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History Notes: Period 4


Globalizing Networks The interconnection of the Eastern and Western Hemispheres made
of Communication and possible by transoceanic voyaging marked a key transformation of
Exchange : this period

Key Terms:
Transoceanic ~ Crossing an ocean

Interregional ~ relatin to or occurring between different regions

Columbian Exchange ~ refers to a period of cultural and biological

exchanges between the New and Old Worlds. Exchanges of plants,
animals, diseases and technology transformed European and Native
American ways of life.

Merchant ~ a person or company involved in wholesale trade,

especially one dealing with foreign countries or supplying
merchandise to a particular trade.
Long-Distance Trade:
Changing patterns of long-distance trade included the global
circulation of some commodities and the formation of new regional
markets and financial centers.

Technological innovations helped make transoceanic connections


From this point on, empires would rise and fall based on the stability
New Maritime of their economy
There are so many Atlantic trade routes because it is a much shorter
distance for almost everyone. Theres only one Pacific route as it goes
south because the curvature of the Earth makes it a shorter route.
Increased interregional and global trade networks facilitated the
spread of religion and other elements of culture as well as the
migration of large numbers of people.

Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, and Islam

Germs carried to the Americas ravaged the indigenous peoples, while
the global exchange of crops and animals altered agriculture, diets,
and populations around the world. (Its all about the Geography)
Guns and Germs helped the Europeans colonize the Americas to
expand their trade.

Trade: In the context of the new global circulation of goods, there was an
intensification of all existing regional patterns of trade that brought
prosperity and economic disruption to the merchants and
governments in the trading regions of the Indian Ocean,
Mediterranean, Sahara, and overland Eurasia.

Money rules the world.

Technology: European technological developments in cartography and navigation

built on previous knowledge developed in the Classical, Islamic, and
Asian worlds.

Developments included the production of new tools, innovations in

ship designs, and improved understanding of global wind and oceanic
patterns (currents in the water).

This all made transoceanic travel possible

Types of Ships: Caravel ~ Speedy ship

Carrack ~ Large and heavy cargo and troop ship

Flyut ~ Cargo ship designed by the Dutch

Transoceanic Travel: Remarkable new transoceanic maritime empires economies occurred

in this period:

The Portuguese: Portuguese development of maritime technology and navigational

skills led to increased travel and trade with West Africa and resulted
in the construction of a global trading-post empire.

The Spanish: Spanish sponsorship of the first Colombian and subsequent voyages
across the Atlantic and Pacific dramatically increased European
interest in transoceanic travel and trade.

Search for Asian Northern Atlantic crossing for fishing and settlements continued and
Routes - Development spurred European searches for multiple routes to Asia.
of Fishing Settlements:

Key Concept: These companies took silver from Spanish colonies in the Americas
The new global to purchase
circulation of goods
was facilitated by
European monopoly

Key Terms: Mercantilism ~ An economic theory that consider trading to generate

wealth in which government should encourage.

Joint-Stock companies ~ Multiple companies coming together to

enhance their power and start monopolies on trade.

Colonial Economies ~ Including a mix of bartering and mercantilism,

their own system of goods exchange.

The Triangular Trade ~ Three points of trade from Europe, Africa and

Markets: Regional markets continued to flourish in Afro-Eurasia by using

established commercial practices and new transoceanic shipping
services developed by European merchants.

Merchants: European merchants role in Asian trade was characterized mostly by

transporting goods from one Asian country to another market in Asia
or the Indian Ocean region.
Hi Ms. Nicoll
Commercialization: Commercialization and the creation of a global economy were
intimately connected to new global circulation of Silver from the

The Columbian Exchange

Joint-Stock Company: Influenced by mercantilism, joint-stock companies were new

methods used by European rulers to control their domestic and
colonial economies and by European merchants to compete against
one another in global trade.
Monopoly Companies:
The new global circulation of goods was facilitated by royal-
chartered European monopoly companies that took silver from
Spanish colonies in the Americas to purchase Asian goods for the
Atlantic markets. Regional markets continued to flourish in Afro-
Eurasia by using established commercial practices and new
transoceanic shipping services developed by European merchants.
The Atlantic
System/Triangular The Atlantic system involved the movement of goods, wealth, and
Trade System/Slave free and unfree laborers and the mixing of African, American, and the
Trade *Columbus European cultures and peoples.
sailed in 1492*:

Jared Diamond - Guns, Germs, and Steel

The new connections between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres

resulted in the Columbian Exchange. European colonization of the
Americas led to the spread of diseases -- including smallpox,
measles, and influenza -- that were endemic in the Eastern
Hemisphere among Amerindian populations and the unintentional
transfer of vermin, including mosquitos and rats.
American foods became staple crops in various parts of Europe, Asia,
and Africa. Cash crops were grown primarily on plantations with
coerced labor and were exported mostly to Europe and the Middle
East in this period.

Examples Taken to Europe

American Foods:

Cash Crops:
Animals, Trees and,
Grains: Afro-Eurasian fruit trees, grains, and domesticated animals were
brought by Europeans to the Americans, while other foods were
brought by the African slaves.

Examples Brought to Americas

Domesticated Animals:

Foods Brought by African Slaves:


Deforestation: European colonization and the introduction of European agriculture

and settlements practices in the Americas often affected by the
physical environment through deforestation and soil depletion.

Key Concept 4.3: The increase in interactions between newly connected hemispheres
The expanded spread and intensification of connections within hemispheres expanded the
and reform of existing spread and reform of existing religions and created syncretic belief
religions created systems and practices.
merged belief systems
and practices

Key Terms: Hemispheres ~ a half of the earth, usually as divided into northern
and southern halves by the equator, or into western and eastern halves
by an imaginary line passing through the poles.

Belief Systems ~ A belief system is a set of mutually supportive


Sufi (Sufism) ~ a Muslim ascetic and mystic.

Ottomans ~ a member of a Turkish dynasty founded by Osman I

that ruled the Ottoman Empire

The Reformation ~ a 16th-century movement for the reform of

abuses in the Roman Catholic Church ending in the establishment of
the Reformed and Protestant Churches.

Sunni vs. Shia ~ The group now known as Sunnis chose Abu Bakr,
the prophet's adviser, to become the first successor, or caliph, to lead
the Muslim state. Shiites favored Ali, Muhammad's cousin and son-
in-law. Ali and his successors are called imams, who not only lead the
Shiites but are considered to be descendants of Muhammad.
Examples of Changing
Religion Vodun ~ vodou is practiced by the Ewe people of eastern and
southern Ghana, and southern and central Togo;
Example 1 - Sufi
Sikhism ~ a monotheistic religion founded in Punjab in the 15th
century by Guru Nanak.

Example 2 - Sunni vs. Buddhism ~ a religion, originated in India by Buddha (Gautama)

Shite and later spreading to China, Burma, Japan, Tibet, and parts of
southeast Asia
Example 3 - Safavids
vs. Ottomans Literacy ~ the ability to read and write.

Example 4 -

Example 5 - Vodun The continuing importance of Sufi practices contributed to the further
spread of Islam in Afro-Eurasia as believers adapted islam to local
cultural practices.
Example 6 - Sikhism
The political rivalry between the ottomans and safavids intensified
the split between Sunni and Shia.

The political rivalry between the Mughals, Ottomans and Safavids

Example 7 - Buddhism intensified the split between Sunni and Shia.

The practice of Christianity continued to spread throughout the world

Increase Profits = and was increasingly diversified by the process of diffusion and the
Increased Literacy Reformation

Vodun developed in Caribbean in the context of interactions between

Christianity and African religions.

~ Sikhism developed in South Asia in the context of interactions

between Hinduism and Islam

~ Sikhism is currently the worlds fifth largest religion

While the practice of Buddhism declined in South Asia and island

Southeast Asia, different sects of Buddhism and Buddhist practices
spread in Northeast Asia and Mainland Southeast Asia.

~ The spread of religion and religious text helped increase literacy

~ Additionally, as merchants profits increased and governments

collected more taxes, funding for the visual and performing arts, even
for popular audiences, increased along with an expansion of literacy


New Forms of Social Although the worlds productive systems continued to be heavily
Organization and centered on agricultural production throughout this period, major
Modes of Production: changes occurred in agricultural labor, the systems and locations of
manufacturing, gender and social structures and environmental
Key Terms: Little Ice Age ~ a period of colder climate and increased glaciation
occurring between warmer periods, in particular one such period
which reached its peak during the 17th century

Northern Hemisphere ~ Is the half of Earth that is north of the


Demographic Growth ~ How population changes, specifically how it


Manufacturing ~ To make something on a larger scale

Agricultural Production ~ Vegetable and animal production that is

made for human consumption and animal feed.

Semi-coerced labor ~ Basically slavery

The Columbian Exchange ~ was the widespread transfer of plants,

animals, culture, human populations, technology, and ideas between
the Americas and the Old World in the 15th and 16th centuries

Chattel Slavery ~ The most severe form of slavery

Beginning in the 14th century - 19th century

Little Ice Age: Decrease in temperatures
Contributed to changes in agricultural practices
Contraction of settlements in the Northern Hemispheres

Adapting to the Ice Age

Farmers increased agricultural productivity
Introduced new crops
New methods of crop rotation

Traditional peasant increased, locations expanded and demanded for

Traditional Agriculture labor increased.
Economic growth depended new manufacturing and commercialism
using long distance trade.

These changes fed on the growing global demand for raw and
finished products.

Peasant Labor Frontier settlements in Russian Siberia

Intensified in Many
Regions: Cotton textile in India
Silk textile production in China

Slavery and The growth of the plantation economy increased the demand for
Plantations: slaves in the Americas.

Slavery in Africa continued household slaves to the Mediterranean

and the Indian Ocean.

Colonial Economies in Chattel Slavery

the Americas =
Coerced Labor: Indentured Servitude Hacienda systems

The Spanish adaptation of the Inca mita

Political and Economic Both conquest and global economic opportunities contributed to the
Centers Changed: new political and economic elites.

Examples of New Elites

The Manchus in China
Creole elites in Spanish America
European gentry
Urban commercial entrepreneurs in all major port cities in the
Political and Economic
Elites: The power of existing Political and Economic elites fluctuated as
they confronted new challenges to their ability to affect the policies
of the increasingly powerful monarchs and leaders.

Examples of Existing Elites

The zamindars of the Mughal Empire
The nobility in Europe
The daimyo in japan
Population Growth:
Demographic growth (even in areas such as the americas, where
disease had ravaged the population) was restored by the 18th century
and surged in many regions, especially with the introduction of
american food crops throughout the Eastern Hemisphere

Roles - reclassified: Gender and family restructuring occurred. New forms of coerced and
semi coerced labor emerged in Europe, Africa, and the americas
affected racial classifications and gender roles

Examples of Gender The smaller size of European families

and Family
Restructuring: Creole elites in Spanish America