflections, sinusoidal curve fits, correlation co-
26 mils with an abrupt change in direction at throw six. efficients, calculated crankshaft stress, max deflections

APRIL 2013 84 Compressortech2


coincide with the calculated peak stress. The crankshaft
failed in an area where there was a reversal between
adjacent throws nine and 10. Reversals in the crank-
shaft web deflections could be contributing factors to
crankshaft failures. Web deflection vector analysis can be
an additional set of metrics to evaluate crankshaft align-
ment and risk of crankshaft failure.

Additional work
Apply this analysis to other engines that have experi-
enced crankshaft failures and see if similar conclusions
can be drawn.
Mathematically compare adjacent max web deflection
vectors to develop a quantitative measure.
Determine if there a correlation between reversals and
main bearing bridging.
n Figure 17. This chart shows crankshaft deflection vectors. Note
the two vectors indicating location of crankshaft reversal. References
1. Advances in Crankshaft Reliability Methods. Harrell,
and angles are valuable diagnostic tools to evaluate the John P. Jr.; Wattis, Gregory N. and S.; Rennick, Timo-
crankshaft alignment. The information they provide is thy. 1999. Houston: Gas Machinery Research Council,
throw specific and independent of the other throws on 1999.
the crankshaft. Plotting the maximum deflection vectors 2. An Improved Criteria for Assessing Crankshaft Mis-
and their vertical and horizontal components provides a alignment. Harrell, John P. Jr.; and Wattis, Gregory,
way to identify reversals in the crankshaft profile. 2000. Colorado Springs, Colorado: Gas Machinery
The 1998 Roswell unit No. 3 crankshaft failure did not Council, 2000. CT2

APRIL 2013 85 Compressortech2


FLP_april.indd 1 12/20/12 10:03 AM
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Vibration Monitoring System Thermal Mass Flowmeters Level Meter
Cook Compression has released Krohne Inc., a global technology
the Sentrix thermal mass flowmeter, specialist in the development, manu-
which is designed for measuring vent facture and distribution of measuring
gas flow and helping compressor op- instruments for the process indus-
erators satisfy Environmental Protec- tries, has released the OptiFlex 2200
tion Agency reporting requirements C/F level meter for liquids and solids.
for greenhouse gases. The flowmeters The device features software-based
are available in inline, insertion and dynamic parasite rejection technology
portable configurations to suit various that eliminates false reflections caused
gas-monitoring needs and line sizes, by environmental disturbances and
the company said. product build-up. It is the newest addi-
tion to the companys time domain re-
IMI-Sensors, a division of PCB flectometry guided radar level meters.
Piezotronics Inc., has introduced the
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system, designed to monitor the over-
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The system can be applied to several Sentrix flowmeters use thermal
industrial applications in the power, mass flow technology, which provides
steel and chemical industries. accuracy at 1% reading, 0.5% full
The system uses the Echo wire- scale at calibrated conditions. With
less vibration sensor and the Echo- 0.01 to 559 cfm flow range and a low-
Plus wireless junction box to trans- flow sensitivity of 100:1 turndown, Sen-
mit vibration data to a single, central trix flowmeters also give operators the
receiver. The system allows for the ability to proactively spot gas leakage
integration of wirelessly transmitted trends, improve repair planning and
data into existing legacy vibration use condition-based maintenance for
systems and plant-monitoring con- rod packing, Cook Compression said.
trollers, all made possible through All units feature automatic pressure
the Modbus interface. and temperature compensation and OptiFlex 2200, designed for tank
Battery life of the sensor typically are provided with preset gas calibra- and silo applications in the chemical
exceeds five years when transmit- tions. Inline meters are calibrated for a industry, as well as in the oil and gas,
ting data three times a day, and a 24 specific gas composition and portable energy and wastewater sectors, is
Vdc source can power the EchoPlus meters offer multiple calibrations that available with several probes to mea-
box without battery life limitations, the can be selected in the field using high- sure liquids up to 130 ft. (40 m) and
company said. resolution, touch panel displays. solids up to 66 ft. (20 m), and can han-
www.imi-sensors.com www.cookcompression.com dle process temperatures up to 572F
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No batteries

Working parts not in Level VF System


contact with lubricant Alignment Supplies Inc. has added
the ALiSENSOR level VF system as
Compact size an option package for advanced us-
Stainless steel ers. The system differentiates itself
from the core ALiSENSOR Level
ATEX certied system by replacing the 3.9 in. (100
mm) fixture base with the VF fixture

APRIL 2013 86 Compressortech2


Antwerp_Sixth.indd 1 3/13/13 12:45 PM
FEATURED
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package, which features a cross- view engine performance by reveal- an additional MeCAN module, as
functional L-shape fixture base that ing 20 J1939 parameters broad- well as replace the existing hour-
is designed for several different cast from the ECU. Operators can meter function.
measurement applications, the com- use the up and down pushbuttons Other features include displaying
pany said. The L-shape fixture base to scroll through the parameters, DEF and soot levels, as well active
can be reconfigured in seconds to and be alerted by the devices LED DM1 and store DM2 faults using the
accommodate measurements for lights, which indicate warning and suspect parameter number, failure
straightness, level, squareness, flat- shutdown conditions. It also can in- mode indicator and occurrence count.
ness, plumb, shaft straightness or strument mechanical engines with www.fwmurphy.com
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The VF fixture package will be offered


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Diagnostic Display

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The display allows operators to

APRIL 2013 87 Compressortech2


ECOM.indd 1 6/5/12 1:11 PM
IEA Urges More Competition In Asia
Pacific Gas Market > Report says long-term contracts
distort price signals

single biggest obstacle for an ef-


fective gas market is a lack of in-
frastructure access;
The role of governments must
change: Instead of focusing on
price regulation along the value
chain, governments must main-
tain and supervise competitive
market conditions;
Credible state commitment to re-
gional gas market competition can
instill confidence, encourage new
market participants, and promote
the use of transparent hubs to bal-
ance producer portfolios;
Gas transport and commercial ac-
n Asia Pacific gas demand will continue to outstrip tivities should be separated and
production. Source: International Energy Agency. prices deregulated at the whole-
sale level;
Singapore holds the best initial

T
he International Energy Agen- a more competitive and dynamic net- prospects for gas hub development,
cy (IEA) has reported that the work of trading hubs that better reflect with Japan, Korea, and China as
Asian market needs a natural local gas demand and supply. likely competitors in the future.
gas trading hub that reflects supply/ IEA said long-term contracts can The prospects are there, but even
demand fundamentals. play a beneficial role in providing in- the prime candidates will need to do
The regions gas market is charac- vestment security, but their current more, lEA Executive Director Ma-
terized by long-term contracts, most pricing does not accurately reflect gas ria van der Hoeven said. Chinas
of them designed to establish the market fundamentals or the competi- fast-growing domestic gas network
economic bases for expensive lique- tiveness of gas relative to other fuels. is still underdeveloped, and the en-
fied natural gas (LNG) production and Moreover, without a competitive spot tire production chain remains heavily
transportation projects that serve Ja- market for natural gas, there is little regulated. Singapores small domestic
pan, Korea and other nations. incentive and little scope to change market means that to grow as a hub
Asia is expected to become the current commercial practices. it must rely on re-exports, which are
worlds second-largest gas market by This leaves both consumers and hindered by regulation.
2015, the report said. And yet this producers with insufficient room to ex- Last but not least, Japan has a
market is dominated by long-term plore different options, and limits the great potential to act as a hub, but
contracts in which the price of gas is degree to which natural gas can serve it will have to take some important
linked, or indexed, to that of oil. as a flexible source of energy for both steps. Domestically, that means im-
In recent years, this has helped growing and mature economies, it said. proving infrastructure access and
keep Asian gas prices much higher The study found: further developing its domestic power
than those in other parts of the world, Current market structures discour- market. But externally, it also means
leading to serious questions about the age gas consumption and impact engaging with exporters to affect the
sustainability of the system and its ef- Asian competitiveness vis--vis terms of gas contracting so as to im-
fects on Asian competitiveness. more flexible markets in the U.S. prove efficiency while maintaining
The IEA study outlined how the Asia and even Europe; energy security. The LNG producer-
Pacific regions natural gas market Experience by the Organization consumer dialogue initiated recently
could evolve from one in which prices for Economic Cooperation and by Japan can be effective to facilitat-
are linked to crude oil to one featuring Development suggests that the ing that engagement. CT2

APRIL 2013 88 Compressortech2


Case Study: Torsional
Analysis > Investigation of torsional influence on vibrations of motor-
driven reciprocating gas compressor
By Nathan W. Poerner,
Chris D. Kulhanek and
Dr. Klaus Brun, Ph.D.

n Figure 1. This graphic shows torsional


spectrum peaks during shutdown.

M
ost turbo and reciprocating of these speeds can coincide with lat- Operating at these critical speeds
machines operate over a eral or torsional resonant frequencies can be damaging to the machine
wide range of speeds. Some (aka critical speeds) of their shafts. or its seals and bearings, and must
be avoided. Thus, it is important to
Nathan Poerner is a research engineer in the Fluids and Machinery Engineering De- be able to accurately predict critical
partment at Southwest Research Institute. He received his B.S and M.S. degrees in speeds of a machine prior to instal-
mechanical engineering from Texas Tech University. Dr. Klaus Brun is the director of the lation in the field. This is especially
Machinery Program at Southwest Research Institute. He is the chairman of the ASME- true for reciprocating machines that
IGTI board of directors and the past chairman of the ASME Oil & Gas Applications are subject to high-amplitude, low-
Committee. Chris D. Kulhanek is a research engineer in the Fluids and Machinery En- frequency excitations from the cylin-
gineering Department at Southwest Research Institute. He received his B.S. and M.S. ders of either the engine driver or the
degrees in mechanical engineering from Texas A&M University. driven compressor. Excessive tor-

n Table 1. The chart displays predicted torsional natural frequencies (critical speeds).

APRIL 2013 90 Compressortech2

CT170.indd 1 3/20/13 4:36 PM


sional vibrations have led to coupling appears at 101 Hz. These peaks down is typical due to differences in
breakages and sometimes can inter- show up similarly on both the motor loading and temperatures, also veri-
act with lateral vibrations resulting in and compressor torsional measure- fied by the torsional model. The ac-
catastrophic shaft failures. ments, although the peak at 101 tual torsional mode can be expected
These critical speeds can be al- Hz is much more prevalent on the to exist within this range (11 to14 Hz).
tered by adjusting the rotating mass compressor side, which was due to These measured critical speeds were
(inertia) or torsional stiffness of com- the particular shape of the resonant significantly different from values previ-
ponents in the system. Some com- mode. Two peaks were also present ously analytically predicted (18 and 75
mon modifications include adding in the startup data, with the first peak Hz) by a third party. This large difference
flywheels or other masses to the sys- at 14 Hz and the second again at 101 was initially thought to indicate possible
tem and the use of flexible couplings Hz. The shift in frequency of the first damage to the couplings elastomeric
(usually with some kind of elastomer- mode between start-up and shut- continued on page 92
ic material) that changes the stiffness
between the driver and equipment
shafts. Critical speeds and torsional
response of the system are typically
predicted using a computer model via
a finite element method (FEM) that
divides the rotating elements into dis-
crete sections with assigned masses
and stiffnesses. With any computer
model, there is some uncertainty of
QUALITY LUBRICANTS YOU CAN DEPEND ON.
the predictions due to both the analy-
sis method and the input boundary
conditions; it is imperative to validate
computational predictions using field
testing. The following presents a tor-
sional analysis case study where
field data and analysis predictions
were compared to validate the fidelity
of the predictions.
The subject study began when the
lateral vibrations of an electric motor
that was part of a reciprocating gas
compressor package with an elasto-
meric coupling reached levels that
tripped a local vibration alarm. To in-
vestigate the theory that these vibra- Stocking
tions were being generated due to locations in
torsional vibrations, measurements the U.S. &
of the torsional and lateral vibrations Canada
of the system were recorded during
numerous startups and shutdowns SERVICES
of the unit, and also while the unit Customized Lubricant Application Selection
was run over its effective operating- Oil Analysis Lab and Problem Application Support
speed range. New Product Development
Torsional vibration data recorded
during the start-up and shutdown of a PRODUCTS
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sional critical speeds, as one or more Synthetic Polyol Esters (POEs) Synthetic Diesters
orders of running speed are likely
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example, data from one of the shut-
downs of the current study is shown 866.366.5699 Fax: 281.367.5685 Synthosol.com
in Figure 1. In this data, there are two
peaks that are prevalent: the first ap- mpe@mastersprocess.com
pears at 11.25 Hz, and the second

APRIL 2013 91 Compressortech2


MasterSynthetics.indd 1 1/15/13 10:02 AM
n Figure 2. The chart shows
motor DE horizontal vibrations
during speed ramp.

material. To investigate this difference that is 13.8 Hz, which is within the the coupling was operating in the best
and determine if a drastic change in range of measured values, and 97.2 possible configuration.
the elastomer was at fault, Southwest Hz, which differs by less than 5%. Ad- It was still left to determine whether
Research Institute (SwRI) created its ditionally, the mode shapes for each it is a torsional effect that is driving
own torsional analytical model using of these critical speeds also match the the lateral vibrations of the motor. The
SwRIs proprietary torsional software relative observed torsional levels. measured lateral vibrations indicated a
and the manufacturers machine data. With the same stiffness but op- strong 3x response that decreased in
From this model, SwRI was also able to posite orientation (heavy side on the amplitude with speed; the most severe
investigate the effect variable elastomer motor end) the first two critical speeds of these vibrations was observed at the
stiffness and orientation of the coupling were predicted to nominally be 18.7 motor drive end in the horizontal direc-
would have on critical speeds. Hz and 82.7 Hz, which matches the tion (Figure 2). An operating deflection
Results in Table 1 show that the fre- previously predicted values. Check- shape of the motor at this frequency re-
quencies of the first and second criti- ing with the facility did confirm that the vealed that the motor was vibrating in
cal speed with the nominal stiffness heavy side of the coupling was, in fact, a yawing motion; a lateral motion that
and the coupling oriented with heavy on the compressor. Therefore, it was is not likely to be excited by a torsional
side on the compressor match excep- concluded that the coupling elasto- vibration of the motor shaft.
tionally well with the measured values; meric material had not degraded, and This frequency also falls in between

n Figure 3. The chart displays


motor torsional spectral response
during speed sweep.

APRIL 2013 92 Compressortech2


the first two torsional critical speeds
PRIME
and does not coincide with either critical Movers
speed over the entire operating range.
Still, the measured torsional vibrations J-W Energy
of the motor shaft for the same time J-W Energy Co. President G. Gene his tenure, the company has grown from
(Figure 3) do show a peak at the 3x fre- Gradick has been given the additional US$70 million to more than US$800 mil-
quency; but given the layout of the unit duties of chief executive officer with lion in gross revenue and from US$147
(six-throw unit in offsetting pairs), a 3x the responsibility of managing day-to- million to US$1.5 billion in assets.
response was expected. However, the day operations. Prior to joining the company, Gradick
amplitude of the torsional vibration at 3x Gradick joined6/1/10
Centa.qxp J-W Energy PM asPage was
in 1998
12:02 1 president of Delhi Gas Pipeline
does not vary relative to speed like the chief operating officer and was promot- Corp. He is a mechanical engineering
lateral vibrations did, so it was unlikely ed to president in January 2005. During graduate of Texas A&M University.
that any coupling between the lateral
and torsional vibrations of the motor
was occurring at this frequency.
Some additional torsional peaks
did show changes over the speed
ramp. Specifically, the 9x and 10x or-
ders show drastic peaks as they pass
through 101 Hz. But as found earlier,
this was the frequency of the second MAKE A CONNECTION
critical speed, and since there are
no related peaks found in the lateral
vibrations, it was concluded that this
response was not coupling with lateral
vibrations on the motor, either.
The results from this torsional field
testing and analytical comparison
showed excellent coincidence between
SwRI predictions and field measure-
ments when proper boundary condi-
tions are applied. Specifically, the first
critical speed of the unit was measured ,QQRYDWLYH H[LEOH FRXSOLQJV IRU
in the range of 11 to 14 Hz, and the SRZHU JHQHUDWLRQ DSSOLFDWLRQV
second critical speed was near 101 Hz.
2YHU  XQLTXH FRXSOLQJ GHVLJQV
A torsional model of the system con-
2YHU  PLOOLRQ XQLWV VROG
firmed these by predicting the first criti-
7RUVLRQDO 9LEUDWLRQ H[SHUWV
cal speed at 13.8 Hz and the second at
7UXVW &(17$ 7KH *OREDO ,QQRYDWRU
97.2 Hz and indicated that the coupling
Since 1970
was operating as intended. The lateral
yawing vibration that was occurring on
the motor at 3x running speed actu-
ally falls in between the first two critical
speeds and causes no interference.
Furthermore, the expected 3x tor-
sional vibration that did exist due to the
machinery did not indicate any cou-
pling with the lateral vibrations. Hav-
ing determined that there was no sig- CENTAMAX HTC
3RZHU 7UDQVPLVVLRQ
High Thermal Capacity
nificant coupling between the torsional
design - patent pending /HDGLQJ E\ ,QQRYDWLRQ
and lateral vibrations, it was ultimately ,PSURYHG DLU RZ SDWWHUQV
determined that the vibrations on the for higher Power Loss
motor were developing as a result of Catalog downloads at ZZZFHQWDLQIR
Sizes thru 45 kNm nominal
forces being transmitted by lateral vi- torque Email inquiries to LQIR#FHQWDFRUSFRP
brations, and involve coincidences with Torsionally very soft
linear characteristic 2570 Beverly Dr. #128, Aurora, IL 60502 T 630.236.3500
lateral mechanical natural frequencies
in the system. CT2

APRIL 2013 93 Compressortech2

CT170.indd 4 3/20/13 4:37 PM


snapshot

APRIL 2013
95
Oklahoma School Tops Out Building

Oklahoma State University Institute of Technology students and staff


gather at a topping out ceremony for the gas compression training
center on the Okmulgee, Oklahoma, campus. The structural steel
framework was completed on Feb. 11. The 24,000 sq.ft. (2200 m2)
building is due to be finished in May.

Compressortech2
12
11 1
10 2
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8 4 Visit www.compressortech2.com for answers.

7 5
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Puzzling Maintenance
Adjust Interval
M I S F I R E T S O C O M P O N E N T S Analysis Lubrication
P A C K A G E S C H E D U L E O O B D I Buildup Maintain
R V I S U A L R E G R A H C S I D E A F Capacity Malfunction
O M N N I Z I N T E R N A L T T H U T I Changes Method
Check Misfire
G E D O T T K F L U C T U A T I O N S N
Clean Monitor
R T I D I A G N O S T I C Z P S U O I T Condition Operate
A A C C Y T I L I B A I L E R O R I L E Components Optimize
M U A H C E C N A M R O F R E P S T A R Composition Overhaul
E L T A K M G N N B D O H T E M A A I V Compressor Package
Consideration Performance
D A I N H P M B U I L D U P C O N R C A
Cost Potential
A V O G E E O L P F I C O A H C A E E L Critical Pressure
R E N E L R P F U E L N P J Q N L D P Y Diagnostic Preventive
G L L S A A T S U J D A S K B A Y I S L Discharge Program
P P N O I T I D N O C O M P R E S S O R Evaluate Reliability
Fuel Sample
U M L R T U M U I I G U I D E L I N E S
Fluctuations Schedule
C A R E N R I E T A R E N E G C S O D X Generate Selection
H S G D E E Z Y U T I L I Z E C T C X X Guidelines Specialist
E N O I T C E L E S P R E V E N T I V E Hours Temperature
C F N W O V E R H A U L W M O N I T O R Indication Upgrade
Inspection Utilize
K Y K V P R E S S U R E T A R E P O N N
Internal Visual

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APRIL 2013 97 Compressortech2


EGCR.indd 1 2/8/13 8:38 AM
Advertisers Index
*Further information on this companys products can be found in the 2012 Edition of the Global Sourcing
Guide (at GSGnet.net) and 2013 Compression Technology Sourcing Supplement (at CTSSnet.net).
Aavolyn Corporation ............................................63 * Dresser-Rand ..................................................35, 37 Lufkin Industries, Inc. ...........................................82
www.aavolyn.com www.dresser-rand.com www.lufkin.com
ACI Services, Inc. ..................................................22 Eastern Gas Compression Roundtable ..............97 MIRATECH .............................................................11
www.aciservicesinc.com www.egcr.org www.miratechcorp.com
Altronic, LLC ....................................................40-41 ECOM America ......................................................87 MOTORTECH GmbH..............................................15
www.altronic-llc.com www.ecomusa.com www.motortechamericas.com
ARIEL .......................................................................1 E Instruments International .................................79 Murphy, FW ..........................17, 19 & Fourth Cover
www.arielcorp.com www.E-Inst.com www.fwmurphy.com
Argentina Oil & Gas Expo 2013 ...........................89 Elliott Group ......................................Second Cover Neuman & Esser Group .......................................39
www.aog.com.ar www.elliott-turbo.com www.neuman-esser.com
ARMCO Compressor Products Corp. .................25 Ellwood Crankshaft Group ..................................80 Nidec ASI S.p.A. ....................................................67
www.armcocompressor.com www.ellwoodcrankshaftgroup.com www.nidec-asi.com
Arrow Engine Company .......................................71 Exterran ............................................................44-45 Petro Canada Suncor ........................................59
www.ArrowEngine.com www.exterran.com sentron.ca
AXH air-coolers .....................................................73 FLP, Fluid Line Products .....................................85 Reynolds French ...................................................77
www.axh.com www.fluidline.com www.r-f.com
BG Service Co. Inc, The .......................................27 Gas Drive Global LP .............................................61 * Rolls-Royce .............................................................9
www.bgservice.com www.gasdriveglobal.com www.rolls-royce.com
BETA Machinery Analysis ...................................53 GEs Waukesha gas engines .................................5 Rottler Manufacturing ..........................................47
www.BetaMachinery.com www.ge-waukesha.com www.rottlermfg.com
BORSIG ZM Compression GmbH ........................43 GE Oil & Gas .........................................Third Cover Samsung Techwin Co., Ltd. .................................65
www.geoilandgas.com www.samsungcorp.com
www.borsig.de/zm
GUARDIAN Engine + Compressor Control ........57 Southwest Research Institute .............................55
Burckhardt Compression AG ..............................33 www.guardiancontrol.com
www.burckhardtcompression.com pulsations.swri.org
Hahn Manufacturing Company ............................80
Cameron ...........................................................50-51 www.Hahnmfg.com Summit Industrial Products .................................75
www.c-a-m.com www.klsummit.com
Harsco Industrial Air-X-Changers .......................23
Catalytic Combustion Corporation .....................69 www.harscoaxc.com SYNTHOSOL .........................................................91
www.catalyticcombustion.com www.mastersprocess.com
ITW Chockfast Grout ............................................83
CECO, Compressor Engineering Corp. ..............10 www.chockfastgrout.com Tech Transfer, Inc. ...............................................2-3
www.tryceco.com www.techtran-hou.com
KB Delta Compressor Valve
CENTA Corporation ..............................................93 Parts Mfg. .........................................................30-31 Testo, Inc. ..............................................................48
www.centa.info www.kbdelta.com www.testo350.com
Compressor Products International ...................13 Kiene Diesel Accessories, Inc. ............................83 Turbomachinery/Pump Symposia .......................94
www.c-p-i.com www.kienediesel.com turbolab.tamu.edu
Continuous Control Solutions .............................21 Korea Rotating Machinery Symposium ..............79 Universal LLC ........................................................38
www.ccsia.com www.krmea.or.kr www.UniversalAET.com
Cook Compression ...............................................49 Kobelco/Kobe Steel Ltd. ......................................29 * Voith Turbo Inc. ....................................................70
www.cookcompression.com www.kobelcocompressors.com www.voithturbo.com
DCL International Inc. .............................................7 LIONOIL ...........................................................73, 86 Waukesha Bearings ..............................................60
www.dcl-inc.com www.lionoil.be www.waukeshabearings.com/CT

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E-mail: slizdas@dieselpub.com Address: 20855 Watertown Road, Suite 220, Waukesha, WI 53186 2012
Cornerstones Of Compression story continued from page 100
cu.in. (57.5 L) was introduced.The direct ancestor of the fu- P9390 V16 engine is the largest of the VHP engine series
ture VHP engine series was the model VLRO. Introduced in with a 9388 cu.in. (153.8 L) displacement.
1954, it was the first V12 (12-cylinder vee) version of the 8.5 With demand for lower emissions, a series of VHP lean-
x 8.5 series. With a displacement of 5788 cu.in. (94.8 L), it burn gas engines was first introduced in the mid-1980s.
doubled the power output of the popular 6LRO. The VHP lean burn models were designated as 2895GL,
According to the Waukesha Engine Historical Society, 3521GL, 5108GL, 5790GL, 7042GL and 9390GL. In 1998,
Waukesha went to a new model designation scheme in the Series Four six- and 12-cylinder 9.375 in. (238 mm)
1963. The 6LRO was renamed the F2894, the 6LRZ be- bore, models 3524GSI and 7044GSI, respectively, went
came F3520, and the VLRO became L5788G. into production with new improved cylinder heads.
That same year, the model L7040 was introduced as In the 1980s, the largest VHP engines the 16-cylinder
a 9.375 in. (238 mm) bore x 8.5 in. (216 mm) stroke V12 P9390GSI and P9390GL had a continuous rating as high
engine with a displacement of 7041 cu.in. (115.4 L). The as 2063 hp (1538 kW) at 1200 rpm. Similarly, the L7042GSI
1964 Diesel and Gas Engine Catalog listed the 7040G gas and L7042GL were rated as high as 1547 hp (1154 kW) at
engine with a rating of 1186 hp (884 kW) at 1200 rpm for 1200 rpm.
continuous duty and 1005 hp (749 kW) for extended con- Waukesha continued to manufacture both diesel and
tinuous duty with the footnote for extended engine life. gaseous-fueled versions of the VHPs for a number of years,
In 1967, Waukesha extensively redesigned the 12-cylinder but eventually discontinued building diesels to focus on their
engine series. Among the improvements were open cham- major niche in the gaseous engine market.
ber diesel technology, four valve heads, angle-split serrated Today, under GE Power & Water, the Waukesha gas en-
rods, new manifolds and a stronger lower end. gine series ranges from 160 to 4835 hp (119 to 3606 kW) for
The F2894 and F3520 six-cylinder engines were also driving gas compressors in applications from the wellhead
completely redesigned in the same manner, and togeth- through processing, storage and distribution pipelines.
er with the L5788, were designated as the VHP family of Central to this lineup is the versatile, gaseous-fueled six-,
engines. Traditionally, the letters VHP stood for Very High 12- and 16-cylinder VHP Series with both rich-burn and
Power, but historical accounts vary as to the source of lean-combustion systems. Total production volumes are not
the name. All the engine models in the VHP family were available, although GE indicated that from 1985 through
renamed, with the L5788 becoming L5790 and the L7040 mid-2012, some 10,849 VHP engines were produced, with
becoming L7042. 7120 for gas compression applications.
Also in 1967, the GSI turbocharged and intercooled ver- The VHP V12s remain popular, a half-century after their
sions of the VHP were developed with increased power rat- introduction. The L7042GSI has evolved to a current rat-
ings and performance. A 1969 advertisement showed the ing of 1480 hp (1104 kW) at 1200 rpm with an 8:1 com-
L4042GSIU rated at 1300 hp (969 kW) at 1200 rpm. It also pression ratio that provides a wider range of fuel tolerance.
alluded to a 16-cylinder VHP, rated up to 2250 hp (1678 Introduced in 2001, the upgraded rich-burn Series Four
kW) to be available in 1970. Actually developed in 1969, the L7044GSI is rated at 1680 hp (1253 kW) at 1200 rpm. CT2

Model No. Of Bore Stroke Displacement Compression Combustion Max Rated Power
Cyls. in./mm in./mm cu.in./L Ratio hp/kW

F3514GSI 6 9.375/238 8.5/216 3520/58 8:1 Rich Burn 740/552


F3521G 6 9.375/238 8.5/216 3520/58 10:1 Rich Burn 515/384
F3521GL 6 9.375/238 8.5/216 3520/58 10.5:1 Lean Burn 738/550
F3524GSI 6 9.375/238 8.5/216 3520/58 8.0:1 Rich Burn 840/626
L5774LT 12 8.5/216 8.5/216 5788/95 10.2:1 Lean Burn 1450/1081
L5790G 12 8.5/216 8.5/216 5788/95 10:1 Rich Burn 845/630
L5794GSI 12 8.5/216 8.5/216 5788/95 8.25:1 Rich Burn 1380/1029
L5794LT 12 8.5/216 8.5/216 5788/95 10.2:1 Lean Burn 1450/1081
L7042G 12 9.375/238 8.5/216 7040/115 10:1 Rich Burn 1025/764
L7042GL 12 9.375/238 8.5/216 7040/115 10.5:1 Lean Burn 1480/1105
L7042GSI 12 9.375/238 8.5/216 7040/115 8.0:1 Rich Burn 1480/1105
L7044GSI 12 9.375/238 8.5/216 7040/115 8.0:1 Rich Burn 1680/1253
P9390GSI 16 9.375/238 8.5/216 9388/154 8:1 Rich Burn 1980/1476
P9390GL 16 9.375/238 8.5/216 9388/154 10.5:1 Lean Burn 1980/1476

n Current VHP Engine Series Specifications 1200 rpm rated speed.

APRIL 2013 99 Compressortech2

CT158.indd 2 3/25/13 8:44 AM


C ornerstones Of Compression

n This 1380 hp (1029 kW), 1200 rpm Waukesha L5794GSI gas engine, one of the cur-
rent VHP models, drives an Ariel JGE-4 compressor in a gas compression application.

Waukesha VHP Series


Gas Engines > After a half-century, workhorse V12s
are still popular By Norm Shade

T
he Waukesha VHP series natural gas engine was intro- oil operators needed more power, Waukesha introduced an
duced in 1963. Since then it has been applied in some engine with 8.5 in. (216 mm) bore and 8.5 in. (216 mm)
of the harshest and most demanding gas compres- stroke in 1930. That six-cylinder model 6LRO, with a dis-
sion, power generation and mechanical drive applications. placement of 2894 cu.in. (47.4 L), became the standard of
In particular, the model 7042 V12 has been widely used the oil fields.
for driving gas compressors. In 1969, the Diesel and Gas Enjoying a niche in the oil patch, by 1935 Waukesha
Turbine Catalog featured an installation of two dozen 7042s evolved this frame size into the model 6LRH engine, a low-
rated at 1000 hp (746 kW) at 1000 rpm driving Worthing- compression, fuel-injected, spark-ignited, multifuel engine
ton CUB compressors in reinjection service at the Kaybob that could burn just about any kind of fuel. In 1949, the
South gas field in Alberta. model 6RLD, the first diesel version of the 8.5 x 8.5 engine,
But the VHPs roots go back as far as the early 1920s, went into production. That same year, a 9.375 in. (238 mm)
when Waukesha Motor Co. introduced multicylinder internal bore version, the model 6LRZ with a displacement of 3520
combustion engines to the oil fields of East Texas. As the continued on page 99

APRIL 2013 100 Compressortech2


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