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IEEE Power Engineering SocietY


Prepared by the
Po$er System Restoration Working Group

Sponsored by the
System Operations Subcommittee

of the
Power System Engineering Committee
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All rights reserved. Copyright @ 1993 by The lnstitute of Etectrical and Electronics Engineerj, lnc.
IEEE Catalog Number: 9gTH0 605-6 pWR
ISBN Softbound: 0-7803-9982-X

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The problem of bulk power system restoration following a complete or partial collapse_is practically as
;H ;-rh;-Jt."triC utiiiW indJstry itself. Many electriCutilitief have developed over the years system
i".tootion .ct e*es'it ai;;i-tht neeas of thdir particular systems. These bl?ns provide a. great deal
and what
;iilight inio rrow trr" iirto*ti"e process is viEwed by operating and planning personnel
conceris and constraints any plan must operate under.

Renewed, intensive interest in the problem of pow-er. system restoration is coming at a time when new
a;6ngtgEi"J .ri prorioirg po*"rirt new larg3 ;ca19 _lyjEl_gulltit,
ior11r"i.ition, data manlgEment, expert sys'tems, and.4lied disciplines. Full advantage should be
taken of such air opportuneloincidenc-es, but in responsible manner.

The IEEE power System Restoration Working Gr.oup (SIWG) is concerned.with the development and
Aiiiemination or teiinicar inrormation for pianning aild operatgr trainlqg_g the context of meeting
;;il;tid i&ui.i*entr. This special repiort 9on!55_9f-re-prinls.of ^LEP--E^ Transactions on Power
St;i".r C-pffnsl papers written or invitei by the SRWG, a list of the.SRWG papers in other
ifgf puiiiotioni, ini a bibliography of IEEE Transactions of interest related to power system
i"rtotiton. rt sdouiJ not-Ue"ini"#ed that a complete reiroiting on_ Power lystem restoration is
undertaken here. The intent is to report on the wor[ of theVorking Group to date.

M. M. Adibi, Chairman
P'ower System Restoration Working Group
August 1993

ru IEEE Committee Report, "Power System Restoration - A Task Force Report,"

T-PWRS, May 1987 pp 271-277.
The paper includes:

o Review of Restoration Plans, M. M. Adibi 1

. Power System Characteristics, R. J. Kafka 2
. The Role of Plant Control, P. J. Clelland 2
. Reactive Power Balance, J. G. Raine 3
. Load - Generation Balance, M. M. Adibi 3
. Sequential vs. Parallel Restoration, D. Scheurer 5
. Bibliography, L. H. Fink 6

t2l IEEE Committee Report, "Power System Restoration - The Second Task Force Report,"
T-PWRS, Nov 1987 pp 927-933.

The paper includes:

o Review of Selected (1979-83) Major Bulk Power Disturbances, M. M. Adibi 9

o Identification of Restoration Problems, R.J. Kafka 11
o Enhancing Power System Restoration, J.N. Borkoski t2

t3I IEEE Committee Report, "System Operation Challenges,"

T-PWRS, Feb 1988 pp 118-126.

The Paper includes:

o Upgrading Energy Management Systgms, J.L.lcheidt and M. E. Robertson 15

o frelictin{ Comfuter Resource Re(uirements, D. Barrie t6
o Effective Alarming, K. W. Heussner 18
o Design, Development and Delivery of Quality Operator Training Programs,
M.E. Cooper 19
. Issues andProblems in Power System Restoration,
M. M. Adibi and D. Scheurer 20
Discussions by J. Feinstein and E. F. Kaprielian 22

Page 1
t4l IEEE Committee Report, "Special Considerations in Power System Restoration,"
T-PWRS, Nov 1992 pp 1419-1427

The paper includes:

. Excessive Alarm During Restoration, C.J. Andrews 25

. Switching During Restoration, T.L. Volkmann 27
o Optimal Sequencing of Start;up Generating Un!tg.J.M. Iv{iller 28
. U^ndergroun^d Transmission Syitem Concerns, J.N. Wrubgl . 29
. Teleco-mmunication Capabilities and Limitation, F. Arsanjani 30

t5l IEEE Committee Report, "Overvoltage Control During Restoration,"

T-PWRS, Nov 1992 PP 1464'1470

The paper includes:

. Sustained Overvoltage Control, M.M. Adibi 34

. Switching Transients Control, B. Avramovic 35
o Harmonic Resonance Overvoltage, R.W. Alexander 36

t6] IEEE Committee Report, "New Approaches in Power System Restoration,"

T-PWRS, Nov 1992 pp 1428-1434

The paper includes:

. System-Wide Coordination and Overall Organization of Restoration,

J. Zaborsky 4l
o Expert System for Power system Restoration, S. M. Shahidehpour and
D. S. Kirschen 43
o Operator Training Simulators in Power System Restoration, Jay Giri 44

17) IEEE Committee Report, "Bulk Power System Restoration Training Techniques,"
T-PWRS Feb 1993 l9l-197

' The paper includes:

. Issues to be Addressed in Power System Restoration Training, M. M. Adibi,

L. H. Fink & M.E. Cooper 49
o Job Task Analysis for Power System Restoration Training Programs,
R. G. Wasley 50
. PSR Trainin!-Conventional Means, R.T. Gonzales, A.B. Storey and
F.J. Wood 51
. Computer-Based Training to Support Restoration, R.J. Kafka 52
o Capabilities of an Operator Training liryrlqto.-to- qt1ppor.t yoyer-r:y.st9m
Reitoration Training^, E. J. Dobrowblski, K. Nodehi and J. G. waight 53
. Irssons from Other Industries, R. Hoffman 54

t8] Invited paper by SRWG,"Steam Plant Startup qd _Qo11r91 in System Restoration,"

by: F. p. ^<te
nabtlo and I. c. westco_tt, p^aper_93 WM-201-4, presented at
IEEE 1993 WPM, Columbus,Ohio, Jan 31 - Feb 5,1993 57

t9] Invited paper by SRWG, "Reactive cAPABILITY_Iti$laqon of Synchronous Machines,"

by M. ttl.'eAiUi and D.'P. Milanicz, paper 93 WM 203..0, presented at
mgf, 1993 WPM, Columbus, Ohio, Jan 31 - Feb 5,1993 65

Page 2
t10l Invited paper by SRWG, "Power System^Rellolalr^on Planning," .
bv M. u.'aOiUi and L. H. Fink, piaper 93 wM 204-8, presented at
IEEE 1993
WPM, Columbus, Ohio, Jan 31- Feb 5, 1993

L IEEE Committee Report, "Special Consideration in Power System Restoration - The
Second Working Group itep6rt," paper 93 WM 202-2, presented at
IEEE 1993 WPM, Columbus, Ohio, Jan 31 - Feb 5,1993

The paper includes:

. Cold lnad Pickup - Modeling, W.W. Price & S' Ihara 81

o Cold roid Pickuir - I-ow Voftage Netygrk Loa{s, Qlrarle; W."li]qy 83
o T'fre Roie oi CashurUine in PS-E&G'S Restoration Plan, S. A. Jones and
J. N. Wrubel
o Reactive Power Balance, M. M. Adibi and M' J' O'Grady 85

L--r IEEE Committee Report,"An_approa.!. tc ftungilg_rqas9_A,ng1e Reduction,"
Uv S. Wunderlich, M. M Adi6i B'^titg-tl,,,d If .D'O' Nwankpa, paper
93 wM 2g5-j, f;er*t.o at IEEt, 1993 wPM, Columbus, ohio, Jan 31 - Feb 5,1993

L-' IEEE Committee Report.'E:rpert .Slstejn Requirements for Power.System Restoration,"
b, M M. eiiUi RT *afld and b. P. Milanicz,^p1q?Lpresented at the panel
sission on Power SYstem Restoration at IEEE 1993 SPM,
Vancouver, BC, Jui 18-22, 1993

L- I
t14] IEEE Committee Report,"Anal_ytical-Tool Requirements for Power System Restoration,"
by M. rr,r. AAili, i.-'N. go_rkosfti and R. J. Kifka, paper-presented at the panel
s6ssion on Powei System Restoration at IEEE 1993 SPM,
Vancouver, BC, Iul 18-22, 1993


t1I Adibi, M. M. and R. J. Kafka, "Power System Restoration Issues," IEEE CAP Apr 1991',
pp 19-24

lzt Matsumoto, K. et al " Knowledge-Puqd system_,?i operational Aids in Power system

Restoration," IEEE Proceedings May 1992, pp 689-697
t3I Barrie, D., "system Restoration Followitg.I-oug and Generation Rejection -- Ontario-Hydro,"
IEEE gth Biennid- w;;dhop on Real-fime Monitoring and Control of Power Systems,
Montreal, Oct. 1984
Workshop on
t4I Peach, S. "system Restoration Sy-nthesis - Hydro a'"!::t.-1-EFE^ljhBiennial
i.ut-1.i*. Mbnitoring and Contrirl of Power Systems, Montreal, Oct' 1964

t5I Scheurer,D., "system Restoration at Philadelphia.-Electric Company," IEEE 8th Biennial

w;;kJh;b on'n*i-ii,"" M;it"ring anOCont oi of Power Systems, Montieal, Oct. 1984

Page 3

t1I '!y*9. Restoration llr1-Delelopment for a Metropolitan Electric System,"

EIry,_R.J. et al,
IEEE Trans.v. PAS-100 n.8, 1981. pp.3703-13.

l2l Simburger, E.J. and F. J. Hubert "I-ory-Voltage Bulk Power System Restoration Simulation,"
IEEE Trans. v. PAS-100 n.11, pp. 4479-84, Nov. 1981

l2l IEEE Committee Repo+ I'Qy{em Restolalion - Deploying the Plan," COPWG, W. A. Johnson,
chmn, IEEE Trans. v. PAS-101, Nov L982, pp 4263-71-

t31 5ufk", B.J. q al, "Role of Interactive and Control Computer in the Development of a System
Restoration Plan," IEEE Trans. PAS, Vol PAS-101, Jan 1982 pp 43-52

I4l Mariani, E. et al, "Fie1d Experience in Reenergizitionof Electrical Networks from Thermal and
Hydro IInits," IEEE Trans- v. PAS-103 n.'1, pp. L707-13, Jul. L994.

t5] R.D. and G. A. Mason "Blackstart Utiliaztion 9f _Rggrote CTs, Analytical Analysis and
Field Test,' IEEE Trans. v.PAS-103 n.8, Aug 84 pp 2186-91

t6l Morin, Gastgn, "service Restoration Follorring a Major Failure on the Hydro-Quebec Power
System,'IEEE Trans - PWRD Vol Pwrd-2No2, April 1987 pp 454 - 4638

Ul Kearsley, $, ]Re;toration in Sweden and Experience Gained from the Blackout of 1983," IEEE
Trans. v. PWRS-2, n. 2, pp. 422-428, May 1987.

t9l lyul F. Fand A. Monticelli "Analytical T9o-lr _for Power System Restoration - Conceptual
Design," IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp.-10-16, Feb. 1988.

t10] Ljndstrom, _R.8.., ".Simulation and Field Test of the Black Start of a l-atge Coal-Fired
Generating l}t gg^Ut+izing Small Hydro Generation,' IEEE Trans. on Power Slstems Vol. 5,
Nr. 1. pp. 162-168, Feb. 90.
t1U Kirschen,_D.S. and T. L. Volkmann, "Guiding a Power System Restoration with an Expert
System," IEEE Trans. on Power Systems T-PWRS May 91 pp 558-566

U21 Uu, 9.9. et al , "Generation Capability Dispatch for Bulk Power System Restoration: A
Knowledge-Based Approach," IEEE Trans. on Power Systems T-PWRS'Feb 93 pp 3L6-325

t13l Omahen, P.^e_t al, "Simulations and Field Tests of a Reactor Coolant Pump Emergency Star-up
by Means of Remote Gas Units, " IEEE Trans on Energy Conversion T-Ei D*,91, pi Aglegi

Page 4
86 SM 329-7


Contributing Members: M. Adibi (Chairman), P. Clelland, L. Fink,

H. Happ, R. Kafkar S. Raine, D. Scheurer, and F. Trefny

Abstract - The IEEE PES System Operation The major portion of the initial effort in restoring bulk
SubcoriiliEEE-ias established the Power System Restoration supply is in restart and reintegration Procedures for
Task Force to: review oPeratint practices, conduct a generation and transmission systems. Load pick-up during
literature search, prepare relevant glossaries and these initial phasesr i.e. restart and reintegration, is
bibliographies, and promote information exchange through necessary for (a) bringing generators to their stable, minimum
technical papers. This is the first report of the Task Force. generation levels and (b) maintaining satisfactory volta8e
The problem of bulk power system restoration
following a complete or partial collapse is practically as old This paper first reviews three diiferent restoration
as the electricutility industry itself. Many electric utilities plans. It then describes the power system characteristics
have developed over the years system restoration schemes relevant to restoration. This is followed by power system
that meet the needs of their particular systems. These plans considerations. Finally, it provides a bibliography covering
provide a gieat deal of insitht into how the restorative 1940 to 1984.
process is viewed by operating and planning personnel and
what concerns and constraints any plan must operate under. ,u. eevmw op nEsro
The body of the report consists of notes prepared by
members of the Task Force. It should not be inferred that a l. Th..-.lSyst"rns(25)
complete reporting on Power System Restoration is
undertaken here. The intent is to report upon work of the The system restoration plan developed for all thermal
Task Force to date. The report also reviews several different systems serving metropolitan areas is based on:
restoration plans and shows their common concerns and
constraints. Sectionalization of the system into two or more
subsystems and simultaneous reintegration of generation and
I. INTRODUCTION transmission in each subsystem. Selection of subsystems is
based on black-start capability within each subsystem and
Today's bulk power systems provide a highly reliable steam tenerators with hot restart capability, and any
supply of electric power. However, due to a combination of transmission and loads required to interconnect them.
unforeseen circumstances, there is the remote possibility of a
system wide outage. It is therefore prudent to be prepared Division of the restoration procedure into restart,
for such an unlikely eventuality by developing an up-to-date, reintegration, load pick-up and interconnection phases. The
readily accessible, and easily understood power system restart phase begins with providing station service for the
restoration plan to allow a quick and orderly recovery from a restart of steam units within each subsystem. In the
system outage, with resultant minimum impact on the public. reintegration phase generating stations are interconnected.
During these two phases only the necessary loads are picked-
The bulk power supply major disturbances are up as dictated by 6eneration and transmission requirements.
primarily caused by transient faults and mainly originate in These two phases end when the subsystems are synchronized
the transimission systems. A very large number of these and firmly interconnected. During the load pick-up phase
initiating causes of supply interruptions are due to temporary loads are picked-up in small increments to avoid excessive
faults, such as lightning, which are immediately cleared by underfrequency deviations. Due consideration is given to
fast and selective protective relays, leaving the system in an reactive power balance, voltage conditions and stability of
unfaulted condition. In many cases, however, these the system. With the start of large steam units and
temporary initiating causes produce subsequent effects which availability of ample reactive absorbing capabilities, the EHV
are "permanentr'r including loss of generation, load and lines are energized and the interconnections are
interconnections. These subsequent effects result in a partial reestablished.
to complete collapse of unfaulted power systems. Thus, (15)
searching for the originating fault in power failures may be 2. Hydro-Thermal Svstems
futile, although identifying the status of the collapsed
system components would enhance restoration. The system restoration plan developed for hydro-
thermal systems serving metropolitan areas is based on
energizing the entire bulk power transmission system in one
step and providing station service to all thermal generating
stations. This approach uses the ability of large hydro
stations to absorb the charging currents of the complete
transmission system, and it is an attempt to avoid the time
consuming line sectionalization and switching operations
which are normally required in system restoration. The high
voltages at the receiving end ol lines are avoided by manual
'16 SY 329-7
operation of hydrots voltage regulators far below normal.
A paper recomnendeC and approved
:;.' the IEEE Polrer System Engineering Committee of With the availability of large hydros, the
ahe IEEE Power Engineering Society for presenEation interconnection phase can also precede the load pick-up
a. rhe IEE:/PES 1986 Summer Meering, l.lexico City, phase.
'lerico, July 20 - 25, 1986. Manuscript suhmitted
.i!rgust 13, 1984; made available for printinq
:lai- 7, 1986. reprinted from IEEE Transactions on
Power Svstems, vol. PWRS-2, no. 2,
Printed in the U.S.A.
May, 1987, pp.27l-277
(4) o Minimum elapsed time for hot restart of super-
3. Primarily Hydro Systems
critical once-through boilers.
The system restoration plan developed for alJ hydro or
primarily hydro systems emphasize the switchint operation o Blackstart capabilities of combustion turbines.
and the response of prime movers to a sudden Ioad pickup. In
this plan, due consideratoin is Siven to the time it takes to System Restoration entails careful consideration of
isolate and energize the necessary lines by using central probable eflects of each action on the rest of the system and
control systems to execute the switching operation Ln the subsequent measures. Transmission line loadings,
programs. The off-line dynamic Protrams are used to tenerator loadings, and phase an6le- differences between load
ietirmine responses of the system and provide guidelines for ienters and generators must be evaluated. The time at which
load pick-up based on the prevailing generation on-[ine, units are brought on the line, the rate at which generators
transmission configuration and system loading. can be loaded, the mismatch between load pick-up and
generator responser the change in system frequency, and the
4. Common Characteristics of Restoration Iffect on feeders having under-frequency relays should be
considered. Equally important is the recognition and
Review of the above and several other system coordination of certain critical time intervals, such as
restoration plans show a number of common concerns even maximum time interval beyond which a unit with a drum tyPe
though their strategies are different: boiler cannot safely be hot restarted, or the minimum time
interval after vhich a super-critical, once-through unit can
1. Immediate resupply of station service. safely be restarted. Vhile sectionalization of the system into
a number of subsystems and simultaneous reintegration of
2. Time consuming nature of switching oPeration. generation in each subsystem could appreciably reduce the
duration of an outage, the extent of sectionalization is
3. Start-up timings of thermal units. limited by availability of resources, including the number of
system and plant operator teams, as well as the
4. Voltage rise problems of energizing unloaded communications available to permit effective and efficient
transmission lines. coordination of their efforts.

5. Frequency response of prime movers to a sudden Hot restart of cycling steam units which are drum type
load pick-up. is essential. These units have to be placed back into
operation supplying loads within a short time interval
6. Cold load inrush, power factors and coincident following the system outage. Otherwise the restart may not
demand factors. be possible for several hours. Such a time interval then is
very critical to system restoration, Particularly in those
These system restoration plans generally end when the stations where station service has to be supplied from another
bulk power system has been "restored'! and the pick-up of the station. It is important to accurately determine the time
next increment of load is based on other criteria than intervals between unit trip-outs and hot restart.
technical requirements of the system.
2. Combustign Turbine Characteristics for :Qo!51!ys'!enq
It is concluded that most bulk power supply systems ,lell
have certain characteristics in common and behave in a
similar manner during the restoration Process. It is therefore By: F. Trefny, Houston Lighting and Power Co.,
possible to establish a general procedure and a list of Houston, TX
guidelines which would enhance rapid restoration. On the
6ther hand, the detailed plan has to be specifically developed There are two basic sizes and classes of combustion
to meet the particular requirements of an individual power turbines. These are ISMW black plant start and 50MV
system. Thus, it is important to determine and record the peaking and/or combined cycle units. Each turbine's starting
relevant characteristics of each power system. characteristics are summarized below:

III. POWER SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS 2.1 Characteristics of l5MV Combustion Turbines

1. Steam Unit Characteristics These combustion turbines can be started with no

external auxiliary power. The units can be brought up from
By, R. J. Kafka, Potomac Electric Power Co., cold start in approximately 30 minutes. However, the 30
Vashington, D.C. minutes include a l5 minute warm-uP, but this can be
bypassed in an emergency to allow 15 minute start-uP time.
The characteristics of a power system relevant to Units can be restarted immediately from shutdown.
restoration may be divided into three functional ErouPs:
those related to reactive power balance, those which affect Starting is accomplished by diesel engine via a
the load generation balance, and those which primarily deal clutch. No electric motors are used. A second diesel engine
with the protective and control systems- The characteristics driving a direct current Benerator will supply the necessary
related to load generation are: auxiliary power. This direct current tenerator is not
normally used unless the plant is blacked out.
o Number and size of low voltage AC network loads
under peak and light load conditions. The unit may be operated anywhere between 0-
lrMW. The operator uses MW setpoint control to adjust the
o Generator's maximum and minimum output and turbine to load conditions, and this must be changed as ioad is
rate of loading under normal and emergency increased or decreased.
2.2 Characteristics of 50MW Combustion Turbines
o The dynamic resPonse of prime movers to sudden
load pick-up. The 50MW combustion turbines require an A.C. source
of auxiliary power for startinS. The units can be brought
o Maximum time intervals for hot restart of drum from a cold start to full load in about 15 minutes. The same
type of boilers. time is reguired for a hot start. However, before a restart
can be attempted, the turbine must roll down to a stop and
then be placeil on turning gear (this is permissive for starting
controls). Roll down requires approximately half an hour. lost. Most furnace implosions on pulverized coal units have
Electrical power must be supplied to a 900HP cranking motor occurred during this dual-fuel operation.
to start the turbine; other auxiliary Power requirements are
minimal. Often this power can be supplied by a black plant NFPA codes set minimum air flow requirements to
gas turbine which requires approximately 30 minutes to start. avoid explosive mixtures. This may cause a problem because
of the resulting mismatch between minimum air flow and the
The generator can be operated from zero to full load. required fuel flow.
MW setpoini can be used to #t power. Maximum power is
determihed by turbine exhaust temPerature-power is
increased until limit is reached. Governor is set for
approximately 4% regulation. A wide variety of voltage reSulators and associated
control schemes exist throughout the power indsutry- This is
3. The Role of Plant Control Svstem to control the generator's terrninal volta8e to some ope!9lor:
established sepoint. This control is ultimately accomplished
By: P. Clelland, Philadelphia Electric Co., by varying tlire DC field current in the rotor of th
Philadelphia, PA Benerator. The voltage retulator can be considered to act
ilmost instantaneously when comPared to other station
3.1 MechanicalConsiderations controls.

Many control systems for the rrmechanical" portion of In normal operationr the operator will usually establilsh
the power plant (combustion, feedwater, steam temPerature, an initial volt-ampere reactive (VAR) flow from the
etc.) are deisgned for use between minimum and maximum generator with the voltate reBulator on manual. Once the
load, and are not truly effective during startup or extreme iAR flow is established and the unit has reached a minimum
low load oPeration. Minimum load is probably no lower than operatinS point (usually less than 40% load)r the voltage
25%' of maximum load. regutatoi is switched to automatic. Any subsequent .chan8es
in-system voltage levels will result in Senerator VAR ilow
Main and reheat steam temPerature controls are often changes as the regulator tries to maintain the generator
not in control of their associated temperatures at low loads terminal voltage al its setPoint. The major concern of the
because the steam temPeratures are far below their defined operator is to keep the field current (and consequently the
setpoints. The controG are taking aPPropriate action (spray VAR flow from the generator) high enough to ensure machine
valves closed or tilts fully elevated) but the control obiective stability.
under these conditions is not correctly defined. The real
control objective is to regulate the rate of change of During restart conditions, one should be aware of
temperafilres in order to reduce stresses - not to increase protective ielays which could initiate an undesirable
temperature as quickly as possible in an attempt to satisfy response or generator trip. Some ot these relays
soml unattainable setpoint. Consequently, during startuP the ::::r"t".
operator nlust Place these temperature control systems on
manual and perform his own Iorm of rate control. o Volts per Hertz
o Out-of-SteP
Feedwater control systems normally oPerate in a o Under-Excitation
rrthree mode" form, where feedwater flow is matched to o Distance
steam flow and biased to maintain constant drum level as a o Frequency
secondary control objective. During light-off and very low o Field Forcing
Ioad operation, this control strategy cannot be applied.
Before the turbine is started, there is no measured steam The volts per hertz relay will oPerate if this ratio becomes
flow (though there may actually be steam fiow through vents excessive (volts too high or frequency too low)- Some voltage
and drains). At extreme low loads, the steam and feedwater regulators automatically alter the voltage setPoint for
flows will be in the lowest range of the associated flow changes in frequencY.
instruments and these measurements will be of questionable
accuracy. For this reason, startuP feedwater control is The Out-of-Step, Under-Excitation, and Distance
performed as a "single mode" operation, with the sole control relays are impedance-iype relays and could operate during
objective of maintaining drum level at setPoint. As steam short electrical power swings or transients.
flow is initially supplied to the turbine, the single mode
control becomes a reaction type controller. It receives no The Frequency relay monitors electrical frequency and
information regarding the outflow from the boiler, but must could operate before turbine speed protection.
regulate the inflow to maintain drum level.
The Field Forcing relay will not trip the unit but will
It is significantly easier to establish circulation in a establish fult field flow during periods of low voltage. Some
boiler which has boiler circulating pumPs than it is in a field rheostats are changed to a new fult field position by this
natural circulation unit. In the former unit, circulation can relay.
begin beiore introducing fire to the boiler. This avoids the
risk of local hot spots caused by non-uniform firing Patterns. ).3 FrequencY Control

Startup feedwater control is easier to accomplish in a Frequency control *ould probably be inactive during
plant which uses feedwater regulating valves for flow control restart conditions and would not be reestablished until the
ihan in a plant which uses turbine-driven Ieedpumps and system becomes interconnected.
speed controllers. This is because the turbine-pump has its
own dynamics which must be considered. Units cannot be brought on line with zero load. Some
load must be picked up immediately to avoid the possibility ol
Light-off and low load operation is usually not motoring. Thus the generator breaker cannot be closed on a
perlormi with the primary iuel. The P-rocess is to warm the completely cleared bus, bu: neither can the connected load be
unit using igniters jnd No. 2 oil, transfer. to oil torches and excessive.
tlo. 6 oiliand finally transfer to pulverized coal. This usually
means that we have two fuel supPly systems in operation,
with one (or none) in automatic and one (or both) in manual'
Consequently, regulation of fuel flow is not necessarily
at -one work station- Some coordination is
IV. REACTIVE POWER BALANCE reactors be e.nergized f.irst. to lower the system voltage and
then the cable energized to raise thg system vo"ltage.
t. Reactive Power Balance Cenerally, the latter approach is preferred.
By: J. G. Raine, Florida Power & Light Co., in all of these cases the system voltage is monitored to
Miami, FL determine the out-of-limit condition U"ut the reactive
generation and load plus reactive flows are analyzed to
_ The expression 'rReactive Power Balanceil implies that determine.the appropriate action. A major requirement of
there is Reactive Generation and Reactive Load and that the operating personnel is to know the magnitude and location
these must be equal or balanced. Thus it is important to have of the reactive capability of their system and at any moment
a clear understanding of what is considered Reactive the magnitude and location of the reactive reserves of their
Generation and what is considered Reactive Load so that we system.
can control their balance to obtain the voltage conditions we
desire. Listed below is a possible classification of Ceneration 2. Load-Generation lalance
and Load.
Byr M. M. Adibi, iRD Corporation, Bethesda, MD
+ Generators
Co-Cenerators 2.1 Svstem Dvnamics During Restoration
; A11 Circuits (Line Charging)
+ All Shunt Capacitors The development of a strategy for coordinating power
All Shunt Reactors system restorative control actions requires that the blhavior
+ Synchronous Condensers of the power system durlng the periodi of outage, startup and
+ Static Var Generators reintegration, be thoroughly understood. UnfJriunately, the
+ Customer Derqand behavior of the system during these periods is uncertain, and
+ All Circuits (l'X) *^ the dynamic processes that govern fhe behavior of relevant
+ All Transformers (lzX) system components are highly non_linear and complex: (l)
+ All Transf or mers (excitation) the exact configuration of the system and the tperating
+ Generator Auxiliary Equipment s.tatusof system equipment are not known;'(2) loaJ
+ Interchange demand changes occur in the course of an outage as a
function of severai variables, inciuding duration of"outage,
Series reactors and Series capacitors are treated wea.ther conditions, time of day, custoher lifestyle, type"oi
as changes .in the circuit impedance load, and dynamic characteristics of the specitic-ioads
The first step of actual restoration will involve the
energization of some transmission circuit, that is the sudden During system restoration, a reasonable balance must
bringing on line of a Reactive Generator. This will result in be maintained between generation and load to avoid excessive
an increase-in voltage across the system and especially at the over and under frequency deviations. Load pick_ups at small
"far end'r of the circuit. energized. To decrease the impact of increments prolong the restoration duration. Witf, i..g.
bringing a large Reactive Generator on line we could at the increments there are always risk of frequency decline UeyoXd
same time bring on a negative Reactive Generator (a shunt recovery and recurrence of system outate. The size of load
reactor on the far end of the circuit) or a positive Reactive pick-up depends on the response of prime movers. In
Load (a substation with customer load). The latter would developing the system restoration ptan, it is therefore
require Real Power Cenergtion to supply the reai power load essentia.l that the response of prime movers be determined.
but it would increase the IzX loss in thesystem. Care should
be taken that no additional Reactive Genirators in the form Unf ortunately, the available linearized dynamic
of Shunt capacitors are part of the load. Another approach models are not suitable nor adequate for evaluating dynamic
would be to avoid energizing an EHV circuit or high'voltage phenomena such as the variation of system frequeniy as a
9,aU1e. !u1
to en.ergize a lower voltage transmissiJn circui-t, function of load-generation mismatch, the - effect of
that is bring on .line a smaller ReactivE Generator. underfrequency relays, and the rate at which a tenerator can
be ioaded, To consider these phenomena, dynamic behavior
After several steps of transmission restoration have oJ boilers, turbines, combustion controliers, feedwater
occurred the resulting system may be a'rlong skinny,,system controllers, temperature controllers, and governor systems
of relative high series reactance so that a high voltage drop must be represented over the operating range of prime
occurs from reactive ftow through the reactance. To'reduce movers.
the series.reactance, a parallel clrcuit shouid be energized
and tied through. This energizing of circuits increasef the As a substitute for the simulator, a guideline approved
posltive reactive generation whlch in turn requires additional by the operating and production personnel may be used. This
negative reactive generation. If the disturbance has removed informatlon could take the form of the largeit increment of
most of the real power generators along with their reactive load increase at one time, which would not lower system
power generation, then these reactive generators must be frequency more than 0.5 Hz of its previous value. Expeiience reactive generators, that is shunt capacitor, shunt with several systems has shown that a load increment of J%
reactors, synchronous condensor or static var generator. of .each .subsystem generation may be satisfactory in that
such an increment would reduce the frequency by no more
. .lf indeed partia.l restoration has been accomplished
through by-passing of available EHV transmission then the
than 0.5 Hz. Also, restoration of smaller and radial loads
prior to .larger and low voltage AC network ioad provides a
conditions of the above paragraph may be quite difficult.
Speclal switching arrangement hay be required to connect an tood control of frequency.
autotransformer and tertiary connected shunt reactors to the 2,2 Intentional IslandinR Schemes
EHV circuit prior to energizing the circuit and
autotranslormers as a unit.
, When groups
J*oout-of-step) of generators begin to lose
synchronism, (go it is advisable to end severe
l{ a highnegative
voltage cable is to be energized there should voltage fluctuations by ieparating the two troups of
reactive generation ',clcse,' io the generators, or the two areas. Under such circumstances, it is
cable to balance the added posftive reactive genei.ation. desirable to select the preplanned locations where: (i) tfre
Another consideration is whether the cable should be excess or deficiency of generation in each separated area is
energized ra.isin6 the system voitage and then shunt reactors
De energrzed to lower the system voltage or should :he shunt minimal, thus resulting in the least disruption of service, and
\lJ synchronrzrng equipment is available for reclosing the
circuits and restoring the operation back to normal in a B. Circuit Breakers
minimum time.
Many circuit breakers require an AC feed for
In order to ensure satisfactory islanding during compressors and heaters. On a cold day, these
emergency conditions, it may be necessary to block some ol breakers may become inoperative within l-4 hours
the relays from tripping where splitting is not desirable, and following interruption due to gas liquefication or loss
to trip or allow to triP only those relays where it is of pressure. Once rendered inoperative, they may
desirable. In order to satisfy these reguirements, the relay require several hours to . recover following the
schemes must be able to discriminate between: (l) normal restoration of power.
load conditions, Q) swing conditions, (3) out-of-steP
conditions, and (4) fault conditions. C. Oil-Static Cable Systems

This would entail extensive transient stability studies Cable failure on energizing these systems is a
of the area(s), installations of appropriate relays, including possibility due to oil contamination or loss of
blocking and transfer tripping, and a thorough relay insulation quality if no backup AC independent source
coordination. These are major undertakings. of pumping is supplied.

2.3 Low Frequency Isolation Scheme 3.2 BlackstartCapability

Isolation of generation with matching local loads The method of restoration chosen is dependent on the
through relay schemes would avoid startup of the generator(s) available blackstart capacity and its geographic distribution
from a complete shutdown and consequently would sPeed up across the system. Parallel restoration of subsystems
the restoration process. requires that sufficient blackstart capability be available
within each subsystem to energize all light and power and
A dynamic analysis is required to determine the steam rnaintain voltages. Sequential restoration requires that the
unitsr frequency response under different load and generation centralized or main cranking source be capable of carrying
mismatch after isolation. The excess generation (i.e., load sufficient load to hold down system voltages and carry system
rejection) may trip the turbine and boiler, and the excess load light and power until main units are on line.
may trip the generator by the under-frequency relay. The
load rejection capabilities can be achieved by proper 3.3 Criteria for SectionalizinR of SubsYstems
coordination of turbine controls and boiler interlocks.
The following criteria are applicable for the successful
Unless, during peak- and light-load conditions, load and sectionaliziation of subsYstems:
generation mismatch are within the limits, the low frequency
isolation scheme would not be reliable. A. Each subsystem must have blackstart capability which
is su{ficient to restore light and power to critical

by: D. Scheurer, Philadelphia Electric Companyt B. Each subsystem should have the ability to match
Philadelphia, PA Beneratlon and ioad to within prescribed frequency
The determination of the method to be used in
restoring a given system is highly dependent on several C. Each subsystem should have adequate voltage controls
factors. These factors include the relative size of the to maintain a suitable voltage profile. This would
system, the amount of blackstart caPacityr the location of include the ability to pick up load, underexcite
the blackstart capacity, and the amount and location of generating units, change taps on tie transformers or
emertency backup power supplies. operate synchronous condensers.

The main objective of the early stage of a restoration D. Each subsystem shouid be capable of being sufficiently
procedure is to establish a transmission line to all stations monitored at the system control center in order to
and substations in order to reenergize iight and power ensure its internal security and coordinate switching.
supplies before the integrlty ol equipment is ieopardized.
Small systems with a centralized blackstart capability can E. In certain areas, subsystems may be formed by
probably accomplish these ends using a sequential restoration isolatlng steam units along with their auxiliaries and
method. The time required to restore a larger system by this bus loads, either by manually opening transmission
method, however, may be significantly longer, and therefore lines or via underfrequency relaying.
a parallel restoration method would be required to energize
all light and power within a reasonabie time frame. The F. All tie points for subsystems must be capable of
major considerations to be used in determining a restoration swinging generation and measuring synchronization
methd are as follows: with adiacent subsystems.
3.1 Backup Power Supplies at Substations. Generating .In summary, small systems which are caPable of
Stations. and Control Centers restoring light and power to critical points in a relatively
short period of time, or large systems with adequate backup
Telecommuncations equipment power systems in key areas can most likely be successfully
restored via the sequential method from a tie point or
The operability of many batteries used for the backup internai cranking source.
of supervisory control and data remotes can become
quest'ionable within a short time period (l-2 hours). Larger systems, however, are not generaily equipped
This would result in incomplete data acquisition and with the extensive resources required to supply emergency
the inability to close breakers via supervisory control- AC power at all criticai locations. Under these conditions,
small self supporting subsystems are the most practical
method. This method allows the rapid restoration ol station
light and power before degradation to equipment becomes a
reality, provided that the adequate blackstart capability and
criteria listed above can be met.
V. BIBLIOGRAPHY t9. IEEE Committee Report, "Survey Report on Current
Operational Problems,r' Paper El WM O)2-2, IEEE pES
Byt L. H. Fink, Carlson & Fink, Inc., Oakton, VA Winter Power Meeting, Atlanta, 1981.
l. al. 'rSolution Methods for Transient
Adibi, M. M., et 20. IEEE Committee Report, ,rAn Updated List of Current
and Dynamic Stabilityx Proceedings of IEEE, Vol. 62, Operational Problemsrrr IEEE Trans. on power
July 1974. Appara_tus and Systems, PA5-92, (lan/peb 1978), pp.
2. Anderson, Max D., et al. ftPower System Operator
Training Updater[ IEEE PES Summer Meeting, 21. IEEE Committee Report, 'System Restoration
Vancouver, B. C., July, 1979, A79-515-8. Deploying the Plan: Current Operational problems
Working Group,: IEEE Trans. Nov., pp. 4263-71, l9gZ.
3. Arnold, P. F., Discussion to Kafka et al. (1981)
22. IEEE Meeting Group on Power Plant Response to Load
4. Arnold, P. F., "Summary of System Restoration Plan Changes, rrMW Response of Fossil Fueled Steam Units,.
for the Pacific Northwest Power Systemrrt power IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems,
System Restoration T. F. Mtg., 1984 WPM. March/April 197 3, Y ol. PAS-92, No. 2,
5. Blankemhip, G. L., T. A. Trygar, ,,A Discussion of the 23- Ihara, 5, F. C. Schweppe, ',Physically Based Modeling
Restorative State Control Problem in Electric power of Cold Load Pickup, IEEE/PES Winter Meeting,
Systemsrrr Proc. EPRI/SIAM Conf. on Electric Power Atlanta, February, l98l (81 U/M 084-3).
Problems: The Mathematical Challenge, Seattle,
March, 1980. 24. Kafka, R. J., D. R. Penders, S. H. Bouchey, and M. M.
Adibi, "RoIe of Interactive and Control Computers in
Bryson, W. C., and A. P. Hayword, rrRestoration of the Development of a System Restoration Planr" l98l
Service on a Metropolitan Power Systemrr, Trans. AIEE PICA Conf. Proceedings. (Also, IEEE Trans. pAS-l0l
Vol. 59, 1940. (January l9E3), pp. 43-52).

7. Chaiken, J. M., R. C. Larsonr',Methods for Allocating Kafka, R. J., et al.

25- "System Restoration plan
Urban Emergency Units: A Surveyr'r Managemeni Development for a Metropolitan Electric Systemr,'
Science, t9 (1972)rpart2, pp. P-ll0-130. IEEE Trans. - PA5-100 (August l98l), pp. 3703-i7t3.
8. Chien, K. L., et al., lrDyanmic Analysis of a Boiler,'r 26. Knight, U. G., t'Aids for the Emergency Control of
Trans. of the ASME,80, pp. 1809-1819. Power Systemsr" CIGRE Electra, No. 67, Dec. 1979,
pp. l0l-134. (Also IEEE PES Winter power Meeting,
9. Concordia, C. "Equipment Modeling Loadsrn GE Power New York, 1980, papers A80 002-5, A80 003-4).
Slstem Stability Seminar, September, 1973.
27- Knight, U. S., I'Remedial Measures to Reduce the
10. Daniels, J. H., et al. trDynamic Representation of a lncidence and Effect of Major Disturbances on Power
Larger Boiler-Turbine Unitrrr 1961, ASME paper No. Systems,' CIGRE Study Group 32 Report No. 32-13,
6l-sA-69. August, 1978.
il. Davidson, D. R., D. N. Ewart and L. K. Kirchmayer, 28. Lewis, W. A., ECAR, Chmn.; J. R. Boyle, Sec'y., N. O.
"Long Term Dynamic Response of Power Systems: An Engebretson, "Final Report of System Restoration
Analysis of Major Disturbances," IEEE Trans. on power Working Grouprr (Established, May, 1972), 1976.
Apparatus and Systems, PAS-94 (May/3une 1975), pp.
Et9-826. 29. Maliszewski, R. M., R. D. Dunlop, G. L. Wilson,
rrFrequency Actuated Load Shedding and Restoration
12. Dean, S. M., rrThe Design and Operation of a Part l--Philosophyr" IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus
Metropolitan Electrical System from the Viewpoint of and Systems, PAS-90, (197 l), pp. 5)3-540.
Possible Major Shutdown,rrTrans. AIEE Vol. 59,1940.
30. Mariani, 8., Mastroianni, R., and Romand V. 'tField
13. Dryar, H. A. and R. Bailey, "Restoration of Service for Experiences in Re-energization of Electrical Networks
Large Metropolitan System After Complete from Thermal and Hydro Units.'r IEEE 8M WM 093-1.
Shutdown,r'Trans. AIEE, Vol. 59, 1940.
31. McDonald, f,. E., A. M. Bruning and W. R. Mahieu,
EPRI, ttlong Term Power System Dynamicsr,' Vol. I "Cold Load Pickup," Paper F79-180-1, IEEE PES
Summary and Technical Report, Final Report of EPRI Winter Power Meeting, New York, 1979.
Research Project 90-7, June 1974.
32. Milne, G. R., 'rProvisions for Re-energizing with
15. Ewart, D. I'Whys and Wherelores of Power System Electric Systems of the Consolidated Edison Company
Blackoutsrrr IEEE Spectrum, April, 1978, pp.36-41. of New York,r' Trans. AIEE, Vol. 59, 1940.
16. Feinstein, J., Discussion of Kafka et al. (l9El). 1). Review of Major Power System Interruptions, National
Electric Reliability Council Report, August, 1979.
la Horowitz, S. H., A. Politis, A. F. Gabrielle, "Frequency
Actuated Load Shedding and Restoration Part II-- 34. T. and K. Matsumoto, ttDeveiopment of a
Implementationrr IEEE Trans. Power Apparatus and Knowledge Based. System for Power System
Systems, PAS-90 (1971), pp. 541-549. Restoration," IEEE/PES Summer Meeting 82 Sivl ljl-r,
18. IEEE Committee Report, rrDynamic Models for Steam
and Hydro Turbines in Power System Studies," paper 35. Scheurer, D., Philadelphia Electric Company'Electric
T73-089-9, IEEE PES Winter Meeting, Jan. 28-Feb. 2, Restoration Planr" to pA
1973, New York. Association, Pittsburgh, PA, Jan.2r, 1980.

36. gimburger, E. J., Hubert F. f. "Low Voltage Bulk
-Svstem Restoration Simulationr" IEEE PES
Trans. Voi. PAS-100, Au8., PP. 4479-84'

37. Shultz, R. D. and Mason, G. A., "Blacks.tart Utilization

of Remote Combustion Turbines, Analytical Analysis
and Field Test," IEEE 84 WM 092-3'

3E. Undrill, J. M., et al- I'Interactive Computation in

Power 3ystems Analysis,i'Proceedings of IEEE, Volume
62, July, 1974.

19. Wilson, G. L. and R. Zarakasr- nAnatomy of a

gtiitolt," IEEE Spectrum, pp. 39-46, February, l97t'

40. Wolff, R. F., t'Speed Controls Vital During Islandingrrr

Electrical World, November 15, 1979.
41. Zaborszky et aI., '!A New State Space for Emergglcy
Control in the interconnected Power Systemr" IEEE
T.".,t., Vol. AC-22, No. 4, August, 1977, pp' 505-515'
42. Zarakas, P., "system Restorationr'r EPRI Vorkshop
Proc.: Piblic Poiicy Aspects of High-Capacity Electric
Power Transmission, EPRI WS-79-154, 1979, pp' l' 29-

86 SM 330-5


ContributinS lr4embers: M. M. Adibi {Chairman), J. N. Borkoski, and R. J. Kafka

Abstract - In its second report, the Power System Restoration DOE ACO's criteria for reporting major bulk Power system
Task Force (PSR-TF) (l) reviews the 1979-8) North American disturbances are shown in Table I (8).
Electric Reliability Council (NERC) Reports on Major Bulk
Power System Disturbances (2), identifying restoration This review has been limited only to those 19 cases
problems which have been encountered during that 5-year where restoration problems have been reported. As shown in
period. Table II, about 40% of the described maior disturbances have
had restoration problems.
Generally, these problems lall into three phases of
restoration activities: planning for restart, reintegration and TABLE I
restoration of the bulk power supply; control actions during
system degradation for saving and retaininS critical sources DOE CRITERIA FOR REPORTINC
of power; and restoration after a major disturbance when the MAJOR NCES
power system has stabilized.
3,000 Mly
The report also briefly discusses the applicability ol LOSS OF LOAD >/ tJ MINUTES
several existing programs to the system restoration Process. LOSS OF LOAD >/ 100 Mw, oR
The opinions and conclusions expressed in this paper are
those of the authors; they are based on the referenced reports 3,000 Mw
and have not been reviewed with NERC or the reporting LOSS OF LOAD >/ 1' MINUTES
utilities. LOSS OF LOAD 7 200 Mw

In order to reduce the possibility, the extent, and the
duration of major failures in bulk power supplies, preventive, MA]OR BULK POWER SYSTEM DISTURBANCES
corrective, and restorative actions are reguired, resPec-
tively. In the past decade, the industry has undertaken con- TOTAL DESCRTBED RESTORATION
siderable effort in preventive and corrective areas, thus YEAR REPT'D BY NERC PROBLEMS YO

reducing the frequency and intensity of system outages,

There appears to be room for additional efforts in the t979 24 10 330
direction of further reducing the duration of an outage. 1980 42 12 6r0
198 i 43 t0 550
During the same decade, instailation of large and slow 1982 27 9 333
starting tenerating units remote from the load centers, and 1983 13 1 228
retirement of small and fast starting generating units within TOTAL I49 IE re -46'
the load centers, have gradually increased the restoration
problems, and this trend appears to continue. It is the
industry's prediction that, by stretching the existing
equipment's capabilities, the restoration difficulties will be SUMMARY OF 1979. I983 SELECTED
further intensified by the early 1990s (4 to 7).
investigation of ways and means for enhancing power system
restoration is a timely endeavor. CASE. l. Restoration could not begin until the ties had
been re-established with remote systems to access teneration
In this reportr the PSR-TF has reviewed 19 selected sources. Errors made while switching lines caused delays in
major bulk power disturbances in Section il, attempted to the restoration effort. The absence of iocal var suPport
identify restoration problems in Section III, and discussed the resulted in low voltage until ties could be re-established.
applicability of several existing computer programs in Section
IV- CASE 2" Restoration was orderly, but delays were
encountered while trying to determine the extent of the
In a follow-up report, the PSR-TF will present the need island. The dispatcher did not have indication of the status of
Ior new procedures and explore advanced methodologies. the 345kV breakers. Load restoration is by supervisory
controi, but each distribution breaker had to be closed
Ii - REYIEW OF SELECTED N4A]OR BULK separately (80 distribution breakers opened). Since all steps
POWER DISTURBANCES of underfrequency relays operated, restoration was time
consuming. fhe tie had to be established before load could be
The 1979-81 NERC Reports describe 48 selected major picked up, since the other 345kV interconnection was locked
bulk power system disturbances out of 149 which had been out by the breaker failure action, and there was insufficient
reported to DOE's Alert Coordination Office (ACO). The generation on line to carry the local load.

CASE 3. Resynchronizing of the interconnection loop

was not accomplished in accordance with the interconnection
procedures. The first tie which was closed between the
86 SM330-5 A paper reconmended and alcroved northern and southerl islands was a ll5kY line, which
by the IEEE Power System Engineering Connitree of promptly opened on overload. Schedules were resumed on the
the IEEE Power Engineering Society for oresentation ,OOkV AC intertie before the eastern Portion of the locp was
ar rhe IEEE/PES 1986 Suromer lleering, Mexico ciry, closed. All malor interconnections between the north and
l'Iexico, July 2A - 25, 1986. Manuscripr sub.ttted south islands were restored to service and operating normally
January 31, 1986; made available for prinrif,g within ,2 minutes. \4ost customers were restored within 20
llay 7 ,. I986. minutes and all loads were restored within three hours and 1-5
PrinEed ln the U.S.A. reprinted from IEEE Transactions on
Power Svstems, vol. PWRS-2, no' 4, Nov
9- tenjp. ezt-ttt
CASE 4. The primary restoration method could not be Interim procedures have been established for re-
followed due to equipment damaged. Also, some lightning energizing the I5tkY lines to prevent the occurrence of high
arresters were damaged due to high voltages encountered voltage. Other procedures have been established to facilitate
during restoration. Service to the majority of customers was re-establishing subarea generation.
restored in about six hours with the remaining customers
progressiveiy restored over the nexi seven hours- CASE 12. The lack of adequate system data and/or
control facilities aPParently played a major part in extending
CASE ,. Restoration generally proceeded in an orderly the duration of the first interruPtion. No information is
and ef ficient manner considering the magnitude of this included in the Post-disturbance report regarding ihe
disturbance. However, resynchronizing between some islands existence of a pre-planned restoratlon procedure. Such
was delayed due to uncoordinated load restoration. "Black procedures appeai to have been available three months later,
start, capability operated satisfactorily at all major locations as the duration of that interruption was approximately half
with the exception of a power plant where the emergency that of the first interruPtion.
diesel failed to start due to a dead battery. It has been
recommended that member systems should continue to re- CASE 13. Restoratlon of residential service was
emphasize restoration procedures on major transmission co-pl.te in three hours and 20 minutes, but industrial load
systems to all dispatchers and operating personnel. It has restoration was not complete f or approximately 17 hours'
also been recommended that the manner in which information The post-disturbance rePort states that industrial loao was
is <iisplayed to dispatchers be reviewed to see if increased as generation was brought back on line.
improvements could be made to enhance restoration.
It is noted that a Senerator which suffered turbine
CASE 5. A system restoration procedure was developed bearinq damage when an auxiliary lube oil pump did not s.tart
-service for at least four months' As the turblne
in 1978 and the system dispatchers were well acquainted with will biout of
the method proposed for restoration. The procedure was used slowed down a Eenerator hydro6en cooling .system leak
by the dispatcher in restoring service, and it is concluded that developed, the hydrogen ignited, and an explcsion occurreo'
the procedure as written is still a valid document. blowing the cover off the exciter.
Essentially, ail loads were picked up in about seven and one-
half hours. Five steam units were back in service in five and CASE 14. Restoration was delayed due to ioss oI power
one-half hours. Problems were encountered in closing l5 5F6 at the control center, 69kV line damage on the systemr. and
circuit breakers due to low gas Pressure caused by low teml problems in starting Eeneration on the 6ther system. Neither
peratures. From time to time circuits were closed to loads system had written emergency oPerating Plans.Prior to the
that could not be supported by the transmission facilities' disturbance, but this has Gen recommended and both systems
resulting in short periods of restoration to Part of the system' are considering such Plans.
f ollowed again by loss of power. Some high voltage
conditions were encountered during the restoration Process CASE 15. System restoration was hindered .by
and the need for additional reactive control is being studied- communication, supervisory control, and monitoring equip-
ment failures. This made it difficult to assess the state of
CASE 7. There were several unsuccessful closures the system. The first priority of restoration was to restore
before the island was {inally reconnected to the remainder of the bulk transmission network to normal in order to provide
the interconnection" EJforts need to be made to better start-up power to the plants. This process was accompltsheo
coordinate restoration procedures among the many dispatch cautiously with start-up power supplied to the-f irs.t plant,in
Switching to return the system to normal was
of f .ices. 36 minutes and the next plant ln 90 minutes. 5ervlce to tne
completed in one- hour and two minutes following the majority ol customers was restored within one hour.
cascading disturbance.
Notwithstanding the need for system operators to
CASE 8. Customer loads and most of the grid were understand the philosophy of restoration, written procedures
restored in one hour. The last J00kV circuit was restored to should be developed for foreseeable black start conditions.
service five hours later when preliminary disturbance investi-
gations were complete. Faulty synchronizing equipment CASE 16. While ioad was restored in reasonable time
delayed restoration of the grid' It is noted that Sood periods (one hour 25 minutes for the first restoration and 25
cooperation between the various dispatchers following the minutes for the second), complete system restoration
disturbance permitted quick and efficient restoration of the required six hours and 44 minutes. Repeated unsatisfactory
system s. closures of the 115kV tie and unsuccessful efforts to parallel
the other tie indicated sequential restoration procedure
CASE 9. Initiat load restoration did not begin until problems. Intertie schedules were also resumed before the
about an hour a{ter the start of the disturbance. Reasons for major loop was restored; this aggravated the disturbance'
this delay are not known, but it is known that generation in High voltage was also encountered due to Iong unloaded
the area was shut down. There was no equipment damaged 500kV lines terminating on a substation bus.
during the disturbance, but it was approximately four hours
be{orE al.i loads were restored. This extended time was due CASE 17. Load restoration was probably slower than
to the time required to restart Seneration. desirable but caution was exercised, since the reasons tor
some generation loss and the.loss of the 345kV line were not
CASE 10. The systems were restored in about three fully known. In addition, thunderstorms were in the area and
hours and twenty minutes. It is noted that' during resto- it was probably a wise decision not to restore all the load
ration, there were several erroneous closings of inter until the total system concitions were stabilized.
connections due to lack of knowledge of the extent of system
separation. The af{ected systems have recommended that a CASE 18. Restoration of the s-vstem did not proceed as
time-shared computer system be investigated to provide rapidly as it shoulcj have due to lack of data concerning
information on the system conditions to dispatch offices with system conditions and lack of superrisor)' control facilities.
a minimum of input and calling by the dispatcher. There was also a problein in closin3:he 2l0k\'line which
initially caused the disturbance due to a 70-Cegree phase
CASE 11. Restoration of most of the load within five angle between the buses on each enc of the line. This angle
minutes is to be commended. The delay in achieving total wai reduced to 50 degrees by altering Iine ioading and
restoration resulted from the damage to distributlon lightning increasing generation.
arresters due to high voltage when l5lkY transmission lines
were reclosed. Insufficient information ls available from CASE 19. The seven islands were restored to
system records to determine the reason for the length of time synchronous oPeration in 24 minutes' Customer loads that
before system voltaSe stabilized.
had been interrupted were restored within two hours. During TABLE IV
restoration, service to an additional 40r000 people was
interrupted when dispatchers requested that a ll5kV line be RESTORATION PROBLEMS BY
opened to prevent conductor damage due to overloading and @
were unaware that the other lines into the area could not NUMBER+
carry the load. It may have been possible to leave the ll5kV DESCRIPTION
line ln service if the disPatchers had been able to accurately Sffitching
read the line loading and had been provided with emergency
short-term overload caPability to the line. Procedure Out-of-Date 7
SCADA Inadequate 7
The main grid was resynchronized 16 minutes after the Dispatch offices coordination 7

disturbance. Foi a disturbance of this magnitude it must be

said that system restoration proceeded at a good pace. The System Status Determination 6

report states that systems should continue to stress the

importance of dispatcher training in interconnected system Sustained overvoltage ,
restoration Pro8rams. Synchronization location & facilities 5


In this section, an attemPt has been made to identify Sustained undervoltage )

restoration problems. Table III lists the restoration problems Response to Sudden Increase in Load 3

encountered in the 19 cases' by year and by category. Table Standing angles 3

IV shows the same problems by tyPe and frequency of Energy Storage
Steam Unit Restart 2
Line Over Load During Restoration 2
Restoration Procedure not followed 2
Operator Training 2

8 Generator Under Excitation

Switched Capacitors/Reactors
TABLE III Underf requency Load Shedding
Black-Start Capability
RESToRATIoN PRoBLEI'4! !I JfrE Inadequate Communication
Description 79 80 El El 83 Total Inadequate Displays
Interlocking Schemes
Sustained over Voltage 2t I I 5 *Based on the 48 major disturbance rePorts
Sustained under Voltage 1t- I 3
Cenerator under Excitation -l 1 The seven categories of problems listed in Table III are
Srvitched Capacitors/Reactors -t t briefly discussed here:

2. LOAD AND GENERATION BALANCE I - Reactive Power Balance

Response/SuddenlncreaseLoad - I I I ) During early stages oJ the restoration process, it. is
Underfrequency Load Shedding I 1 n.."tf".y to keef system voltages within the allowable
rante. This is done in several ways: energizing fewer
3. LOAD AND GENERATION COORDINATION high- voltage lines, operating generators at minimum
Black-startCapability - I i uo'it"g" lev-els, deactivatint (over-riding) swi tched. stat ic
Steam Unit Start-up Coord. - I I - 2 capacitors, connecting shunt reactors, adlusttnB
SwitchingOperation | 3 I I 2 I transformer taPs to appropriate positions, and picking up
OverloadsDuringRestoration I - - I 2 loads with lagging power factors. The inability to
DispatchOfficeCoordination I - 3 2 I 7 perform these tasks due to the absence of iacilities or
procedures would cause a reactive power imbalance
4. \IONITORINC AND CONTROL resulting in, for example, Senerator self-excitation and
Communication - I
Inadequate I runa*ay; voltage rise. Instalting minimum excitation
Inadequate 2 ) 2 7 level (\,lEL) relays' particularly on the black start
Inadequate - 1 1 combustion turbine Senerators' and settin8 these relays
S1'stemStatusDetermination I I 3 - I 5 as low as allorlable, would help alleviate reactive power
imbalance in some cases.
InterlockinB Schemes I 2 - Load and Generation Balance
Slnchronization - l 2 l 5 In the initial phase of restoration, it is necessary to
Standing Angles I I a maintain system frequency within the allowable limits by
restoring loads in small increments. Smaller and radial
6. ENERGYSTORACE - I 1 I ) loads are restored prior to larger and network loads while
maintaining a reasonable constant real to reactive power
7. SYSTEM RESTORATION PLAN ratio. Feeders equipped with underfrequency re!ays are
r-oprocedure - 2 - I I picked up at the subsequent phases of restoration when
Procedure Not - 2 ? system frequency has stabilized. Load pick-up in small
ProcedureOutdated 2 2 1 I ; 7 increments tends to prolong the restoration duration.
No Training I 1 2 With lar6e increments there is always the risk oI falling
into a frequency decline and recurrence of system
outate. The size of load pickup depends on the rate ol
response of prime movers, which more likely are under
manual control at this Point. A guideline such as
allowable load pickup as Percentage of Senerator
capability would help maintain load and generation
balance at accePtable frequencY.
3- Load and Generation Coordination
Generally, the strategies for system restoration consist
of restart, reintegration and load restoration. In the Most operating companies are maintaining restoration
restart phase, several load and generation islands are procedures based on certain operating philosophiEs, practicls,
formed. In each island, the objeciive is to i*mediately and familiarity with power plant restart and power system
and simultaneously supply station service or cranking operation (3 to
power to large thermal plants by black start combustioi Z). In developing these restoration plans,
turbines or, if available, by hydro_electria power systems are modeled representing the equipmeni
Combustion turbiners behavior is quite aifterent Aurin!
characteristics and operational data i; an interactive
";;t.: Computing environment. In some cases, attempts are made
norma.l operation when parallelled with a large systeri to
validate these models against the actual operating data, using
and during restoration when they are the prime or
only source oI power.
the static state estimator or similar filtering techniqu"es ts & rol]

Vhile forming several load and generation islands and In. general, the approach is to sectionalize the power
system into a number of s.ubsystems and develop a restoration
simultaneously restartint each island couta appr.claUiy plan for each subsystem by iimulating a step-by_step restaii
reduce the duration of an outage, the number'of islandi
and reintegration of generation and i-oad (f i).'ff.l"'.*i.tlng
is limited by availability of
.iesources, the include: "
programs most frequently used in these simulations
number of operating teams, the number of black"start
generators within each island, and the available and
effective coordination between the various control 1. Interactive power flow for maintaining reactive
power balance without allowing sustained over
voltage or generator under excitation and
In starting steam uni.ts, it is important to coordinate consequential voltage collapse.
certain critical time intervals, such as maximum time 2. Dynamic stability for keeping load and generation
int-erval beyond which certain thermal units cannot
safely be restarted, or the minimum tl*" - in6ffi balance through careful cobrdlnation ol loid pick_up
required before a thermal unit can be started. Also, with generatorst-responses and avoidance of possibi!
the risks for system frequency decline.
amount of rea.l and reactive geiEiation available ai any
time, after a system disturbance, is based on the mix of 3. Switching iransient f or determining how many
prime movers, their start_up chiracteristics, and their
operating conditions prior to the disturbance. sections of a high voltage transmissio-n line can be
energized time without causing transient over
4- Monitoring voltages detrimental to equipment.
and Control
Most maior power system disturbances are arrested prior
to complete collapse, and some level of interconnection Except for the interactive power flow programs which,
assistance is available. In the event o{ partial
with some modifications, ... .f fiai"nt in po*.. system
turbance, it would be necessary to determine ihe state modeling, model valldation and simulation (Sj, tn. .;1r;;
of programs are large, comprehensive and ineilicient
the system and enter the resioration procedure at the applied to power.system restoration. While acceptable
proper level. Lack of dedicated communications power system planning purposes, dynamic stability for
between control centers, power plants and substations, and
and inadequate monitoring displays and excessive
electromagnetic transient. programs (EMTP) are not readily
alarms applied to system restoration.
can lengthen the duration of an outage.

5- Protective Systems During restart anci reinteg-ration phases of

power system often consists ol several isrands,restoration,
most of tire
The restoration process often has been interrupted or automatic ccntrols have tripped or are deactivated, and
delayed by interlocks preventing, for example, generator the
system is primarily under manual control. During
breakers from closing on a deai bus, synch.onization t'hese two
locations where thLre has been' no control over at restoration phases, wider vo.ltage and frequency rantes
frequencies,- volta.ges and phase angles, and lack tolerated. Under these conditio"ns, simple quidelines and fast
procedures for reducing..the standing -phaie angles of rules based on aooroximate analysis
when relevant as the'foltowilg "."-or. expedient and
closing the ties to the adjacent systei or subsyJtem. o*n dispatch
scenarios" demonstrates. ";;ii;-
6- Energy Storage Generation Dispatch Scenarios (GDS)
1"":: _.^r_^M:!, .powe
r s upplies, such as batteries, batte r y
!.1-"IF".r,,_gl^lite tenerators, and uninterruptabie power restoring
suppltes (UPS), has affected the operations of
circuit ,Know ln -a power
ln advance the
system, operators often need to
Dreakers, DC motor operated disconnect switches, amounts of real and reactive generation
cable which would be available. Thls information iould be
pumping plants, telecommunication, SCADA, used to
and control optimize_ the seguence of the various restoration
centers, delays in system restoration. opera_
l,^T-t:,^ln^::-" :?erati:i,s. inctude energizing Iines with hiBh
cnarglng currents, which in turn would piovide uc.".. io
7- System Restoration plan
Restoration. of power after 1".9"., but remo.te, generation capacity, fn" COS can allow
an outage is a difficult task, a, proper operating sequence which cjn significantly
c.omplicated by many factors, inclufing unfamiliarity reduce
oi the duration of an outage,
the operating personnel with the outage situation and the
Pressure of time. These dif{iculties have been
compounded by installation of large and slow starting .The ava.ilability of real and reactive generation is based
on prtme
generating units remote from thI load centers, and movers, conditions just prior to ai outage, and their
installation of underground and overhead high start-up times. Table V defines nomenclature and lists
types of information required. Figure Lno*s'tn" the
of MW and MVAR absorbing capaEility of a typicaluruii"Lrriiv
voltaBe transmiss.ion lines betw"een the generating plan"ts
and the load centers. Therefore, *o." ihun everlefore, drum type
boiler (l = 3), under the hot restart condition (J
there is a need for Z), with ii;
.carefully prepared, current, readily assumption that there are no network delays, =
accessible and easily undeistood'restoration plans to the prime mover's timings and
-i-i'n',iru. that only
al.low guick and orderly recovery f rom complete or .iiti."r. data would
"."of the senerating units to be
foi ail
collapse, with resutiant minimum impact
_.y:l:, and ::::":"-^b," .^o.r1pll"d.
given the Xregawatt"and ,"g"uii
^t.1ly of Unit I,t,under
on tne publtc damage to the equipment. Such plans ::l_t'::t.o.capability time,
typically are broken down into some iogical order. The 13ilio,n,S condition J, cJn be
process provides a discipline whereby there is
oDtalned from the two funct.ions p0,l,t) and
overlooking any essentia.l operation.
.less r.isk oI respectively. These functions can be derived from
Senerator characteristics. The total real and reactive
Seneration available at any time, t, is the sum of the (d) BTC CAPABILITIES ON P.U.) *
individual p's and q's respectively for all the n generating
units within an island. MW +MVAR(l) _MVAR(2)
Figure 2 illustrates the results of a GDS study. In this
particular case, tenerating units with high reactive absorbing SYNCHRONIZED .OO .70 -.30
characteristics were required to enable the energizing of a
transmission line having a lar6e line charging value. The MINIMUM LOAD .30 .67 -.29
actual requirements were that 500 MVAR of reactive .40 .65 -.28
absorbing capability were required within two hours, or the SOAKING LOAD
remote generation accessed by the transmission line would
become unavailable for timely restart. By bringing on line 90% P.F. .e0 .oo(3) --t2
early in the restoration those units with hiSh rates of
response and the proper reactive absorbing capabilities' the
restoration process has been shortened by approximately
seven hours.
(l) Max. excitation limit, (2) Min. excitation
(3) Max. stator limit.
+ There are two sets of MVs for normal &
(a) BoILER TURBINE GENERAToR (BTC) emergency operations.
CONDITIONS + There are three sets of MVARs depending on H2
= J
a o =
J= 3 z
z@ .;
] = 5, VERY COLD ''' OA JE
ri r-:
z& MT.i GEN.
d,? 6
cta tu
(1) Banking boilers, (2) Water problems
x Conditions are time dependent and overlap o-N
3Ii I

(b) l
1 (972 PF)
DEPENDING oN CoNDiTIoN (J = I to 5),


lti'IFuoe: I
q( I,J,t )
r = :,i6airNc rrME(l)
TO .\,
(1) Soaking load can be greater than min. load
- f
(2) Release & min. load can be the same o
+ There are two sets of timings for normal 1.5 SCENARIO
and emergency operations. =
= j


tj'*n$*'-*' -.*'--
I = I to n, identif y individual BTC "'
11 12
(l) Even twin units have dif f erent timinSs
The GDS has the potential of being applied in an on-line (5) Scheurer, D., "System Restoration at Philadelphia
interactive environment. Readily understood guidel.ines can Electric Company", ibid.
be provided with respect to the frequency response of prime (5) Barrie, D., "System Restoration Following Load and
movers, cold load pickup, switching transient, and standing Generation Rejection", ibid.
angles. These guidelines can be provided by relatively simple
and straight forward analysis instead of the more {7) Arnold, P. F., "Summary oJ System Restoration Plan for
comprehensive power system analysis programs. Pacific Northwest Power System", IEEE PSR-TF Mtg.,
196+ WPM.
v - coNCLUSrq{
(8) Department of Energy, Alert Coordination Office
Review of these past major bulk power system Publication DOE/EP-0071/1, September 1983.
disturbances shows that they have occurred at random, each
has had somewhat different restoration problems, and in each (9) Kafka, R. J., Penders, D. R., Bouchey, 5. H., Adibi, M.
case the system operator has played a critical role in M., "Role of Interactive and Control Computers in the
restoring the system. In all the I9 cases, there have been the development ol a System Restoration Planrr, IEEE
following common concerns: Trans.-PAS PP. 43-52, Jan. '8J.

- Identification of the status of the collapsed system, (10) Shultz, R. D. and Mason, C. A., "Blackstart Utilization
components and equipment, of Remote Combustion Turbines, Analytical Analysis
- Restart and resupply of station service to plants, and Field Test'r, IEEE Trans.-PAS 84 WM 092-3.
substations, cabie pumping plants, compressed air, etc.
- Coordination of power plant start-up timings with load (1i) IEEE Committee Report, "System Restoration
pick-ups to bring generators to their stable minimum Deploying the Plan", Current Operational Problems
levels and within the range of major analog controllers. Working Group, IEEE Trans.-PAS PP. 4263-71, Nov.
- Energizing larte sections of transmission lines within 1982.
the acceptable transient and sustained over voltages.
- Pickin6 up load in large increments without the risk of
frequency decline.
- Reintegration of the skeleton of the bulk power supply
with the requisite time-consuming switching operation.
- Deactiviation of automatic load shedding and automatic
switched capacitors during initial phases of restoration.
- Maintenance of steady state and transient stability as
the system is being restoreci and when impedances are
- Reduction of standing angles when closing loops to firm
up transmission paths.
- Probability of successful start-up of thermal units, in
particular, combustion turbines.
- Stability of black start and peaking combustion turbines
during the time when they constitute a large portion of

Restoring a power system after a partiai or complete

collapse in a minimal amount of time presents a very complex
problem. As a result, most of the existing procedures
attempt to solve simpler problems (or subproblems) in a
reasonable manner from a limited number of possible initial
conditions. Clearly, there is a need for research into
advanced methodologies which would allow integration of the
operatorrs heuristic problem solving capabilities, and the
applicable analytlcal tools in the real-time operating
environment to provide a general approach to system
restoration. Until these advanced methodologies are
available, guidelines for restoration can be developed using
existing programs and analytic techniques.


(1) IEEE C6mmittee Report, Adibi, M. M., et al, "System

Restoration - A Task Force Report", tc be presented at

Q) "Review of Selected Major Electric Bulk Power System

Disturbances in North America", NERC 1979-84.
(3) "Kafka, R. J., Penders, D. R., Bouchey, S. H,, Adibi, M.
M., "System Restoration PIan Development f or a
lvletropolitan Electr.ic System", IEEE Trans. PAS PP.
3703-13, Aug. i981.
(4) Peach, S., "System Restoration Synthesis - Hydro
Quebec", IEEE PES 8th Biennial Workshop on Real-Time
Monitoring and Control of Power Systems, Montreal,
Oct. 1984.

87 WM 050-8


A report by tha Culaent Operational Problels working GrouP--E. Kenneth Nielsen, Chairnran
Contributory author! arc: H. M. Adili, D. Barrie, U. E. CooPr, K. t{. Heussner,
H. E. Robrtson, J. L. Scheidt, and D- Scheurer.

There is little work going on in the area of

Abstract: This paper is one of a series Presented on developing analytical tools to aid in Pouer systea
ufrffif the systels oPerations su.bcouaittee uith the
intent oe focusing industry aEtention on currenE restoration. The rePort Presented here identifies a
probleDs faced by electric utilj'3ies in Ehe oPeration nunbeE of the problea:s faced by the systen oPerator in
of the bulk Pouer suPPlY systen- the hope chat it uill er.courage the develoPnent of
such tools. ttrile systen restoration ;,s not a daily
Five short note rePorts a:te P:esenEed chich task of the systen operator, it is a task he rnust be
direct attention to Problem areas being uorked on by prepared and equipped to Perform. the threat, of Poeer
various gorking GrouPs and Task Forces of the system systes disturbances is ever presnt!
operations Subco@ittee- t\ro rePor:s deal with
problens associated eith the reglaceneht of Energy TgE PROBLEI,! OF UPGR,ADING ENERGT !.'ANAGEMEMT SYSTEUS

ManageBent Systells (EMS, and preCic:ing resource .1.

requireBents. One rePort Cescri-bes t:.e Problem of Elorida Power Corporation southern California
making EIYS alarning ef fective. Ano'-::r :-cc::ses cn Edison CoEpany
probleBs in the, develo;nenE, a:'c cel:'7ery of Introduction
quality systeB oPerator training cro-orus' ?he :ir-al
ieport lists and expiains a nurber of challenges in Operating gersonnel of electric utilities have
restoration of the bulk pover suPPIy slis:em follori'ng been faced with a signifi,cant and grotring Proble8 of
a najor blackout. preoature obsolescence in their Energy ManageDent
coEputer. systeos (EHs). ApproxiEately every ten
IT{TRODUqTICN yeals, the justification of a "net,i Et{S to rePlace tha
E. Kenneth Nielsen, HeErber existing one becoEes a paraEount oEerating necessity
New England Pouer Exchange but j.s viesed with increasing skepticisn by upper
manageBent personnel. Ttris skepticisa is; in Part,
one of the primary tools of systeu operators is due to the fact that FflS personnel are faced
the Energy Management SysteE (EllS) - To be an with a series of problens.associated wi-th the general
effective too1, it, is esseotial that the E!'ts be one stated a.bove, narely:
replaced or upgraded before it becoroes sbsolete- Yet
there are arany impediurents to keeping als facilities l- A cost./benefit analysis is di.fficult due !o
up-to-date- one of the mst. serious problens is subjectivity and sparcity of data.
predicting the cornputer resources needed to satisfy
the deDands which sill be placed uPon the ul)graded 2- Pri,or justifications nay have prourised ?
systeE- Many utilities have experienced the frus- useful life in excess of that actually being
tration of undertaking the nassive effort of obtaining experienced.
authorization for a nes Eus and investing yeals j-nto
its i8plaentation, only to find it inadeguate- one 3. ActuaL end<f-Li.fe of the existing syste8s is
particularly troublesome Et{s function is alarrdng. difficult to establish and rnore so to prove.-
The tendency is to provide the systea operaEor rith a
huge a.Dount of data but not uuch, well organ- 4. The fact that the existing systeri nay, on the
ized infornation, which pinpoirrts source proble8ts surface, be Perforning adequately merely
rather than s)rmptoBs. These probleus ale discussed in compou'Ids replaceoent justificati.ons-
this report.
5. ?otal elaPsed tiure for the conplete Process
Effective control of today's bulk Poser supply of justificati.on, budgeting, specification
syste$ deoands vell trained systea oPr.tors- Train- preParation, bj.d evaluation, design, manu-
ing prograars lnust be sel,1 conceived. Instructional facturing, testing, and installation is
naterials Eany tines provide valuable technical takj.lig approxioately five years. Erom recent
infortration but do not tatget on training the system. experience, rDre systens are delivered late
operator to apply the informati.on in gerforning hi's than on schedule due to first tine develoP-
job. Another obstacLe is the lack of qualified ment problels. Such long tead times tend to
instructors - These problens becoe rcre acure as E:{5 conpoud the limitations extrErienced today as
sophistication gross' the power systen becomes rcre ex!.sting systens are stretched past the Point
complex, and the tulnover rate of system operators where prudently they should be rePlaced-
6- Parts of the existing systeEr are replicated
in the one being purchased giving rise to the
question't{hy wholesale replacement?".
87 'e{ 050-8 A paper recomeaded aod aDproved
by the IEEE Poner Sysceo EnglneerlnS Comol.rce of ttle authors co-chair a Task Force coElprised of
the IEEE Power Englneerlng SocleEy for oresenrarlon other utiLiry personnel,, EllS vendors, ud consultants.
at the LEEE/PES 1987 I.Itncer l{eerlng, Nev orleans. This group has spent the Last three years investi-
Loutslana, February I - 6, f987. yanuscrlpt subqltted gating EHS replaceent. Ttle main thrust of the
Au8ust 25, 1986; Eade avellable for prlnElnq iniEial eork yas centered around the specific issueg
l{oveober 13, 1986. associated ritrl Et{S architecture rhich preclude a
logi,cal and phased rePlacelint of EHS subsystems
reDrinted from IEEE Transactions on
coryared to the industry's Present Practice of an
entj.r6 E$s replaceoant. Of necessity, EoPics con-
Power Systems, vol. 3, no. 1, Feb 1988,
pp. Ll8-126
cerning enhancenent of existing systeErs sele also Characteristically ccnservative by nature, util-
evaluated. In order co i.dentify soEle of the Para- iries have taken a follouing role in eneriJy Eanagenent
meters imPact. this issue, an E!"tS architecture design. Few courpanies are uilling to expend the
probleE Iist was develoPed. This list is scheduled to dollars needed to suptErt extenslve research and
be included in its entirety uith the rePort of the development efforts to tDeee their unique F_HS require_
Task Eorce, houever, aa exanination of specifics for hents. Tttis, historically, has been left as a vendor
various probleas obscnred in different subsystens prerogative to develop rhat they oarket as -standard-
would illustrate som of the key aspects. offerings. Host standard vendor offerings are subiect
to l:Eiaed architectural custoeization by prospective
softuare Problen3 buyers. On occasion, utili,ties have att,enpted to push
certaLn state-of-the-art develcptnents, tlpst of these
. Software uhich is not table driven is very have been in the mre vi-.ual F)rti,ons of che systeo,
difficult to modify. ;:amely mapbcard drsplay or man-machine interface
. Sctre, if not all, sol-tHare is nachine depen- iech-ology. llarry tines these state-of-the-art
dent, thus liniting its transferabilitT and Cevelcpments have met rith less-chan-spectac-ular
its expanCabi:.ity. :uccess- Such experiences have further reduced
. operating systems reach a poini .:: tine ucility willingness icr stray far frcn standard vendor
beyond uhich they are noi. Tendor sup!,cried- ot-ferings. ttrere are, hosever, indi,cations ihac
a The addi:ion of nes systenr sof:ware applica- prcsent day EHS cbsolescence may be due co <iesign
Eions requires major modifrcaEions to ahe shortsightecness rather than an intrerent problen
data base. associated uith basic Ells reguire&ents.
. Inprcvernents in edvanced a!.gcrithns scnetraes
cannct be re'-rofitted i-n exi::i:9 progrrss. :'h:r is this Prcbleur Iurportant
HardHare Problems The ur-ility industry has much to gain from
participating in rhe reooval of present day E!,tS design
r llany sysa,)rs :.ave f inj.',e ::i'::: lr:'r' linitations. fn the fi.rst place, E!,lS lifecycle costs
thus creating a sicuation':encr:.'
where netrcry should drop as individual subsystens becoae truly
expansion is phys5.caliy inpossible- u;:gradea.ble- This effect sil1 be magnified in arany
e The erosion of hardware cchputaEicr.3l c:pa- areas such as Eraining, spare parts, etc. Salvage-
hilities for whatever reason (g:outh, inef- ability of operator-faniliar subsysteas such as
fi.cietrt coding, etc.) slows syscem response Io99in9, nethodology, displaf fornats, etc.,
to unaccepta.ble levels- wil,L greacly facilitate instalLation of neu sub-
o Ptrysical constraints liurj,t r-he number of systems. Mditi.onally, vendors can speciaLize in any
comunications controllers, thus ltmrting conbination of subsysteD areas li-hich permit design
SCADA expansion. flexibility to cure problems specific to individual
. vendor specific hardware incerfaces precLude utility needs- A great deal of developnrent work is
expansion frcm other than '_he orrg:.nal required before nix and uratch systen purchasing
supplier. becones a reality; however, a systen design whi,ch
. OriginaL vendor discontinues supPort of incorporates subsysteu replaceabiLity rill certainly
hardware maintenance and/ot expansion. attract buyers concerned sith the unknown softrare
applications of the future. It wiI1, hopefully, also
Ceneral Problens reestablish credibility in the ElfS procurement process
by upper utility Eanagement.
. Unrealistically los estima.-es cf uiEimate
system expansion requirements cJuse severe In cor.clusion, the utility j,ndustry, with the
compromises late in sysEem life. coope:'ation of vendors and consultants, has the
o The lack of standard comunicalions protocol oi)-Dortunity to provide guitielines for the next gene!-
has complicated El{S to SCADA and El,lS Eo E},tS aEj-on of El{s- Such ner, systems can, and hopefully
comunicatj.ons links- This problem is wii1, exhibit much greater fl.exibility concerning
magnified between EHS's that have a wide upgradeabllity- The benefits of such design are not
diversity of capabilities and internal- onLy economrc- Utilities will be a.ble to focus on
hardware/softaare design differences. enhanced subsystem capa-bilities to provide specialized
r Inability to Ereasure the operaEing sysrem treaunent for areas of partj.cular concern- Such
overhead makes it diffi.cult to detemine the tailoring of resources across vendor boundaries to
specific causes of system slowdowns. mct specific utility needs is something the industry
. P@r hardware/softeare docmentat !or) r csults is hard pressed Eo now provide.
in maintenance and expansion nightm<tres.
Uti.Lities faced yith replacing or upgrading t.i:S's CGV;'UAEI FESOUFCE REQUIREMENTS
are concerned with future systen architeciure thac David Barrie, l,lember
will alleviate many of the aforemen:roned problcms- Ontario Hydro
The current practice of spending 4-6 years desrqning
and procuring an EUS only to have it last B- t l vears !,rhat is the ProbLem
has been vieved with justifia-ble suspicion by urrLrry
management. EllS obsoLescence has, for the most carc, In today's Power System Control Centers, the
been conpLete sith few, if any, subsystems berng Energy Hanagerent SySteD (El|S) is called upon to
candidates for reuse- Some vendors argue the t-enefrts process a valiecy of application progr.rBs providing a
concerning the upgradea.bility of their spectfrc desrgn range of functional requirements to the systeB opera_
while others contend that the uni.que and sEecrrlr:ed tors- The capa,bility of the computer systetn to carry
intelrelationship of hardsare and software necessl- out this processing i-s a critical elenent in deter-
tates that obsolescence and ultimate repLacerent rs a mining the overall perfomnce of the systen.
fact of life- The authors question thts !rLter
F'osi.tion. The life expectanry of a typical EHS is about 15
years- During t.hj.s time, the actual. requireEEnts uilL
almost certainly differ fro$ those initially speci-
fied, given ahe volatile environment sithin shich
. The inabiij,ry to build adequate rransBission lnist cPerate. As a result' upgrades' facilities as described for ontario Hydro-
returbist!.nents, exlEnsions, etc', are virtual:7
. Major fluctuations in groyth rate projections
unavoidable durlng the life of an Eus' rnaking it very uncertaj,n as to the siz of
1'hj,3 short notc focuse! on the Problen of uncer- the porer systeo to be rcnl,tored by the EMS.
. Increased exports froa nonoil-burning util-
tainty surrounaltrg thc Plannlng of cornPuter systea ities. This has led to a arore coqrlex
upgrades- t.ransaction process and heavy porrer flors on
Experience in Hvdro
key transDission interfaces. Ttre systeE
operator has had to becolre lrore asare of
ontario tlydro's current EHS uas installed i3 systeo conditions in other utilities for'both
econoraic and security issues.
19?5. ft reng into service sith a basic suite o: . Proliferation of cogeneration, load tnanage-
application Prograos running and a BPre cosrprehensive ment, and other scheoes }trich greetly add to
suite specitied for developoent in subsequent yeals' the comPlexity of generatiorr scheduling and
rhe iniiial coaPucer systeBt was sized for the i'nit:al
suite and, a Plan Fut in place to upgrade to accoE- disPatch.
Eodate the Planned growth' The uncertainty surrounding identificatron of
In fact, operating coltPlexity increased far rf,cre f.:ture aPPtication Programs is the biggest contributor
tha$ originally envisaged, Primrily due to inabili:1 ro the uncertainty of the overall Process-
to build adequate transmission facilities' As t
result, increasfu:gly soPhisticated application -3r:- steD 2: Characterize the Prograns and Predict
gramri and nes :unctional capabilities have beea Ccmputer Load
iequired of the El'-S, e-9. much nore complex s'-3b::::'-'
li.Eit nonitoring software and automatic tnr:'; :' Having forecast the functional requirenents, the
generation and load rejection schenes'. ahis ;re::i"' aext step is to chalacterize the application Progralns.
increased the cooPuting resources required' o?er ::i The following qtlestions need Eo be addressed:
above the ilt.itial predicticns and triggerec "l' frequently t ill
couE)uter uIrgrades,one in 1978 and another in Ll8L' . Hou the Prograa be executed?
. Hot, nrrch plocessing tine ui'll it take?
'rooting to ttre future, our ability to Pred::: . Hor uuch nai.n Ee@ry sill it occuPy?
future requireurents Eay be no better than in lhe ::3s:- . Hos rnany disk files rilL it access?
we are planninlJ our EMS with the ioiic!:'-g ',Ihile these are i-qrortant questions, in a sy-steo rtrich
has a sequence of interrelated progr,-s, Probably the
. Continued delay in the necessary nost i-Etportant question is horr the ne{ Proglat0 ui1l
transnission facilities- fir into the exist-ing suite of progr.rns-
. Poser systea grosth alound three Per:enc Fer
annun. Knoring the prograD characteristics, the future
More tightly iniegrated oPeratlcn r::h conputer load can be Predicted, hosever, the questions
interconnected utilities. that need to be addressed ale the follosing:
IElProved oPerator training facilitres r:il
becooe essential. . Hos should one exPress comPuter loads on a
real-tiBe conPuter systeE?
Any or all of the above lBay not transpire' FurEher- . i{hat reasurable quantities should one use to
tnore, so&e neu factor, Presently unforeseen, nay exPress conPuter loads?
drastically alcer our projections- 1i,s 616Lc rrll . 'dhat Poser systen conditions should one
teIl. assur in assessiag conPuter loading? It
must be recognized chat comPuter loading
whv such uncertainty during Pouer systen disturbances is vastly
different fron norrnal conditions.
The process of planning future comPuter upgrades
involves a sequerlce'of stePs, each one fraught ''rLh Scep 3: ImPact on CoutPuter Performarlce
uncertainty. As a result, it is hardly surpr:s::9
that che overall process is very uncertain- The s:ePs Having esta-blished the comPuter loading, the next
are described belog. step is to forecast the coEputer performance' There
i.s a relationship betveen load and perforraance,
Step 1: Identify APPlication Prograes unfortunaEely, it is not linear.

The requireoents for nev aPPlication proqr:ns ::e gnren the conPuter is light1y loaded, or in the
dri.ven by the needs of the Poeer system oFert:trrs- nid-range, increases in coEPuter loading result i'n
Thy are a function of the oPeratinq compltx:::es Little or no degradation in coErputer performance. As
inposed by the evolving Poser system and the ex:et: :: the computer loading is increased, Ehere !s a pornt at
shich nes application Proglar.E:i can assi'st the .aer3:-. which suall increases in computer loading result in
in his task. Unfortunately, 'o[relatlng comPlexr'-i' - ' najor perfomance degradation. The uncertainty
largely deterained by external events, bey;r'd '-? surroundj-ng forecasting coaputer performance is
contEol of the electric uciLity and s:i?':-' i knosing where the actual loading is, relative to tie
unantici-pated- point. uhere degradation is likely. There is little
early warning that Eaior degradaei'on is imminent-
Looking back over the I'ast f j've to Een "i t.
there have been a nurnber of "external forces" SEep 4: IdentifY Corrective Action
have had a draEatic effect on the complexr:r :
oireration and ecre largel,y unanticipated- SFe.r:': The final steP of the process is to identify vhat
utilities rere affected to a greater or lesser ex:.-: :crrective actioBs are appropriate to rectify defi-
by any qiven factor but a fee coumnly quoted extrP.'t :iencies found in the perforuance analysis. Ttre
arc the follouing: corrective action can be one or mre of the foll'osing:

a Optiaize exi.sting softuale Eo reduce che disables comunications can cause large
consunption of resources. nunbers of corutunicati,on errors in addition
. Install additj.ooal hardware or upgrade the -!o a backlog of alarEs and scate changes
exi.sting hardrrare in the area of deficiency; uill be detected srhen the disturbancethathas
e.g. disk storage, oain mercry, or central cleared. A microsave loop systeB yill
Processlng unit. exhibit this condition rrhen comunications
. Relax the standards of perfotilance. are switched frou one direction or patlr to
. FeapPraise the requirenent for the nev the other due co a disturbance srrch as a
prograro(s) - signal fade. The systeu will have a comun-
ication loss of several seconds but all RfUs
?he major uncertainty in this step is in knouing using that parh sill have cornunicatlon
that the proposed solution yilL, in fact, che errors. ff the path is out :or any period of
problern. In particular, adding or upgrading harCsare t:ne, RfUs will have alarB srate changes
facilities to solve a slrccific defici.ency ma., merely queued up.
move the problem to another area-
System Oisturbances - As storBs and ueather
EFFECTIVE AI,FT,MING fronts Eove across the porder system, nu.Eerous
Kenneth w. lteussner. lleRber alarms sill be received in bursts- The
Houston Lighting and Pouer C(mpanv detected alar:ms can exceed 1S per second.
Usually the entire power systen i.s not
InEroduction af:ected by a storn at the same ti-ure- Oper-
ators can easily be overloaded' uilh alams
Effective alarming can be an elusive ;oe: in an fcom .-he liortions of the power systen being
Energy Manage8Ent Systen (E!4S) - As sysiers ma:::=e :aC af:ected by the disturbance.
grou tBore comP.Lex. Ehere is 3.n i;:creas::; :.:::e::c7 by
sysEem alesigners iu add more :nfornatic:: :r--.:: ::.c:v- Conditions - Extre[re condiEions
idual alarms and th conditions thaE h.rvc. ,-::s:a :hn- =oergency
rhich rhreaten the integrj_ty af a poeer
The additional j,ntornation aids the syscen :!.f:a:cr in systeE can cause so nany alarms thac the
decision making, provided Ehat Ehe al.i:Ts lo not systeB operator could not use the EMs.
overload the ability of thc system operatrr :c assra- Exanples are -netb-ork islanding. and oprator
iLate i.nformaEion. L:nder disturbance and e::ergency activation of systeE voleage reductioa on
conditions, alarns are lrore nLtaerous and cf'.e:: ?rcvide Erost'poser systea buses rvhea there is insuf-
redundant information. Bulsc alarm ?rccessiag of 5O0 ficient leneration ro hand:,e the load.
Lo 9OO alarms trEr minute is being iicorFcr:Eed in Alarns lesultinq froll either crf these cases
EllS's beir:g built today. can ovelvhel.n the system operator and oask
critical alatas.
Since the systeln operator can be ccnfro:i-.3d wi,th
more alarms than can be harrdled eflectr:ely, Alarm Strateqies
should provide processed inforrration chac is adequate
:-or system operation, tilrely, and contains lrttle or The follosing techniques Elay be used to insure
no redundant data. that a system oprator receives opci-Eul.o infor86tion.
AIaEr CondiEions Alaru Acknouledg&ent - Alarms shouLd not have
to be acknosledged by the systeB operator as
Conditions cn the power svsten anC .qurpment the alarrns are presented on the CRT. The
monitored by the EMS can cause ihe acE:vation of large system operator knous by the CRj display, by
numbers of alarms. lhese alarms nay be valid or output on a printer, or by related events
invalid Cepending upon circumstances. Sonc exanples that .rn alarn has been acti,vated. Having the
of conditions yhich create burst type alarm are as system operator make a sepalate alara
follows: acknouLedgment is an unnecessary step since
each alarar oessage presented to the systeE
. Systen Start-up - When an EMS is inirialized operator requires that he mke a decision
or ehen it is restarted from a failure (ignore, respond, etc-) -
cor:dition, all teleretry data that Cocs not
match a 'defauLt. (start-up) condrtion will Filtered Alarms - Alarm information should
aplEar to the EltS as abnomal si.tuations- As not be redundant- Inr'ormation which is
a result, al.arms are issued. ,I.his sill occur useful by itself may be either
during the initial systen scans thus causing or noc important in certain situations. As
hundreds or thousands of al.rms ro be an exampLe, an unden-oltage alam is useful
generated in a burst mode- inforDatj.on as a single alarm condj-tion tut
is reCundant if status changes indicate loss
o Data Set Svitch - An EHS requrr!,s constant of power feed.
additions and corrections to the data base rn
order to proprly refl.ect the equrFment in Message Buffering - Alarms should be spooled
the field. Host of the time, the corrections on a large CRT message output buffer. Ttle
will be minor and will not require a regen_ buf fer should consist of rultip).e pages of
eration of the data base- The correctrons flressages. This uill allow the system oper-
wil-L be nade in an off-line data set and will. ator to go backward in the rnessage output
be suitched to replace the on-lrne crta set. queue on the CRT vithout being reguired to
Status of points in the neH datJ set shich hunt back through a printer's output.
differs fron the scan data status si lI
generate alarng. Lost ALarns - Alalus shou!.d never be lost due
to burst or continuous alarm processing
a CoEmnication System Dropout - The !-,r.kbone loads. lrith todayrs computer systems, there
of any EMS is the coraunicatron system rhrch is no reason to ever lose alarms due to
ties the systeni cmputers with rercre rer_ corq)uter processing work loads- The systec
minal units (RTUS) . A disturban,_-e uh rch

operaeor may have Eo sait Eo see all Ehe concerns include ut:, qualified instructj.onal
aiarEs, dePendent uPon CRT output. rate, but designers, Ceveloping PSO perfomrance st,andards, and.
no alanns should be lost due Eo Ehe El'lS- dedicating adequate resoulces to the dsign effort.

, ALarE Categorj'e3 - Ala:5ls should be seParated rE has beer,- well docuEented that a structured
into categories to allor prioritizj'ng and to approach to Ehe design of trai.rring progralrs proves to
allov seqaenting by oPerator irosition- be che most effective in causing specific desired
behavior changes. If a structured approach hrere to be
a Presentation - AIarD Eessages shouLd be used in designing PSC training programs, an instruc-
presented on the CRf using the capabilities rional specialist sould be assigned the responsibility
of the cBf systela (including color, shape, of designrng a training prograE for a specified group
font, screen Posltion, etc.) to enhance alarrr of PSOS. T:.e lnstructional specialist uould work sith
ldenttfication. llessage texE should be shorE' PsO subject raccer experts to determine ehe perf-
and concise. onnance standards expec:ed of successful traineesi to
ldenti!-y th. k-r.owLedge, ski11s, and abiliti-es needed
. AIarE Requirenent - Any alarm for aa Eys to meet the cesired performance standards; and to trrake
should be thought aut and justrfied :s :c reecmendatrons rega-rdirg the nost effectise
need, advantage, and dependency. 'Alans i:lstructional,/learning t.echniques for ensuring that
shosn to t.he system otrErator should =e Ehe trainees accuile the knowledge, skills, and
IiloiEed to those alarurs necessary for Pcwer abi.lities to meet che desired perforarance standards.
systeEi cPeraEion.
Using this structured apprcach to training desifn
a Preprocesslng - ilarn processing cec:s:.cns c:n take severai ncnths or nore, <iepending upon the
should be made uhere b'1 :'m!tr:ers conplexit-\' o: i-he pro j ect and the avai- La-bi,1ity of
and not b7 :he system operator. As : :acl, recessary Elar.power- while thj-s ap_Dears to be time-
the comPuter systeBr can do some oi :!:e :-:r-cr consr:aring and expensive, this investmelrt is necessary
decisicn naki-ng :-hus relievi:9 --i'e s'.'-s--:s to ensure that the :raininq prograB giLl cause desired
operator of unnecessary ucrk- behavior char.ges-

. Alarm Prio! j.ty TYPes - AlarErs sh.c:.L i ':e unfortunately, a structured approach to the
prioritized by tyPe. Many :o:-cr:--:'li Cesign of PSO training prograEs is rarely utilized-
alarans can be Presented tn categcr'," ::jpe Vore coNnonly, a senior PSO or an operations engineer
displays while using an oFeratsi'cns n:'-s::qe is assigned the responsi-bility of designing a training
display for time critical alarns- plograln on a specific topic. Most eLectris utilities
do not have clearly defined perforurance standards or
SurE0ary procedures- Since they Elay be unaHare of the neces-
sity of deteEnin:ng the desired behavior outcoEes and
As Elore inforEation i's beinq lncluded l: '-he the regulsite, skills, and
modern El.!S, there Eusr- be concerted effort :a lresen! abiliEies, t,he systeB operator or engineer usually
the systeB oPerator with the information:h3E is Coes not make any atteEpt to link the training prograo
needed to oPerate the Poser syster- l'lore preProces- to desired behavior changes. As a result, typical
sing and filtering of alaas is needed :o pr.vent program design ccnsists of an outline of topi,cs to be the system oPerator- Effecti-ve rltrnLnq i.ncluded in the prograa wi.thout any focus on how the
instead of point alaraing is reguired. lt rs --he PSO should use the inforrution in perform:ng his job
system operatorrs actj.ons upon which we if,ust rel'1 :c responsibilities .
preserve the Power systen in nornal and ene:gency
condi.tions. ?rogram Developnent

PROBLEHS IN THE DESIGN, DEVELOPMEMI, AND OELIV=RY C' Problems are also encouneeled in the proceqs of
QUALiTY SYS?E}4 OPEFATOR TRAINING PROCRAI{S deveLoping quality 9SO tlainj,ng proglams. Three areas
l'laureen E. Cooper, Associate Mehber Ceserving aElention are the utilization of qualified
Potomac Electric PoHer ComPany program developers, the efficient utilizatj.on of
available rescurces, and the abili.ty to support long
Introduction or expensive prograrn development schedules.

The northeast blackouts caused the electri.c In the ideal situaticn, an instructional special-
uti.lit)- industry to focus on the trai.ning of ?a'rer ist would be assigned the responsibility of overseeing
System Operalors (PSOS)- Up to that tine, mcst PScs the devclopment of training materials to support the
Iearned hoH to operate thej.r system throuqh lnf.rFal program's aporoveC design. The instructional speciaL-
on-the- job training- rn the ensuing !'ears. - -:1'/ rst uould be given sufficient time, money, and
:rai.ning progrus have been designed, develcg.:d. ;;d resource perscnrrel to adequately manage this
delivered to PSOS- Although a great deal <rf ei: rt development efforr.
has gone into their devel.oprnnt. most of thc ; r. :r,rs
provide infomti.on a-bout electrical systems, t .: ,:i The instructional specialist would oversee the
no! train operators hm to apply this infom.r: I ;a ri deveLopment and testing of all lnstructional mate-
fulfilling thej,! actual job responsibi]]trcs- :'. rj.als, alL learning materials, and all evaluation
purpose of this short note ls to hiqhlight some : ::'l materials. The materials aould be made in shatever
reasons why little progress has been made rr: .-.j? 5 i :.- media uas identified in the progran design and could
ing, developing. and delivering proglams that r,:r:r::i' include computer simulations, texts, sLides, video-
train PSOs to perfom thej-r reguired trsks : - | talEs, role plays, audiotapes, or other materials-
specified nanner-
llherever practical and economical existing
Progran Design traininq materials vould be modified and used.
l'todif j,cations rcuId be almed at irproving the mate-
There are many problems assoctated ulth /ir-sr;'- : rials' appropriateness and effectiveness in reeting
quali.ty Pso trai.ning programs. Three of the i : :- , r', the new training progran's objectives and might

include changes such as resriting or reforrDatting text of the nost effective pSO training tools, their
ro i.Bprove its readabilj.ty, adding relevant i1lus- have li-nited their use to a fet{ electric utilities. costs
trations, addlng detaiL to coBputer si-nulations,
developing coRpey-specific operatj,ons exercises to Concl,usion
replace generi.c exercises, or edlting Eaterial on a
wideotape. Nct, prograa Eaterla-l.s rrould be developed The resl,onslbilities of pSOs are in an evolu-
shere necessary, to met the progra!'s objectives. tionary statc. over the next fee years there will bG
significantly greater econmic advantages to be gained
When aLl. naterials had been developed, they uould through better training of pSOs. three areas ghich
be proofed for technical accuracy. field tested, desene specific attention are:
revised uhere necessary, and then lade available for
actual training sessions- . Training pSOs to effectively utilize a nfl
generation of energy control systeDs-
The process of developing quality tlaining . Training pscrs to operate the electric systeE
materi.als is both t.itne-consuning and fes sith <n.ller reserve capacity and ssuller
electric ucj.lities have instluctional specj.alists uith nargin for error.
unlimited resources to dedicate to Ehe development of . Training pSOs to nake maxinuar benefiE of
PSO tlaining aatelials. Male frequently, the systen energw tra$sactj.cns.
operator cr engineer who was assigned the responsl_
bility of a train!_ng progran ts also The econoaic losses possible through incorrect
assigned ihe responsibility of developing the related systea opelations due to inadequate training ni1!. be
materiaLs in a short ti&e period wich a lin:,ted greater in the coming years, and conversely, the
budget. .Ls stared earlier, the designated system econoEic benefits of correct systeE operations are
operator or engineer rarely has any for:nal :rar:.:::g in best attainable rrhen pSOs have ;ob_specj.fic
instructional technology and is, the=efore, u:.elare ct- training that has been well designed, weli devei.cped,
the need to consiCe! such things as ti.e of and weII delivered.
practice required tO learn hoH to perfcrn a iask, :he
irEpact of layout and desigm on the readabii::y of ISSUES AIID PROBLEMS IN
printed text, or the advantages of using one -_;pe of POWER SIS?EU RESTORA?ION
instructional uraterial over another-
u.u .r
IRD Corlroration Philadelphia Electric Co.
Working within these constraints, rhe program Introduction
Bateria}s tend to be gathered rather than develcped,
and frequently consj,st of ururcdified, readily avail- This short note briefly describes .soBe
able Bateri.als such as off-the-sheIf videotapes, probleras encountered in the three phases of ofpouer
nanufacturers' literatule, and copies of c-oerating system restoration (pSR), uith the intent of identi-
procedrrres. Because the progran developers are not fying analytical tools needed for their solutions.
skilled in uraking other instructional marerrals such The thlee phases of pSR are the following: planning
as videotapes, role-plays, o! computer-assisted for restart and reintegration of the bulk pove;
instruction, the materj.als developed tend ro be supply, actions during systeE deg,radation for siving
oriented towards foraal classroom-styIe trarning. and retaining critical sources of porrer, and restor_
?hese naterials usually provide technical irformation, ation when the poser slrstea has stabilized-
but do not train the pSO hoH ro apply the infcrrnarion
in perforoing his job. In the planning phase, problems can primarily be
Progra.B Deliverv
addlessed by off-line anal,ysis or simulation. During
the degradation phase, control problens need solutions
in real-tine and withj,n the short_time ratings of
Given a pSO training prograe that has been well Ii.nes and equi.purent. In the restoration phase, the
designed and developed, there are still obstacles to problears can be addressed by on-Iine analysis, pre_
the effective delivery of the prograD. The lack of senting the results to the operator for execution.
qual.ified instructors, the lack of sranhours avai}able
for training and the cost associated wit]: uslng some Restoration ?rcbletns
tlaining progra"Ex, can prevent good tlaining programs
fron being used. 1. Fault location - The najor dlsturbances i.n the
The ideal pSO trainer souLd be not onll a systen
bulk pover supply are -crimarily caused by tran_
oPerations subject Batter expert, but also a quaLified sj-ent faults and ocerators, errors, mostly
technica] instructor. Host pSO traj,ners are sublect originating in Ehe transmission systems, and
matter experts, but, have received little or :o ore_ resulting in area wiCe outages. A very large
paration Eo assist thea j-n cond.ucting trai":.g's"s_ number of initj.ating causes of interruptions are
sions- if an instructor does not unders:a:d :he due Eo temporary faul:s, which are imediately
purpose and value of the materials and rescs assoc_ cleared, ieaving the systen in an unfaulced
iated uj,th a training prograD, he is noc lt:<ely :c use condicion. Therefore, identification of the
theE as they rere intended. cause of a poeer failure does not necessarily
enhance the restolation, and iS not considered as
Given a well designed, weIL deveIcFeC._.:cr3m a high priority pSR prcblen.
with a gualified instructor, there is sr:.ll :. :rar-
antee the progr.rE riLl be used. !,bst enerqy l. Interconnection assiscance - The d.evelopment of
centers are not staffed to scheduLe suff:c:ert::::rlltrne
the systeo restoraticn plan from a coa5:)-ete
collapse and without incerconnection assistance,
for training sessiong. In such cases, oce.f,:jrs :jve is relatively straighr:orsard- fn plactice, due
to rork overtine to participate in traj.::j.:(; ;_:sst:is, to corrective actlions, systeE disturbances are
or the traioing sesslons Eay not be heLd :s frequentl.y usually arrested prior to the coEiplete collapse.
as nece3sary or desirable.
Furtherrcre, so8e level of interconnection
A third proble8 concerns the cost of some i..saea assistance rrculd proba.bJ,y be availa-ble- tte
operator training proglius. Although pover j.jj--.n present practi.ce is to activate the Et{V inter_
sioulaeors and coaputer-assisted instruciron .;;--,; connections in the systeo being restored rhen
unj.ts uith large reactive pouer absorbing capa-

bilicies arc in service- There is a need for which rninirnize changes in generation parterns
establishing a siople'and quantitative guideline, rhi.Ie reducing che specific phase-angle
such ag the ratio of available reactive absorbing difference.
capability to thc charqing current of the EHv
llna, vhlch nould allov inEerconnection 9. Lor frequency isolation schenre - During systeE
actlvation. degradation, it is desirable to isolate certain
generators uith 'natching" local, loads to retain
3. Assessnt of svitcung status - Partial systeE critical sources of porer. Under this scheEe,
outage a,lvot rcllanca oD the interconnection the gcnerating units do not have to be restarted
necessitates asse3sEnts of both systeB and frca. a aonplete shut-down, thus saving several
interconnection svltching status- This is a preci.orrs hours. ?he scheme requiles that during
process rrhich uses uP critical tine. Sorne peak 3r.d light load conditions, Load an<i gener-
utilitie3 autor.atically oPen all c:rcuit breal:ers a:icn &ismatch be within the cver-and-under-
upon loss of rrottage to siloPlify and speed-up the frequency lin.:.ts. FurtherBore, it requires
reintegration Process. Othels Prefer che coordination of plant control, protective
breaker stored energy and mininize breaker systems, and interlock systems to enhance
operations b1' iudicious selection and operacion generating units' partial load rejection
of breakers. The suitching oPerati'on has been capabilities.
responsiJrle for slowing aany actual resEoratlon
processes and de$ands special attention- 10. Incentional islanding - 9lhen airo groups of
generators bcgin to lose synchronisn, it is
4. Frequency and +oleaqe responses of prime novers - advisable to separate the two groups. It is
the size of load increments which can be pickec- desirable to select locations ior separation
up depends on the frequency and voltage res;cnses where the load-generation in each group
of prine Erovers. Load'Pick-ups at small ::.:re- is "ninimal", and syrchroni,zing equi.praent is
nuts prolong the PSR. with l.rrge i'r,::::e:.--s, available for reclosing. To ensure satisfactory
there are risks of frequency decline or :-:i:a3e islanding, it lray be necessary to use "blinders"
dip beyond recovery- The challenge is '-. ':st3b- to block relays from the tripping whele splitting
lish guidelines vhich sould indicate Ehe :f,rgest is not desira.ble, and aLlord relays to trip ehere
load increraent which would keep freque:cv cr it is desira.ble. The intentj,onal islanding has
voltage to rithin accePtable lirnits. been used ir. very few systesrs. It's inpleenen-
tation is an engineering challenge.
5. Cold load prck-up - It is imgortant '-u- k:os
approxinately the arount of reaL ani.?ac::'te 11. Local load shedding - There is a need for an
loads co be picked-up at any time r-olLo?1ng en on-Iine real-time nethodology Bhich would reu.eve
outag - As the ouiage duration lengtl'.e:rs . Ehe the overloaded eguiElrent and prevent the systea
coincident factor i.ncreases. The lcaC-t:ne from further degradation. Such a nethodology
variation depends on noaral peak and lrEi.c loads, should in the first order of priority be able'to
load power factors, Pouer factor correctlor-s, respond wrthin the short-time rating of equipment
Load type, and the total connected loaCs. The and :.n the second order of priority, "rninlmize"
proble$ is to use these data to Cevelop real 3nd the antount of loads Eo be curtailed in specific
reactive loads versus ti.Be for load pick-up. locations.
6. optiEuta sequencing of generating uniEs scarE-up - L2. Underfrequency relays and sr*itched capacitors -
In restoring a poHer systen, oPerators cfaen need Duri-ng the initial phases of restoration, when
to know in advance the aEounts of real and the system is prinarily under uranual control,
reactive generatlon shich would be avai]abie ac a wider frequency and voltage variations are
future tille. this infornation could be used to tolerated. Under these conditions, automatically
optimize the sequence of the various resacraEion sHi-tched capacitors and underfrequency relays,
operations and allos a sigmificant reduction in which are responslve to voltage and freguency,
the outage duration. The need is for timely !'espectiveLy, will hinder the restoration pro-
identification of critical timings of prlme cess- the problen is vhether, and to shat
movers and efficient coordinati-on between coger extent, these devices should be deactivated
plants and porrer system operatj.ons. restoration.
7. Svitching transient voltages - the re!nte- Cor!cIus ion
gration phase, it is desirable to energrze as
large a secticn of high voitage Eransmrssr.on Irne Review cf the past malor power distulbances by
as transient voltages will aIl.ow. Eiergrzrng the Power S)'stem Resroration-Task Force (PSR-TF) shoes
snal.l sections tends to prolong the reslcrrtlcn that these dist.urbances have occurred at random, each
process. In energizinE a ),arge section, :here r.s disturbance has had someshat different restoration
alHays the risk of damaging the rnsulatron. tl-.e problems, anci in each case the systeB operators have
need is tor a simple nethodology whrch can pIayeC a critical role in restoling the system. It
readily establish guidelines for enerr;l; rn9 appears to be di.fficult to analytically fomulate
transnission Ii.nes. generally applica-ble tools- On the othe! hand, Lhe
kneLedge-based exlrcrt systeEs , shich wou Id a!. lou
a. Standing phase angles - One of the concer:s and olEracors' heuristic probl.em so].ving capabilities, do
constraints j.n closing the next Ere ..o :he seem to be suited to the restoration. problens- This
adjacent systeg is the excessive phase-an9 Ie is especially the case if vays can be found to inte-
difference yhich may exist. Closlng a .-re-lrce grate them uith analytical. tools outlined in thj.s
on a large phase-angle difference ma)' iruse papr. Until the availabili.ty of such mthodol-ogies,
instability. The angle" can be recuced it is the PSR-TF's position that siople restoratlon
by altering the generation pattern ol bcth guidelines should be developed based on the identified
interconnecting systens (or subsystems). :::ere analytical tools for the short-terE inplementation-
is a need for generation prcgrss

Discussion when a synchronizing feed is established, the units are available to come
on-line and pick up load. Many European utilities incorporate this feature
Jack Feinstein (Consolidated Edison of NY, Inc., New York, NY): In response in their station design; the difficulty in this country is retrofitting this mode
to Mr. Adibi's request I am pleased to comment on the short note presented of operation on existing units.
by Messrs. Adibi and Scheurer concerning problems associated with system 7) Switching Tronsient Yoltages-The study and preparation of detailed
restoration. restoration plans as described in item 2 above should help with this problem.
Con Edison experiencd a complete system shutdown in July, 1977. This 8l Standing Phdse Angle-Facilities are present in every control center with
unfortunate event, however, presented us with the opportunity to leam from automatic generation control equipment to permit operation as an isolated
it and make system improvements to avoid a reoccurrence. Onc specific area island on flat frequency control. The adjustment of the system frequency
in which a considerable amount of investigation was performed was in system can be made yia load frequency control set points to change from a stan-
restoration. This note will attempt to provide the reader with a summary of ding angle to a "slipping" system.
the work performed by Con Edison. 9) Low Frequency Isolation Schemes-Agr* as explained in item 6.
lO) Intentional Islandlag-This may be an engineering challenge but it is an
Restoration Problems operating nightmare. Generally two groups of generators will begin losing
l) Fault Locstion-I concur completely with the authors in that the location synchronism during system disturbances involving voltige or stability pro-
of the fault is not important. The cause of the blackout involves an sgt.eer- blems. Although intentional islanding is an option to an operator, it should
ing investigation. The responsibility of the operators is to operate within
only be used as a last resort to save a power system. The philosophy adopted
established criteria and to restore the system as rapidly as possible if a by the Northeast Power Coordinating Council has been to preserve as large
blackout occurs. an island as possible by matchitrg generation to load via underfrequency
2) Intercomection Asbtance-Con Edison has prepared an extremely detailed Ioad shedding relays. I believe that industry experience has demonstrated
restoration plan. The overall plan consists of eight separate plans that are that disturbances have been successfully quelled via underfrequency load
independent of each other. Plans I through 7 consist of reenergizing the shedding, enabling the Stabilized island to resynchronize to the larger system
bulk power system (comprised of all transmission and generation) using and thus facilitating the restoration of the load that was shed.
the interconnection transmission lines with neighboring utilities. Plan 8 ll) Local Load Shedding-The Con Edison energy m.rnagement system was
assumes that assistance is not available and the Con Edison system will be
delivered with an online real-time load shedding system designed to relieve
restarted via internal generation. During the development of the plans,
overloads on interconnecting transmission feeders. The program is known
special consideration was given for the control of voltage. Because a major
as Tie Line Overload Load Shedding (TLLS) and is currently in the test
portion of the Con Edison bulk power system consists of oil-frlled pipe-
mode at Con Edison. Upon completion of the installation of additional
type feeders, their reactive contribution can have a catastrophic effect on
redundant metering it will be placed in service and permitted to shed load
a lightly loaded system. The plans have been prepared to provide the when overloads are detected.
operators with information to control system voltage. To safely energize 12) Uaderfrequency Relays and Switched Capacitors-During restoration when
the system, the operators need only maintain the voltage below a predeter-
the system is in a less secure state, automatic operation of underfrequency
mined level at the station from which the interconnecting feeder emanates.
relays or voltage controlled capacitors will assist the operators. The trip
Studies have been conducted that demonstrate that no unacceptable voltages
settings for these devices should be at a level that protects the system dur-
will be experienced as the sections of the system are energized prior to load ing normal operation but will not be a hindrance during restoration. For
being picked up.
example, our network start-up plans prior to the 1977 blackout required
Con Edison has a system response simulator for oprator training. The that the substation operators remove from service the phase overcurrent
model was modified to permit training of the operators in the restoration
relays of each distribution feeder prior to network startup. This was an ac-
plans. Thus the operators are familiar wilh the plans and the effects on
tion that both delayed restoration and exposed the station to the conse-
system voltage of reenergizing transmission feeders. quences of delayed clearing of a feeder fault that developed during star-
3l Asessment of Switching Status-Con Edison's energy management system tup. We have since changed the relay settings oD our distribution feeders
was placed in service in April 1985. A key feature is a dynamic mimic (map)
so that the protection does not have to be defeated during startup.
board that displays status of all bulk power system circuit breakers. The
restoration plans provide for opening a minimum number of circuit Conclusion
breakers, even though all of the bulk power substations have emergency
A "Knowledge-Based Expert System" (artificial intelligence) should be con-
diesel generators for light and power. Delays in startup are caused by the
sidered a long range goal not only for system restoration, but for eventual total
garhering of information and the need to communicate orders to field per-
automatic control of the power system. In the interim, it is incumbent upon
sonnel. We avoid unnecessary circuit breaker opening and have designed utility operating management to develop detailed resroration plans for their
the restoraiion plan so that no manually operated disconnect switches need power systems and to assure that they are kept up to date as the system changes.
to be opened during the restoration. During the development of the plans it may become apparent that new facilities
A significant problem to Con Edison is the time required to individually will be needed to permit implementation of restoration in a timely manner. Train-
start up more than 50 networks. These networks consist of 12 to 24 high ing of the operators in restoration techniques and philosophy is also a high priori-
voltage (13 or 27 kY) distribution feeders that must be energized ty, especially since it should be very r;ue that they will ever have an opportuni-
simultaneously. In 1977, this required the operation of a startup/shutdown ty to experience a blackout and use it as a learning experience. A power system
control panel by an operator in each substation. If it took only l0 min per response simulator is the ultimate tool in preparing operators for system
netu'ork to coordinate the operator's response, it would take 8 h to restore restoration.
jusr the networks which provide service to about 85 percent of our load.
In order to expedite restoration of the system, remote control of 50 per- Manusdipt raeived February 24, 1987.
cent of the connecred load can now be restored from the Con Edison energ]'
control center. The computerization of our distribution supervisory con-
trol system scheduled for 1990 completion *'ill permit the restoration of E. F. Kaprielian (Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA): The writer
all load via remote control. appreciates the opportunity to comment on the papr addressing the subject
4l Frequency and Voltage Response of Prime Movers-The plan that provides "Systems Operating Challenges." It is quite obvious that the working group
for the restoration of load using internal generation resources was developed members have good knowledge of what can and does occasionally happen to
to LLse the large blocks of gas turbine generators installed on the Con Edison bulk power systems when, as a result of faults or maintenance and operating
sysrem- Modifications were made to both the governor and voltage errors, there is a serious mismatch between load and generation. The results
re_eulators of rhe multiple unit installations so that they could be operated usually mean loss of customer load and separations both betu'een control areas
in parallel without tripping via anti-motoring relays. The intent is to take and within systems. However, the paper's conclusions do not appear to follow
advantage of the fast governor response of these units to pick up large blocks rhe observations identified in the body of the paper. In rhe conclusion, it would
of nerwork load, then transfer the load to large base-loaded units freeing have been helpful if, instead of referring to "these disturbances," the authors
up rhe gas turbines to pick up additional load. would have identified the specific disturbances they analyzed that led to the
5) Cold Load Pic&-up-The only load that is affected by length of time from conclusions. While I would agree that "knowledge-based expen systems" should
the initial outage is equipment rhat is temperature dependent. It has been be of value and a part of every system operator's training to deal q'ith bulk
Con Edison's experience that long duration outages will not necessarily resulr system emergencies, the paper does not in itself prove its case.
in -ereater load pick-up. Some refrigeration, heating, and air conditioning Other comments concerning the "Issues and Probiems in Power System
load requires manual intervention to be restarted. A portion of commer- Restoration" section include the following. In paragraph 2, the statement is
cial and industrial load also requires manual interveniion to start, while made that "development of system restoration plans is relatively straight-
residential customers have a tendency to shut off appliances during a forward." Development of the plan may be simple but implementation can be
blackout out of concern for "surges" when the electricity comes back on. quite another matter when one considers a) the rapiditl' with which system crises
Based on experience during major area shutdowns, Con Edison assumes can develop, b) the infrequency of the system operator having to utilize the plan,
that the load that will be reenergized is about 80 percent of the load prior c) the challenge of keeping system operators updated in the major facets of the
ro the shutdow-n- plan and, d) no two cases of trouble are ever the same.
6) Optimum Sequencing of Generaing Units Starl-zp-This is one of the mosr In paragraph 4, the paper could have given recognition to the role that
imprortant goals. However, the ideal sequence is not to have to restart an). automatic load restoration can fulfill in load restoration. This practice has been
units but to have therir running and isolated to their auxiliary transformers. very satisfactorily used by one large west coast utitit)'(PC&E) for over 25 liears.

two interconnected systems as well as between two connected
Paragraph subject of standing phase angle-s between systems'
8 addresses the within a system when an attempt is made to close additional ties
or lines
same problem can also
Th" il&;ilr;;;io u e*panJ"a to recognize ihat the values de-
tolitrn up ttt. bulk power tranimission system' The acceptableused
how to reduce phase angles, system
.ir, "iif,i"-" ,vuem. In addition to knowing *nJ oni'fr" roftage Gvels. Typical synchrocheck relay settings in some
#;;;;;;;;;t" i"tt*"t"a - to what c-onstitutes a.' acceptable phase angle ;;;hil;il#"i. oo a.ii"o for 500 kv, l{l degrees for 230 kv' and
ulioi. .ro*r. of breakers at open tie points. permitted' ;d;;;;;i;t it5 kv. Ho*iu.r, the need is for an-efficient methodologv
"'iii it"-rgtt, 12 is not necessarilv correct that guideline wirich would reduce the standing phase angle
""-munic"ted-l'n-ptt'gt"ptt relays will hinder.the iA, .ialfiJ".i"ative
"automatically switched ""pt"ii"itt"i underfrequencysupport the conclusion' i.'it.-iff.*"Urc tmi;without resorting to raising and lowering various
procesr." t papei ptesents no evidence to basis and spending criticd time'
" iriins'pa[' winter Meeiins bv Mr' Adibi ;;;;G; on a trial-and-error
to what ex-
zl in-"araeraoh l2' the authors pose this question: "whether and
-wiirtort tuatt *i'ictt "t-.1ttt
did much to enhance the value of the
" ;;i,:r;iliil;".v i.r"vi *d t*it"hta t"p"citors should be deactivated"
this'supporting information, the short paper seems to treat
.r*t i""iiit.t. tt i .est;ration process' This problem is based on the following
ff;il;il;;jil i;'" rath-er cursory manner' As.written' the paper pro- io
lrf . puting tt " ."rt"tt and reinteglation
phase when automatic
;il;t-;';;i;i ;;;itist of "o*iaerations to be evaluated in reviewins the
that while some problems rr*"tiipped tU and the system is primarily under manual control'
emergency plans of a ,y.t"-. it must be recognized iii"r rureoor vouge ana frequincy fluctuations are tolerated than under
and designs play
.." i!.#.", i. al systems, i"ai"iiuaf systeniconfigurations nor*A oi"tution. Tie underfriquency relays ge rluallv set toshed
i-*""f,". role in developing restoration plans'"i a""i"tions of frequency at'd if not deactivated' would trip cer-

U, tain feeders which are necessary for loading generators and energizing
Manuscript received Februuy 1987 '
iransmission tines, thus impedinjthe restoration process' Likewise'
process by
;;;;;it"., on time-clock conirol may hinder the restoration
pi*iii"g reactive power at a time when it is not needed' and give rise to
-^ -
voltages in underground end orerhead transmission lines.
for their com-
M. M. Adibi and D. Scheurer: The authors thank the discussers due to space -i""urv t igh
One solution w6uld be io avoid pi&ing up feeders having
these devices in
;;;;;il;;riions, allowing clarification of some points which'
Before attempting to the early stages of restoration.
ii.ii",i"", iould noi be mad-e in this short-noteto paper' 8) authors are in agreement that the detailed system restoration
plan has
;;;;; ,;;;dc questions, we would like make the followins seneral "' The;';;;;fi"aiv a.i.rop"a to meet the particular requirements of an in-
dividual power system. However, most power systems have
--it. po*".
comments. certain
System Restoration Task Force (PSR-TF) to date has during the restora-
paper reports on.the power industry's characteriitics in common and bhave in a sirnilar manner
trt..elgir papers. The first [1], it should be possible to esablish a general procedure
major disturbances' The
t"p'pti"i fbllowing ii"t pi*"ri. tt
nractices in restoring bulk power "tefore, which would enhance rapid restoradons [4]'
."J'" fitt of guidelines,
;;;;;;],i". pians for ali ttrermal, hvdrothermal' and all hvdro
Mr. Feinstein provides a brief discussion of Con Edison's approach towith
rele- ad-
;;;;;.;;; ;"it"p"riir" -.,t' It includes power svstem characteristics
vant to restoratron, covenng load-generation balance, reactive power balance' ar.rri"g i-ft" ii itiues and problems' The authors are in general agreement
and roles of protective and control systems'
*^in-iit disiusser, but will attempt to clarify certain.issues'
system similatots meet the training requiremenc for
..."na report [2], the PSR-TF reviews industry's exryriences wilh th.e
in the
48 major bulk power system disturbances which had been recorded pro- ""Jlure
,.i"irig t*Ji"" p"wer balance and keeping satisfactory- voltage conditions during
."r*.?i., fsi.'a similar effort is "eeiea to develop a long-term dpamic
iSzt-;3 NERc R"po.t.. Th" paper identifies 19 cases.vhere restoration bala-nce and
Ui"*rLa U".n "nc;untered. ihise problems are described, ranked, and listed simulator for training operators in maintaining a generationJoad
during iestoration. This entails model-
by type and frequency of occurrence'
-'Thi Current
ilil;;rf*.rv IvrL,,, frequency
panicularly helpful
present short-note paper has been response to the ine boiler-turbin.-g"n"rutor, -,i thelr contr-ollers, and is
PSR-TF contribute loads'.
Op"*tL.a F-blems working Group's request that th.e The authors had to
in-a *.tropolitan iystem having large network
raise and lo*'er fre-
to-" fir*p"" paper on "systei Operitions Challenges"' UrrJ".fr.qu.ncy liad sheddini and partial load rejecdon
moit significant restoration "issues and problems" to 1000 words' ouencv and minimize load-generition mismatch in an island
after its occarrence'
il;;i;." of the-short-note presentation, fotlowed by a panel discussion' ffiirG;;il;;it'oi inientionattv forming an island along desirable boun-
*ri i. fi"tia" a forum for bringing forth current operational problems' and daries
--Iir; rather than unintentional islanding [8]'
purpose' . iita, as the name imfli"., "l""itt* ouirloads oq.the infeeding transmis-
-- that end this paper met the intended
to .
overloads which oc-
and in our opinion
it *uny qu.siions raised by the discusierJ are legitimate .ion ii".iltt. itsue raised for consideration concerns the
their "discussions are a valuable-complement to the paper. However,
a,i.'"" irt. lines and transformers t'hich supply various substa-
.i Jr p"irit i. aeierving detail rvould make this closure unacceptably long' For ".a".ground bulk power supply' In.thelatter case' it is important
,1"". i.; -.trop"olit"n load cunailments'
"' reason, only a brief discussion
this can be offered' io Ji..",f-" relateiquipment overloads to specific substation
to each one individuallv. of such corrective
fr,f .. irpiiJi"i, raises eight poinrs. We will respond Eouallv important-is ihe coordination of the respouse times
..iioni the severity of overloads'
l) For identification of specific disturbances on which the authors' conclusions "itit
whery Mr.Feinstein,scommentonthelow(S0percent)coldloadpick.upissue.ap.
are based, the discussir is referred to the PSR-TF second report [2] from the prevailing vieu" and rherefore it needs evalua-
these disturbances are revierved and their restoration
problems identified. p.;;;;; il;d;parture process-
iion to determine its general applicability in the resloration
-' Application of "knowledge based system".inpower system
in i',, infancy. A literatur;search shows a single pioneering effort [3]'

authors' reiommendation for providing operators with a simple set of References

tal, t5l is a short term solution. ttl M. \{. Adibi, et al., "Power System Restoration - ATask Force
:l-' iiigj.ii"g operator training, at the present time the-media for training' ex- IEEE PES 86 SM 329.7.
.r.Iritg, and guiding po*.iiy.t"* operators rangefrom simple instruction fl-rf. Aaiti, et al.' "Power System Restoralion-The Second Task Force
;;;;J;, to uidiouiiual tap.s, to highlv interactive simulators' In the distus- tZl
Report," IEEE PES, 86 SM 330-5'
sionandclosureof[2],theauthorshaveidentifiedtheneedforhigh-fidelity for Po$er
syste*-.ef..enced iimulators for exercising and preparing experienced t:t
'-' i. 'sri."g"cfri, et al.' 'iDevelopmnt of a Knolrledge Based Sysrem
L'p..u,orr,o cope u'ith system-specific and time-critical emergency situations'
iv".*"n".toration," IEfE Trons' Pob'er Apparatus and Slstetns'
such as restorations.
PAS-102, -i"rtu,
Feb. 1983, PP.320-329'
Restoration Plan Developmen" for a
tat ii.^1. ui.,
4)' Paragraph 2 of the paper seeks a simple and quantitative guideline for '' "t
System," IEEE Trars' Pouer Apparottts and S;-stents'
EHV lines or actiYaling interconnections' Untimely energization
"n..{ PAS-100, Aug- 1981, PP-2703-3713'
o, uJtit"tlon could result in the recurrence of outage or have adverse effects ;'iror" of Interactive and Control compuiers in the
on the adjacent system. The authors' intent also was to convey that ir is t5l il.-;. K;ik", it
'- ' De.elopmeni of a"r.,
System Restoration Plan''' IEEE Trans' Po*'er Apparottts
more difficult to ilan for a partial outage than for a complete collapse' In
and Systems, PAS-101' Jan' 1982, pp' 43-51'
the former case, many morJsituations have to be assessed and considered'
In paragraph 4, the concern is for prime movers' frequency and voltage- tOl r..-O. Stt"fti, "Blacksiart Utitizaiion of Remote Combusrion Turbines'
5)' "primariiy '-' anatytlcat Analvsis and Field Test," IEEE PES' 84 WM CA2-3'
d.ciin. in the initial phases (i.e., restart and reintegration) of iti'al Lirre Flo\\ s
restoration [6], when load pick-up is dictated by generation and transmis- fzl p. i.'V"rtv, ".tgorithm for Dvnamic Resched-uling -of Cr
During Sysiem Ristoration," IEEE PES 7l CP 628 PwR-
sion requiremints- The automatic load restoration suggested by the discusser \{odels"'
rst M. .rr.'adiUi, "Power System Protective Relaling and Simulaiion
can be applied during the later stage (i.e., load pick-up phase) of restora- PICA'
Proceedings of tEEE PES 1969
rion when, with adequate prevailing generation there are no risks of unac-
ceptable frequency or voltage decline.
\lanuscript received March 30, t987'
6) The ercessive standing phase angles discussed in paragraph 8 occur between

92WM 106-5 PWRS

A report by the Porer System Restoration t'lorking Grotp

H. i,l. Adibi, Chairman; L- H. Fink, Paper coordinator
Contributing authors are:
c- J- AndreHs F. Arsanjani l,l. l.l- Lanier J- ll. ilitter T. A. Votkmann J. Urubet

I NTRODIJCT I ON tion, frequency dectine, undervottage, autofllatic underfre-

quency toad shedcling, ard other Protective retay actions'
This paper is one of a series presented on behatf of the I'n aidition to these primary atarms, secondary atarms
System dperations Subconmittee Hith the intent of focusing based on calcutated control center comFilter vatues - for
industry attention on poHer system restoration issues' exampte, tine fton rates of change - occur' Fottoring
shutioxn, the rate of nex atarrs slors, but periodic re-
Unconventionat, somexhat unpredictabte nel, uses of butk annunciaiions of persisting abnormat conditions may occur'
poHer transmission systems, coming at a time rhen those Finatty, as restoration proceeds, return-to-normat aIarrrs
system are operating uncomfortabty ctose to their design occur, further taxing the caPabitities of the atarm
timits, are making systems more vutnerabte to potentiaI processing system-
major disturbances, and resutting in renered attention to
thi need for effective restoration fottoxing
prompt and The overall quantities of alarrm in a shutdorn and restora'
possibte major system disturbances. This paper discusses tion scenario can be very high- t'loderatety sized control
a nuber of particutar probtens that require speciat atten- center cofiPttter instattaiions may have 2,000-5,000 analog
tion in the devetopnent of system restoration ptans. m.""r.",r-ni", most of rhich nitl enter an atarm condition
upon shutdonn of the pouer system- Of-the 10,000 or more
tro-state and m'rtti-siate neasurenents in a typicat instat-
EXCESSIVE ALARI.IS DURING RESTORATION lation, severa[ thousand may enter the atarm state due to
C. J- Andrexs, ECC, Inc. retaying actions on generating units, Iines, ard loads'
ini tions of ttExcessiver' Atarrs
over the years utitities have added a large nurber of sub- Def
station alarms to the Energy llanagement System (El4S) to
get better indication of equipment probtems. llany of A revier of controt center user coments related to the
Ihese alarns are activated by zero vottage on the transmis- atarns that occur during major porer system disturbances
sion system, and hence ftood the El{S during a system btack- t1l teads to the conctusion that there are actuatty tHo
out- EllS atarm processing performance has not kept up def initions of lexcessive'r atarms:
Hith the increase in atartm, and during a system btackout
the E!,ts may take several minutes, possibty an. hour, to 1. ilore atarms than can be handted (either at theusing

process alt of the data from the substations. This puter leveI or the system oPerator tevet)
processing not onty detays data pertinent to the restora- general [y avai tabte atarm processing techniques'
tion efforts, but atso affects the performance of the El{S
man-npchine interface. In order for the Eils to be an ef- 2. ilore atanm than are needed to meet operationat objec-
fective toot for system operators in monitoring ard con- tives.
trol. ing the transmission system during restoration,
utitities must recognize and deal Hith the probtem of ex- The probtens associated rith the tro definitions req'rire
cessive atarrs. di f f erent sotution aPProaches-

Atarm processing systems in control center computers vary The Atarm Baektos
xidety in inptenrentation detait, but they att are fundamen-
tatl.y' designed to detect abnormat conditions, annutciate Ihe probtem that mst be addressed invotves the targe ntn-
these to the system oPerator, ensure that the atarm ms- U.. Lf alamrs that xere produced dring the atert, emer-
sage has been recognized (usualty by requiring the system g"r,"y, in extremis st;tes tll teading to the shutdorn'
"nd may trctogtr the corPuter controt system to the
operator to acknonl,edge the atarm), and- c.reate a more or
tess permanent record of the times at }|hich the atarm con- Doint that the corputer systern is practicatty unusabte for
dition occurred and t'as acknortedged. [n" ii."i severat'minutes after etectric system shutdorrt'
i'h;";'"i;t* tlryicatty m.rst be acknortedsed, deteted' or
oitr".*i"" proclssed by the system- o-Perator' The atarms
Atarm processing is effective as Iong as most monitored
vatues are rithin normat ranges or in normal states, atlox- in the iense of Definition 1, because they
ing the abnormal vatues to stand out, hJt during the res-
both the corptrter system and the system operator'
lii"i-" ""ttain pofnt in ihe shutdoLn,and nost of the atarms
toiation process virtualty every measured parameter varies in the state shutdorn become
outside its normat operating range- A major system cot- ihat occurred etErgency
analysis of
lapse may begin nith a singte initiating event, accom- ,."t. Some are of vatue lor after-the-factbut
paii"A by one or ntore alanns. In the minutes that fotlor, ihe conditions that ted to the shutdorn,that the onty
can suc-
if tne poLer system camot be returned to a stabtegenera- atarms of vatue to restoration are those
additionat atanns ritt fottor, indicating toss of Point to the @ or extqnt of the shutdoxn'
io"t of the atarms are-therefor-e also excessive in the
sense of Definition 2.
92 lrM 105-5 PWRS A PaPer recomended and approved To prevent the atarm backtos from hanPering the res-tora-
by the IEEE Power systln Engineerlng coEnlttee of tion process, sqIE conirot center instattations have irpte-
tire IEEE Power Englireerlng Society for presentation ;;;; speciat starm acknoxtedgement modes that acknoL-
at Ehe IEEE/PES 1i92 winter Heetlng, Neu York, New ieee atams in a singte action' The cormon past prac'
York, Jarruary 26 - 30, Lgg2- HanuscrLpE submLtted ii"-".1"timaking a printed record of atarns as they occur
Augusc 30, 1991; uade awal1able for printing hassorptillpsbecmthel'initingfactorinProcessingthe
Noveruber 25, l99l- backtog; the current systen approach of keeping onty a mag-
netic permErnent record has greatty atl'eviated this
rprintcd from IEEE Transactions on probtar.
Power Svstems, vol. 5, no. 4, Nov 1992,
pp.t4t9-Lo7 Zs
ls of Alarm I ance Status aIarms:
Because system shutdoun and restoration represent extraor- o Sxitching devices any uncormanded change o{
dinary operating conditions, the usuaI definitions of status.
atarm importance are of timited vatue for restoration.
Duning restoration, atarms shoutd be associated lrith one o Retays - most relay actions. sorne relay actions
of the fottouing three categories: (e.9., certain distribution Ioad retays) coutd
be ctassified as currentty non-criticat.
1. Currentty critica[ - atarms !hat must be promptty
responded to in order to ensure successfut restora- o Generating unit status information - onty the
tion. on-tine/off-tine status is unequivocatty criti-
ca[. Generating unit tripping and the off-
2- Currentty non-critical. - aIarms that might, under nominal operation that may be required of genera-
some conditions, require pro{rpt system operator atten- ting units during restoration atso tend to
tion, but during restoration are of secordary inrpor- produce a large nurber of atarns associated Hith
tance- This is perhaps the category rith the targest generating unit subsysters, such as auxiliary,
ntrrber of alarms. governor, or vottage regutator syste0E. Ilost of
these may be ctassified as non-criticat from the
5. lluisance - atarms that are atrays of merety nuisance system operator's point of viex, on the asstrrp-
vatue to the system operator. |-lost controt center tion that the ptant operator xitt be kept axare
support staffs xi t I state that there are none of of these corditions by locat monitoring equip-
these, but many system operators would disagree. ment.

The distinction of currentty criticat versus currentty Return-to-nornat for anatog and status atarnrs shoutd
non-criticaI irpties a need fon an adaptive atarm process- not, in genera[, be considered currentty criticat.
ing approach. The atarm system, even if using expert sys-
tem techniques or other fittering algorithms, mrst be abte Return to Other Poier System States
to detect (or be totd) that the poner system is in a res-
torative state in order to present the most vatuabte infor- Atthough, as rpntioned eartier, entry to the restorative
mation. Atarms that are currentty non-criticaI may be state is difficutt to estabtish in terms that the controt
retegated to a tog-onty status in rhich they are onty re' center coflprrter can unanbiguousty determine, return frqn
corded for Iater anatysis. the restorative to other states is even rnore difficutt to
identify. System operator personnel intervention to irdi-
Automated detection of transitions frqn the emergency or cate the transition appears to be the onty practicat ap-
in extremis states to the restorative state is a si9- proach at this time. tthen this transition occurs, defautt
nificant probtem in its orn right. definitions of criticality may be re-estabtished aM use
of normal limits may be resuned.
During restoration, nr:ch operation continues to be outside
of |tnominat.r ranges; this gives rise to the observation Conctusions
that the atarm system shoutd use a redefined set of timits
during restoration in addition to performing fittering l,lostof the approaches described in this paper for mitigat-
based on different atarm type and combination criteria ing the excessive atarms probtem from the system
during this phase. To controt excessive alarm activity, operator,s point of viel can be readil.y inpl.enented uithin
the redefined limits shoutd be, for the most part, retaxed a typicat atarm processing system, once agreement is
retative to the non-restorative state Iimits, but sone key reached on the criteria for dectaring that the system is
monitored vatues might be monitored more ctosety during in the restorative state. The fast atarm acknoHtedgenent
restoration to provide earty rarning that restoration ac- scherne ard redefined atarm ranges are straightforxard ex-
tions are faiting. tensions of current atarm system features. Defining an
alar-m as critical or non-criticat is atso a part of most
These techniques dea[ largety Hith the Definition 2 exces- atarm processing systems; being abte to dynamicatty change
sive atarms probtem- They do not reduce the number of this based on a restorative state indicator is not a dif-
atarrBs that the controt center colrruter mrst process, ard ficutt task. But estabtishing the vatues of the redefined
so do not affect the Definition 1 probtem from the bom- atarm Iimits and performing the finat categorization of
puter point of vier. They do, though, aid the Definition atarms into currentty criticaI and non-criticat categories
1 probtem by reducing the nuber of atarms that the system for the restorative state deiland a deep understanding of
operator rust process. the electric system and, most likety, detailed anatysis
and sisrtation-
critical Atarms to be Expected Durins Restoration
A restorative state indicator is not a part of current con-
0f the atarms that may be expected during restoration, the trot systefirs. llo generat guides for automaticatty deter-
fotloring shoutd be considered currenttv criticat: minir8 the porer system state are in use. The nrost practi-
cat aproach is based on the system operator.manuatly in-
Anatog atams: dicatirB the start and end of the restorative state. scille
control center instattations have atready implemented
o Vottage - overvoltage Hhen sHitching in a tine. atarn system enhancements that initiate different atsrm
presentation or acknorledgement strategies based on the
o Frequency - frequency excursions due to [oad- rate of atarrre. This amounts to a disturbance detector
generation mismatch. rather than a restorative state detector, but it is useful
for preenptive controt of alarm backtogs.
o Loading - major transmission line and trans-
former overtoads. The practicaI capabitities of more comptex inference
processes, e.9., expert systems, to perform adequatety
The redefined restoration state Iimits described ear- during the stress of system shutdoxn and restoration
Iier shoutd be apptied. refiain to be futty denronstrated. The enphasis of most ex-
pert system alarm processing xork that has been reported
to date has been on normat, atert, and emergency state

operation 12,3,47. An extremety Iarge rute base tikety operabiLitv of Fietd Ecnrirnent
ritt Ue required for useful restorative state exPert sys- is the oPerability-
ten alarm processing. A fruitfut initiat apptication of A major issue during system restoration.
atarm processing for- restoration may be of i'ft. controI mechanisms of circuit breakers and motor
"ip"it of the atarms produced during the atert, emer-
anatysis"vJt"m operator disconnects. The controt circuitrv for under
genci, and in-extremis states in an attelpt to infer the is normatty fed off the battery system ard
normal operation is of lor porer requireilEnts' For motor
Iars"'art extent of the shutdoHn, as this information xi[[ ,p.iit"i disconnects, houever, the opening and ctosing
guide the restoration Process-
oouer generatl'y atso comes from the battery system' oPera-
[i;; "; these devices ptaces a high poHeroperated
consulption on
SI,ITCHING DURING RESTORATION the station battery system. t'lhen motor
T. A, Votkmann, Northern States Po}'er Co' n"ata used in'auto sectionalized schemes, considera-
"r. be given in battery capacity design'
tion mJst
One of the first tasks in restarting a PoHer system is to Thus, equipnent oPeration during system restoration m'st
the status of the system. tt is difficutt to U"-"1*lif"."A as a najor determinent of substation battery
reconstruct the sequence of events leading uP to a systern
Generatty speaking, the station batteries are sized
biackout, and to estabtish xhat in service or for-a
out of service. The initial revieu of the system status for a maximum exPected tperation of the equiPment
may not present the system operator xith an accurate in-
creditable substation disturbance fottored by a certainbat-
a;c"tion'of equipnent serviceabitity. During thetransmis- course p..i"J moderate battery toad- To insure adequate
iery service in a system util'ities mlst consider an opera-
of ah" ieadins to the system cottapse many
sion t;nes"r.nt.
may trip due to out-of-step retay operation, or iion of each device in the substation duringtothe restora-
,uy tenporariiy t"g into right-of-ray obstructions' These iion p.o.".. until an AC source is supptied the station
for the res- U"it"IV. If the substation configuration lrust has a nunber of
iilititi"t can be serviceabte, and avail'able ras *iot lrp"."t"a discornects, consideration be given to
toration Process. If the initiating event weather-
retated, the equipnent that apPears to the system operator their operation as it affects battery capacity'
to b" in serviceabte condiiion - for exampte,. ctosed In today's transmission operation, util'ities have a major
breakers on the system'- may indeed be fautted as the a"p.rra"n"" on the EHs foi -oPeratjon of. substation equip-
resutt of Heather causing probtels after the system cot- *"'nt. In a btackout condition in restarting of a porer
tapse. Such possibitities mean that the systeil oPerator it is extrenrty import-ant that the substation
cannot use the status of transmission system breakers "y"t"tn
n"nrot" t.rminat Units tnful' associated cormunication
system cottapse as an indication of rhich equip-
"il"i1n. The effort to ascertain this eouirment rernain in service- "na The RTU to EHS comrunication
'iiiot*t;on is not fauited.
ment is or be conf igured nith atl' DC poxered equignent-
ul'tirnatety ui I t detract f rom the restoration "i"iil-thorta
activity. Hotever, any positive verifiabte faitures m'rst coLd tJeather Effects
be factored into restocation.
Snitchinq Straieeies Util.ities in cotd !.eather ctimates have to take additionat
Drecautions in their system restoration ptans in order to
that il"i-"if""tlvel,y xith cotd Heather conditions' circuit
There are txo general sxitching strategies may be
porer in t!'o areas, to Provide energy
ttatI breakers require AC
u.rd in restoraiion of the transmission system, opentl
op"."riln of thl circuit breaker, and tothat energize
ard ttcontrotted The |tatI openrr st'ategy can i". to cotd reather effects coutd
[.-"."ormti"hed by tocal substation operators or through strip heaters avoid
aIt substation cause faiture of the operating mechanism'
iis p.oi."r. thai open .by
by the system oPerator. Th-e lcontrotted opera- Cotd neather affects circuit breakers in t!'o Hays' First'
iion" straiegy is io controt the configuration of the res-
contraction of the physicat equipnent may resutt inofteaks
toration by operating onty equipnent that is necessary rratl
in the energy storage reservoir used for re-ctosing the
restore the PoHer syitem-'The advantage of the openr]
circuit breakers. Secordty, severat high vottage breakers
i" a m.rctr ctearer, ard more straight for- in cotd
for the system oPerator' The system r."
rard c-onfisuration"[""n.",
"i."i"sv dis gas as the arc interruPtion media; may
to ctose, *""tf,.., tss of Ac PoHer to their strip heaters drop
ooerator has only to determine rhat breakers and
gas to a [eve[ such that the breaker may
i'""t iit lo ue concerned rith previousty ctosed the SF6 Pressure
O. lnopeiattre, or even may resutt in Liquidation of the
breakers, The disadvantage of this strategy is that atl' iiA's"'. (240-270 PsI)- For those circuit breakers that
U.""L"." have to be opened, creating a greater burden on
the liquidation
the stored energy ard Dc controt systems and atso leaving ,"" if6 under pressure for arc extension
ooint of ii nonmtty in the range of 20 to 30 degrees
breakeii in the open position for an extended i"i.inn"ii. ltith the loss of AC heaters to these breakers
period of time. Path of the
ift" titt= for SF5 to tiquify is on the criticalinto the res-
rrcontrotted are bur- po*", .y"t", restart, Lnd m.rst be factored
The advantages of operationrr minimun
ptans. ihe tiquidation- of . SF6 is a srave
den on the ltored energy ard Dc systefiIs, ard breakers not loiatio'n
heaters are designed onty to maintain
used in the initiat operation remaining ctosed' .As ;ili;;
ine "in"" "ttip
sfe-tefiPerature, not to regasify tiquid sF6'
Ur""t"." beconre inoperative due to loss of AC, the breaker
process at
can continue to be connected in the restoration
concern rith cotd Heather is its effect on motor
pl."e of h,rs. The disadvantages are the continuat Another disconnects- Under cotd Heather conditions an
conside;ation of nhat breakers remain ctosed and the ooerated
of to.que is required to operate these
of the energized and de-energized systerns' -In ii""o.r""t=,amount resutting in a greater burden on the su&sta-
eiiher strategy there is an extensive amount ofthrough
""[t"ilon sxitching
tion battery system.
ord"rs, eithei'verbatty to fietd oPerators or the
Er{s- ihe advent of expert syster}s may provide a snitching in the In devetoping systeo restoration strategies utilities m;st
;rai* that Hitt greaitv red*. the-.sxitching time sritch- suUstaiion eq.ripaent probtems ard the reather cm'
restoration process- These toots nitl' devetop the The "on"ia..
;iii.". in deciding Hhich strategy to use: rralt oPenrr or
ing proceduie to accomPtish various objectives' El4S
icontrottea operationrr. Both strategies have advantages
exlcutes the sHitching Procedure bypassing the conven- in ii-'."=i"tting of the system, but.utitities m'st be
iionat verif ication pFoiess that normaI ty occurs E]ilS Por,er
th. adeqr.racy of the substation ecfJipent
SCADA controt action, resutting in a 50 to 60%
reduction ion".tn a
and system "iut
controt center oPeration'
in System Operator sxitching tine.
GENERAIING UNITS ten minutes can be rafil]ed up Hithout Haiting
J. lt.[[er, Cajun Etectric poHer Coop. for tetpera_
ture differentiaI restrictions on-tf," iu.iine
co[ponents. Beyond t],enty m.inutes, depending and other
lJhite there are various-objectives for a system on the trlit
tion_, one Hay of siating ,n"-orl."'tt restora- size and characteristics, the resiart'r_r'i'U" sIoHed to
toration objective is to minimizJ tf,. tln requiredsystel res- permit tenperature eouatjiations.
to re_ dLrped unit can be off_the rin. irU
rh;-;;i; tinre that a
stone service to 752 - e!! ot the system
aoad. There *ilL
tikety be more units avaitabte ih";';ii'i'il"neeoea hot restart is about 30 mlnutes,lui "iiif^b.^r"tr.n"d on a
or than unit, ;r;be prescribed
can be Ioaded. The initiaL objectir"-riiL
be providing |gi.:3"t' or type. of ,nit,'"rxr tfrJ-iniornation made
so{ne poHer source to as many ptants readity accessibIe in the system .""to."iion'aata
ment protection and preparation for
as possibte i.. A;;;: base.
tems have a mix cf targe,and .r"r t gln.."iing !/here sys_ Nuctear units reouire special treatrEnt-
sta[ [ed, returnins .ory_-9f the large;i;, units in- checkl.ists qenerattv do not permit hot The NRC startup
be needed before the 75% - COZ syiie; ;" service may diesets routd not be oermitted t, .rppiyrestarts and their
re"storation tevet other-porer stations, .i"nfinn poHer to
can be reached. The restoration program unii-.-ii"i' iere taken off
dinated around the restartins .f i;;;;;;G n."0" to be coor- the line on a controil.ed.Nuctear
shutdorn l* U"'*,*ned to serv-
af ter restor_ ice (synchronized) in
ing enough toad, transmrssron ard z+-'tour"l il."'iirety 48 hours
to secure off-site poHer to each ofsnratter generating units
tn" pt"-nt..
are required after a"u"ut
scram. tlhite restoring off_site
poler to nuctear units requires attention,
Procedure for Determining the Start_UD ice. to nearty att of the. load;itl;#"iiy serv-
Sequence Hithout the benefit of nuctear units. have to be
The procedure for determining the generating unit
sequence shoutd be prescribed ahead _start-up Fur.t
oi firu, before system restoration coutd easity require more than a
system emersencv actuatty occurs [5] ani
-can-be i"r'"* it is easiesfiJ-ro.t nith toad figures retative
' It
in various uays' but tne ;rportani'p"i; devel.opi to't}," r-"etiy ;;k"i#- It is rise to deterhine the
tem to devetop its proceduie ; for eactr sisl oi g"n"."tion .Lqri."a to suppty tro tevets of the
occurs' The actuaL sequenceuer"rJ-anv t",.." .*rn"n.y
ritl' depend upon the papl
peak toad itr"t *L.i, '-Jn-i'approximater,y
to represent
i""for;ng-^""rty.oqpt"i" nestoration, ard902 another in the
l;:'i::.:JJ::'l:? ::.:l;,"','ff;'"'.4:H.f.J:n:;:L:in: i5iJ"
"'-n*.hi.i;; b. rea,izabre mi,.r, ra"t"rt'
certain key steps' The procedur" -i"t'""trt tvtt",
take into consideration the unique t"'iilttiont.or ,u"i some ptants have btack-start capabir.ity rhir.e most depnd
system' but the fotloring key steps th;ii ii" JfrI porer from the.transmission system. part
be considered. i["""y"tem "r..,-rprestoration procedure shoutd concentrate on of
1' port ptant Avairabiritv' Assess
each ptant to restart units that tripped #i:ltrplq]Y.3tr:,i""r"'i,-';;r*.:,t;;*""[i{:::,i"i:i:tili
off. The liii" rigr." ,".r
?$i::l:"lr""i'#'; r:?:':::1.:g ;ffi',11' p;"Li; ;,d ;;:;"* iortunaiJ "i."iv-in.have the restoration ptans of the
them avai rabre.
z. check prant avairabilitv Hith
ir'"i'itt ,basl;,sReciri- [::Tl,h,?l':,1*;:ir:"",.,il..*
cattv' the maxim'rn doxn tirnes the data
iffij Ej;::yJ?^l:?;H
g"n"r"tio"-i"t""t".sheet throughout
hot restart' and the cranking p"'"1 "titi-p."rit ""il"a
coutd be made avaitabl'e to """itaute
o'r ttrii
-"-' "na
i""t"o'."tron process. the system
unit. il,"t cannot be provided
""-tri unli. the'minim-m toJ'r-equrreo for f tare xith
3- start the road-seneration barance projecti-ons and "Ii!".a stabir.ization
tabutations' Atso, star.t fr'" iu""tir. io;;:
generation batance proJections
iir-'*"it ,"t*::l:l;iU:.;tff";iii
isrands o; i;J and seneration, the r.oad_
."qui.un*nt*. geieration batance is criticar.-
1' Determine hor many- and Hhich of the stotJ to
units ritI be needed to achieve irt" restart The reactiv.e.[oad
tion obiective of supptying 90% oi t-h"
"v"t., restora- tive'capauir,ities requirements a,.'d generating unit reac-
ca=n-'bJ"'ir"n ro"" criticat in deating
least arnount of time' toaa in-ite ,iii
"*tt onr1!ana.s
during system restoration.
the transmis-"r'# system risk retayvottage ex-
5. ptan the transmission restonation,
..::ll::.f,:i :$J:":J"l",i::r:"::r.l*fl;r",.Aff:;,il: ;j:*ii:
::iJ:;Ifl il?,"",..'o" 'uti'uJ'"onneit"d to .i"i'i"nu."tor trippins road sheddins.
6. of the units that coutd be restarted The crux of generator sequencing
units uitt be needed to-suppl.y 7Sistoto
Determine uhich determine xhich
quickty routd the restoraiioil"".u."..
[oad. rt is sood to projecl'if," **"iiigCOX-ot the system
capacity that
Supptying 75 to 9OZ of the toad in the coutd be avaitabte in eight to 16 hours
least amount of unit avaitabitities ana proutems i; ;t;;l frJ tte survey of
most tikety regui-re to"Jing'in"- [arser,
:iT: !jtI units above. Ihis
restart after some'of the snal.-l,er -ones havestox_ ritI require restarting. the larger. stoJ-starting
reconnected. The system restoration procedure
been tins units, rith enough. toaa aiJ'"r;ii-gleneratinggenera_
be programned. around these units ;n may need to restored in the isl.and in xhich units
ola".'ii"t enough load cated that the targe units can be i"ig" ptant is Lo-
can be reconnected to.permit """f,
hel,d oi-on". they are
.stabl.e f iring toad ""tu"ninjln."t""9" unitsThisto
!l_"|_"ftd: Conpanion papers address the-need
for assess-
[oad_ is at ""n9"
teast-iOZ"""t-y"in'ai"="a""t_,rp. rng transmission avai t_"!i!iy, rdrether. ia.g"'unit"
capabitity oi ttre unlts futt load sub-transmission, transmission
and 502 of the futt toaa is'leJiraote. or ehv tine connections for
llearty :l: .l:::"-*its.
requrres . sec$rencing
the s;;;.;;;j;s";it start r+s
toad restoraiion -prograrming
thermat units except nuctear units can and
hot if cranking pouer is avaiLabl.e. be re_ transmission connections. the
the turbines start to .ooi dorn, th;-;i; As soon as
tures during restarting must be restriciJin intet tenpera- Data Base RequireiEnts
Perature differentiaLs across the fi."t to timit tem-
Iikerise -firit".
"1"!". Steam gen_ De_termining the appropriate-sec3Jence
:i:!:.". may have-thermal.
rrred steam generating units thai stress Fossit- trng units to service recprires that for returning genera-
the in-f-ormation that
;;"; iestartea xithin t{it.t be needed be readiLy'"""ii.Ui"-in'ii"'
tion data base. Some of the information that shoutd be Hot Restart: A start'uP rith hot turbine metat tem'

inctuded are: Peratures.

1. Generating unit nominat characteristics, minimum cotd Restart: A stor start-uP to limit the turbine
[oad, rarp rate and reactive capabitities' metaI temperature rise to stay xithin prescribed
t imi ts.

?. Load reject and black-start capabitities' Restart Durations for Unit TYPes

3. llormal and start-up transformer- system connections' Atthough generic start-up times are of-timited vatue vhen
Cranking lltl arrd t'lVAr raquireflEnts of each unit characteristics
and the system strength and configuration necessary ;y;i; re-storation r"qrit"" the specific times are shoun
;;; ah" particutar representative
for start'uP. =y"i*,
in Tabte'1. Simitar types of units can fxluire diff.erent
before a hot times. eroviding a range. of times routd be
4. The maximum off-tine time permissibte
of half an "i"rt-rp n"r.orr and exclusive or too broad a range to be
restart. This is generatty on the orderbut "itfr".
the tur- ;;;;i;siri. The characteristics of severat particular
ttoui, may be as short as ten mirutes,
on the 600 lli units in TabLe I remain hot *it.
Uin"" ".ta J.. shoxn in Tabte t merety to indicate representa-
restarts tir"-ti*". Sone of the data appeared in reference 6'
enough for nearty 24 hours to permit hot

5. The minim,m and maximm tirnes required f rorn tight off

to rott, rott to synchronizati.on,. s-ync' J. ll. tlrubet, Pubtic service Etectric & Gas Co'
toad and minim,m toad to futl' toad for hot and cold
start-uPs. Some syste{tE prefer to. define hot' larm
Phvsicat SYstem Concerns
and coid restarts; or hot, overnight, reekend and
cotd restartsl or normat and emergency
'estarts' The primary physicat system corrcern.associated
rith urder-
g"ouia i."i.,"inission
-(Jietectric restoration is the integrity of
start-up Definitions iir"-"it "yrt",n
fIuid) insutation system' The concern
i"-tft"i rhen att etectrical PoHer sources are lost to the
l,{any of the essential ternrs are defined in the IEEE Stan- p"di;;;i;"; aJciated rith high Pressure oil' f itted
i..i o"ti"itio* in Pouer oPerations Terminotogy, sorne of
betor for con- svstems. the pressure in this system drops rapid-ty. as tie
,ni"n tisted betor' others are defined
;;i;-"i";; [oot. aorn from its Previoustv loaded condi-
"t" of this drop
veni ence.
iion-to'a condition of no [oad' ihe resutts is that ftuid
Load Reiect: The action of isol'ating a generating
i"-"."""r.". if no other provision is made, to tor values
at high eteYaiions coutd decav
ffir p t from the system toad and leaving the ;;J;;;; roo psi) *here riberate from
unit to suPPtY onlY house toad' i;;;;;i;";;,; eases
It is atso poss.ibte that
irr!'rrr;a, foiming gas pockets- terrninators and the Iine
deveGp inside the
Bl.ack Start Caoabititv: The capabitity to start-uP.
any supply from the ""r".r-1ortdRe-energizind rith existing gas pockets or vacutrn
ffit "ioa". f ai ture or
i;i&- .";1J re-sutt in irmediate etectricat
PoHer system. aamge xhich coutd tead to faitures in the future'
RamD Rate: The rate at xhich a generating unit
in- in the fottor-
PSE&G, these concerns have been addressed
ffi;" oidecreases its outFrt, usuatty expressed in At ;;9';;;.. First, atl pipe cabte punpins ptants have
rEgaxatts per minute-


t4tl ?o 92 110 23' 275 550 500 600 800 936

!ir" t, cT orl,I| Ortn! Drur DrLm Drun Nex SCoTDrun scoT BIIR

lfii,,, Gas Coat Gas ioat oi t Coa[ Coa[ coat coat lluctear
ii.t. Cycte Base Base Cycte q9:t Cycte Base Base Base
5 25 ?5 ;o-- 3f' 180 150 2oo 120 400
lll'.611 ,0,

6 t, )1./A x/A llrs N/A

Req'd off ,Rr Hrs 0 I NIA lllA
2 1.' 6 1.5 4 48

I?liffiiii' H
0 o.7 0.1 10.7 I 0.5 0.5 1.5 4.5

0.1 6 6 7 75 12 12 16 48

i?l'.is",;;, x[ 020.5 I '1.7 1 223 1.5

Fut t Load Hrs 0.1 1.1 r-s ? 1 1.5 2 z 1.5 10

!!q!s.: (1) Unit size is nomral futt toad gross lEgaxatts Through (scoT)
(?, Either Driro ty[ uolt"r" or super-criticat once
iii iith". base toad or-peaking.operati??--
thines as turbine thermar s*ess or vibration timits
ili illlffi:1f",.[f,"3'";]"?li""fi!"!lT*1
successful'ty restarted hot
it tft" urit is riot
(6) rirc required tion tight-off to synchronization for a hot restart
iri Time frcrn syflc load on a hot restart
to minim'nr
ii; rine frorn tight-off to sync on a cotd start-iP
iti rinre from sync to minim'm toad on a cotd start
ifot Time frflr minim"n toad to futt toad

provision for maintenance of oiI pressure
site poxer source is_avail.abte. I; ;;r.assuning no off_
PSE&G is that there must be at teast 2 lttu of toad being
engine-generator set is on the proper-tf-unO th"t set rittan served for each litv R of charging to be picked up.
be. sta.ted to provide poHer to neintain'
the purps. At the
other. tocations, a--compressed air operated If the state estirnator/operatorrs load ftox is abte to rtrr
provided rhich niil. maintain at least 100 pump is during the restoration_ process, a quick- study
psi p."r"ui"
the highest etevation of the cabtes for a minim.rn be run to examine the feasibitiiy of'pi.iing up case coutd
of six hours.
period section. This case routd atso determine rhlt'the each cabte
routd be at the opn end of the cabte to Ue energized,
Ihe next provision for.ntaintaining oiL is by in_
stalting pressure fittings on the air pressure In the case of poner systelns rhich have shunt reactors con-
{nps which can ac_
cept a hose connection frorn a standard'air compressor. nected to or connectibte to the cabtes via bus
the event that it is not expected that off_site poxer In arrangerEnts, =rit.ting
.the .probtem of energizing of the cabtes cai
be restored to the station rithin ttre six frour xitI De greail.y reduced since.onty the surptus of cabte charg-'
rangements xil,I be to drive a mobil.e _i;;;,-;;- ing over the arnount of the is the net af_
compressor to "f,rnt."uJto..
fecl on the pot{er system. This
the site to continue the air to-it" p.rre"."' '" restoration process.
coutd g.""tfy speed up the
""ppty "r.
A third provision for maintaining pipe pressure is via the
hydrautic netrork piping systems that attox c;rcuiis-ii Before cabtes may be.energized, system operations person-
the netlrork to be hydraul.iial.ty ini...onnu.ted net must be in conm.rnic.ations r'ith'underglound systems
circuits through vatving facitities at i;e pupingtoptants.
other sonneI to per_
be assured that the integrity"of
Thus it is possibte p*pinj pi"it and oiI system has been verified- ntso, ltthe'insutadion
greatLi as_
to piessurize sists unJergrourrC peopte if system op"i"-iion"
!h9 pipes of other ci rcuiis '.o,ini.t"a to the same as earty as possibte in the restoration process,identifies,
hydrauIic network. or sequence system they intend to use during the path
Should- the pressure fal.L betox the minimum tion procedure. As stat_ed above, undlrnro"nO the restora-
systems per_
operating pressure, for every hour at this
r.aucea pres-
sonnet. have a logistics p"obtem to- iaareis
knoxtedgeabte io -g"t
sure there trust be a.tro hour-period at the operating .peopl.e, corpnessors, and fuet for the com_
sure before re-energizing the cabte.
pres_ pressors to the next tHo or three cabtes
reenergization in order to reestabtish oil.scheduted for
It shoutd be noted that procedures tr,o insutation integrity prior to .""n"rgi;tion- pa"""ra" "rrd
quire pre-ptanning and coordination to and three above re_
mate sure that the ConcIusion
required.peopte and equipnent a.e alrecieJ to
pipe cabte terminats the various
in order to d;;l'-their activities As rith most other areas of system restoration, the key to
Hith the etectricaI restoration of the-poxer system
the pipe-type cabtes-. The rhor.e scheme Jan fatt and rapidl.y restoring unrJerground transmission systefi,,
is to
the corrrunication aM coordination pao."arru" are not if
apart have a retl thought out..nta3 in pt".., -9ooA
nararare sysl
- in tems xhich-provide fr.exibir.ity a.d
l!.T:..qi": j-1^1 syste{n breakdoxn. Tl-e-sl- procedures are
revtelred at PSE&G and made part of the restoration """t.i o. xtro
gency provisions, ard reu. trained personnel third contin-
on-the pennsytvania, driLts resources are avair.abte and hor to corm.rnicate tnow rtrat
!{er Jeisey, ff".ytina-interconnection, dinate the utitization of these .""ou.."=. ' and coorj
xhich are performed on a tHice'" y"", U1si".
One area of concern rhich Has uncovered
research for this paper Has that there during the TELECOI,I].IUN I cAT IoN CAPAB I L I I I ES AND L II,II
TAT I o}Is
pieces F. Arsanjani, l,l. tt. Lanier, Virginia poHer
of underground facitities at nany Sene;ting
stations Co.
substation arrd
.snitchyards rhich do ;;i;;;
operator prints. up on systen Atthough poHer system restoration ptans may contain
These incLude transior-[r, snunt reactor
and generator leads- As a resutt detai ted technicaI information
"i-tt i"-"iro.a,
prints, disptay nredia and restoratio; dyfgi, they necessarity are on "t".t'.i"' operating on proce_
p.o-."Or."" ";;;i;;
xil.t be ";;.i;;ii;';ependent
abil.ity to coflrrunicate. Unfortunatety, the
updated to inctude these facitities_ ioo otten either
Littte attention is paid to
PoHer System Concerns avaitabitity, or it has been assunedi'e'te"-ommunications
tion systems nil.l, be ful.l.y operatlon"t ar"ingtetecomr.mica-
The key concern associated Hith undergrourd tion period, xhich is u"u"[ty not the case.the restora_
This paper
system restoration
is the abitity of t-he poxer system to ritI discuss telecormunications and
absorb the charging curren-t reaciive poxer produced Iimitations during a poHer system "V"i"r-""p"Oitities
restoration effort-
cabte system upon reenergization. ftie."'mu"t by a
be enough Pubtic Comrunications
:::^:^.^1.r"n-":":1:!, first, to absorb the reactive porlr
ano. secono,.to keep vottages [or.r enough to avoid over_
vol,tage on the open end of the cabte. During _ridespread conditions, the pubtic
sritched tetephone netxork (p-STil), inctuOiig the cettutar
To address the first concern, one ,rust knor telephone net-l-ork, may be inaccessibl.e overtoad Ju. to
of each cabte to be energized. for ittos"the
causd by pubtic catts.
-ileverthetess, attenpts shouLd be
ter rhich have a state estimator or op"r" load cen- made to estabtish and maintain conrrunications
through the
PSTil in order to reduce the demand on
reactive is part "n
element rn the porrer system data oi'ir,J*oa"t of that com]
Il::,^_1n",-*arsins m.rnications facitities rhich might be avai(abte.
To maxi_
base and shoutd be mize use of the psTil during malir ernerg;nciJs, lt is recom-
readity avaitabte. If not, the System o[raiors
provided rith a docunent *,ich shouLd be mended that the fottoring itlms be incorporateA into a
each cabte at norninat vottage. "hors
t# ciargtng HVAR of coflpanyrs restoration ptan:

To determine if reactive absorbing capabil.ity sufficient o Essentiat Trunk Estabtishnrent _ llost tel.ephone operat-
to abso.b the cabte charging ing corpanies have procedres to p.ioriiiz" ,"ar;""
is aiaiiJUt" on the on_tine to .trLmks designated as ,ressentiat.,, Customer tocat
:.:1.:::to"", system operators shoutd have the
or an equivatent tabutation for exchange trunks designatd as essentiat
:.r:.y- ""paUiiiiy
g"i,"."io., their chances for outgoing_ catt l,rp"oui maxirut absorptive reactive
capabi "".f,
""nUv Ling
steady state stabir.ity concerns- A rute Iity recognizing ""p.UiUty
queued ahead of non-essentiat trunks. Activaiion oi
of th.,6 used at this capabitity is not automatic and is onty ;ry1g_

traffic votunes threaten to The HF SSB system can provide eflrergency back-up coiltrunlca-
mented Hhen usuattY high to criticat system Iocations' Hf radio sys-
ou"ito"a a tetephone comPany centrat- office' It ii.n" PoHer
but jt is
shoutd be urderstood, houever, that this Priority. to
i"i.- ri[[ cormunicate over Iong distances, These effects
receive diat tone does not provide any assurance that iig'iti- aii.ct.a by atmospheric.condjtions'.
catts can be coilPteted'
noi"p".lficitty Predictabte for type a given frequency'
of system be a
iherefore'it is recormerded that this
pouer for each
m.rlti_channet systern. Back-.up
- Estabtishment of PSTN connections - Since it may be ""iu"t"ut"
;;i;-l; supptied by the lnost dePendabte means avaitabte
Oitti.ul.t and time consuning to estabtish PSTI{ connec- toi"tion incl.uding generators, uninterruptibte
tions, it is suggested that thatgoing responsibitity be "t-"".t
oo*"r. .rpptv, and substations batteries' In addition' the
to an irdividuat' UPon "off-hook"' a by 12 vDc vehicte batteries'
tine may appear dead (no diat tone) Hhich vit[
".tign"a mean I"Jiot .Lit ue porerea
that thl teLephone co.rpany centraI offices (co) are
catls' As a last resort, or
overtoaded and cannot Process any additionaI
jndividuat(s) be i cations,means is avait-
It is irPortant that the resPonsibte ,itu, .o*,trnications can be estabtished tl"ing 1--t'o;.::I-ll
instructed to remain off-hook ard rait for diat tone rtchainrt (vorce-
as Iong as is needed. Hanging-up the phone and iind'mobite radio system by forming a on the
-again ."t"vl of vehictes equipped t{ith. radios, operating
trying Hil't take the catI out of queue rith. the PersonneI in these vehictes ritt retay
CO'equip;ent, so it is best to keep the tetephone "rr"'i."qr"n.y-
ti"-lnfo.nation to the next vehicle' This method of com-
off-hook and rait, A diat tone ritl be heard as soon ,unl""tlon" ritt be avaitable as long as radio equipped
as the CO is abte to Process a catt' Once a catl is ;;hi.t". (xith satisfactory batteries) are avaitabte' The
establ.ished, it is suggested that it be maintained is oi mobite-to-mobil,e (or Portabte) radios is deperd-
untiL it is certain thai no further voice contactthe ";;;iil
ent uoon frequency, terrain, ard envirormental corditions
necessary. Furthermore, it is suggested that
responsibitity for estabtishing these catts to a pre- il il;;d;i;-a; siJcins *.rti b" determined experimentaIrv'
determined tist of stations be distributed to mut- TypicattY sPacing is as fottoxs:
tipi" locations to increase the chances of UHF mobi Ie-to-nrobi te 5-10 mi Ies
receiving a dia[ tone. 15-20 mi tes
VHF mobi te-to-nobi Ie
UHF portabte-to-Portabte 0- 1 mi I'e
I nternaI Conm.rni cations VHF portabte- to-PortabI e 0-3 mites
Prjvate TeIephone Net]',ork. .During protonged etectric
may cease to oPerate' Conc Iusi on
@equitrnent systems
if,"t-"tota, internat company teteconmunications The capabiLity to corm.rnicate un'der adverse corditions is
r.i ii t*"[y be the onty dependabte means of- cormunication' criiical' to poHer rest.orati-on efforts' Utitity
lfo." tp".ificatty, for companies having their oHn "ii.*n!tv plans shoutd inctude references to tetecom-
i"i"pftoi'r" netror'k- via private transmissionard systems
reti- ""iii.s"*v systeflrs such as the PSTII and any avaitabte in-
i*;"ror"u" and fiber optics), the most convenient systems, inctuding a com-
fo.. of cormunications for the restoration coor- t".^"i .vtt"*.. Audits of these shoutd be com-
oLete back-up poHer check per tocation,
iin"to. nitt be I'off-Premises extensions'r oPx's)exchange
"bt. and/or
:i;;;;;"i'" [tt"i. capabitities ard timitations'asIn ad-
automatic ringdorns (ARD's) from a private branch ii;;;;,--'nonlt"t""o*Lnications factors such the
(PBX) tetePhone systefl. A tie-trunk netxork can also be and the
of adequate personnet and vehictes uil't
u.J'to ailt tocaiions rhich are incorporated in the net- "r"ii"[itity of fuel for generators and vehictes af -
,o.i ai.".tfy or assist in contacting remote Iocations by "r"ifJitity
;;;';;*#nv's abititv to com'nicate and shoutd be con-
Ji"i;ns through network stations to minimize dependence on sidered in restoration Ptanning'
the tetephone comPany equiPnent.
Private Transmission*-qrks' Tlt avaiLabil'ity of
oPvfiffinet!.ork are dePerdent uPon
in.' tetecorm'rnications transmission (fiber op- Under Stress ard
and microxave) system and its associated channet
tics "onp""v's 1- L.H-Fink, K.cartsen: oPerati]1g
eouicrnent. Back-up battery systems ardlor generatorsthese are Strain; isEE spectrun, ilarch 1978, p 48'5?
;;;;Iit .i. liriting factor in terms of time that
2. l,J.R.Prince, B-F.Llo[[enberg, D'B'Bertagnotti: Survey
;;;a; ri[t be avaitabte upon toss of AC; horever' there
situations on gx"e.sir. Atarrs, A RePort Prepared for the Poren
aie certain non-Porer retated catastrophic sisi"m controt Centers Joint llorking Group (HG f3-3)'
rnicfr couta atso impact the operation of tetecormunica- lli. scneiat, chiirman; IEEE TRANs' v'PllRS-4' n'3'
tions transmission sYstem. Ausust 1989, PP 950-956
Therefore, systems shoutd incorporate high retiabitity ard an Energy
deperdabiiity design factors rhich inctude: 3. B.F.llottenberg: Feasibitity study -for
llanagement system tntettigent Atarm- ?rocessor;

- redurdancy of criticat
equipnent inaxi. v.pund-l, n-2, )tay 19t!6, pp 241-247
- eight hour minimum back-up poxer for backbone
sites 4. D.B-Tesch, D-C.Yu, L'Fu, K'Vairavan-: A Knorledge-
Based Atarm Processor for an Energy t{anagement sys-
- avaitabitity of spare equipnent for repatr tem; IEEE TRAIIS- v'PIIRS-5, n'1, February 1990'
- atarms for major etectricat equiplrent- faiture'
loss of AClDc poHer, and extrerp envtronmental P.492'98-
condi t i ons
5. comittea' RePort, Adibi, t{' !{:, et at'
redundant media transmission (fiber optic and
- ;Fi* Restoration - fhe secotrd PI''RS-3' llo' 4' PP
Task Force RePortn'
microuave) tinking strategic locations IEEE Trans- on Porer Systems, Vot'
- system configuratlon to attor atternate routing
927-933, llov- 1987.
of circuits
6. R.J.Kafka, D-R-Penrders, S'H'Bouchey, t{'}l'Adibi: sys-
Hi.oh Frequencv s=inste Side Ban4 Emerg:n:cy Ra9!o Svstem' for a l{etropolitan
i* n".tot"tion Ptan 6evetopnentv'PAS-100'
l?-1 reca corm,rnications cannot be estabtished by colpany IEEE TRAIIS' n'8' pP'
or or.btic. tetephone, a High Frequency Singte Side Band (HF Etectric System;
3703-13, Aug. 1981'
isei-i,*;n"."i n"aio system can serve as an atternative'

92 WM 107-3 PWRS

Overvoltage Control During Restoration

A report by the Power System Restoration Working Group

Contributing authors:
M. M. Adibi R. W. Alexander B' Awamovtc
IRD CorP. PF&L Co' ECC' Inc'

on Transient voltages or switching surges- are caused by

Abstract: This paper is one in a series presented segments of a transmission system or-by
with the
n"nFEE-" System bperation Subcommittee rJiJir, g *pa"citivJ el e*ents' Switching transients' which
iot"nt of focusing industry attention on pcwer system damped and oJ short duration' in
restoration issues. Restoration of a bulk
pos'er supply
conjunction wiiU may result
unique challenges not
svstem Dresents the operator with
*.".t", failures [2]. Transient overvoltages are not usualiy
r'**-fii ".*untered L daily operations' The initial' and
a sigoificant factoi at transmission voltages
below 100 Kv'
eveo intermediate transmission system
topologies are quite caused by
during normal a,-"UgU". 6ansarission voltages, overvoltages
dtff;; from the weil integrated systems
that pertail to ,wit"iiog may become significant, because arrester
operation. There are t"o"i"l problems
close to normal system
coocern op".atin! voltages are relatively
tfrese non-normai topclogies that are o[ common are usually long so that energy stored on
io op"ruro.t aod rreJd to be addressed [1]' One of these' uot,ug" ia f""i
of overvoltages, is the subject of this paper'
tie li".res may be large. In -oit "ut"s without 5u51eined
tU" itotf"- ir*"U"g wave translnts, surge arresters -have sufficient
energy ibsorbing capability to clamp h*f{ overvoitages
Keywords; switching transient, sustained overvoltage' The likelihood
excitation to s#l levels withoul permanent damage'
harmonic resonance, surge arrester, generator by
*a ,U" effect of transient overvoltages determinedaided
Uuay of special system conditions [3]' Computer
analysis has proven to be a valuable tool
in understanding
Introduction switiuing surge overvoltages [4,5]'
During the early stages of restoring higb voltage overhead Harrnonic resonance voltages are oscillatory undamped
and uiderground transmission lirres, one's coucerns ;rly;""kly damped temforary overvoltages (TCVs) of
with the following three related overvoltage operations
il; il;,iln. rley originate from switchingresult
sustaioed power frequency overvoltages' switching ani equipment non-linearities [2]' They from
transients, and harmonic resonances' ."r"rjf*tors that are characteristic of networks during
restoration: fust, the natural frequency of the
Sustained power frequency oversoltages ale
caused by and line
resonance circuit formed by the source inductance
;;d"g currents of tightly loaded transmission lines' If capacitance *iy, under normal operating
these currents Bay cause underexcitation' or
.n*gitg "mapetizing
"*""Iriu!, coodItiJos,Ue alowmultiple of 60Hz; second'
even selfexcitation and instabitiry' Sustained overvoltages produces many
distortions inrush" caused by energizilg a transformer
also overexcite transformers, generate harmonic n-*ooi*; a"a nnaly] duriag early stages of restoration
and cause transformer overhealilg' is lightiy
;; ;;"t are ligbtty loaded, 'iton*t" thereforeresonance
damped, wnich in turn means the resulting
uottug"t may be very high [6]' If trarsformers
rvoltage' harmoaic
overexcited due to po*"t-ftt[u"ncy ove
resonance voltage will be sustained or even

92 t${ 107-3 P\'IRS A paPeE recommended-and
bvtheIEEEPowersy"i!'EngineeringCommltteeof Transmission System Equipment Limitations
?il""'iiti"t"*"t s"giir""iittg io"itty iot pt"t"ncatlon
New York' Nev
".=ti""i"i,t tiis ' 3A' L9g2'Heetins'
figz LIintJr
Kanuscript submitted Power transformers, surge arresters and circuit
,.ttl"r""""ty 26 for printing *itt U. the equipment earliest affected by overvoltages'
i;;". Is'-i'vsi; *'a' available vs' time
Decenber 31, 1991' Figure 1 showi power frequency voltage withstand

reprinted from IEEE TransactioBg on

Power Svstems, vol. 5, no' 4, Nov 1992'
JJ pp. t464-r470
for typical power trensforurers and surge arresters as In light of the equipment voltage liml12fs16
would be applied on a solidly grounded rpl"-- As can 354
be fault contingency, it i" ,""o--"nded "that no line be
seen, a power transformer can surrrive a seemingty small
energized if by doing so voltage at the remote
overvolt6ge of 1.2 p.u. for only about oae minute! both the eod would
rarse to more than 1.2 p.u. of uormal
surge iutester and transformer can withstand 1.4 p.u. or 1.1 x (transformer
tap or circuit breaker rated maximum voltage),
voltage for 1.0 seconds. Above 1.4 p.u. voltage, surge whichever
is lower-
arrester failure will precede transformer darnage.
Iu developing a power s,*te, restoration pran thc above
concerns and constraints can be addressed
Ly analysis aod
simulatioo as illustrated by the three
described below.

o Sustained Overroltages
In the following example a load flow program was used to
e voltages of the system sh"own on Figure
1r9y TI3Ied 2.
This 230tV s,rsten_ was eneryjz*d, by a generator
- connected to bus 1. The objectivJ was
e to i_a a iustained
voltage profile as a function of the geuerator/s
voltage for a no load situation.
Figure 3 shows two voltage profiles of the 220kV
Fig- 1 Temporary Overvoltage (T.O.V.) Capability of lhg upper profile shows voltagesebe at a-n unacceptably
Power Transformer and Surge Arrester high levet i.e, about l30Vo wieath-iterminal voltages
Generators 1, &Zls kept at 13.g KV or 1.0 per unit.
Any voltage above 1.1 p.u. will put the 6ensfqrmer into total charging reactive poryl for the system at tHs
level is about 90 MVAR. The lower profile
saturatiou, causing core heating and copious harmonic shows that,io
current generatioa. Note that the per unit base for maintain the sustained voltages wiitr;" the acceptable
the terminal volrages of Ginerators 1 & 2 shoutd
transformer- is the particular voltage rating on the Jimitr be
being energized. t(ept at about 11.0 KV or glVo,tith the resulting reduction
h.:l*q"g reacrive power ro about 55 MVAR, which is
Circuit breakers called upon to operate during periods within the reactive absorbing capability of the geaerators.
of It is important to uote, howevir, ttat tne e)cent of the
high voltage will have reduced interrupting *luUitity
1o. gen-erato/s voltage reductiou is usually
noue at dl). At some voltage, even the aUilityio iote.rupt constrainedl by
line chargr"g current- will be lost. fUis point *iX underexcitation of generators brought about
by a nr,-ber
arnong specific breaker designs. attUougt "a; of limiting factors, including ge-nerator terminal low
require circuit breakers to interrupt againsi larger voltage limit (ar limited by -porrer plant auxiliary
than equipment), reactive 2mpere limit ,"iry, minimlm
normal recoveryvoltages with reduced fault currents,
there excitation limit relay, and rotor core end neatlog
are no overvoltage requirements for line charging
current limit tZ.
interruption. The authors believe that most HV or EHV
circuit breakers could interrupt line charging current
at Control of Sustained Overvoltages
least up to L.2 p.u. of maximum rating.

Sustained overvoltages c,n be controlled by absorbing

SIow clearing of phase - to - ground faults could
an otherwise Iarge charging reacrive power of the lightly toiaea
acceptable ovewoltage to the
damaging surge arresters. Even oo *ill grounded
foint of transmissiou lines. This caa be accomplished by:
the voltage on the un-faulted phases du-ring pf,^. _
io _ o having sufficient under-excitation capabiliry oa the
ground faults can be oa the order of 13 p.u-.
The longer generators,
a fault persisrs, the higher the likelihooi of equipmlnt

considerirg the last
with charging reactive
fl.f'n'"ffTll S;
system including shunt senerates about 180 f'rv[n'-e
i" O" *a"Ayitg "olt^-gereduction
i"duce this charging Uy roZ' or about 18 MVAR!'
, of reactive powcr and "iour
reooving all sources
switchi.g off shunt caPacitorg

I running generators at maximum possible-reactive

-""**i*put t-'=
fE I S@tGd vdEF -Yj-tft'*
to allow margrn to adiust fior.large
ffi;#;;;"-p"*"t wieo liocs are srryitched
ooerating parallel tranqformers on different
t_J i";;" .ir"ulutiog and reactive power

. energizing only those transmission linls which ,

-;; 6
si-gnifrcant load and avoiding
of extra lines which will generate
,oor*t"d reactive Power, and

. 6aislaining a low the

voltage prolile on
are vohlgE d 13J tv (L0 PLI')
transmission lines, since the charging-curretrts t& 2TdiEl
ar 11'0 kV (04 PU)
t & 2TcrEiEi vole{ct
proportional to the square of the voltage' ]-Gcffist

may calrse a serious

Inability to perform the above tasks
;;;;"; po:.r". imbalance resulting rn' for example'
;;;;;r;[-excitatioo and a runaway voltage rise' Switching Transients

nu.u-ou"r- and seriius d"-age to
;; occur in the
Switchingtransients are fast transients that
Drocess of energizing transmission
line and bus load
after a power t-"-*-::-,:
the network' Inductances of transmrssroo
.ooo""t"a to
with capacitaoce to cause
lines and power sources ioteract
ie]*;'o."iuutio* i-n the process' The.mainif cause it occurs
o"l'*of,rg"t is ill-timed closure of the
p"il, when the instantaneous voltage of the source
;;#;ch is ma:cimum a large overvoltage can result'
of the
In order to illustrate this phenomenon results
ZOkV iy.,tm study are shoi* in Figure 4' The 220kV
using Generators 1 and
Sy.r"- of figur" 2 was energized
When the
2'at Bus L ftth tro surge ui'""t" modeled'
rated bus voltage'
;;;;t.'-e running at 105vo of.the
i, .- U" seen from Flgure 4 that the maximum buses 6 and
o"ou. ptt^" voltage teith"s about 23 PU on
would limit this voltage to 2'1
7. Typical surge arresters
pU o, t"s. while using oriy 5Vo of their energy absorbing
.rp"Cfffry- By redu-cing termi-oal- voltage
on the twc
;;;^ to aon of thlir nominal values' the switching
t"rurrrient. are kept well within the arresters
irq. Z Th. l20tl Str!6

Harmonic Resonance

Dudry the-reintegratio.n nlase with ,Iledgling,

a s),stem,
the capacitive voltage rise aue i".h*dr;
curents will be
sufficient to overexcite transforalrs-
anA getrerate
o significa"t harmonics. If the combinrtioo
o of ttrc system
6 impedance and the line capacitaace
o harmonic resonarce wiU resutf
irlaleoe &en a
produced by transforme, saturatioi*l distortioos
6 excite these
E resonatrces, which can result
o- in damaging overvoltages.
Even if tra'qformers u:: ool
to sustainsdl overvoltage),continuousl"y overexcited (due
harmouics generated by
magneti-ing iunsh o, eo"igizatioo
;s ,urta"nt
the resonance. To assure that resonano to ercite
sufficient load should b" **;;-i"*rl"
ia dampe4
Time in milliseconds
s),sten at both ends-of line to
Vollage on bus 6 . aa_p tne resonrnce.
of Gen. 1&2 Analysis for a 500kV lile has,torro
- tnit n"a of about
-\,rqlt6ge three megawatts per mile is ,a"qu"ir-..' -"
Atr RLC model of the network is used for rhiq
s1u6r. A major conoern with energizing a transmissioa
Generators are represented as sinusoidal sourcesl Iines system is
and transformers are represented the increase in harmo,,ic o"rioftrg;fue
as RLC circuits, with the
transformer_configuratious differzni -i.o*to liae and
char-ging capacitance concentrAted
at the line
ends. Bus normal
Ioads are coaverted to equivAeri operation. The overalt objective of
inductances (for absorbing Van foua.),
,..i.t*.". and a Larmonic analysis
study is to determine if tle li"e-traosf;;;;
(for generating vaR loads). A .od;i;;ting
capacitances resultiug from energizing of the
unknowu excessive
rir"l.rra result in
(state) variables of the system
knrr* harmoaic level.
the input is obtained by observing
purameters and
tte Uaric physical laws
of balance of current at each T t" following exaople, EMTP was used
_a ta_ce of voltage to aodel a
in each loop. The state variables .o*ir, of currents lrmple system consistini of a SOO/ZSOtiliraosfo._e, at
1fu'srrgh each inductor, and voltages
ucro., capacitor.
rhe sending end, u jootv ra".-ana I
A result is a mix of algebraic La oraioary "*Udifferential transformer at the remote end.
The und";,,i"g Ioads were
modeled on both transformers.
equatio-ns, as given in the AppendiL
This sa-of .quutioos Th"
to attaitr resonancs at 3rd, 4th,5tb,
Ii";l;;!n ,"* varied
is solved by a method that utilizes uuro*rii. Otl _J-in harmonics.
integration Pre-switch voltage was varied
step size adjustment O.qto i.1 p.u. At these
:"::j1""o .*ir:qg angtes were varied to produce rhe
m:txrmrrnl sustainsd overvoltage
possible. Lower order
Control of Switching Transients resonances produce higher
orrervoltages. Load levels ou
both th.e sendi,g-end receiving-";7;u;.r_ers
gradually increased until the.".oI*." were
Energizing trans6j5sjoo lines or switching capacitive wicontrolled by
suffci.elt damping. ApproximatelX
elements Gruses switching surges of fast
front, Iow energy : fvfW-foad on tle
or slow froat, high energy traisl"or.. SUtcning
transients ll_d"'l*g will
?..01v syst;; for every ur" 500kV tine
are not usually the limiting factor in re-energizing
connected "r 5 shows
damo resonance voltages. Figure
s.ysten. Generaily, if_ the steady state voltages tlre one-tine diagra;
than l.Z per unit of their nominal values,
are less "r
show sample waie
,n"-.a.i;;';*t.". 6 and, 7
ti" ,rit.Uog
transients caa be managed by typical urr".t...
with ease.
A notable exceptioo is energizing transformer
lines, which mav result in h-armonic
damaging overvoltages. "nd

Fig. 7 shows
un?erlYing 230kV
sYste ;r :Jilx"H"H "llT:":i H
1'05 p'u'
iln"tJ tt"a".ped io a harmless

I4P- I

Loro. t
?CElYlr I
Ero t
RsonaT ce Studes
Fig. 5 EMTP llodal loI Harmoric oa

transfomer is being
In the case show4 a 650MVA li"e' B phase
;";;d., the eod tt * as mile 500kV harmonic). The pre-switch
has been tuned to ffid;?;
and O" uLtot'er being energized is on
voltaee is 5oOkV's*ittul"g b'
i"t* place at o'1 seconds near s'66
Il'#,ioi ..i"
;r;G; zsio wltn * ?"-ou"i magnetism in the core'
timo seconds

The voltage shown tt;";"ddt"c "19-b-Y.uoltage' Fio. 7 Case in fig' 6 with 2O0MW
Load on Underlying
it uU"tittfY't**' In Fig' 6 - SYstem
receiving end bus "ortie escalates to 2'0 p'u' and
there is no load' Th;;"16"
shows oo sign of a"*V
J*ilg the- simulation' Such a
would surely cause surge
sustaired resouance uoltug" Control of Harmouic Resonancc:
.I"t* f"rf*es and create s]rsten faults' caused by over
o Sustained harmoaic overvoltages
excitation oft'*'fot-"" * be- controlled by
selecting a uansformer tap which equals (- or
voltage.applied or
exceeds tu" pi*"t f'equenry
lowering ty""neloftuge to at
or below the tap)

before energ'zing'

io o Harmouic resonances' can be -damped by

underlyingloads at the
o connecting
oiu tio", or by connectirg dead load
o "oa
o oo ,1"",t-tformer to be energized'
o High soruce impedance can be reduced by
'generators and counectilg
starting more
underlYing loads'

system carl'
o The reactive power of a lightly loaded
be ,"duttd'Ly minim[ing the nrrmber
g.90 u'ru and setting the
unloaded tit'e' io be energized
sending-end transformers at
time Secoods the lowest tap
' '-'
Fio. 6- Harmonic Resonance Excited by Translormer Position'
Energizatron -No Load-

B= 1, 4-.8;
Power.system equipment is protected
overv.oltage.s.lesulting- fron normal
against the effect of L= 1, 2, ...,9; and
arresters which provide a relativ.ely d;;;i""
by surge
tow-impedanl Ort G = l.
for transient overvoltages. ,oroof;oo however,
certain line-transf616er configurai;
geuerate a combination of sustaineq
;;; energized
Eansient and Inducta

oyer and damage to eqrripment. -::' :dT"d-?ff r;;1":Ei:tx"f l#"*ht:
Line data
Switching surge overvoltages have
become increasingly
more important with-rhe akig"
liaes and substation facilities.-The
*;;;; trausmission Line L From (i) To (j) Inductance
h Resistance Ru
higfi voltage lines is large "i*!yla*d in long
causing ri*,ifi-;t 1-2
resonant overvoltages which musi
transient or 1
0.051457 2.&J20
during restoration. With the h"lp
caiefrrlly be considered 2 1-4 0.084888 4.ffii
as EMTp and those described
of ;A;ical toots such 3 1-5 o.t*% Tsoi
possible to establish general p.ooa*ir'ana it shoutd be 4 2-3 0.01170e oin
guidelines to avoid ovewoltages.
restoration 5 3_8 o.Lg?8s 63833
6 4-5 0.050s32 2.42ffi
7 5-6 0.010076 o.s03;
8 s-8 0.08226s 42si-
Thr subscripts and notation used in
9 6-7 0.0020182 o.wgn
the RLC model of the
?20kV System ofFigure 2 are:
capacitance is lumped at rhe terminal
ouses "Orrg"g
!G -- h" (with terminats i and j)
Source Data
v - instantaneous bus voltage,
i.- - current through line L,"
lc - current through generator G -BnS_. Inductance L" Resistance R"

The modet can briefly be described

1 3.0737e-4 2.4757e-3

di"/dt = t/\ f, v sin(22.f) - Rc rc _ vr

Bus Data

dir/dt = L/I* (v, _ R, it. - v,), Bus B Capacitance Co Resistance R,

E crs i. + Do cr6 Lr-= ig, L 7.?.673e-7 0
2 1584e-7 0
ceL = (1 if B = i; -1 if B = j; 0 otherwise) 3 5332e-7 0
4 3.7596e-7 0
csc = (1 if G connected to bus B; 0 otheru,ise) 5 g3M7e-7
dur/dt = 1/C, (i, _ v"/r.), r"
6 t.47t7e_6 0
I 0 7 t5155e_7 0
8 S.1567e-7
dvr/dt = L/C, ir, rs = 0

received-the B'S'E'E'
M' R' J' Kalka "Power Systemin Rov W. Alexander (M'72'Stvf84) Universitv of
t1l Atlibi, M. and
t'-;;;i'i* .*"
Restoration lttu# ft; ffiuLt Application desree (summa
il;-ih"" he
in the
Power, vol.4, Noi epa rggr Issue' pp 19-24'
Pe'nnsylvania Pn: las"worked
Bulk Power rog"*ii;*."t-f: h:-:'lo* a Senior
":f[H,'Hfi Power anit Light t"-pL;
t2r 1?*1-t I -";i'lffi.* J'T: Engineer-Co*u11tS; Tb"J;; current responsibilities
and transient
ll;.rt'"uI;L-;;. ; rowel and
insulation coordrnauoi'
-hiti*tioo; insulated
PAS-101' No'8' pp 2r';9$27UL
SVrLil., Vol' analvsis; circuit 'g"
and- underground
subsiation; nign uorlilJ'*p'"Ltottt
r:,?: transmission cables'
t3t l,d"yi:
SurgeProtectton il*I;,.9;IIi:Jffi
;l'*i:Tfrili as Chairman of
Editioq 1978' to 1990 Mr' Alexander served
io."gt""t.ical Engineers' 11th From 1986
Task FoJ-T- for
the PJM Interconnection -r:sponsible
He is
of Electromagnetic ilrta
developing goia"uo"l*foi'ir'"
5o0kV System'
t4] Natarajan, R' et al' "Adoption NP TT Pi and a
Transient r,ogr"--o" i"oond
Computers'" r'EEE a member of Eta Gil"io -Beta of
No'4' oct' 1989' pp 1550- professional eogio""t
the Commonwealth
Trans. on Pwr. $', vol'+'
1554. PennsYlvania'

et al "Transients ?rogram
Bozidar Awamovic (S?8'
M'80) rece-ived the Ph'D' degree
tJ'r Dommel, H. W,Publication"
I5l n"iversity of illino'rs at Urbana-cfuampagne
;;;;iJ uBC Aug' 1e88' ;;;;; Pupin rnstitute, General
1gg0. He has workeil.*uirr"il. Power' and
Alexander, R' W' 'Minimum
Source Consideration Electric company, iyJ'"*Etti"eering^for
t6l System'' PEA System & Fink e"Jtiut"t' S-ince 1989 ha has been
whenRestonng the PJM 500kV Carlson
OP".utioo Committee' Jan'
191" iead Consultant with ECC' Inc'

applied research aod

t7l Mercer, L' S' (Chairman) 'n91c!ve
Output of PJM's Dr. Awamovic is activeofinporver simulation'
development in tUe *"ut
Study' July
Large Genet"t-"g ii"itti
Reactive -sy:tem
toottot' H" o*':!Io:1
1983. security analysis -igl"*"'ito
l8l Brenan, K'E' et al'Numerical
Solution of Initial-Value i;;.'?:'*":
Automattca Jmtf t':'ffi
anq fl," Si,[
problems in Dii"r""ri"r orgebraic Equations," North- monograPh.
Holland, 1989'


the B'Sc' deglee with

M. M. Adibi (M'56, SM'70) received
fr-om the,University of
honors in electrical "ng#"'ing
Englund,"io Juni te50' and the
;Hi;s;; i-n January'
Aamee from Polvtechnlc Institute of Brooklyn
"t'* i950,;;;t assumed various- responsibilities
has been
frifr" utiliy industry; about half of which
"f""tfc with IRD
c".p. He is at p'esent a consultant
L**" "**"d in powercy't"* computer applications'
IEEE papers' a
Mr. Adibi is the author of over thirty

92 wM 109-9 PwRs


A rePort or,n:#:il;'i:T.T::l:';#.-:::# ji::t

H' H' Adibi'
iJ,,.itlu'itl.,s lYth^1t-t"iT""h;r. J' zabrszkv
J. Gi ri D ' S ' Ki rschen S' lil' Shan

rlrrRoDucrlo* :nlll::.*?',.:li:iliii'$.j::""r""'"??xklj.:ll$":!:
liitt op"r"ting.
xiffT;*i'+.ff!11""i"1H ltrs: ":,1jilffi.j1"-nili;;
jlii:;;.;.--,he. reitora.tion then
;,*' ";rll"::fl.::rl:i:;':f:il
restoration is coming "t u:jlT-::'";-"";"; !:^:"?#sj1f
such as large tasl(s Hnere riit pLanntr ruture
oersoective in ptannins
a br-oader p"i'p""ti*
providins porerrur n"*'."i"uii'ites
in ,..""i..i""}1;.}"::: l3iti.;; l.'-,''^"i1'*a""
5lp!'Iii'InJn-"xecuting th'm'
1;i;-;;.;. anarvsisl
.iouta u",'"r""'
"l.lL"o^^o:*:;,:::;"inc-ralnce, ,_:-- +La .octoratioo based on anv of -the three
but in a resPonslbte
[.,H:::'.,,'Ji"',:ti::i::ili:H TJTs=i"T lll'i:r::l
conputer rust b consroErw'"Ui'ii.V
Xi"t"l! ."ri;-ot tt"restoration stratesies ano PracLrLED'
and his sys- to change
;:::;#;ystem tn _"*".;^:."[:":H:i';i.;;-i;'another
sysTEr'{-trIDE cooRDINATIoN
.RGANIZATI.N ::*ii*'t-i$-: i"t':t:t*f*-lil'""*ipl$[$
John Zaborsziy, r,rashington
universitv :i:r"":fff:it:??":?"t'Jl''ff.1":i:*.iir.".'J*i;,;1"::";
orsanizat.ion of the severaI iY:::Tl"t:""''dili"i"Jn'""l!Ii"t"ii'iit
-ian inherenttv predict
The coordination aruc overatI *itt t-ttii i"rt"""t'f lll":#i'#'-i' i''" "tn'i-i""i' effec-tivetv
aspects of the '""o'r.Jt'i=i'i'p'*'i*
the errectiv"n... ot'tti"' i"ito."tio.' 11i;ii: ;:r"""'.1;l Hi ;'U;;'"ii""'" "t :i;j:;T:"lt;To#":.."tJ:1""'il;
ti:::i::1,,i[i,ml"rt:.ili";s,fr:*""'**r*=t"il,.*t ii;t,"[ 'iarge'i
; ':l::f;iiJ::"*:rlii-d:".f:,r,t"'tlll
rn..-"-asi,,"sj:il*X".ilU i:.;,;;';;'".titi- .""ilill;. ;;;; one
.*p,,."... programs, systT-tr*-:::.;:"'"""ri.".
the svstem from oPera'
putationaI i.1"^t^*.'l: .J1 "igniti."n"" a sometimes r"t*tins com-
cia[ intettisence, ."i:"J;i; ^',H;r";'io-l
"*put.. "i-n"itli*""
:ffi:t": :ffi::*#.**$I;:,":^",:1,,;i*:;i["ii #*'S+r'*:fi:tr.""ryttili'#;;'*:*';::':l#l
t'. t:ffi?:rJi',".*illilr:!ffi::i?:3lll'?!1'111111
p.os."* ,*l:!ii? [ry'n*l'I'-ttiii.:!d:1':i*"t',.;tttt-t'ruti:
-restoration' Thus
usrng rntlr""tins
type); "Iiii.#;;i :lt::,:n:nl"'l::n:':.'ii:y-;;-;"
and computer, n-"J"'loJp"nsatins -strensths
intettigence -^:^:^-:""""...
3- cooperativ? t!"io't"tion' ""n :ott"tor-computer
pariner.r,ip ..r.i'-ir,e
.:i:"H!;;;u";:: li"#+-=r$:*.:iqii,.; 'k,'i:':;':l;':';11"""#::":::
ireen them- ganizing principtes ttste
..;i tr"#'

and its feasibitltv
cause of the extensive-
:ii :r,'l!
" 1''-;" "...T!?
and time
doubtfut il:
for deci-
",iF'e. !,rh i chever orsani
this Pattern') These are:
:o i"l: l;l#'. "tl;:
za t i t

rie' 1 and 2 ratr

t t


(rhether conventronar'tt "iplttand-."Ytt"*1-t"^1ded

because of the presence a) Database bui tdins
sion nekingby the
resident exPert' ) Target
b1 setection
reach the tarset
"i-ar',r"-tp"irtor, b2) otll"i^n""i-tieps to

torat i on steP by
cIosec though him ditStt'i''='

l't in"t:.': ' a'nd ",';iil,:
ri' iloop
the control
is hetped
r,4ost of th e
necess a

i*::*" # ""g"T
:5" :'t3^;1:
"-it (:'s' l::.1 fl'or'r) *hich he
bv interactivt to'np*""1'p"ogt"'n'
r-estoration manua[ (uhich of may be lii:il:1'Jr:i';:ii1,:f .il:'i::":': j-;:ll";","'t"lx;1;1
can in:errogate, and iv as part his ot the creus to startstart;
storei in the "o,n'"""">"ni"'i'rc tl'aled :#::^lir'::,i-Jliil"'.;; "u genera:ors for cotd
Loading schedutes ";"t;";" time re-
reenergization time. "t "q'igtt"* .in ry1ll-glance;
subs-tation or a manuat
e2 w!{ loe-e PwRS A paper-rec"T::::o.:Hr".nll'l?u ouirements to reacn
t"J f or
tv ctr. IEEE Power Svstem Engineerrng
sr,ritch in the ,"t0, Jl'tt]"'i"i 'ithori'corrections
pri ty rankings of
Sociecy for presenEacion
cire rEEE ro,tr et'gi"'';;;i"; lleecing'-New York' Nell the ect of tr''" ii "utt"nt";
ef f
totpon*tt; schedute for the
at the IEEE/PES fsi''-'i"t!t various equipment -tni'[";a from neishbors' and the
submitced inmediate future ot ""tp-""ii"tite-
All infot*"tion transfer' as
York, January Za 'iO, fSsZ' -Manuscript
for pri-nting associated transfer ;:"^tt:-' f ro* tot'pt'rter to cunpxrter and
;;;;. za, tbgt; roade available far as possibLe, *frii'u" of anv
Deceuber 11' 1991' -t"t"" toconmunication
avai [abte in the o"i""L"t?pt'iot l!:..::"ut"nce system'
reprinted hom IEEE Transactions
on disturbance' o t"ti- ""a
PI*". ir*,t*., vol' 5, no' 4' Nov 1992'
pp.ld28't434 4L
r{here atI transmitters, have emergency
(batteries) that. Houtd -ifr'.Jrni, por{er suppties the softHane for organiza.tiona[_
period, i s essent i a [ ,o t"ra atu restoration schemes such as the
tainty for maintaining a "ny-.""ao';;ry';n scheme and cer-
r.ii.bte aatuU"""- Database i:::ll:.:;"..:ff ::, - _cons
i deraii
";;. ;; r".a r
- ones
:Y;;"T:!l'':':'j:;?::5'*'e same resliiil"' hox the pran; 5ii;,i#.:x.:i*l_::, i[:iil', i:i.fltii"ox, It"::;:gijl:
"t r;;" ;;; ;#-,ili"::i
The ptanning task (Figure
3) rriU. differ significantty for to devetop iifr tfi :' i;l:'?il, ::l::t;*.:l
speciat atsorithmic-'apo."""i"J'lith
the different or-sa.nizJ_tio"-;.;;;ipt"Jl.,*or"u"., pLexity but xith sufr r. imited com_
sary etement .noo.lns one neces_ tif u t""r. -i
ro.""o: ;il
pp r ;; :'
il;.the a oach e r ,.,n ir'."X"t,
judeei r"""i;i" next restoration nt",, ; r, : I I i
:;H.."r.t";fl:t.i:i'-1'- is bv operator and :ff"t
"utititv r"' .""t-"i"ti"r.
**+.g<_+" ;-+,S',t
target for the"inext rnove
tli" t::rt:r':. t
r."u"; fi
"1T:;:. j*:1, il #
hJ t."i."<u"sed on "his ex_
J" i a i'',r'#iXt,.li::t:
*';;,ti';, LiJ "".,1 ;1,:T ,,.,",1
:lin5r::,ffil"liii i:* "p".i"i-..i"ii.llii.". Naturarry
n, ;" HI 1."1":, i::
!!ll]i"; i t. I i. i .i, ff ;:ii;.r!!!I.
:n 999r. "J,i-, "= "v".* .status repre-
ri,f;. ri
gmun t" ;;' .il T:: ","
m i "".,,""il i,,
programs. There is. an inptied
J" ?i" li:" :H, ;l;r;m j: schedutes of'cotd start senerai;;;.
Ioads nust be considered.
d5o l::i?i
status of
each tarset. rn *;; ;;;ii;;.;; ;;:"J;;;
moves S-rls ,,vp. "i ;;;i:"
witl be of r,fri::d the individuat
,top. tp.:'.i,;;,:"*
nect a transmission tine, synchronriu'" loads, recon_
-m""trne I:::::tlt rT'rfi"lilli.:r restoration is or obvious inpor-
or an is_ -1"
Iand, cold start a generator
-r,ri i"tJ.',r."1.
to. ." in;
t ;;;;l -X?.;':,.. :.:H;,:],..?:""H:::i;:i;
scope and duration of the Atso the pursuins".i it. Restoration of
consecutive moves, rhich-nift moves ii';.y widety betxeen very conptex process. " t;i;;oHer system is a
have'io f," .h" qr-ti
r.r thin the ranse or
activiii ;;';"; oi=".".o..
rerent operators ane in .h#gu'oi'i"lt"rn".."na """1"t at least
rf dif _
type of performance "a-"p.ill'ot
go. The measure of lsrogress thatprobabty not "*
the *'t;;

ments, coordination needs to system

ble-;;";;;;, usuatty onseg_ tia". rr"ii-I;;";' "1^1-Y:" is setected strouta tonl
tetephone, thich is time consumins the
by misunderstandinr "^d.;"ia*;ve of enrors :::1.:#.JsJ;"':"".-:::::;ll:?;n";..J."1",;":.y.**
prlorlties of the conponents in the
r"',"i"i"..,1;l;J":o:l:i,;l JX:,i;,;?i:ffi":::.1""m:: be considered. The 'form """t"""A system
ii""_"..ill',.t,outa rxjst
surrunarize the maior evspsIt o.s"nir"iloi"r. .on.e.n" reatistic and intuitive.feeI"i t"l-.n"-rJlg=ln give a
their timitations-as,they and toration r,tl and shou[d r"nd to futt res_
speciat atgorithms to ctose. tt,"ii."i; #';t;
puter aided restoration. appt!' i""i".sJi,"",ection in com_ desisning of
pi"nnl,.rg *J'","p"
to reach the
tarset r.ri L t be retativety ai."i."""d==i.iaishtforrard *.sin:-"
Iittte computation as possibte t2]. j::. and r,rith as
this appr'oach, becaus.e of the in
the tarsets. ,..un:11,.,r, .-h"."i"ii,I"t"v'timited scope of
.;:;;iJ ."..h the tarset
:]ll target.
P" the operator'shead i[u ii*. *r,"n he setects
each "t
ln cooperative restoration (Fig. 2; a COMHUNICA?rON
tron betHeen more direct coopera_
tives and tishter
"o*ortei--Eid- "ii;; broader
time horizon (say l,o,,i"ra""i.";.;"
a uniform
consecutive restora.tion ---it'""'.orpua".
set for each
charged with generat, "augu. can be
tn"sesulces.;;;-,;;Ji;:,T;"":'l:,;l'lil-Ji"....i.!r"T..:a j
l:::.--.1":" tarsets shoutJ ."p-*.I",'".=nj,no..
prrorrtrzed restoration possibIe compIete Figure 1.
pected to be avaitabte at. tte r.i;;;ii equipnent ex- Computer Aided Restoration
This constitutes partiJutTr horizon time.
target seLectiorl.'ir.I".onpr,.tions
effectivety done by it," .ouprt"., '0r,".:,'*lir,o are
srve computer search time to ."*"
mediate steps Ieadino to the ""t"Ul-;.h'ii,J-n".r,".ou. "^."._
takes over the Ieading rote.tar;;t.-'s""ih" operator then
can readity propose these steps n. ifl"-i".iient expert he

ottton and trusts the computer if he knows the ta.get con_ PI.ANNED ON LINE
that the target ritL be vi-
abte if reached. nr r tr.,.." op";;i#
.#'i ..ri t.y parat_
Ieted and stassered in time.'-'ii;1..;""i'fo.
next horizon time can,be computed thu second
,i,if""ii" target for the
next horizon time is u.;ng, iip-t*.;i;;'
teams of operators can wo.rk ili: operators or
check steps proposed uy tne
in panat ier.''in" .*p_,aer can
opeiJ;;,'J;. consisrency.

out the imptementation of the tarset
can. asain varv wf detv condition
Figure 2. Cooperative Restoration
on ttu o.#izarionaI prin-
ctpLes used. For effectivetT:9i"nprogress this tast shoutd be
automated as much as oossibte.
i,frll" *"V steps coul.d be
drrectty conmanded b"' tle ."",p",1.,'"r"f"''*,itt
done manuatIy and even n""d to b" IHPLEi.{SNTING
computer must monitor
att"r aiivins io-""= Jro.,.,ion. The THE P I.AN
tt,u p.ogrlr'.' # ir.ri,r:*renrentation
-,*g"i,' CoI',IFUTER AND/oR
pLan reach, the.nI*,
:.1,^:!" to the
aonerence .to
scheduLe ancj for .;;";;.,
t. .i".t for CO!$TUNICATION
L apses or errors. or iri .u.u of time
modify ,r.," ,".*,"i" !,,;::t""n"o pFosrams are needed to
There are nunenous atgorithmic
means possibte:o generate COT.{PUTER A'D/OR

Figure 3. The Three Basic Functions o,

c riti. ca t
:^ iT
To*"1-t * ,o.,'.T,ffi[I:|',r".""t'."J: riL'' o llf ii'
cs,y"t. b"- tended this approach ltr"r"Jt"',-"nd has feuer constraints'
::1::*:::' l, ;3";"t',?::",:t
certainty in restorart."1",^i,':.:--;" ,"t i as
i n pubt i c
*ttl".igning tion svstem i' 9:T:?:;'oi;;; i. more manaseabte' To re-
outs are very exPensrve
in dotLil-:-"-t^ io that the"^: 'Ji;"., severaI steps .are--f ot-
j;;; ;;: "nd store a maximum numDer :.'- :::;::";ion. zone restoration'
r : I ."r'"?' ""ffi :: :i i' "
:i i"n:l::'*"ioi--ptoi""t",
I ::
extensrve ii...i t.niln incrude,,t:"o
and if necessary' a svstematic
:l::^';'- :Pp::"-t-"
und otr'""
.*..""h .for devetoping
:; ;;:;be; ieve "
r opm.ent
exPensrve' :::.r: n::ml.' l'.1" ll'"t rl! .' l,
" lil i!]r. s,ii-i"roduced
li n#, ti, "^. "r 1"^. ;;;i, ::l *t l:, :r.; in, n:-Ell.'J;
;;;i; is cLeartY catted for' ""i

svstem consists 'systems'
In this
EXPERT SYSTEI{S TOR PO'IER ooHer "ii;;p-;J.radiat
al'ternatiy:" "t" senerated
Institute of
s. H. Shahid"ttpout,';iti;; iiti"*
studv, fast, t"t", una-ttl-*llte
Internationat anf i nt"t""t i ont--*j-tl th" operator'
S' ri"""n!n"ittpi"t automat i cal [y ni tnout"
il :H. l;
ii i .'
"; : :, 1:" 1*;il: :i il :.:i "r" lll t H,$";""0"
I ntroduct i on
:. ":'r"ffi" i'"";" . ff;G J t " 1*'-T. -li During this i me r equ i r ed

As poHer systems continue to g'ot{ in size.-and colptexity' io"'.""".d,oJ-; the f i rst pttl"" it resto'ratj'on'
the anrount of tirne t"q'it"a T t.""1::"^.0^"-'X
-"fa"rmath of a btackout reacnes l:;"iff:; In- ;;";;5; "-" t:::" ^lhii"il .,*' :i '.'*"..'fi"1"::i",'r"X1 .,!1
in- att" and sociat.^costs for an f;:;ffi '
::' i - ob j ei t i ve dvnami c op-
i'i' t'a""t
oroduces unacceptabte "lono'it is per- I l?1".,,""11.'i"t t{ith tnis probtem' a
dustriatized society. cJlilii.ti, the restoration timization probtem- i;"";"; ioptopot"d rrhich is basicattv
manuatl'y' based on Pre- hierarchicat ti*
formed step-by-steP'"iJ lnottty One of "j'"ioif-'it
establ.ished guidetineJ IJ opeiating.procedures'
t!9 ilt"it- i"*Po."t time decolPosi
the avenues Hhich i:'u"ilg-!*pt"fJa'*it.n
of' the btackouts ts
?l "'
finding rays to t"a']"J-iiI Juiation h"Jl':l: Imptementat i on
the appLication of ;;9;;'^;;*t^'^t-^"d l9
execute' restoration actlons nhich nust be per-
oDerators setect, schJute and svstem' Taken individuatty, none of theoftasks
a is fun-
;fi;';:,..-;'ii it'" status of the poner
formed during the restrration
';;;;;;' PoHer.system
""i""t difficul't' constraints must be
tn mathematicaI terms, the restoratl:.1.g:tbt"*
mul'i'i-objective' mutti -stase'
; ;; ;; ;' nj maly "-":g'-.-'." ;;,;* ; !,n "",1" "lt r!'E!:!!:er

:'"'$i;;*;;- " oPtimization probtem' iL'" ivp"' or actwhen iv i t i es r ast

binatoriat, nontinear,' tintii"in"i
t'"t''.a probtem currentty ::.:5:.H:t"" ;';"?i"";;
tn"""i"j*""' especiatLy the humans
Unfortunatety, ttre conptliiv' "i method which noutd and rnore retiabl'y
orectudes the devetotr#;;^;;' "-s";;rat for a are under stress'
ot*t"tiot"tive contro-t-actions
determine a series A i-t :-Y:n that instead
suff icientty *ia" t"ng"--of- operatins-circumstances'
reflect a of the restoration probtem
The nature capabte of
more heuristic approiJn-whith probrem thus aPpears
of thinking in terms Jt o-i t;ngt"
- expert-:I:tem
the " i''1 resiorat i on'
handt i ns "'^" "!::'\:
;";";;;;:"';;P;J;"h- an "n'i ronment composedaskofforvarl
oreferabte. Such an 'ppt""t1
nouLd- reLy systems
and uouid be rather desi gn "'p"Jt'
"r".y advice
and other artificiat'i'tiietl'igence svstem oPerators recos- knoutedse-based toots]"'riJ'op"t"t"t'ciyta
spec.iatized expert system
;;.";;-; i"J"s" unictr'*outJ hetp
tl:-"Yttem' minimize on a particul'at qu"s-tion"it"*'t the monitoring of a
nize botttenecks in t'flt o-p"t"'i"l:i devetoP strategies for or coutd detegate tn"""'i"Jii"n-Lnd svstems shoutd
atgt"ilti-on' and simote task to "noth"i ;;;;;-
"li'pui"tlt"a ,expert
further system to the
;;;i;i^;;;"ii"uL service to the uti ritv customers' tnui be designed tt assistants
'n""i'"!ti"tants'- they shoutd require
Like aLt
The major steps in the devetopn"n:
of ?1..:lPert svsten area ooerator. ..t1y:rt of the r'ray of
as tittte instructioni as possiute, t"tt but not teast'
required to soIve
-ia"niitit"tion of the Drocess tnat a the operator unt'"t" t""ii"i-6t"'the operator.
or *,e kno*redse
iiil"t.jriir;i!;" "nd The opeFatol.
p."ii*, tr'"
determine appropriate ccitrot ill"""i'r.,"' nota""iJion-to'
t'uv""''to *"t" time. entering data beyond
human expert rno".go""--io
:=::- shoutd unanbiguousty uhat is ex-
;;iT;;;'";" a".iu"tiin or sovernins 1u!9s f'or 'th" the minimum required io'tp"titv eit .tt'" disi taI and
;il';;i .ont.ot of that pio""tt' 1ry -lh"-
oected f rom the
practicaI situations' The "'r"it;t;;* rectLv from the
and testing of these rutes on depends' to a great anaIog status a"t" !io'ti'i"-oui"in"a(El'lS)' .di Furthermore'
quatity of these tut"-uJtJ appioacnes 'th" u-sed to rePrssent utiLity's Energy f,l"n"g"'"nt System
systems to base
]t"*ilitltv ol iii ;iG*t the exPert
H;;: ". lr't" Sode]- t{ith v{hicr the intesration xith ttre
status of the pouer
the actuat po,". "y"-tu'n lJ tn" ctoseness techniques of an expert their recommenaation-s on ihe actual'
alt""tty through the scADA
rutes mimic the proo-iem pn"n"*inaI advances in hardrare svstem and to it""""toil"nJ" -
rtls' ihe design of expert svstems
ooerator- HoHever,-iit
--hi"l 'nav" ptace in recent vears have :G:;t.;-";-,n' .tl1:have the abitity
:['t;;;;".; [ut"n a much shouid be such that ih"'op"t"*t- shoutd
their use if
t"t'"*p"tt systems and bypass
made it possibte .to,anatyze tir-e and to ignore tneir recomm-ena'"iion.
that the ex-
uider range ot pottltiiililt to detaitsi^ a much.shorter
desired. rnis uppea-rs;i-Pi" but. it,impties
even E1 ex- io track the evotu-
nith much more attention .than Exper: sys- pert systems u"''Jut"" ina"p"na"ntty
perienced oPerator coutd ever
achieve' of "*t system'
the Povter
on-tine the res- tion
tems thus have the p-ollnii"t to
toration strategy u"ttluitta tohon the situation at halC' to
I'lost researchers have concentrated
ihir attention so fara
this--strategy can be
quickLy devetop pt";t;*i^g the time requirei for on the devetop"tnt oi "'riittt*'i"dec
f-or .re-estabtishing
of' this section witI
imptemented nencJ to *ini*ize sketeton netHork'
system "na
restoration' therefore be devoted to a Aiscussion of this probtem'

The first aPPl'ication of expert -in s/stem Hany utitities have devetoped v.itten procedures which
tytil*t--in poHer
by sakaguchi, t3l, r,hi3:r tHo mor" patnr. atons which this sketeton
restoration uas introduced (syrnbor.ic ani"r,tnr.e-icat) o"=".iil';;;;; ccutd thus very easily
different types of "o*pui"tion, of-system'i".i"^. xo.k ;;-il I..onrtrl"t"a.-- o'iu
xere considered for ".[""iti"..ase
:,1:^5il:t,#:;:lJ'T::".i.1?,ll"illl::: ,.n',.i:::iii*i nqrl;" ,ouia-"iat'". hit*:::":*:'"1'?'".' "'::::"n::l""iixlil;
fait to provide a recor'*''end"tion or routd

ing for a viabte "pp.i".r, to asiist ,y.t"*';"";;:ll"

possibry dangerous course
:i:;."",:"i:.1;::""::g or ac_ designed for inptemena"ll:n. in. an on_tine
";:1."l"::ff envirornent,
;:jg rl,t ii.:r;i:l :?#:i :i"ffilJtf"li^:g:f. th-em io"'pl"#i.n or opera-it
:!:."y.1,;;;';,:J,"r'",:.;^i"i,JLiJ#:1,:Hiil;;i[i:tr vehicte Thev provide a
f; ili.kt"tl'"!:.:l:!"' arrJ eva convenient
scratch has tHo inporiant .onr"qu"n.""i-'-".,' strates i es 1# Iuat i ns restorat i on
";;' .L'S.t.:l]* that a restoralion
tuatl,y-be p."r".rJi in=lYtns l"l

; ii**Hi}r $"fri,i?i*,;;
o the system I set oi schUua;;.;":.reasonabte arpunt of tim ""n

The characteristics of expert


syste{ns aDotied
tem restoration can be surmarized to poHer sys-
A rrroad maprr of the oouer cvaro- as foiiors=
anou;e-cl--o",;;.1Tffi,:irr"I;:*.;",.i:,r,;#^:i o These systems shoutd function
as assistants to
iyJJ""Jl:r["#1T_:I-."_.i'. r". "iiiJiLy reasons, it the operator.
ror the *;". operator responsible
o They provide oj"ti"" procedure
::iii.:ilffi :lk j
i:: *,#1i""^:?
:: ;.,U: : rapid decisio"l -?I"t:*t;"- for making
used ror p"r". itli "hj the basis or tt" a"t"- rid" ."nn"ii J,+."#::'":::.situations "nu toi
""il:rt:tfi:.on "
o Logicat reasonins
-hierarchical .description of rne.. programs can he used "*i"iii s, atsorithmic
faciIitates a 'ii-13-*-t approach to the porer system to iaentifi,arxr
'-..ri, v'. prioritize
t"".;at" plinJ. tHo_r"."r..I]lll--y, _
ttre searctr'-iJr control actions.
o Expert sys:flE integrated rithin
:ii!."_".lilj;,"nr{::+iiiil;,T![X.1";,*"ruj;.. j: ment have the_poteniiat i"" an El,lS environ_
ttre atrectio;..#;;
expert system at this t"u"f
tr-".iuli ",jg.lticantty reduc-
ins the amo,ult-.o+ aiTg-."qri"eJ'io
ice to att of the utitity,l-.i,.r-Jtqners. ".".o." """r_
tion of ihe-"t"i"'il.''tL. be .fottoxed during the reconnecj o Expert systems_coutA
*4" .on"".it;''.1:"? Tt*t*' once a dec-ision'h*';;;" atso U."ri"O to plan and
test restoration procedurl"
j5","#* iI "!, ::,'I:'.
.nLl: :ilt.E!!. "i:H*i:; "ia1-t""t"9i"".
opERAToR TRAiltrNc rrlylATgl:-
possibtv modifv this a"tait.o Jay Giri,
rr,t por.,ER sysTEil RESToRATToH
rnis apiroaJi'"iti'# iiin. ESCA
ta c t i c a i ;.
*'"'* .i
arnount of searching tt"t :ii!il:.#.
ff".Xff l, ::r:".r.: lil:
*"i-U"-ie;Iiffi":, In actuar poHer system.operation,
A feH prototype systems. b3."9 severe restoration situa_
been described in ttre technicaI on these principtes have
fli".r,rl"ia,1o,11j. :;:H.:::n j ij'XlT"l !l:, rt' e'JrJ'i' ir,ln='.r'"v do occur,
r::j:rrr ;i; J;;".tr:!!!
il;:: ; l:. i#,'ff ?J.1'. " !r.:qot'u""'i i'"il' n'' in a". i gn - o?
system as quickty as possibte, -;rriI" :;"
ttre aevetopm"ir' "'
of- the porer system and in tron to many technicar.'detait.. ir"vi.rg ctose atten_
abitity i; "" "i'1"."1-t-".tiont, techniques
rhich provide the it"v fir:rr,,d.."* to the
most from their base of_ tnor.t"aj",,,"-"*|""i"n"., ut_
t t gi t i ";;;;'.i""ttn
I i . iuit J "*:? I il ":." "] oi il?S,o order to and
t v,'qu i ilir,".""Trt
rrnportant ^",- benefit of these systems l.-iiriit.v
sophisticated graphica[ ."p.6"*i"tir"
;:._::i "-; :
provide a
:::I.l::;:" ""r" ci ent ry re_

paths. These graphicat "i'rri"

disptays-*t""ii'possiut" restoration operator training silry..rtators provide an effective
quickty s.asp the'.t"tr. ;i for the t{hrch the operator can be means by
both at the system ' and ..
-.-t," fr: sr tuations in a secur_e,
train; ;; il"i';lln .""to."tion
lro"".";,i;r.ij;",..".t*, envinorment. This tra .
controt t"ui"l-lrit,ine sinulation
0irection of Future r ie res,Jiji, # "l liXl.
Llork rea r - t
stressful manner fl2].
iJ,l,, fliolii",F:#: H:"',:;j
sfi :: ::itTrjr",'"",t :l- tn" t r. reco-rmenda t i ons on th e bas i s
arso ut ;.
cause a viotation of i^
;;" ;: ; i ; ;1,, j!!::'
::: 1fJ"..",.",^"".1, ; j I * operator Training Sinrutator overvier
tion of the exprt an operating "ff
"on"i."rrnt, Anroutd
*;il, Inrifti.Ii,toot. integra_ operator training simutators provide
a reatistic environ_
sure that onty feasr:bt"..u.o*nJ";i;;;";."
"v..le,ns en_ ment for openators
the operator. For -* presented to ".?1 l::*J;F;"'!il"ri""
"l:TJ:, paths"rd-"yltem responsibte
ton suggesting reconnection perrence
operatins tasl.:
:::il_d"y emergency al9 procedures, as wet I asnormar,
to ex-
it,ortJ,fliu" the abi t ity operating situations. The
prosram to training activities can be ."r"tv-"#""invenienttyvarious
;:.;"ll,i i"i"'.jr'r"J
",-r,.,.:i 't'""i tn"t a particural ticed Hith the simul.ator resqonding
resu r t s i
i"ij' lil:;", power system rr:,r+:-. '=ri; "-*"nn". simitar to
expe.t system coutd theni!iji:["',i,
"ll il:to
moa;ty-"ttre" paih"-ia .".o,rr"nds tnvestigatory manner. to recreate ;#,:"n be used in
tronaI scenarios and to puJt
;1,'; i,,.",ff "i- ""dh' "'ir I"''i,.ii's *re vo r ias" dures. Scenarios can beformutate ".trat opera_
.v"i#".j.a"ration proce-
"::*::;i" oTs can be used
for evatuatins
;;;; lii,."-u""a. The
The prototypes xhich tormance of ner rear_time ii""]r#.iJni,r.,
''i;":;;";;'"and and per_
ll: fashion.
operated in a standatone 0.""1 developed
far have att
'--r.-f,liso i[.
tuning AGC in an offtine, secure atso fo.
tegrated rith power .r.a*.",.in]i.i"." be in_ environment.
ptete verification of tn"i. "frorfd
a""il,"in a more com-
tron of sirrutator and expert ..p"iiijai""l".. This conrbina_ l^.1[]r"t-openator training simutator consists of
t ortng main subsysterns the fot-
used for restoration dril.Ls systern toois snouta atso be :
tlveness of these toots. a"-lriir","iie "overart
ertec- 1. Energy Controt System. (ECS):
This subsystem ernrtates
the normat Elts function" in ilrl'"ori-""r1
Uhite most of the systems described in the titerature part of the OTS
is the only
rith xhich tnu t."in"J'interacts.
Here consists of the Supervisory ;;"i;;i";;';ata It

for PqHer Svstem Restoration
an'd atl other OTS
systeln' generation system abno'rmaI arri off-
tion (SCADA)
- scenarios invotve severety
EHs functions' ns'
This subsystem sltIiJ-
;;i ;"i ope r a t i
"S iii.;".;X; .
r: t',1 !',"
PoHer system Dynamic. Sinr'rtation: sYt- toration scenarios' tn' "',1"^r'
2. po*"t
tates the dvnamic b"h"ti:;";;-ii"
-'"irrs "-I"-:*' tion requirenents:
tem f requencv l" tl*tlt"i
poHer sys'
".1""9;::rT"T:H: o -ot: ard thevery simi lar
of -the E!{S functions
:$gH{i*:".,i:.iliil%::."il:ll :: are rePre' ResPonse
tem sim'-rtatiX"'i^'- tr't"
tt-t^ Et'lS'
sented by modets ot tf,'t"'uiiit' tuibin"s' -governors'
ftous to the respol"'ot ttt" reat-tine
boilers, ard boit"t l"iiii;;;;t'
rhe-netHork one's
The sirutation fltrst accurate!1-lenresent
and states (ils votta;;;'"nd "ngl'""''topotogy'
it periodic inter- o
" and one.s oun poHer sYstem.
former taps, ut'u='"JilGt? ; EHS
are *altiJ'
vars. Reravs"a"'l ; il:'rffi::t"
the be-
fidel'ity must U'"'T:inttined over
haviour of the
actual o Simulation requencies' This
xide ranEe :rui;'"ilandof-
r'ncludes capa- system com-
Instructionat system: This sr'bsystem inctudes titl'si*utatign transformers'
111er tines'
bitities to "t"tt, 'top"'t"-"t"tt' ,arrC-controt
ponents (s;;"t;;it; units' at i on a t go-
ii't['a!! nrakins ard- retrievins save- j,bJ'It'fiericatty
fr i me-movers-'-''S i nr'rt order to
i;;i;;:- ii "i'o time' initiatizing retays,
"t"' "'U t:'T."-t-^io
cases, re-initiatizaiiii-to " 'i"* etc"This subsys- rithns must condtttons'
to a specific t"tt-ti*'-tituation' sotve severety off-nonrinaI
schedutes' Events
tem is atso used to'Jitin" event' systern simltation modeted to a
are associated Hith i1'n ttt" PoHer o The external PoHer sys'tem 'rytt'l"
L {or
ard the Ecs functionJ'';t;;t"';;utg- + deterministic
corditionat (based on sreater i1r5"'"t-'detai f "ul:l-1tl:n
(occur at a pre-aetin*ea fi#i conditions beins
accurate sirr'ltation of
a pre'definea ""t oi'"io'it-titt"* This is tt''"rrt'*
' 'il;;t; ";;" i nterconnect i on
(occur at rardorn)'
;.[i; ; p;;Cbitistic the dvnam'i c ";; .:1- -th^",
ot the system have
*hen targe disjoint Portions
been btacked out'

is initiated by a series of cascading The OTS user interface

tnust be abte to ctearty
A typicat probl'em Iead to
trios and sHitchlns';;;;;";-xh'ich
-tt'" svstern' tvpicat sequence l;" ;' i. .
l-"-, lo^n". r.rl...
that are occurrlng' * ff
'# i. f"T,T i:
il liil*'ir -A. at anv time and use-instruc-
optt"'ont inctudes the fottouing steps:
of restoration ;'j;""i;".-i*t"tion disptavs to sain
Hi"ir""ii""s ard generic svstem' behavlour' P:.t:::. '"-
o reat-time informa-
Criticatty study the avai,table et-c') ;:;"i";;;; or the
tion (atarmsl-i'cniin disptays' in order to 'r-Jorationrirr
tire' restoration
;;i;;;;;,'in ."'t torma'f ptan
be per-
td'"iity of the btackout' formed using a gXS
assess the
"it"t"-"ta ..^-^ .h^ crana aM furrctions, the use of in-
uses Lrrs provides
o Open the system circuit
breakers-in the btacked- structor disPIaYs ano functions and. expt-arnrns "l ]n-
imp!'ementing the i Itusratine
out area, r'rr'ittp"t"tion for i:'t;.;i'" ;;.'of (such as effects
restorati on Procedure' the undertying system J"no*nt to1{-1t:l'o''
:;= ;;;i;;;- Jabi r"iiY or .co!a par-
gas turbine in the of the
Cotd-start a hydro unit or
o iii.'#n"ti. understanding the system -1s
btacked-out area' ii.rtlii, beneficiaL lrhen lnersency
ciocunented restoration
the btackstart - tr''" tot*"ioperator
;.;T;;";' rIo* has to relv on
o Energize a transmission path from
(,possibtv a-fossil n"'", the
;;:";;;". judgenrent to.,extra.Pciate
unit to " ;;;;h;;;l"s ind svnchronize this iris oxn
unit) and;;;;i-;P
;;;r-;; pG".* make "'U "iptti"nce
decisions on-the-ttv'
unit by pt"'iai"tin" cranking PoHer from the
btacksta't unit' Easy access and transfer of OTS scenario data to
other offl ine pt"nning func.tions, is--highty
pick up cus- f'n"iions tr'ansient
o Graduatiy increase generation 'andensurins that I".T..ui"..-rnu'" o'*'ott"g"inctude. sim:tation' and
tomer toad i'nJIJrn"ni"rtv' r'rhite
stay *ithll..t11p^:, stabitity, transient The abi titv to ini -
f requency,
itot{s iiil';;i:rii-l't'ut"iion''
not cause unnecessary retay 0TS ard to con-
and-do "nd
abie timits""'iitg"" tiatize ihese functlons from the
triPs' is
il;i t;;i". pf'"nom"na' invatuabte f anatyzins..svstem
restoration Integ-ration of the 0TS
transmission t i ty functionr .1n Par-
o Graduatly energize additiona,l' ;;;i- ; transient stabi
Paths, pick;;''i;; [oads' and brins more units Ii"rt..,' is-hishl'v a"tit"ot"' The stabitity
on tine. ; ;;; i ; -itt
sxitching oPeratlons -..'-': l:il.'.*:' I :i ".:i'"1 :' ::J ii-
o Continuatiy monitor voltages' frequency'
act i ve
to ensure i"ii""t ir'r"i .esutt in retay trips [151 '
and reactive pouer balance' and IloT:
iiirt af'.V stay rrithin acceptabte Iimits' An oPerator training simutator rnust be abte to simutate
n tlhen appropriate, re-synchronize.
the area rith the fottoxing:
- ;h" ."ii oi the live interconnect]on' of
Instantaneous trips (and re-connections). .gen-
t".a, Iarge generation-to-to-ad-im-of
o untiL a[[ customer loads have
RePeat above stePs "."ii""-.^a and the ."'u-tiiig dynamic behavior
in service'
been restorei,:-"tt units are back to normat' poHer sYstem f requencY'
and po*er sy"itm-"onaitions are phenomena caused by
is to restore cus- steady state instabititv
The Dararpunt objective of restoration Larqe l{lJ poHer transrers,'rhich resutts in abnor-
normatcy as quickty and
tomer servic" and pou'"r-'"v.-a* matly Iarge poxer angte differences'
safetY as Possibte'

. vottage coItapse ohenomena caused
tji*OTl by The expert system rute
po.t, '-tn't1T"'.L;,,.,."'TntT..nt".tv..u"J,--u-"-".u[1
desradation. tgniricant heuristic
voltase .in*rt"io.. scenario *i jf :on::ptr-:1 procedures t..inins
from the
dures onr ine.,,u r,"IiiJt'iJ ^:fl"r:.
o system ble3kue into fiuttipte create a training scer Jff::Tilii::::":1":.8::.;;
some of ;i;',J'X etectrical istands *,"t-""irrt=''i;"tj:""j"Ilo, creates a sequenee or
,",' o,"J.XT|,Tl.r..i"""t"::lii:i"f'.*
islands' !ru'r ;[; il:il
or erec*icar :;:::f ",""*"1t"H[1.i{id;J:T,.:#:H:," Uil:
ff"::.:: ?"
a"g."oii-"11J.*"r the porer
o Re-synchronization and :lil.I""',:.:'ii'.ntono".liltJ i l"'qlXll". "oTt'"r.n." rhich
rami-- -.
ice (oar;i"r+"fi:.}**?13 ,l,H,ti"t*":r:i;".;,"":l: q""pr,i....r disprays courd be deveroped
o Restorali::
"r,custooEr ,o.*,:--"j-r-u:_l1.or cord
shoH the

li:r.:;:ru"1;:lt:;ji::;-l:":::l *;i iJ ".="'.1"o up, a dis-

toad pickup and duratr'on ;;T"'-"""J"'n"i".'"",,""1,'l,lj

ef fecis or vort"g.';'J;il;"J1#'#"*?
Feeder sectionatization
"* :ii!:ili!rt!:r;;;#"r",.'.rg1.0.,,,"1.n?.,ir,t;i"i::.:r,::
its capacity.
ard sHitching of discon_
a,* vortases rithin accepl-Jt!'
tl'ft". ,[+i::ili!;i
ir,. ors p.;;i;;.';;-ii'itr.ot"
6 Reray actions a.d reray
nntrur.c_tions pertinent potentiar "nvi"J.,,*II-il"*." .rs.""_
to restoration condition",..iu"r, il:::r.:X[#&,..j"1 "ppii;;il;.'# benerits or
as synchro_
check, [oss-.t^:1"it"iiii,''ir"".r"tt"tion,
current, automatic over- REFEREflcEs

vortage, vorts/Hertz_. ;J;;;):fu".

"""to"ri ?Iilj",#r"."- ,. i;ii?"iiiik.$#.Ji6jiii"lLX*;"&i;i"?il";"l';
o lnctusion.of a transient stabitity systefi Restoratio.rl,lloc._
r"itinn, Estonia,'rrienniaf
program that
automaticartv in;ii"-ii."o-i.o,,i jii *" JH: #.;!-}!,.
Horr.d con-
uiii,-iunu.t teeo,
o l'luItipte,-,sequentiat and consequentiat, 2' c.Huang.,, p.Huang,
ing disturbances. - - -'"eLYucrtrrat, cascad-
cascad- -j'Zeborszky,
poner Syst# rrJ"i J.B.Liu: A Dynamic
t..liarr.Graded precision-ior
traction of pertinent^Load ftou Fast Ex-
TRAt'rs' v.PAs-104 ni, l#J.*"tion;
""" IEEE
" |f,jff:];,.f."er"o.v and vottase toad-sheddins, lgas, pp.siZz:n.
of automatic toailstreo?l';',i''ir.i'i;
.".,o"raiotrllg 3. T.sakaguchi, K.tatsunoto: Devetognent
Based system for porer of a KnoHtedse
o verbal comunication xith field -1v:i"r" n"raJ."a.,on,
Trans- v-PAs-102-, n.'2, pp.3zo-329, IEEE
crer, substation Feb. 19gj
a-nJ neishu;G-;;;r
!1i1ii';':^i;i"i:.i;i;yill":il t:":-i:::...H1,r8:::
" ::ff.'JJ",.Xtli: r1""i11."" xith RTU. and other Jilti;#" sv.t",.;-iiee i."n.l;".:,;';'Jr.61s-6?6,
o Battery discharge effects on 5' S'lil'Tatukdar, E-cardozo, T.perry:
RTUs, and operatins c-orununications, sistant - The operator,s
*.r,"i-i",i.'of fietd aevices ni't lnGii ls"lt,- As-
(batte.ies discharg-e
il;il,i io,..). Expandabte program for
::f.;1,'r,fl,g::i:il*.:11r.,"I"e'JE"?l!,Jf u.pwns-r,
conclusions and Future t'Iork
5- s-s.shah, S.r.r.Shahidehpour: A
provide an invaruabre
restoration. sin""
Approach to
l;ll ,tljft,*,i"lrtr' ieei'r."n.l-,.il:-;: n.4, pp.
ana u"cau"e' "itu"tiop"""ticing
;'l;';';:.":"^^".,:!,t1tr:#,1:t'J-riL:"'ri"il#i y.Koj ima, S.r.Iarashina,
Ii,t";:g:.:":,:::::t..;{:","ffi{".'t:#.,t#Ti[ .s.Nakamura, K.ratsumoto:
much more pnompt and cofiipetent
manner. i,II[tri:,iI;,:ii{:-;liil,l,}:iiH
August 1gg9 i!;;:1,};,
The potentiat ot 8' D'S,'Kirschen, T.L.Votkmann:
slst ln restoration
"'0" and fur.r. graphics to as- Restoring a poHer system
,i"s"-"i;"";5*1,r"t,.i,'i;:'#:::.jl IEEE i..n*
tiaLl.y be presented {.ith the'.."o*.'nlJ,lnext
This action could be the resuri--o7'1'J;;"the
action.r, g.
;]j:#,';ff[;vstem; ".iu'ns'-Zl'n.2, pp.

toration procedure, in conjuncti"n formar. res- l:I:dira., T.E.DyLiacco,_.K.A.Loparo:

Interactive nprr.6J.f t" Electric power A HierarchicaI
network runction. io quickrv "iii''"n"lr;::f:r$:; systan Restora-
and to suggest one tha "";a;;"-.;" il.:TBi:';f;::T j#X;[;r7IEl"t;i'rinter poHer neeiing, (e1 r*,r

sibty by visuaL[y hightishting #;;i#*iSii*..
,r," ."."*"#lo n"*. action
tion Af ter
et ar.: ri,ARs .
.- fo."i'oi,
An Aid ro*ietxork Res,o,a.
on a displav t.L.r''"r. .r,"nning'.ot.#'.IJ"lut.".ins reii'0J,.,".'i,loJJi:;,.3ffi:i":,.;ffi?:::;":t.:l:
r.rne to be enersized next)
ages that woutd
aia ih#n-n,il"ri"Hs an, vott_ ]frr
,erence, pp.3aq-=+i.-
resutt t.o, inpi"mJn;id';;",action.


ilii-li fifi :ff :i hn {I.

ffit;:i*ifr i

Aprit 1991 . PP''le-24'

r" l; "l i i'


kr$:th.rfl i,itr#J fi [':{

ji" i* I

G.t,la i sht, K'ilodenI'

n'^ot tji
K' ilodeh i' . !':L"f rs!''
r+' JJ.G.t',laight,
14. . . otski: An Ad-
;:;;;, R.d"srev, E'.stacltl::1'- "Tl","litil:
uanced TransPortaDte
PICA, B' iffi;;; M;;iil; ilay 7-10th,
1991, PP.164-170'

15 *ii
ittanta, FebruarY

92 wM t4?-9 PWRS
BUI-K POWER SYSTEM and the Power svatern
- M' E' cooper' chairma$;

*S,*,ff*'3ffi H,x'ff--,f's| ffi'?':##ff'* A' B' storev' F' r' wood'

conrribuprv 3.,y8ffi*;y1;
R. J' Kafke' ts"
j *lfr',;i*,T; H*t*;",, N1T#i*J

s?lf.te;;,ff.ry{,if-nriiHfi i}pj#Sffi,lq:?iffi'-#m*A'Il*f 3sfli;{*:"1ffi

effective bulk power- svstern res"crati"l
iliri"c uTgtrlighted 'v't"m-'pcciq"' TgjTT:::#;;:;i;'i*;Gt"*
!'E toeiisis ei-muletors are neederi'
necd to conrinue o"r"rupffii};;;; :ljfffif'di6" y system-referenced
sddressed in a sYstem r'
Hiffi;f h.* 6perators should recogn'f
'*1-T; of training
*"Hf*:ffi :f

shorr nore
u,H$;Tprovides *.uiniiliI-or-tn6.'*"'g"n"!*;A-;;;' Hffifrffi##trr*ti*1";-,''*"
ffi;:*'ffi'";;"it-oi p*rons;1il;;G--in the
trainingprosramsr.*ri'i-*il"ii";;a;*. *nno*i,'-"n?''eowcr svstem "it'ip;Iii-*"*
very important' restoratron
M. E. cooper, Associate
potomac Eiectricpower company
Member *3o"S$"fi'1fl"T.'i":,,il,iTrrlff?,Tf:fiiiF'trtt"-if;:'.:i
foi Ylr-l:l-the Eto{s
accurt;med "p;il;'-;d not designed and are
in power system reriabilitv, rnajoriistur- i$J#Ff,#Xilfffidtip#i*"i'
with the increase
f*=ffli:-,ffi -wer svstem
r\cre are aistinct dirrgSel"T bsv".'n rhe nornra! state and the
;;ili;;t;*,e*q'"ig:?iijf#",'"T5fgfd3'tr ,"#';;;u* q *", Yl""iff*'i.*?"*t*".-i!*,#,,*'
aie a varietY of tools-
Each comPany or go *ln*;y:uti.t,:---'rufi:+*[$b.*ffi#r,",fi-,.xffi[
.T rl.*,'T":'ffiffTffi
resroration plan
0"..a oI'* f,-'ri.i' restc
ebnormal conditions ; fonrral deveropedio
:B'.H;;*;*in 99T,m; flTf,i5-.ffitg,1",*i,r rHo

rhen be wri*en *na t *ini.e p*cr.T_1T,i.:,,

these ptans.
which ir pt*l[CIy
rhar systom oprarors J*n Foifod incofrraie'dats "tlittJaubmatieal]y
meth.o'Js. of
system the system'
There are many different 'delivering
m?**p?"n6nti"" bv cont&st' the objective is
Jh,id; i;as its plac'e *:-*T[:1f:cess,
:'"{#ffr-#.ffi r:T,rft f '#t'#{ffi *S
restorarion rraining; nuring $e.

:r;:r**"#::1'#ffi#ffi['#f f"*t-Htrl?,-.ffi
restoration; ott't' toi5i"T"t'-"t "o*pu6r-based
insrruction can ul:'

t".,".y,.ir"r r".:.T,.",f;8;'*':rffilTsrtg:'TffiH5:;;"H:!
;i"i;';"e;i,"Plescenarios; more
5i:G[* ""0
lW il"**$ft$*+l;t-ifi*=:*1'xtrdfi
operation' pllY
during nornral ";lJ';il';i";'i'?'*.i"g.*
For example' in
n".a io L,e taken
high fidelity .g11fiit"*i--it'"*Av ,y.;;, "."p;;;;;it"*
"J^f#;A"tii''to """6unt'
need to consider informarrcn sr
use of more sopnrstrcaied * ,*rpo"iio iiiuuri*, rt ui
beneficiar in training sysrm opraror. dr':m type'
have never sctusuy odcun"ea" - the mix of .available'prime moversr including supci-critieel' oil
much In""-G*uet. .rru"atJti""oJ[ir"ititr
training.proFrars in existence,
whire therc are msny usetur'n"ra-"r?i,r"Iopingiyr[*-*riiori"" ;ffii";'-;;"i burning' and nuclcar;
remains to be done i. it" a ;.d*I-]'-pt'"' q:: including time intervals
training. r"r"oy *nipJ,ii*'[*"'"",4"t r"i*, research; rnost companies - boiler-turbinc srsrt-up characterisrics, rntnirnurn
Jon;t tir" i'to *n.il1i*iiln'ii' A;'*i"ilcranrin!;;t:im,lif.*"t-""?.t*
of a sYstcm oPcratc
*;'r"""":1",'ffJ: ii?j;;"i't; ana isc
dedicated the '"uou''"i"'-'Eqlitti to a"J"roi'"''"nJ 'tititt - the prime .m'v.ers' .mode of
opcration and^conditions
toaded' e'*clins
:'Ji[iiil',.;tn*n"i"i'"t to power svstem operators'
["ffi"#:*U:t#;',.:ldl provide
"ii"*'a The present SCADA systems
and EMS 1o'ftware {3'not

e2 \.rM r47-e pr.rRs A paper-rec"*^:?1:o.:Hr?o.o"l'I?" :tj{;,::"1;ffidt],r"fi[ltl3'+lu-':ft'f;38#e

:iiiJi":#tr'"i' i', major facirities
I'Iinter Heeting' Nes York' Nev
aE the reeeTres-iE92 -,}:kT, o,i"#'i**'**':H;*"J;
November 25, I991'
H:,".' :';HI**"T*H,.,*

reprinted from IEEE Traesesti!49-@ 49

Po*". Suut"*., vol' 6, no' 1, Feb 1993'
pp. 191-i97
procedurcs based on ce11in.olgryting
with. racteri"ti", "fi and practices,
Such a tool would s
Jln'l' :tL
cha 3 ii,l-i, ,i.. prrnr .e.t".t
:*rtnm.,',:r,tr*r*"ffi;r.[3:j:..ffi #i#;}$$
ft the power
of system u
;gffi @;xs;,r,,p:rt*,?fi fu ti1,:,r#
nIidFiff"*lFi,fillLHi#lfffi '',fl*,fj,,ff f, i . .This approach can b

t[ Hnffi f, fltfifH1i:r*iiffii'# rg",#rffi:

,*ffi tr#,jXlf Jff#jg-_ql" made avairabre in the rorm or
*##.:,rr,:,ta{$ft sysr,li?,'ffiffffi
nffi rHft ffi ;$l!,F Hi,gffitX?tcRAMs
PSR Issues
conccrn which necd top be
*Ih['il?if,:,f#I* addressed in
o ldentification of the status gr.
of soilepsd system, compo_
".f; }iro",*ffi
snd skile-
nents and equipment.
*::tfrg comprchensrve Brnrng programs. F
'lT,:X,Hid;rJ,y,;lH;kTr,fi ffJffir*Hg[lg,wtre,elu'cc.isii,il,,i$iffi !f,rl]
o Coordination of powr

mnm:r?ffi"ffi#,'#lrLTf ,3'11''*- standard or lever of competencyt"

t large sections of. transmission
"ii ,r,"ofcondltions
underwhich the tasks *i,;1g.i,iirJ##.-1il'.iillrro
JTA are
ln-rrqyrgtransient lhes within the

' il#;";'a"1"f,t".t
and sustainJ';;;;il;;:,
large increments without the
ff ffif #H:*:r,-r"::ir""m;*fl*:f ;,fa;:tx;
risk of *tf}fi',![{H Restoration
rraining _
o LL:f-B
Reintegration of the skeleton
of the bulk
thereq-uisitetir.^on.L*intffi o
il;:##T":upplvwith Sfffi,::rf,;ffT,l"i process.
i-fr,f; il,Tr.L*Tj,",ffi
it i. jou.
o Deactivation of "
;*i;i;;;""1"i,f;,Ti1"rf :f dl*.Tf d?".*auto.matic is gu-ided bv a set or
o Maintenancc of
and transient stability as the
system is being restorEd
"nJ*tJn d;;;"o are large.
o Reduction .f r*_rllTg
angles when closing loops g*#-1+?ui#9"#"*r;f u,#i,*-.,#ifi
rrrm up transmission p,hase
restir.ation jniur",iii i, u
ffl,",,X.ff,oo"Tguir iiiure. rhe pran
r Probability of successfuI start_up restorationoiir.i-'#:;:iff#j,.Tfll"ffil,f, j[T"1""r,],ij
particular, combustion turUines.' -r v' thermal
of sr\ units, in
o Stability of black
start and peaking combustion
they constitute a large turbines while Further, despite the
p".fi"" corlllexitl of restoration, the
PSR Traiaing
"i.g"*,"i# restoration

ffi .,?*r,"ri[#,i#*[:_:fi #*"idffif ##

*#ix:[r1,iii;.H[,ft8'fi Ht'"fi#:Tj.H?:.7
iflffi5il-f,#.;f*i*.,fl{f ft '*,ffifrt*;*
tr'"f*Hdsii*f Hlt#?ljilffis"[$}'
system often consists of one
i.I3nj{.-i".iof ,f,"
controls have tripped o, or tw."
Wthin rhis context. the_ answer to the topicat question
automatic conceming the relevance .r
-*"tL[ion jre'i. ,lrt"l il;#i
83ff:*["'Xt"ilff :Xt .::rt or. Dil;i#; earry phases or
"r"-a.."iii"ii,..irii",r," sysrem is s-iril* training prosrams ,nliLTIT,t ?

3::: .F* which have_ pri.Tiff U1*"-i"t"iJi.a
for smaU
perturbations will not
"*ir*t"fy i"p.o"nt-il"-iln"uio. of ti"
power system and its components.

An on-line resooration
gyidance system, capable of guiding the
efff#: #mr.jTl'j::'.:: ". ;d';6i"",f" "ia *,En to
prob.tem, in the sense'of a
j5;f :'"{,ffeif ir**,:T,T*T,ff I+f l,Iii*f fo*,,,,a,,know,
ambrguous alternatives. Gcompletc'.inio-riLn and many
suggcats a- need foi
consrsting of both expert
syGms toot. ff:?H:EIi#Ti'ei1i;*,:nrxf:".',,3":ffi{ffi
rn tne Eccomplishment of
a majo.r gi;1.'-T"rk;;ay be H
";j;ppr"ft"!" Jrlalttical tools. oovrn into subtrsks. Fo. broken
.t-'ti"r',1ipry cranking

*F^F;if #nfiiiffii:$*rd'ffiffir:m-"mt
[ff s;*riff$$ff pcrformancc'
BULK **t8liff'f'f-tff ilAIIoJ

tB:,iffi$.gff1"' Em;I#n::il"H;I

,?,';:P"f :.4[EiiFSt.ryJs"l]i[
critiial to rv,* -ESHf.#Ht5|;
'""i"i'tioi' submiue<l tocxPerts'
:;;;t b*& on questionnaires
'"iiiiil"..r .."1""'uy tt*gni"d restoration
H before'
o nce the,*P*t""Iif*lX'i.ffi L;]",xt;t:f*i! #,it#: experienced
iding training for
i'5"f, i*lT,x*;,#t#i;I'#l#4H"*6;
,-ffi rhis shon note P"*',;ff;'X:;1ftil'"?i 'Ji""ff,iJt oa''-
ffi these unusual needs' ur
'*;t'^"tqiiS;."*-l$$rm;:H",tti*#*f nf;p
are bv needed an
rnT:ffirtlT1?H'[:;;;..ri.'r'' 'iln".g'ev-
i;$:ffi n'y-liut**i-xl;x'o;"?'PrJ'ro'"n"'"
"ffii, r"'. t*'r.3ii
Classroom frnm one<)n-one tutorial
"' j#ft j,,Itt#"xgTtrJl"li!
Hh,;[ffi [*.nt'eitrir"r;*mi*X+f.,*m rit-"m**#**$*:+#*;:,"ln":p
;ffi T*t#f##l.q;#,"#*i;H*ruH'fi
rmance c:
sirY Perfo
Coverage topics fall into
two categories:
bulk oower system
o Generic - This area includes necessry o r is s ues that
pr."n:l*:-Ylil*l^f :ilff rn"J'"'ls,,3;J'**,'tr':f*'{ resto ratio n n'"a"#t'ii'""til "aq!t11
during1"aja restoratron'* ""6"., 4rrs tblf1!h:t-3*
rac-E' and
involves actrons' facts, training ppgTm
the dispatchet nt:i;-;-';nsider
operations.. - Theretore^',,I .-':-:-. .mqmms to avoiJ Zu'ptic-ation i*i"i"i must be Practical'
:ff fr:'"rl'*iJq"#'""1"";"*4'ry!*'-?"1I''*
should buuo on uururar
,i?-rFr"i"i.y-and effectiveness.
r Utility Specific Trainrlg must address the utility's
and therebY foster methodologies '
' Assessment techniques'
restoration pla' *i io
twwrE!'-'- --' pHt;i?ts
means that the tA Ior
distinguish i"t*"""
J s)rsrsrrr
- ipcE of
'iself a special
tas **tunication
specific 3ou'"*poltif, iiriti"t' be covereo'
+" l""r1 :11"f::",f:':1,,1'it
between {le
v*r"r--' cloS{e t !i=f::J:
I v. exampre,
" requirements must
actlvruEs. For
activities. ::X.t,* "uconditions
buichecking the necessary c "tiift.'titn
system restoration acttvrty.. ^ L-^rza? .qn ;"
he a soeciai restoration
e special n be conducted bv a combination
;J*18 |""?.l3""ff:il"#"i;'i;;**.' Classroom should
activitY. or-.!,t"."rygi:",.#llmr+i.,mi:1il,Ll:il"iEyliF
operation Personnl' to dispatcher feedback'
in aetait. The rarners ;;:?i; 'J"pontiu"
Program' And' bv for enhancine
roundation for building "?;;;i;;iiFtd i" iL"1:- of the actual Informal Role Plav. - One method iT:i:f,:[:U[
documenting the job
"iEi;;;-;;*qo-1 for easier .*lffi ;;^;;*4Tl""X,f?:=[T;:XTfi'Ji#i',r',e*"t"a
resrorarion tasks accompit .re{erence "J".ilil"*-d-Yatchers'-RorJpraving
ildffi;;G and communication is established' *i3l,?l",f t'#f"?"ffi
and misunderstsndmgs'
This means that trainees' instructors' '!tlTi"g ""ilr"*'p*U1ems
restoration experts, iilliti'F *ltt}"'ly appreciate the
Drills op-T^d* to include fiold'
"no The role playrng-exercise shouldfce
know exactly';i;il;y ;-ilI'ti"th'
structo rs
g sPecialisu
know '#f
l"* t::l: t::t'o'
*pUt ttta'
know exactly what must
that what has been
.g.Jup";'in9orp9r1qs coJrect"*perts
restoratlon [h$+;ffiry,:;;ITi;'$A,.$#it"Hrjl
HffiH l#y"*t* f;-iffJ:
what the system restorat'lon
u:;:*H,ts" ",,,I.1,,"ffi
oractices, and m"n.g"r.G.-ti"i^"tfy allocating appropriate
progo. entails for p";;;"i fr,,;iing
"t simulste realism, an

pcrsonnel Ere invalved.
capsbiiities, and non_intrusive
o! cornputr+ased training. record keeping are key contributions
hurdles, and evcn prot Adventagc
trarnlng and problem An obvious simi-larity betwee, .^m-rrra- L^_-r
It should invoivc as n
Hfl#*:H*":#dit":#*,"#ffi ;:1,ffi ,:"*_=
::[f; jffi
l* flffida,y#i:rnfu ,ffis,!ffi
roso rccs for :i13i?:i"t?[T*
the st udent.pipularion
; sludentr '*Ts,T#
*m ;;.,"};;p!!t Iation,
Ji.p-t.r,"^'"*:;ii"ll'!o rraln
even*. ^anf andltions
must be
in thc handting of-vari"d
srnce kainins is on an rri"",i,,Ti{"}}.P:_-"lg.e.f fi ffi#.
f,ffif ffi"
strldents. This T1 j:lg:1"^ . ---" 'rqr
characterisa.- t"
;ir: 4.r "#.,ff#i
rnslructor "ffl,
il situations J,H
and other
Job Aids *n
a rew p,cpirlc *h&;;1,
b. .o,,li'?Jy"'!
Thc restoration orc :*H,ffi':trll"Jitry*g*t#*
til"#.ffi H;t:ffi ".6-118",i.tr9;"*9:#,,x1ff organized classes. Si :].L:i""!fl]
themselves to
rotsling shifts, flre ability to

r.:rfu :rl"ti-i:r[[*ffi fi:: ;:ffi *'S session at odd hours [] ;rp";r;iii#;iiyd?fr?,[fi
r" ;" i#lir".E! :fi trif ""#[ j"",f i
Evaluation *I heProperly d.*igned
computer prografi
aided training is truly interacrive.
In order to measure the effectiveness
of the training prograrn,
pro I res s, n a". L^i
:l"r;,rr5] ].ig,i,i," l,"r r"tio n i a re

r Fundamental concepts and generic [qe,$g$3sxl*t5mffii#:*u*xr;ry

ituaeri;;,;ffi il#.tT,"ff
with objective written or oo.j materiai are best bsted au-tomaticalry branch to" a, prior
t".t .
di,erent descriprion of thi:. portion'oi-iti"*resson or to
. Drills and mle olaying rrependmg upon the ro u" leamed.
jffionf.l, sufficient
$esjgn of. the
.are etfecrive ways of meesurine
dispatchers, siciits' in' ha;d[nc demonstration
of the studenr:"
frorn rhe plan. (Evenrs
;;; ilffir: no devi,tioni -i*^,I'-^.'^""-Y.
pran can also be int.oor,i.a ali.irrion from the
Jirinei.rin-r-il, computer-based trainin e
i*"."iro,uri"""L!r9,b.rxur"ir-&ii;il,;f#fi"r"Hil? later.
rs especially evident in
respon ses, again st vario
u, por. iut" .oIrt.i*li
In well desiened trarline^Rroeram
the leaming objectives
,*If, ;:iH'.':",, 11":" ::-.:l:i'thltu."i" "tested " *rroughout
manasernent resct
rhe ?
H* J;;:" *f :,1?,.,H : * - 9t*;t"1.'allv ffi o, s wri tten i
I r p" ifli ;lJir ::'":Iil
utscrptnCres which are un*""tia {'uicuv to ou. 'co tr,"' in;.:#;f fj"8-TT
require tt'it ait";pri""
eq ulPment' comDuter
"trui'ning "ral*h
i";L;;""'-'' au*r,l *p*irrty,-'*?'r?i'Lil,1li systems and,
prore..r.ii-ii.'iill'lll,,ffi -

The need for restoration training-cannot
mastery of the set of ;"1!1iltr;;:,iff"",1,
course. The goals wili have be.en.partition& tle training
training conducred must be po.tidl. be overstated. The smatler goals and sreos. and lnlo numu.. of
involvement in the developT."nt,gf "nl'"ti;rg; Dispaicher fo$["i-G;il#,iriff
developed so that each';nt"rmeaia-J " " have been
the. poLicy, enhance t.^#rs'Ii:J",i"e
only the document, but also the dispatchirs, not
;naeritanaing of it.
depend upon one which anpears
l"i.fir',i?,&.i?I. wiU nor
studenr anention ro and'retenri"".."i ;;;:;jeiive, eor Brearer
?1-g#$x,ffi $,+H?_f, $"
Iearned or knowledse sained..
seq uenr, and id ea[y,
uI t" ."ilI#i} o,. the skill
used in
i-mmed iatet] fi ;i;i:";".
su b

R. J. Ka{ka, Senior Member each resson and from lesson
potomac Electric
eo*"". Co*i"ny ," "*l:;'i.,};o:0.",i:":*:*through
Potomac Electric power Company (pEpCO), lltf-Tr,n"ffi ;a*'"",:l;,i,:."rs:"x,*:[:1".r,,*::
m ""1"*, -
operar i n g co mpan ies,
uii.r"" ir";,;;il ilr;,o like.many o*rer fff;Lffi':?:1j:?j,,",.y* "a"""J"'tJin" r.,.on. iiJ
retated to sysrem resroration in the r trr p.obtem s ,,,d ril ;r; ;; # ; i##':"'# ,"E[,
actlvrtres were [aken with respect.
f"iJ iS70* A "number of
to ,".aif,""tio* to the electric tne next lesson secrion or ilrlffi i: f
system to aid in svstem restoration, Eaci.student's advantage.
dere rmine how rhe jysrem. could
and;;il were made to ;;i;;;;
prosress^can b;
ls m lhe course. and the instructor if ,lil,*r, where he
f" ,.rtor.a i;ji;Ag a subsrantial of the objectives wil ha"e bein arp..ii.o. "an be assured
or complete shutdown. m"." **ri,i.."*.-*Il[l.r"l, oa
atso necessary to rransfer rL" bur ir ,*,as ::X,j:J- rnI.-,L.#.", the end of the
and many of the training meilrods-
k";;il;;i"iilT."* opcrators.
paper were used. one o-f rh
a".r";i"i-#Lis short note The information resarding the
merhod, ;+l;; w8s compuler_ curent position of *re student in
based training, but verv few relevant the course is easilv JUtainea.
cou...i*.[ fnund. Finallv.
PEPCo derermhed thlt it would una",iiitii"'j"r"topr*t
from rhe ctmfui"r-if rhe program
specific course ro teach the t"y grla"rin"i;;;;;*, of *:]|:: operating sysrem has il; ilffi; to collect rhis
during lhe planning studies. uncovered" .ffi
the studnt "patfr', to th"at point
can be documentj.Uy maintainine
Computer-based a self{earning a record of rhe number .i.n"*fi
student interEcts with a snecial method where the or by maintaining ouiz ,"q=rirJ'io'.?*pt.t. a lessoi
o f' p rinted o r recorded
.rr!i;i.;F,fi ;ther than a set d.ilf ;;;;l;."1;;r";;,
-o; alr be done
methods are similar to the programm.a ;,.x*put..+u..r automarically so ih^i it ".
generally know w.hen records
inrrusive. ;;r..., srudents
rn the re50s and '60s. but'wifi f.r*inirysiems aeveloped progress. There are ciifferingai" u"ri'*"i"t"irij"regaroing trr"ir
th-ose salty programmed
f;;;;;'il;;;""idiii. p-ur"*. or phil";";hi;';;n.l.,ng the effects
or.such knowledge on rhe s-tuidenrr,
ot thrs rraining merhod has maEe.ou...;.'j;;;i, ;:rpurerization
Irarnmg program. The advantage, ;;6;;;;,ii
wnrte providin g add irionar. cap"uiril.."'""J' ijlirg practical " ,.lf-pr""a
student identities are conceat*,?.: of .oifirtingih". ar*, even if
program looping and rltr?.. A utomatic
controi rrp.ri"r'Jirffi'lio .irrl"tion the effectiveness and progres. q;t,;.;;#;, ;;en
*, evaruating
*echnical experts was formed to develop the
training, computer and
Simulatbus tt *"t cons iderable' the-end
;"-;;' lvt-ii" ttte ae""toptn"nt "ifowhich
is the ability
A sienific8nt advantagc of computcr-based training Animated ;;ii*";; Gn-to.on'*urse still meets PEPCo'e
," ?r""'r"raJ'fit""ti"" "? t-it""r"ii"* it the lesson-s'
*rr'i***t for the computer+ased portion of the systc.m
Irifri,i"* *ifr- a'.p.ra ufin tt'" graphics display. characteristics IffiHil;'Lir-i"g. so many Laric conccpts-must be
of the computcr syttem' fraining which.uses tie -course has also becn
"lJ ",o*f,uttir+ased
u.i* t" t".tti"t oi*tnputer systems on which the
;;;iG; for sy-stern restoration,
to the concepts of
program of quasi-standsrd
tiic advint ffi;ili"I tt-t"tr#r"itg "t*l-*a*'t" engineers
training "p.ot"' electric systqns.
*rrori"f*iputtt"""ayrtixnr,this rcstriction could be thc dominattng
ffi;:-'-F;-i pu.poto orIBM discuraion we arc csrentially
Thc courge covcrr many asPcts conccrning .H:i:'**
personal computcr:'
i?Iilrit iGl Japiuiutia compatible
bed;. voltage control and systcrn rc'energrzac
ilil&" ;f ir,'-s.'Pt'i"t--"nf i"rct""tit'e &pabilities of the
;Y;; ;toration is f'lled with aYlP" trar*g,t t ;, and enjoys
a high ratc of oPrator
othcr training'1*"9:
d;;i;;;;;;;d ffi tti'-iiJ wittr tiri
;";;;;'i""ft;; mqrln"v rclrponsc to load pickup *d +1 Oi computcr$iscd systetn.n*toration training
lE 8n
$ffiil";;;ti.d;ni. 'si#ing riblc to visualiz:c thc process that "",rfor"a"
irdCril Psrt of PEPCO's operator trarnmS'

I;'f,ffr 5'n:TH*i'x*fi'm:ffi,:l:iTtr#
actions' Learning is CAPABILIfiES OF AN qLqTATOR TRAIMNG
desisned to includc "o"tt"l
ui-iilnut"tiont which allow the student to
"'r?,i?i'tr",ri;ffioa rrorks and what docs rosllPFoR.rt-tffi*t#tNTRAINTNG
l#ii#',1 iit*"ltlni'ir,rc-"ri"ns, what
;tfiil-'st il[ii;-.,;;i ;;"rariv bc simplifrcd or otherwise
pmffi size aira compltation timc' when I.G. Waight, Member E' J' Dobrowolski' Mernber
;;ihA; ,rd;cei"ttretfi-pti! K. Nodehi, Membcr Philadclphia Electric Co'
r*t'iurt the simulation-dynamics' there -are
e*!-. SYstems International
;,fit 6 ;,i;a;d time and computational burden'
il; t*httqI" it t" G simulations in
P.;i"*' solutions in a which can be
As dascribed elsewhere in this paper'.there exists the
need for
*tt"t op"'t"t^ott to restore the bulk power
advancc End to store -,tt*Ji"tt {Ilrc ,r"fri";;il;*"i-l tyti";-*'[^ot"' in most utilities'
#tr#,i".t':grui*nt-#rulhft system following
ffiffrt such as tt'o'" 1i"'Jr"Ia"*iti'
"'*f-:'JfJffiubdonsn**o't extension' Since all #:**k*hti+j+.:u.s*,"r-r:+q"i"iffi
arc donc in iar..L, *reful planning. is.required,.
and ;;;;-;d. blackout, t"qui* system control operslors to ce,nter
svstem a3 quicklv and as safelv
mdst be
-limitcd to those i'.Tdi:;-;6; th;'b,ui po*"i ;-;'i
ii,ii".i-ir,t"-"titt *nttoi "tttiicc's II ffi:fii'.*w!t[ ih;; "'il
]""'t" to'"pp'6oriate training
oferator Toalq
includcd in the simulation' to ensure pnolrcrency ;'-;#;d;t' "l' program m
liev psrt of a successful training
Sir"ri","t fcifs) is a of system oPerators
Dbadvartages ;h'il;. b-af-n'vli ot's'permits the kaining
Aswasstatcdcarlier,therearesomeconditionswhichaPPlyi{ ;til";;.id;g'.i.t toofhi'rman life, damage !o P9'":t :y-tg
t."ilit b to be asractive'. The required due to tranee
*f;il;+i; to the student population' It mu* be A;i;rlni,;'* *:,. non-economic opetation
equipment must be j,Y;rs,tltTil;:*rrtl""g
availBblc on ,o*" ,*"JntUitt"t'"aut" ot in^
il1ffi:-d;ilGa t*i"itg
reasonable quantities'
prosram must be available'
ffi Y#;t$i'gr.l,tt
;i:#,i;-;il-tilt i" ioi,i"g op"oiions problems' and compress
"d;:;;;ffi;ffit';A;l;i;; ili' job raining"o-into
[nthediscussionofsimulations,the.equipmentwaslimitedto :i".#';ffi-;ili;.' 'Thi' nolt PSPtr describes the
expected to be
s.inte that is 'hott OTS which are essential to
IBM compatibf" p..tonJ-"otfuten, of a systcm *rri*f center
fi;';;i.;ffiii"'r;il.bFJ of campatible equiprnent' There mav
tr'p,p"ttitg training in system restoration'
6J fr;A;; t qtir.rnent"-;;;ing iisplsv cipiultties'
specd, math
Sitt'storage'. the requircd An OTS is made up of three major -comPPnents:
a Power
couioment i" not"*p-"ot-oti-oi
arr..Jf"""it"ut to the. students, theremav
s"rl*-r.aoaa ipsr'al, i clnttl Cen"ter tvtodil (ccM)' and an
3;5Hitfi;i;;p."#"; d"t", in obtaining it'
rhis also
s;d;t#; iesl' 1t'"
;iilil;;t previously architecture and terminologv
ffii;;-;;;;io? ttua"ttt *t'l
can be.accommodated' There
have been described rn reler'encc [rI'
mav be schcdule *nnilit'Io'*t"it"
-u" if the required quantity of
lf,ir.rii"ri i""iJ, "ut"i".a. whatever thesomi required equipment
Power Svstem Modelr and AlSorithms
t"^S'i';,ilffi1; ffiii;;-p"tibl;- Pc or. other specific '"i# p',i'i,l' srttt* rt,l"J"t ptitiat" the simulation of the power
configuration, it must be available for tratntng'
,r.i:;:"+;;".'p;ii;i; iii tt'i' inodel are derived from its
()f prcater concrn than the availability of the proper comPuEr
tI; ;;;ii"ditlit f th" p."p"i.tra inin g
rses' Th e re lirs,*:'ffi'lt;:l*l*:m'.#rTffi
iil;;; -it'it-*tcenter by
.**tli in tt'" *nt"ot means
of a real time
arc many courses *"t*! g"nt"it oi eltmentary subjects'-and
SCADA or EMS,yrt il nt thit models are required
some of these t." for operator training' but very iiule itl" dynamic behavior of the bulk power system
;;;-"iilr" .;irt""'uv"pp-ptiiti
iot svstem iesloration' The development ilffi ; ]t data
l-f e soccific i:ourse could be very expensive and tme.consumrng'
;;;;ti the"ri"t"system ofiotot through a system which
models should
ft;;'.;;f;G;of effort is one hundred hours of derelopment typiliii'.;;ty'2, ro,'-"nJ- soJonds'- -The
to that of the data gathered by
titn", and.the individuals involved simulate d&ta wrm
,#;-lil;;il"tort or "outti - "."uo"i1ititar of
,h;-;;;;;"tation and- tllemerry req-uired-o f-SCADA
modern systems
;;il; Gr,ni*l manei cxpcrts,- training professionals
-It would alsoand it'i' these models are
be UpilUU';;J ; % i.
;;rrd;;;e developmeni proiessionalJ'
the electrical quantrtres t*t'
tt'tV, tUVanS' .MVA' amps' and
;;;;b1.," "*p""t tha't some typc of program shell or course "t control center'
ai"ioi tLtr*s'seen by th" tytt"tn opcrator in.the behave as the
controller would-need to be obtained' ;i"dJiil;A"u?..-,hal'*," t'ia"rt of'the simuiator
i*i*i,.ia ilould in response to the actions of system operators.
A-o ExemPle
'*A"';t"t PErcO
'e?.i't"u]" J;;; "if';;uivis possiblc todav' iepcnding on the
: *rter, duc to the lack of available material'
model parameters'
and iccuracy of data for
u"altt"ol tft. devciopmcnt of a computer-based system
a vendor on a "".if"Uitity
*rat". The courge was dcveloped through. network:
An OTS then, has models of the bulk power system
shunt rcactors'
"J:"ffi t*n.,ni,,ion lines, transformers, phase shiftcrs,
L"',,[h?ffi rillxm,"h"t":'#"ut-r'r'fr i
F8fiilil;;j'-r*iti"e ouJ"tti'"' were dehned' and a team of
ilunt ;il"it".t, g"n"o6g
'nitt '
etc' Dynamic models are

.r3rT.d for generating prime movers, loads,
transtormers, and external.units,
.ornp"ny acc-""r't .ri.*
relavs. restoration have been summarized.
pool controllers. It is importart ttui tf,i-*"al'f"Tr;;icHd;ffi
"ria ""i,i.i
x*rlm ..i*fh#
-*:jl:',,T1'ji, Rcferences

rc 1. J. Waight, ct al, Tranrportablc Opcrator
Training simutaror,-"An_r{dvanccd
IEEE PICA;Briiilofi, rcar
Sincc systern *toTgll t .,joing ,"qyiru
power Eystcm ooerating proccdurE
must allow an c:xact rcpicscntation .i
traininS in spccific
th" urir;titiy,.d5;T;
2 F.;3:[t,1i!"Jf"y::f"'"?i3#TH;Hiffi"i,llH:
"t td; ;;;l ujility,s systcm.
The oTS must altow tti. ,"p-rG;Ld;n-Jrl'i'r"r"r*t
equipmcntwith cxactlv the fr";;;il;irusea typcs of LESSONS FROM OTHER INDUSTRIES
in rhe utility.
Couhol Center Modd R. Hoffman, Mcmbcr
Procedure bascd trainjng such as systern
restoration rcquirec that CAE Electronics, Ltd.
the representation
ors 6; ;';;; of tl
;ilL TiE,.iI1ffi
the displays, kevboaird, strip.cha-rrs,
,#ll;i;..iifffiI"t: ,h.ffii#bs,yTff H'}j,ffitilHff
etc. should be the same. in'the
OTS should allow rtre.
bells, whistles,
system. The
must be prepared co c,r
targe number of occunations ffre foUowini
I a summarv of
simultaneously, as is requircd$.rnu,rt
i""m of operators information. el?led
grririg,i;t"_ rffiiratron. Multiole
';;;t t1: !1. " series of infodJi;i;il;'i.f;
people involved in training
trarnee consoles are thui reqgrea, ;
q"ir,g ;ffi pifoL, nu"JJi phri'ilil;:
yi.ry_:f thc,training exercise. as would Ue ieen at rhat console y_lTffi" conrrollers, c6mmunicition'.;;lh;
"irtin" controllcrs and
dunng actual system re,storation. Togethei*th arport security pcrsonncl.
CCM allows thd trainec opcrator !o .*.iut" tilpsil;;
ri,..'irps of the power Airline Pihh
system re.storation olans and to see the
*.rit f,i;
time. exactly as if cirnducting ar actual
*;;#;."f ";il;; #;i
a critical advanrage of usin! ttrc ois iliHi."*ri."This is seen as
The training . of airline pilots is tightly regulatcd by
.&:#.{i?3,#".Trff :'ff *Tii3,[ru:uh;_i;J.lg;*
srnulators thcmselves must be certified by
System Restoration is a communications
intensive process. The th; *grhLt;;;;;.
system control center operator i" in consta"i
numerous orher utilitv operators outsiOe "oilmunication
with A commercial airline pilot typically spcnds four sqssions
UrJ control ."rfi;;"i,
;; oer
'i*t"tir.' i*i
the operators of oorier'plant", ,r""iJ ,,luiiii"ns, field crews, vear of four hours each in a. fligii iriil'" *i"rifil
and rhe operarors .f
oTS should also have ""ietbo-.ini--uiifiio.""ffi means that the
are considered as training,
l:; grr;;"-f t*,1'L}."d;ti.r-,
two are true examinationJ which he must p.;.
ii.uitity-'r..'tiiirg ,til-op.oro. in to keeD ",iJ
training cu..i"uia t,,i".td; ilri'ti;i i"##
c.om_municationg. a tygilt
system restoration training,-is-"pp-o"t
t-li";ft rhi, ;;;-;;such 113y._.T"
course ol a year he is exposed to a br6ad t':
io provide'th,irit*"to, with thc - range of
ability to ptay.the role if tilrJ p;;i";;iy-rientioned
d.g frn
situation, ih"
by tire regurat o t';t;;t F;;;;i'l?-fi , "..ffi";"I
personnel outside the contror
instmctor in scenanos i.-o.. i1L,o#r"lii-liliila li5# actions which "r"*-h".
memorized a sequence of inffi
thev musr .*..ut".i*."ai"t"tiii."rn"*o.y.
i;;g;;ij"frpi"uy requires
two or more instructors to conauctLffeciiv. going through thi initial memorized pro*i';;d; After
t*#i"g. to a manual for additional steps to --- "..* can refer
Ed:cational Subsystem Capabilities
The Educational Subsystem capabilities normaUy As part of the checkout procedure at the airport
provided with for each flight,
an OTS. are important for trainihg-operators
to-tnar", I.,:IiTgl"^1 nilnt crew
9:l procedurcs-
or pnncrpal emergency t" mu'i;;i"; il;
seps of a ser
restorarion. Time based pre_scheiufed ;";;b;r. (e.g., loss of an engine Aurin;
way to steer the svsrem toward a coUapsea i.6.t"ni runway acceleration before-and after Eritical
"n ori..GG.-
oi Utt"a rapid decompression above IO,0OO f"el;liiira",""l."ity-i. .r.irti
other events or maltunction;;i th;;;;irt#"quiprn"nt
*"y emergency evacuation of the aircraft, erc.)
*iia descent and
occur during the restoration in s.r.rdt *"y.. 'n
may occur during the course of ti," ."riootion
e_."t U;il;;tl
accoraing to O" Nuclear Plant Operators
by rhe instruoor. Additio;;i *inti'ru"r, as
oreaxer ope{rtr-rgg may be introduced into the circuir nuclear generating station after every six weeks
!{p_i."I of
ot relay models in the oower system simulatitr.scenario
-a " ,"ruii -^Ar^1 shrft
norrnar work, the ooerator spends one fuIl *"it in
is over/under freoueniv
g".a.**pf" p,!eram. During this week, abo1ri25 ;;'r8 h;;;"r. " t*i"ir!
spent in a
classroom situation and 12 to 14 hours on
during the course of a year, the ope*t ,Ii""al "-.i*rf"t".. Thus
film 80 to 100
T._ytP. There is also Bging out i", certain time
duratrons. "i.ll;;;;;;;
a requiremenr
ion for tt-" *p"Uifity i"itii"
hours on the simulator.'
instrucror to introduce erents the resroration There is an annual evaluation of operators for licensing
scenario. purposes
by. theNRC but.generally tt" toiri." i, ,nu-*u-.!1t when
oemg revrewed srnce the training philosophy is. to he is
should also have rhe capabitity consider everT
a recoro oI all mstructor and trainee actions, and to
to kecp simulator session as if it was ftir pr""t'.iiuuii"i.-
record kev "
information about the state of jrr" pii".ii'rlJ;#
scenario. Such information is important in the post ilil;
Ta . There .a.e. l*9 separate external organizations which are
debriefrng and evaluation of ttre tra-in'ee. session mvorveo m detmrns and evaluating_the training programs. The
-Nr'"r*i 'ir;;"F
!1dus.t5r. funded listitute "dpeotion, h".
Various scenarios mav be-eslablished to conduct id_entified
"r thaineej
some 7oo specit;c tasks ;;; p.r'f";ilyil;
restoration oprator and has catesorized them as being eithli kno*fed!"
References t1i an_d. t2l pro"ij.,.r-"*i"*-"Lpb or
ot system restoration exercises which can U" r."n".io. skill related. A set ofiraining scenarios on the simulator
has been
OTS having the capabilities aeseriUJa-bor;. "onJuitea with an defined such rhar during th-e
trainee is
reqi,ired to exercise all o"f the OennJ,Uffi "";;; "i-';';;;;;"
Summary and Conclusions
April 1991 issue of Nuclear News has an interesting series
. In. summary, an OTS may be an important part of a
training progrym for system.operators in of-The
articles on some current irrue* in ,r"f*it."irl"g.
capabitities of an ofS wtrii,tr are- pl;iff;ii restoration. The
ir"p"rtant for

Air Traffrc Controllerc regulatory and licensing agencies, the technical sophistication and
It is very difhcult to bccomc an Air Traffic Controller. For degrec of derail in the simulators far exceeds those used in other
cxample, in 1989 approximately 25,0O0 individuals applicd to industries, including dispatch tr&ining simulators for power system
cntcr thc Canadian Govcrnment training program; 400 wcrc operatorg
accc,ptcd and only 115 succa:sfully oompleted thc program.
The formal training pmgram at thc National Training Ccnter
involver approximatoly 7O &ys of classroom training and 35 days Maurccn E. Coopcr is Manager, Training and Administration for
of simulator{asod training. Simulatorr arc ugod primarily for the Potomac Electric Power Company's System Operationa Group.
basic proccdure training while tnining for ernergenciec is She is Chairman of the Working Group on Operasor Training.
primarily from printcd materials. Aftcr completing the program
at thc National Training Center, thc individual is assigned to a Mike Adibi is a consultant with IRD Corp., engaged in power
specific site whcre hc undergoes additional training spccilic to the systm computcr applicetions. He is the author of over thirty
sitc. Thc major portion of this training is on+hc-job. IEEE papers, a member of Power System Engincering CommiEee,
Approximately one year is required to bccomc fully qualifrcd. Chairman of PowerSystcm Restoration Workhg Group" Chartered
Electrical Enginecr, UK, and a PE in the State of Maryland.
Oncc the program has been completEd, there is typically one
weck per ycar of refrcsher training consisting primarily of lecturc.3 Lestcr H. Fink is an Executive Consultant with ECC, Inc., He
and group discussion of topics of general interest. has nearly forty (40) years experiencc in electric utility systems
engineering and research and is well known for his extensive work
Communkxtirn Satellite Operators and technical publications in the areas of automatic generation
The chief rcsponsibility ofthe satcllite controller is to maintrin control, voltage phenomena and dynamic security sssessment.
the correct satellitc position and orientation. Disturbances arise
from the unpredictable solar activity which produces random Ronald G. Wa.ley is a Senior Consulting Engineer with Macro
radiation prassurc and can cause electric charge build up and Corporation. He has worked on many EMS projects; his interests
discharges which can put the satellile into unknown state.s. The lie in power systems analysis, network applications, and operator
worst situation is an uncontrolled satellite "spin-up". The training simulators.
operations manager of a company which has been operating
communication satellites for 19 years described how they have Rick Gonzales is an Operations Engineer with the New York
developed very specific operating procedures for recovering from Power Pool, with responsibilities in the areas of short-term
ttresc are based on a very cxtensive analysis of possible transmission planning, on-line system security and system
L.,;r.*lPt rcstoration plan development.

New operabors, typically ex-mi.litary technicians accustomed to Arthur B. Storey is the Dispatching Supervisor of the New York
following procedures to the letter, go through a six month training Power Pool. His 22 years of utility experience have involved
program consisting of private study (60%), classroom timc (30%), operations engineering, dispatcher training and system operations
and simulator$ased training (10%). With esch new satellite the responsibilities.
associated training simulator tends to become more sophisticated
and, therefore, its usefulness in training is enhanced. The formal Fred J. Wood is Supervisor of Operations for the PJM
training is followed by an additional six months of supewised on- Interconnection Ofhce. Employed by Philadelphia Electric Co.
the-job training before an operator is qualified to work entirely on sinc.e 1952, he has been active in Power Pool Operations since
his own. 1969.

Ope.rators arc encouraged to occasionally re-read the procedures Richard J. Kafta is Manager, Power Pooling Economics for
manual on their own and once or twice a year they have ad-hoc Potomac Electric Power Company. He has developed system
group refresher training sessions. rcstoration plans for the company and has served as a training
subject matter expert for system restoration.
Airport Security Personnel
Airport operations personnel must always be prepared to deal E. J. Dobrowolski is the Philadelphia Electric Company Project
with emergencias ranging from bomb threats and fuel spills to Manager for the EPRI OTS project.
major airplane crashes. The training supervisor at a major
Canadian airport stated that the role of his department was to K. Nodehi is the
softr,vare lead for the OperatorTraining Simulator
provide as much information as possible on the potential at Empros Systems International.
consequences of an emergency and to keep in constant touch with
operations people just to remind them that emergencies could J. G. Waight is the Manager of Advanced Applications/Research
happen at any time. Inlormation and training were stated as being at Empros Systems International. He is the Empros Project
the key components of cmergency preparedness. Manager for the EPRI OTS project.

Underlying all the training programs is a very careful analysis Roy Hoffman holds B.A. Sc, M.A. Sc. & PhD degrees from the
of rcquired procedures and defining the role of all the involved Universities of Waterloo, Toronto and Saskatchewan. He has
agencies. In addition to preparing and updatiog emergency worked for CAE Electronics Ltd since 1982 and currently holds
procedures manuals, typical training methods include roundtable the position of Manager Control Systems R&D.
exereises where a group of people work through an emergency,
discussing what each of the various parties would do. Every six
months they organize a major simulated emergency to the extent
acceptable by the public using the airpo*.

Training Pushed By Safety Issues

In each of these cases, the importance of careful analysis and
development of detailed plans to deal with potential emergencies
was highlighted. The emphasis on continued readiness training
seemed to vary eonsiderably, however, being the greatest for
aircraft pilots and nuclear plant operators, In both of these
applications, the underlying driver is public rafety, as opposed to
economics or effrciency. Because of the involvement of the
93 WM 201-4 PWRS
F. P. de Mello, Fellow IEEE J. C. Westcott, Fellow ASME
Power Technologies, lnc.
Schenectady, NY

ABSTRACT cope with them. ln addition, the robustness of the equipment

precludes the occunence of failure during rapid transients but the
The IEEE Working Group on Power System Restoration developed rapid transients can cause significant reduction of equipment life
a panel session for the Summer Power Meeting on July 14, 1992 on expectancy which cannot be overcome by preventative maintenance
Special Considerations in Power System Restoration. One of the programs.
contributions to this session is presented in this paper dealing with
aspects of steam plant startup and control in scenarios of system Aspects of plant startup and control that can play an important role in

restoration. system restoration are discussed in this paper.

The topics addressed inctude the complexity of a steam plant, the

contrast between normal plant startups and shutdowns and those Normal Plant gtaduls_sndlghuElewns
following major system blackouts including the effects of plant design,
automatic controls, bypass valving and operator training. Fossil and nuclear fueled steam plants, traditionally, have been
classified as base load, cycling or peaking depending on the portion
of the load duration curve that they supply. Evidently those plants
KEYWORDS with the most economic generation capability will be used to supply
the base load. Units with a combination of relatively high efficiency
System restoration, steam ptant startups and shutdowns, steam plant and lower fuel costs will be base loaded. These tend to be ihe larger
design, plant controls. high pressure and temperature units with con'espondingly high cycle
efflciencies. The maneuverability of such units is restricted due to
temperature gradient limitations affecting stress of thick high pressure
INTRODUCTION and temperature metal parts. This lack of flexibility in load cycling
duty is offset by the fact that they normally operate at base load vrith
The complexity of system restoration has been well described in other a srnall number of startups and shutdowns per year.
contributions (1 ,2,3,4) with reference to the electrical plant Of'
particular note is the realization that the state of equipment, whether The ability of units to load follow during periods of low power
or not ready for restoration, can be affected by the events that led to requirements is an important aspect particularly in islanded operating
the system shutdown. These events often admit a large number ol conditions. Units with rated steam conditions in the supercntical
oF, are the most
combinations and permutations, not all of which have been factored region, greater than about 32OB psia and 705.5
into system design. Equipment failure can be one of the byproducts difficult to operate al low loads and, because of the minimum flow
of a major system shutdown and the result is in extending restoration requirements, many units cannot be operated at lower than forty
time periods. percent of capability. Some supercritical units have been retrofitted
to allow ihem to operate at outputs as low as fifteen to twenty percent
Steam power plants, fossil and nuclear fueled, are a combination o{ and at reduced Pressures.
complex thermomechanical equipment as illustrated in Figure I
showing the elements in a typical coalJired plant Operators are Those units which are used for most of the peaking, cyclic and tlvo-
concemed with the state of hundreds of variables (pressures, shift-operation duty are generally older and have lower initial pressure
temperatures and flows oi vlater and steam, flue gas temperature and and tempeiature conditions, These can experience startups and
excess oxygen, hydrogen pressure, bearing temperature, vibration, shutdowns as often asonce a day oronce a rveek. Units as large as
valve positions, etc.) Among these only one and not necessarily the 600 mw have been built specifically ior two-shift operation.
most important variable is the MW output oi the genei'ator. The
condition of this maze of equipment can be affected significantly by Figure 2 is a time chart (Ref. 1) showing the startup of a unit after a
the manner in which events leading to shutdown occurred. shutdown for about seven hours. Time irom fuel ignition until
synchronization is about 85 minutes, 20 percent load is achieved in
Thermomechanical systems have relatively slow dynamic response another 15 minutes and 65 percent load in another40 minutes This
relative to electrical phenomena. For this reason, past practice has unit was designed for two-shift operation. lt is natural gas fired which
been to allow operators to manually transfer various plant control helps in attaining this type of startup. A load restoration after a unit
systems from automatic to manual conirol. Traditional control design trip could be accomplished is less time.
allows some sub-systems to be manually controlled while others are
being automatically conirolled, The action of control transfer, either An industry probiem has been the fact that changes in costs betvreen
automatic to manual or manual to automatic, alone has caused fuel types as vrell as improvements in cycle and equipment
manyunit tnps with resulting equipment damage, Equipment damage efficiencies have, with the passing oi time, forced older base loaded
due to operator errors is likely considenng that the events in question units to operate in increasingly cyclic duty. Recognitron of his
are very rare and in all likelihood operators have not been trained to phenomenon should lead to increasing automation and sophistication
through revamping of old startup and shutdorvn controls. Sometimes
insufficient attentjon has been-given to this need. An appreciaton of
93 kt'i 201-4 PIdT.S A paper recommended and approved the complexity of plant startups can be obtained f rom reference (2) by
by the IEEE Power System Engineering Comittee of the IEEE Steam Station Protection Working Group.
che IEEE Pover Engineering Society for presentaElon
at the IEEE/PES 1993 llinter Meeting, Colmbus, OH, Regardless of how well procedures, manual or automatic, are
January 31 - February 5, 1993. Hanuscript submitted established tor normal startups and shutdowns it should be
August ?l, 1992; made available for printing emphasized that a normat shutdown is quite ditferent {rom an
November 4, L992. unanticipated abrupt shutdown,
paper 93 WM 201-4 PWRS, presented at
IEEE 1993 WPM Columbus OH Jan 31- 57
Feb 5, 1993
,rl: !c;
t: I:ii!
I!i: i:
I J60


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Upper lP Temperature
Upper HP TemPeraturo
u q
100 (J
st q
0 !
J -----\
\ \>>=^t'-^--G
F n
o 100
3 .!
E Lower HP Tempcrature \
E d -200 \
200 Lower lP TemPerature
o 300 o

oF oF HP Turbine lnner Temperature

% 1000 lo00 | *.,^ a,""- Temperature
HP Turbine Mean Temperature
Reheat Steam Temperature

! aoo i 8oo
o o F
J. E

:60 #; ooo 3 600 2500

o. = o
q40 ! aoo
! # aoo 1 500
; F
l .D E

q 1000

S zoo

32 32
2O% Load
Turbine Roll
Main Steam Opcn

Figure 2. Stafiup After A Seven Hour Shutdown

A normal shutdown is accomplished at an appropriate controlled rate generator will experience large temPerature and pressure translents
and, when the unit is finally disconnected lrom the system, it is done during a full load trip and can possibly implode the fumace walls if he
by tripping the furbine with the generator breaker opening after the combustion is terminated too rapidly.
electrical power has been reduced to zero. There are no steam
generator safety valve operations, the fuel combustion in the fumace The procedure of reducing the number of fans, teedwater pumps and
has been reduced at a safe and desirable rate, and the whole process other auxiliaries can all be handled manually in a normal shutdown.
is slow enough to be handled manually. ln a multi-unit control room
plant, the normal shutdown procedure is usually handled one unit at The duration of a normal startup can vary from a couple to hours to
a time. a day depending on whether it is a cold, warm, or hot start, type of
fuel, and depending on the steam supply design, with the once-
Other aspects ol normal shutdowns involve the proper planning of he through design presenting a more difficult process using a complex
turbine cooldown and steam generator bottling process depending on startup steam generator bypass system which is gradually phased out
the anticipated time beiore a subsequent st"rtuP around 3o"/. load. The following table lists the average startup times
afterdifferent shut down time periods. These may vary depending on
This procedure must be as concemed about rate of change of unit conditions and a considered iudgement on life expendifure of unit
temperature as during startup. A turbine tripped from full load will not components.
experience any significant rate of change in temperature. A steam

Time To Roll
Startup Worst Case
From Steam Turirine Roll
Classification Loading Rate Turbine Roll
Generator To Synchronization
Lightoif To Full Load

Hot Start 5 Percent per

30 Minutes 10 Minutes 30 Minutes
8 Hr. Shutdown Minute

Wann Start
8 to 60 Hour 3 Percent per
1 to 2 Hours 30 to 40 Minutes 1% Hours
Shutdown (Weekend) Minute

<3 Percent per

Cold Start May Require Heat Soak
Up To 24 Hours Minute Depends on
Holds ol up to
Greater Than Depends on Water temperature rate of
6O Hours
2 Hours. I Hour for
Chemistry change. 1 Hour Heat
Acceleration 5 Hours
Soak at 2 Percent Load

The points of these comments on normal startups and shutdowns oj The variations of the type of unanticipated shutdowns are numerous.
steam plants are that: The simplest case is where a complete load rejection occurs. A more
difficult case is where the plant is islanded with the plant capacity
1. Depending on the design of the plant and controls, being a significant fraction of the island's load. Under this condition
the startup and shutdown process can be the goveming performance ol the units, which is hardly ever exercised
complicated and lengthy. Contrast this with the under normai operation, can present problems particularly in cases
push button start, or stop, of a gas turbine or hydro where steam generator-turbine coordinated control schemes inhibit
unit. the usual govemor fast response of turbine vaives. The plant
operators are faced with a condition where the isolated system
2. Whether a startup can be considered normal may frequency determines the unit's or plant's MW output. Manual
depend on whether the shutdown preceding it was supplementary control of MW output becomes baffling as such control
normal. action on a particular unit is negated by system frequency effects
acting on the govemors of that unit and other parallel units.
3. During a normal shutdown, startup or indeed under
normal operation, the power output of the unit,
lvhatever it may be due to plant conditions, can be Effects of Plant Desiqn
absorbed by the system which is usually very iarge
relative to the size of the unit. This, in essence. The ability of a steam plant to survive an unanticipated shutdown is
has removed one variable to be controlled when very ituch a function of the plant's design and operator training.
other more important variables (from the Dominant factors are:
perspective oi the plant) take precedence.

fuel type
Sh utdowns and $!er!qps Followi ngrMqipI Svstem I lackouts steam conditions and steam generator type

Unit and plant shutdowns occurring during the unravelling of a major steam bypass valving and ability to trip to house
system blackout are almost always initiated by the breakup of the load
electrical grid through circuit breakeroperations. When such breaker automatic controls for steam generator, turbine and
operations result in complete isolation of the piant or unit. ihis creates auxiliaries
a condition known as a load re.lection. ln many cases, a units control
capability will not be sufficient to keep the unit from tnpping.
Many utilities have upgraded control systems, auxiliaries, and, in
A complete load rejection such as a generator trip would be foltowed some cases, rnajor component modifications to enable units to
by a turbine and steam generator trip within a matter of seconds as withstand a generator breaker trip without tripping the turbine or
the turbine speed controls react to turbine overspeec. Such a steam generator.
shutdown is markedly difierent from the normal over many
minutes previously discussed. The abrupt transition from loaded to
unioaded conditions can be traumatic, when several units
experience rejection almost simultaneously. Fuel Type

The scenario in the control room changes abruptly from one of sleep
inducrng tranquility to a blast of Ioud bells and whistles, blir:king alarm There is a marked difference in the abilrty to control heat release in
lights, perhaps a throwoverto auxiliary lighting, safety valve operaiion the furnace of a coal-f ired unit compared to a gas or oilJired unit. ln
and, much toc cften, a throwover of many irnpodant controt !unctions the former case, response characteristics of pulverizers can exhibit
(drum level for instance) to manual. The integrity of the auxiriary dead times of up to a minute or more whereas a gas or oil-fired unit
power supply system is often breached as the normal suppiv from rhe has a very predictable short (few seconds) response of the fuel valve.
network fails and throwover schemes malfunction. Those ihat nave lnherently oil or gas fired units are able to match heat release to
witnessed an unanticipated plant shutdown cannot lail to nold in arve steam flow demand transients much better than is possible with coal-
the burdens and stress imposed on operators and to rnan,el at how fired units. On the other hand this fast response characteristic and
adrenalin keeps them functioning. low residence time of gas or oil presents other problems such as the
possibility of fumace implosions on fuel tnps or lumace explosions if

HP Superheaters Turbine
Superhea ters Turbine

(< Qs
jl_ \u,
llal I s rcui t Economi zer
Furnace wal I s
I Economizer
Qe Boi'ler Feed Pump


Rec. Pump (some desiqns) Boiler Feed PumP

Drum TYPe
0nce Thru

Figure 3. Steam Generator TYPes

the air supply is not properly coordinated with the fuel flow. A full continuous, and that as heat is added.along the fluid path, the fluid
load trip of a gas or oil fired unit causing a fuel trip is much less properties change in a continuous manner.
traumatic than a similar event on a coal fired unit where tuel shut ofl
results in shutdown of pulverizers loaded with coal.
The pressure level in fris type unit is basically specified by the flow
being forced through the entire boiler circuit by the feed pump.
Changes in fuel input will have essentially a transient eflect due to the
expansion or condensation of the fluid within the steam generator until
Steam Conditions and Steam Generator Tvpe the new operating conditions are aciieved. Since these units operate
in the higher pressure ranges, i.e. supercritical, the changes in the
There was a period in the So's and early 60's when the desire for fluid specific volume are, relatively, smaller than conventional
greater efficiency and economies of scale led to higher and higher subcritical units, thus diminishing the effect of heat addition on
pressure. ln this type unit then, feedwater has a dominant effect on
steam pressures and temperatures. A significant factor was the
introduction of the once-through steam generator design both
subcritical and supercritical.
An important difference in characteristics and, hence, control
Figure 3 shows schematics of the two basic types of steam requirements of once-hrough versus drum-type steam generators
generators fluid circuitry on the left is that of the so+alled relates to the fact that tTe steady state flow rate of fluid in the fumace
conventional drum-type unit. ln this system the pressure level is tubes foronce-ttrrough steam generators is proportional to load in the
always below ffre critical point of steam, 3208.2 psia' The most normal operating range of 3o to 1OO7", whereas it is almost
common maximum is 24oo psig. independent of load cr of feedwater flow in the case of drum-type
steam generators. In drum steam generators, changes in feedwater
llow or steam flow co not materially atfect the fluid flow rate in

Since steam generation occurs in the waterwall sections, the waterwall tubes and, hence, there is no concem of major imbalance
recirculation flow rate around the fumace circuit is five to ten times between heat ilux to he tubes and heat absorption to the inner fluid.
that of the generated steam flow. Depending on ttre load the unit is For once-through steam generators, however, it is important to keep
carrying, the waterwall exit flow, lor sub-critical designs, is a low a close match betweer the once-through ffow rate, i,e., feedwater flow
quality mixture of steam and water and the lumace circuit remains and fuel flow, since cnly a few seconds of a major imbalance can
essentially in a saturated condition at the existing drum pressure. result in rapid rise oi tube temperatures and bum out. Fuel and
The steam is supefieated to rated steam temperature conditions in feedwater flow must. drerefore, be moved in unison and correqtions
the superheating sections and passes on into the high pressure in the ratio of fuel to ieedwater should be made within well-defined
turbine. limits in a slow rese: r'ecalibration mode to correct {or temperature

The fluid circuitry on the right of Figure 3 is that of the once-through

steam generator. These units may operate under subcritical and The danger ol transient mismatches between heat release and
supercritical conditions (i.e., above 32oS.2 psi). Note that the flow of leedwater flow lead tc control modes that inhibit the response of the
fluid through the steam generator above typicalty 25 to 30% load is turbine. With inadecuately designed steam generator controls, once-

through units ar much lss capable of sr.rstaining islanded operation des(tnd lo linearize the speedflow characteristic ol tfie trrbine
where govemor control of turbine valvs is signilicant ddven prmp. F(prc 4 shows the typical nonlinear iowlspd
charactedst-rc of a pump supplyng ttre steam genrator. There is no
llow undl he pump speed dvelops a discha4ge prossure qual to he
Another factor, previously mentioned is trat trese large high pressure stearn generator prss{lr, From that point on, because of the
and temperature units have much less tolerancs to load drarqesdue squared law of pressrre dmp witr flow, a very small ctrange in speed
to fatigue ol thick metal parts. prcduces a very larye change in flow and this gain between fiow and
speed lhen decreases with increasirg flow. A function genrator to
lineadze lhis characteristic would only be conect at on valu of
stearn gneralor prssure and srpply prssrur to the teed prlmp
Steam Evpa$ Valving and Ability to Trip to Houee Loed fu6ine which can vary appreciabty dependng on tle stearn source
(extraction lrom main &ftrine or an auxiliary steam gsneralor).
Evidendy it is a simpb matter wilh dQiial logic to djust th
Many of tre poblems ol a rapidly imposed load cfrarpe on siearyt compensation as a function ol these additional variables (steam
units can be linessed with the provision ol turbine steam bypass ptttssue to led pump trlbine) wtrersas tris uould have been
valving, a common practic in Europe and partiarlarty olher countries discouragingly complicated to attempt with analog implementations.
where the frequency ol system break ups is much greater than in the
US, and the interconnectd systms are smaller,
Ld F6dlon
Lhtt co** hld

The provision of a sr:fficient capacity bypass system shieHs the

stearn gnerator from rapid changs in furbine steam demand. Wifr
such capability it is possible and the usual practice in Europe to be
able to trip he unit and have it carry stalion load. OI courso tte
amount of time that this condition can be supported is limited by
temperature induced stresss in the furbine.
,'-l (
PmD Sp-d
*l; StodyT ,. -
I st.i,.,a
Slgil to tuhp Tuokx
Automatic Controls forSteam Generator. Turbine. and Auxiliariee
a Cdtrol Fadu FlUa ffi mC
Perhaps the area where greatest opportunities of improving tre
reliability and safety of steam plant operation ckrring major Figure 4. Erample of Subloop Control Problem
contingencies lie in the exploitation of he immense logic and
computation power of modem digital control systems.
Another problem in this llow loop is the requirement to prevent flow
From he days of pneumatic from dropping below tre minimum flow demand level. An alarm and
control to their replacement witr analog
time delay trip is provided to protct tre unit from operation at flow
operational amplifier systems, stearn generator control systems urcre
severely limited by he hardware in extending their use through wide rates below minimum. ln tre configuration of Figur 4 trere is no
intelligence to the controls to indicate he rate at which the demand
excursions inoperating conditions. Anytime an additional
sQnal is approac*ring tre minimum and the particular amount by
computation function, such as nonlinear compensation, multiplicalion
or division seemed indicated to improve the control function, tris which the fiow is away from minimum. With digital logic it is faidy
entailed additional hardware with all its problems of calibration, simple to use the combination of these two items of information to
maintenance and reliability. The result was that steam gnerator slowdown control action in anticipation of the demand signal reaching
control systems were designed for operation under limited operating the low limit, hereby preventing an undershoot in flow.
load conditions. The different requirements firough wide excursbns
or during startup and shutdown were usually handled under manual
Another example of an improvement in control that would be of
immense value to operators is tre problem of drum level control. ln
many cases hese controls trip to manual under upsets such as rapid
The transition to Direct Digital Control, DDC, has, lor tre most part, load changas or load rejections. Even the restoration to automatic
replaced the old analog controls with a digital implementation of the usrally invofues manually bdnging tre level to sepoint and trrowing
same limited function. over to automatic when tre enor is zeroed. With digital logic
incorporating desirable non windup features and appropriate
compensation lor nonlinearities of pump speed versus flow as
Although the logic capability available in today's digital systems is function of stearn generator pressure this essential control function
literally infinite relative to what is used, extending ttre function to could easily be provided without any need for manual intervention.
handle the wide range of contingencies without abdication to manual One does not achieve these improvements without engineering effort
control requires engineering effort through use of nonlinear multi- often tailored to tre partio.rlar plant.
variable control design. This involves use of simulation which is again
very feasible today with tre us of digital computers to an extent
never possible in the past witfr analog computers.
Ooerator TraininE

To illustrate, take ttre schematic of Figure 4 showing tre feedwater

flow snbloop for a once-trrough steam generator. The flow demand Plants hat undergo lrequent unanticipated slrutdowns provide hands-
signal generated by anotrer cascade control is strown to be limited so on experience to operators. The more common cas is one where
it cannot drop below, say 30%. A controller responds to he enor the event is very rare and operators have had lit{e or no prior
between demand and ffow feedback developing a signal to controllhe experience on how to handle the sitration.
speed of $e steam generator feed pump through a function gsnerator

The concept of training simulators has been well established in the Mr. de Mello joined Power Technologies, lnc. at the time ol its
nuclear power plant industry. Similar concepts should also be valid lormation in August of 1969 as a Principal Engineer, Dynamics and
tor fossil fired steam Plants. Control. He was appointed Vice President in '1973.

Where control systems are designed to control the plant auxiliaries He is presently a Principal Consultant lor Power Technologies, lnc.
through wide ranges of upset conditions, the fact that they are not
called to perlorm except in very rare instances, points to the need for
J. C. Westmtt graduated with a B.Sc in Mechanical Engineering from
periodically checking out the condition ol the conlrols. ln the case of
BPI in 1946.
digital implementations this does not reqtire checking the computation
logic since other normally provided computer diagnostics assure the
soundness of the l/O and conect functioning of the CPU. However, He joined General Electric Company's engineering training program
the state of actuators, valves and ottrer equipments that are critical to and in 1948 was assigned to the Large Steam Engineering
the perlormance of the controls under these abnormal conditions Department working in areas of steam turbine advanced design and
should be periodically checked out with appropriately designed tests' development.

ln 1960, he joined the Power Generatbn Sales Division where he

CONCLUSIONS eventually became manager of application engineering in power plant

The main points on the problems of steam plant startups in the

system restoration process can be summarized as: Mr. Westcott ioined Power Technologies, lnc' in 1973 as Principal
Engineer, Power Generation. He is presendy a Principal Consultant
for Power Technologies, lnc.
(1) The steam plant is a very complex process. Unles's
the design provides for in the design for the eventuality
of unanticipated shutdowns, there is a significant
likelihood of equipment damage due to the unusual REFERENCES
sequence of events that characterize a system induced
plant shutdown.
1) 'special Considerations in Power System Restoration', M' M'
Adibi, L. H. Fink, C. J. Andrews, F. Arsanjani, M. W. Lanier, J' M'
(2) The ability ot a plant to be restarted quickly can be Miller, T. A. Volkman and J. Wrubel, a report by the Power
greatly enhanced by basic design features such as System Restoration Working Group, 92-WM 106-5 PWRS'
bypass valves and tripping to house load as well as
resorting to automatic control of auxiliaries through use
of the vast control logic power ol modem digital 2) 'Ovewoltage Control During Restoration-, M. M. Adibi, R' W'
systems. Alexander and B. Avramovic, a report by the Power System
Restoration Working Group, 92 W 107-3 PWRS.

(3) Operator training in unusual shutdown and startup

scenario is an important aspect of thb restoration 3) "New Approaches in Power System Restoration', M. M' Adibi' L'
problem. The more remote the likelihood of a system H. Fink, J. Giri, D. S. Kirschen, S. M. Shahidehpour and J'
induced plant shutdown the more important it is to Zaborszt<y, a report by the Power System Restoration Woking
provide training since the required experience is not Group,92-109-9 PWRS.
developed in day to day normal operating procedures'

4) 'Bulk Power System Restoration Training Techniques", M E'

Cooper, M. M. Adibi, L. H. Fink, R. G. Wasley, R. T. Gonzales, A'
F. P. de Mello graduated with a B.Sc and M.Sc degrees in Electrical B. Storey, F. J. Wood, R. J. Kafka, E. J. Dorowolski' K. Nodehi,
Engineering from MIT in 1948. J. G. Waight and R. Hoffman.

s) "Two-Shift Handley Station Units #4 and #5', Bill Hoerster, Walter

ln 1948 he joined Rio Light and Power and Sao Paulo Companies in
Brazil and for the next seven years held positions of increasing Gozegno, Heinz Termuehlen, Amencan Power Conlerence,
technical responsibility in system planning and design studies. Chicago, lllinois, April 22-24, 1985.

From 1955 to 1969, he worked in the General Electric Company 6) "Steam Station Protection Working Group', Minimum
Recommended Protechon, lnteflocking and Controlfor Fossil Fuel
Electric Utility Engineering Operatron where he specialized in studies
of dynamics and electrical machines, excitation control, prime-mover UnilConnected Steam Stations, EEE'Trans. PAS-92, p. 37 4'4o 1'

systems, overall power systems and boiler dynamics.

93 WM 2$-A P\"-?.S

Reactive Capability Limitation of Synchronous Machines

Ir{. M. Adibi, LM D. P. Milanicz, SM
IRD CorPoration Baltimore Gas & ELectric Co.
Bethesda, MarY1and Baltimore, MarYland
Abstract: Achievable generator reactive tance is used. The generator is ass'-:med
EapaUiUi:-ity (GRc) is generally much lesg to be connected to an infinite bus t1l-
thin indiiated by manufacturers' reactive
capabil5-ty curves' due to constraints For a given terminal voltage V and cur=ent
imposed by plant auxiliaries and the power I. at phase angle o (i.e-, for a giwen l{VA
system itself. The nature of these con- output) the emf E is obtained by adCing
slraints is explained and a method for armature reaction I.Xd to V at 9O" t,o :r-
calculating them is provided and verified
by field tests on a unit at high and low For constant MVA output, I" is cons--ant
syetem voltage levels- Several recommen- and its locus is a circle with cente= on
d-ations are made to enhance the GRC of the the end of the voltage phasor V- cons:ant
tested unit. excitation impl-ies that the locus of I is
also a circle with center O-
Keywords : overexcitation, underexcitation,
reictive capability, generator owerheat- The angle between E and V is the Pcwef
ing, excitation limitation, reactive angle 6. It can be seen that generaicr's
reguirement- Hlil output, V*I.*cosiD, is egual to:
III:IRODUCTION (v*E/xd)*sin 6.
The generator reactive capability (CRC) For 6 = 9O" the static limit of stab'1ity
curves furnished by manufacturers and used is reached, so that the horizontal '1 ine
in operation pl-annlng typically hawe. a through o rePresents this limit-
greatLr range lhan can be realized during
actual operation. Generally, these GRC
curves are gtrictly a function of the syn-
chronous mactrine design Parameters and do
not consider plant and system operating
conditions as limiting factors- Recently
concern over GRC has been heightened by
i-ncreasing need for reactive Powgr to
provide voltage support for large blocks
of power transfer.
Thls paper, describes a method for deter-
mining ihe reactiwe capability limitation
of synchronous machineg under plant and STATIC STABILITY LIMIT
system operating condi-tions- The method-
ology is tested and verified on a large o
geneiator. Then several recommendationg Figrrrc 1. Aha Phasor Diagrau
are made to enhance the GRC of the unit- 2. The Rated Gen. Reactive QqgYes
BACKGROI]ND The GRC curves shown in Figure 2 arp- lrawn
for synchronous reactance Xa = !a; per-
1. The Phasor Di-aqram cent. For zero excitation the a=='3ture
reactance drop (shortcircui-t ratio c: SCR)
The basis for generator reactive capabili- is l-OA/1-67 = 6O percent of ful-i load,
ty (GRC) curvee is shown in Figure 1- To representing 60 percent of fui- MvA
simplify the diagram the effect of satura- scales. ahe vertical Iine Go is dra---n and
ti-on and of resistance are neglected, and scaled to 50 percent MVar, and cor-=inued
an ungaturated value of synchronous reac beyond O for Iagging MVar- Frcc, o a
horizontal line, which is si::-larly
scaled, gives Power in MW- A circl-e drawn
93 WH 2O3-O P$RS A paper recounended and approwed with o ae its center and ite radiu= simi-
by che IEEE Porrer SysEed Englneerl-ng Coonlttee of IarJ-y scaled gives stator curre:t in
the IEEE Power Englneerlng Soclety for PresenEaelon percent of full load- Ahe radii jrom o
aE the IEEE/PES 1993 lllnter Heetlag. Colunbus' OH, lndicate power factor values- circ- es of
January 31 - Februry 5, 1993. Harruscrl'PE subEltced percentage excitation are dra'-':: f rotn
August L2, L992; nade awallable for prlnclng Lenter G. A 100 percent excitatior: ii-e-,
Decenber 14. 1992- amperes field no-Load or AFNL), :orre-
paper 93 WM 203-0 PWRS, presented at
IEEE 1993 WPM Columbus OH Jan 31- 65
Feb 5, 1993
sponds to the fixed terminal voltage GO. chronous machine design parameters at
Y rated terminal voltage and do not consider
generating stati-on and 1>ower system oper_
ating conditions as Iimiting factirs-
These design curves show that different
generator loadg produce greater heating in
different parts of generator. The segiment
AB ig limited by rotor heating du-e to
over-excitation, Be ig liraited by armature
heating due to large lagging reactive
generation, the limit-line epex by the
prime-mowers MW output, and enF by arma-
ture core end heating due to large leading
reactive generation.


The operating lirnits imposed on GRC can

be for:nulated using the design curves. fri
Figure 3, the design limitg are described
by arcs AI!, BC, CD, and DF.

Figrrre 2. GRC Curves

Taking 1O0 percent l.fW as the maximum

aLlowable power (provided by the priroe-
mover), a vertical limit-line is drawn
through P at 1OO percent lltW. It ig as-
sumed that the generator ie rated to give
1OO percent litW at power factor O.9O lag-
ging- This determineg point er. Limi_ta-
tion of the stator curent to the corre-
sponding value requires the limit-line to
become circular arc Be. about center O.
At B a new limit by the.. exciting current
has to be introduced, and it is assumed
that the rotor current must not bxceed
that corresponding to an emf E
percent of terminal voltage V (i.e., GO).
The circular arc AB is therefore drawn
from center c at thie value of excitation-
The upper limit ABepp ie thus completed.
The l-ine epp cannot be continued
to the static 1imit of etability dowawards
because Figure-3. GRc ltodel
of the limitati-on in the underexcited
region by the localized overheating of the 1. The Design Curves
stator core ends. This is due to the fact
during weak field The emf E can be determined from the
taining rings at the enOoperation
6t the
th. .._
stator are excitation arc AB which gubtends the power
no longier saturated allowing armature end angle 6o at the center G:
leakage flux to produce :,oci:_ir"a heating
in those areaEl .here the flux-i" Let Nr be equal to the cord
"t right
AB, then
:3gI::rrTrtto imposed
the ptane of the tamination.
1l:_ by the end hearing is
a-t-so circular with ite center
Nr =f(\-Br)r+8,7)tn,
point H, on the Go tine f2 & ti. at aome Or= tan-t tB^/(\ - Br) ),
The generator reactive capabi)_ity curves coe 6, = Nr/ (28) , and
of Figrrre 2 which are provided by manufac-
turere, are etrictly a function of syn-

E = Nr/ (2cos er) - ayatem- Each component ie designed and
rated to oPerate continuously within cer-
Coneider a Point on the excitation arc AB tain electrical and mechanical limi-ts
corresPonding to the Power angle 6, reac- epecified by the manufacturer. Any compo-
tive power g,, and real Power P, then nent may have operating limite imposed on
voltage, currertt, frequency or a combina-
6 = sin-r (plEl , tion of thege euch'as MVA, wolt/hertz, and
etability. These limitationg reduce the
coeS=1q,+E-\)/Erand reactive capability of a generator to
below the designed rangee-
gr = \ - E(1 - cos 6). The Limitations imlrcsed by station equip-
ment on the generator's reactive capabili-
The l-imits impoaed by the stator- iron end
ty during oortilal operation can be deter-
heating during under-excitation oPeration mlned using the system rePresentation of
is a circle with radius R, centered on Y- Figrre 4, where:
axig at H. Therefore, the leading reac-
tive trrcwer qI2 for a given real power p, T and X are the resPective trans-
can be determined in a manner similar to former taps and reactances,
that of over-excitation operation-
gt a, a and as subgcriPts indicate
The arc'DF subtends the angle B" at the the generator, auxili-arY, system
center II: and start-up buses or transformes,
Let N2 be equal to cord DF, then 1, Y, P and Q are current, voltage,
real and reactive Powers as indi-
N2 = [(Dy - Fr]' + D!7'o, cated, and
or: g.n-t [D,/ (Dy - Fr) I , mx and mn eubscriPts indicate the
maximum and Eoinimum limits-
cos = Nz/(2R), and

R = Nz/(2eos r). Eg nTr Er

Consider a point on the arc DF correspond-

ing to the ingle B, reactive Power 9zr and
real power p, then
B = sin-r (P/R),
cos B = (qr+R-F!) lP., and

q2 = R(1 - cos B) - Fy.

?he stator curretlt I. (assuming 1 pu volt- Figrrc {. AuxiliarY EquiPueut

age) can be determined from the arc BC
vrhich subtends the phase angle (Power In general the main and auxiliary trans-
factor) go at the center O: formers are equipped with fixed taps,
whose optimum positione wi-th respect to
I.= (Br2+B!1tn- power system operating conditions need to
be determined- otherwise, they may Pose
Consider a point on the arc BC corresPond- more restrictive limits on either lagging
ing to phase angle' Q, reactive power ![r or leading reactive capabilities of the
and real power p, then generator-

% (r.' - p')'o- The auxiliary real and reactive powers, P.

and Q., are some functions of generator'g
For a point on the arc CD, output P. and Q., e-9. [5],
9r = -(r.2 - P'r''. P. : P* (3P* + P.l / (4PF*), or
2. The PLant and Svstem constrai-nts a. = P* (3Pr* + Pr)/(4PF-), for
Iagging Q., and
A typical arrangement for suPplying por.rer-
plant auxiliaries and services in a gener- Q. = 0.85P.- (3Pr* + Pr) / (4PD*) , for
ating station ig comPosed of many major leading Qr.
components and sub-components that operate
as a system to supply Poirer to the power

Neglecting the effect of the main and and minimum aystem voltages reflected to
auxi)-iary traneformerg' resistances, we the generator terminal bue, then when
have: 8.1 > Er*, Er* is the overexcitation limit-
ing factor, and when E, ) Erre E,_ is the
P. = P. * P., and underexcitation limiting factor. Thus, the
generator reactive power ag can be deter_
e.=Q+e.+r.2L, mined as a function of real power output
P., from minirnura generation pjor to maii-
r.rhere: mum generation Pr-, for a given main and
auxiliary transformer tap positione T. and
a @)2/x, - t(E.E.JxJ,)2 - P.'l'o, T., and for syatem voltage schedule E..
The above formulation also allows optimi-
e. = [(E.Es/)qr,)2 - p.r]r, - (B,/t,lr/x{ zation of the two transformer tap posi-
I.=(P.+je.)-/E.,and tione for a given system woltage schEaute
under light and peak load conditions.
E.=(8.+jI.x.)T.. Figrrre 5 superimposes the cumulative
effect of all the operating requirements
where: in limiting cRC on the manufaeturer,s
deeign values- The actual reactive capa-
(P.+j q)' ie the conjugate (p.+j q). bility ig reetricted to the area bounde.l
by all the operating curvell, which are
The maximum and minimumauxiliary woltages consi-derably rnore restrictive than the
E.q and E.- reflected to the generator design curves-
terminal bus are:
E.'=(E*+jr.*\)*T.. The operating reactive capability of a 46O
MVA generator at Baltimore Gas and EIec-
ff E3'>Er, thea the E,* is the overexcit- tric Co. was tested in order to verlfy the
ation J-imiting factor, and if E.-)Es_r GCR methodologry and also to determine the
then the E- is the uaderexcitation firnid- extent of improvement which could be made
ing factor. in the generator's reactive capability t
& sl.
Similarly, when 8.1 and E, are the maximum
vtNlyttv criltatflov urlfi
BOTOA IIfiD'NC E'I'NC ilrrutRr Dgs
ilrtn cv&R fit LrylT ToLttcE uylt
crrratfitB t avliltL
EtcE 10L7ICE UvIt
TALftC' &gclrlttoR o N/r- olrTPt,T'
Irc (+) E;D iOLts/Et LIUTIBR
(0frR- tvR.alxt uvft
t&vt1:ttRt cr,RRt:f? IJ vtT


LttD (-) I
(ttt{DtR- y I tilvtt v E rc ltaTto ti u u tt
tuxt.r/.RY Ears fQLTtc, Rrclq.ttoR
LOf YOLI/C' Uytt tt yINtu{tv otrfPlrt
cENtRlTnS ttRaINlL LoJ foLttc, uutt
coR ,ilD EEtt r{a uyn
Figrre 5. cenerator Reactive capability Li-aitation

1- Test Conditions and Procedure: o the unit eervice megaeratts to be
monitored at the control center to
o Station eervice load was carried by determine the net generation,
the unit eervice transformer,
the voltmeter gcale on the unit
o The generator voltage regulator was service traneformer to be expanded
placed under automatic control, to read 6OO volte AC,
o The unit wag paralleled and kept at the net rather than grose generator
fuII load for the atart of test. MVar to be monitored at the control
center, and
o Minimum load (14 Mw) ' full load
(4OO Mvt), and several intermediate o the local voltage adjuster to be
pointa (i.e. 1OO, 2OO, and 3OO MI{) replaced by remote solid state con-
were selected, trol.
o Syatem voltage was maintained con- aabl.e A. Rated Machine Reactive Lilrits
sLant at the desired level (23O and MW MVar MAX kV MVar f'{IN kV
237 kv) for the duration of test,
o 318 26.2L -2sL 22.42
o The generator was kept at each test 20 318 26.2L -257 22.04
point for 1O minutes and test data 50 316 26.2). -263 22-03
was recorded for each uw loading ?5 314 26.20 -266 22-OO
for both overexcitation and undere- 100 312 26.1A -26a 21.98
xcitation, and L2s 308 25-L5 -269 2l-97
150 303 26.L2 -26A 21-97
o Tegte were rePeated for high and 175 29A 26-09 -266 21.98
low system voltage levels- 200 292 26.Os -263 22-OO
22s 285 26.00 -25A 22-03
In addition to the generatorg warious 250 277 25.94 -2s1 22-OA
ratings and plants parameters which vrere 275 25A 2s-A7 -243 22.13
discussed before, the following 'GRC Data 300 2sa 25.80 -234 22-20
sheet", was completed before the start of 335 242 25-69 -n'7 22-32
the test: 370 224 25.55 -196 22.47
400 207 2s -43 -t'ls 22 -62
2. GRc Test si"reet 430 160 25.09 -1so 22-80
460 o 23 -94 0 23 .94
Hydrogen Cooling Pressure 60 Psi
cen- ierm. VoJ-tage, Ili Lirflit 25-2 kV
Gen. Term. Voltage, Lo Lj-mit 22-A kV
cen. Field Current Li.tri.t 3,026 A
sta-ser.Bus Voltage, Hi timit 4576 V
sta.Ser-Bus Voltage, Lo Limit 3744 V
Turbine-Generator Limit 398 MII
Hin. Excitation Limit Circular
Sta. Ser. Unit Transformer Low Side
System Voltage UPPer Limit 237 kV
System Voltage Lower Limit 23O kV
Field ?emperature Limit 8O" c

3. Test Results
Table A l-igts the rated GRC- The simulat-
ed and tested GRc are listed in Tables 1
to 4 in the Appendix. GRC for the 237 kv
system vo)-tage ig shown in Figure 6 -
o 2OO r.lf, 600
o pdnt' rotd
Baged on the above test results the fol- *-Jf:: coeoDir'tv
" I

lowing changes were recommended to enhance Fignrc 6. GRC aL 237 kV- Systen Vol.tagc
the generator'g reactive capability:
o the step-up trangformer tap posi-
tion to be changed from 235.75 to The comparison of GRC simulation results
241-50 kV to increase the lagging of Tab1es 1 and 3 with-Tablee 5 and 5 (for
reactive caPabi)-ities at 237 kv system voltages of 23O kV and 237 kV,
eyetem voltage, rispecti-veIy), listed in Appendix, show

that the imp)-ementation of the above Electric power C-ompany for aegigting with
recommendations would improwe the GRC- GRC- Hodeling and programrning.
author acknowl-edges the partial aupport
Tables 2 and 4 ehow the spot tests on the ECC, Inc- of
cRC curvee, verifying the eimulation
resulta ae ghown in pigure 6- E.igure 7 is REFERENCES
the plot of lr[Var lag and ]ead for the two
Tables 3 and 6, ehowing the GRC improve- t1l Say, H.G.: The performance and De_
ment for the 232 kV eyetem voltage case. sign of Alternating Current Hachin_
cottcLusroll esi pitman & Son, Second Edition
ActuaIly reaI-izable generator reactive l2l Farnham, S-8. et aI-: Field Excita_
capabilities, whi,ch are ugually signifi_ tion in Relation to Hachine and
cantly less than those indicated by manuf_ System Operation; AIEE, Fall GM,
acturerg, curves, may be calcuLated ac_ Nov 1953, Kansas City.
cording to the expressions developed in
thig paper. The resuJ_ting, verified t3l Nagy, I.: Analysis of Hinimum Exci_
mathematical model may furthei Ue used to tation Limits of Synchronous Ha_
identify the step-up and the auxiliary chines; fEEE TRANS, VOL pAS_g6,
trangformere tap lrcsitions that will No.12, JullAug L97O, pp.1OO1_1O08-
provide the best overall GRC under pre_
vailing high and low system voltage conai_ Pri-nce, I{-R.: pJl{ Generator Reac-
ti-ons. t4l
tive Testing; pEA, Hershey, pA, Uay
Th: powgr sli.stem reactive capabilities 1983.
under changing load condition-s can be t5] Milanicz, D-p.: cenerator Reactive
determined by including the GRC models in Capability - Testing and Optimiza_
poerer system dynamie eimulators. This tion; Southwestern Electrilal
will be the subject of an ensuing effort. Ex_
change, Alabama, Oct 19g9.
M. Adibi (U,56, SH,7O, LM 90) received
the B.Sc- degree with honors in electrical
englneering from the University of Bir_
mingham, Englandrin June 1950,- and the
U.E.E- degree from polytechni-c Institute
of Brookl-yn in January, 1950. Since 1950,
he has assumed various responsibilities in
the el-ectric utility industry; about one
o half of which has been at fBM iorp. is
at the present a consultant .ittr HeIRD
Corp., engaged in power system computer
Ur. Adibi is the author of over thirty
IEEE papers, a member .of power System
Engi-neering Committee, Chairman of power
System Restoration Working Group, Char_
tered Electrical Engineei, UK, and
o 2oo roo
Professional Engineer i-n the State ofa
Sist;ng Lkits o OEsot^g UmiE _ Rotd CoFoilib/ D. P. Milanicz (t1,72, SM,85) received the
B.S. degree in electrical engineering from
Figrurc 7. Increased CRC at 237 kv the Uni-versity of Haryland in 1972. He
has assumed various engineering positions
at Baltimore cas and Electric -Cimpany
the Electric Test Department including;in
nineteen years in designing. building aid
testing protective relays, relaying sys_
The authors wish tems, excitati_on systems and .="oLi"i"a
to express their appreci_ generator control systems.
ation to Mr. J. E- - Siegmund, III, of
Electric System Engineerin-g Oepartment of Mr- Uilanicz is Supervisor of Generation
Baltimore caa & Ellctric clmpiny and Hr. and Associated Transmission Unit, System
M. J. O'Grady of System operatlon', potomac Protection, Metering and Control Section-

Table 1. GRC at 23O kV System Voltage Table {. spot Testa at 237 kV
o 262 25.20 3 -77 22.4O 8 20 L64 25.2 3 -t72 22.2 7

20 262 -2s.20 3 -77 22.4O 8 100 1s3 2s-2 3 -16s 22.L 7

50 262 25.20 3 -7A 22.4O I 200 153 25.3 3 -L44 22.4 7

75 262 25.20 3 -7A 22-AO 8 300 1s3 25.2 3 -11s 22.6 7
100 262 2s.20 3 -7A 22-AO 8 400 1s6 25.1 3 -68 23.1 't
125 262 2s.20 3 -'77 22.80 B
150 262 25.20 3 -77 22.4O 8 fab1e 5. Iacreased tead CRc at 23O kV
1?s 263 25.20 3 -76 22.80 8 o 318 25-04 1 -1s8 21-55 7

200 264 2s.20 3 -75 22.80 8 20 318 2s-O4 1 -158 21.s6 7

22s 265 25.20 3 -74 22.4O I so 316 2s-O3 1 -1s5 21.57 7

2so 266 2s.20 3 -72 22-AO 8 7s 3L4 2s.O2 1 -154 21.s9 7
27s 267 2s.20 3 -77 22.80 I 100 312 25.OO 1 -152 21-51 7
300 258 2s.13 1 -69 22.80 8 125 308 24.98 l- -148 21.64 7
33s 242 2s.OL 1 -66 22.AO 8 150 303 24-95 1 -143 2L.67 7
370 224 24.47 1 -63 22-AO 8 L75 29A 24.91 1 -138 21-'ll 7
400 207 24.74 1 -60 22.AO 8 200 292 24.46 1 -L32 2]-.75 7
430 a60 24.39 5 -4A 22.87 7 22s 2A5 24.41 1 -125 21.80 7
460 0 23.20 5 o 23.20 5 250 277 24.75 1 -117 21.8s 7
27s 26A 24-64 1 -108 2],.91 7
Table 2. SPot Tests at 23O kV 300 25A 24.60 L -99 21.98 7

20 249 25-2 3 -168 2L-A '1 335 242 24-44 1 0 22.74 6

100 zss 2s.2 3 -1s9 22-L 7 3?O 224 24-34 1 0 22.72 6

200 2s7 2s.3 3 -140 22-O 7 400 207 24.20 1 0 22-70 6

3oo 245 25.t 1 -107 22-9 7 430 160 23.85 s o 22.6'7 6

400 195 24-A 1 -s7 22-A 1 460 0 22-63 s o 22.63 s
Tab]-e 3. GRc at 237 kV Systeu Voltage Iable 6. Increased Lag GRc at 237 kv 7
o 159 25.20 3 -l.70 8 o 242 2s.20 3 -168 22-2L
20 t59 2s.20 3 -L7t 22.AO 8 20 242 2s.24 3 -1,67 22.22 7
so 1s9 25.20 3 -]-71 22.4O 8 so 242 25-20 3 -166 22.23 7

75 158 25.20 3 -L7]- 22.80 I 7s 242 2s.20 3 -154 22-2s 7

100 lsg 25.20 3 -170 22.41 7 100 242 25.20 3 -161 22.27 '1

12s 1s9 25.20 3 -167 22-43 7 t25 242 25.20 3 -1s8 22.29 7

1so t59 2s.20 3 -]-63 22-86 7 1s0 242 2s.20 3 -154 22.32 7

175 160 25.20 3 -]-5A 22-49 '7 L7s 243 25.20 3 -149 22-36 7

200 16L 25.20 3 -]-sz 22-93 7 200 244 25.24 3 -143 22.40 7

225 L6L 25.20 3 -L46 22.9'7 7 22s 24s 25.20 3 -135 22.44 7
250 163 25.20 3 -].39 23-O2 7 250 246 25.20 3 -]-29 22.49 7

27s ],64 2s.20 3 -131 23-07 7 275 247 25-20 3 -121 22-s4 7

300 165 25-20 3 -\22 23.L2 7 300 249 2s.20 3 -111 22.60 '7

335 168 25.20 3 -109 23.21 7 335 242 25.t4 t -97 22-69 7

370 l.70 25.20 3 -94 23 -30 't 3?0 224 25.01 1 -81 22.AO 5

400 t't3 25.20 3 -79 23.39 7 400 20'1 24.47 t -67 22.A9 1

430 160 25.09 5 -64 23.44 7 430 160 24.53 5 -51 22 -99 '7

450 0 23.94 5 o 23 -94 5 450 0 23-35 5 0 23.35 s

The lag and Lead liroits identifY:

1- Field Heating,
2. l{aximum Excitation Limit,
3 - Generator Bus VoLtage/VoJ-tage Regulator Control at Maximum,
4- Station Service Bus Voltage at Maxi-mum,
5- Stator Heating; Armature Current; Field Current
5. Armature Iron Core End Heating
1 - Hinimum Excitation Limit
B. Generator Bus Voltage/Voltage Regulator Control at Minimum
9: Station Service Bus Voltage at Minimum
1O: station Ingtrumentatlon

93 WM 2A4-8 PWRS

Power System Restoration Planning

M. M. Adibi L. H. Fink
IRD CorPoration ECC. Inc.

Problematic Aspects of Restoration

ogra- The restorative state has some characteristics.that make,it par-
Svstem restoration, as an extraordinary mode of syslem tl",if"ii, 1ri"i u"fa"naty.' For on-e'- it is extraordinary:
tiirr.. izuuir"s careful planning and operator tralnlng' ln" ;;;;;i".J[iu.[ouit "t"ir... which is fortunate' but the con-
o*."ric- tasks of restorition include deterrrunallon oI svslem I.o.,Jil;i.",'tiii';h;;'th"t do ot"", thev pose severe and
ff i':1",i;il;"I'i;i,':' ;;;;ui"iio n o f pt'n ts an d netwoik
irn-lr.uui-p."Ut".t. The oidinary task- of sysie.nt operatlon ls
svstematrc restoratlon, ie"r\er-gization 6f the network' and sys-
hrehlv aulomares
iJil?dir,iiil' ;#"j;;;' i;; e;;;r"pi Is an errective that of euiding an oneoing' complex' t"F
i".i"r"ti., ,tL incluile formation of a qualitied plal1lng ffi.""",I.%]"'i"[ii.,:"il;'iLt;iif"** is'that of reas-
i"rm. reviei, of relevant system charactenstlcs'agreement'Iorrnulatlon 5JiliH" iil";i;;it'ofit^t c6mplex Process' and getting it
regarding blackout scenarios.' on eoine alain. The slstem may be.largely dts,membereo'of its
"?r.."motions goals, of strategy. and tactrcs' valroa- i,,lnV ;?;;st- oi lis elemen'ts disco-nn-ected' Many dlsar-
iestoratioh ifevelopment
,""i.{. the plants, may be in various states ot
tion of the f'lan, training. and documentatton' ffi:'*ifi
"i"-"nts. and pressures outside the
rairie of effective control of plant control loops' or lncom-
Introduction patible with rapid rerurn to serylce'
Increasins exposure of power systems to.extensive blackouts Ooerators must work with timited information' Much infor-
il:i;;lBo"rJ";;"r rr"iriii loading and recent' al-
;".i;r;-ilr;i,.i,".v it *g* in'vitem
industry struc-ture' The jmp-ryj #;i;;ii"'i;;rld ; hliptuiln out the restoration
oieritors' either because
ffi;Jss *iit U" unavaiiable to the
oi- prolonged blaikouts on the .public'. 9n jne.trfi?Tl:^-fl iil"Il"ii"i il'i."ti.r, *J i*paired dui to the e mergency tua- s i

on 'the oo-wer system itself makes rapid elfecttve restoratlon ii6n, o. (b) the data is nof needed in ordtnary,op,e11t'o",T:
;;*'i#";;;;' A"';f i;ii ve sv ste m'restorati or pl an reduces therefore'ii not provided. SCADA systems ancl 'E'MJ appllca-
on cuslomers ald.ql. the economy of
tf,"'i^olJ"f-* ""tug"reducing ai the disposal of power system ooerators were
;iffiJ;; tbe probabilitv of damage to ii;;;"il*.
iii; ;-iiiiE #i'J#i;A-r;;;;;;5 ffi *"[r-"a"pi6a to thl state or the
equipment [,2]' pertains to restoratlon'
system that
Power system restoration is one of five 9t't?:^g:i^t:1,:l Amons the manv complicating factors that make restoration-
oo*". .Jtt"* operation. Operating tasks arise from the tnter-
#;; ;iih;.;[;i';;i" and the operating ob-
'ttrtoI the sv*stemStrategies
the pres-sure and stress of
;il";3*;;.;tt"'r, . oiTn""ti titt isamourit of time' a.Ssravated
iectives oertaining t" tt^i" tjl' iuy tnJn be- ;;;5[i#iir;il.-'[ io'" *irimal and unfa.mrltanty, oI
; i [1. ti'3'' rhe" r ispec t s o f ;;'-iil;;;il"bilirv of many resources'
'rl"'ii,l?,5i' 6. Ai,vi", ; J maj o

system operation in the Restorative State are as rollows:

-' -o"tpit" with the unusual
o"oeratine personnel .conclltlons Inar
IIJ"il ti"tJ these constraints, prioriry .loads must
L-i".io."J ouicklv, and in adverse weather condltions almost
Svstem status is abnormal' with (hopefully.decreasing)
#'a".pt*d unserved load. disconnected equipment' dls- all load may'be of high PrioritY'
rupted communications, etc' Restoration Tasks and Related Concerns
Restoration objectives are to rest-ore the.system l-"- i:l- tasks' which'
md operation
quickly as may be conslsten^t wrth sys- -"-" 'ihi involves a broaddiversity ofcircumsrances,
Svstem restoration
or x#l-,iiiir" svstem involved and the
tem Security, niinimizing the amount unserveo
;tIfi;ifi*;.'6" in the same sequence' In what
kilowatt-hours of energY- - - ""a
i;ii;}-s, *J ait"*. "ut
some . of . the. .major
concerns and
,i"Uf"rfu that may 6e asiociated with elach of the major
Restoration tasks include ascertaining.the detailed state
of the svstem *a itt prepa?rng- the equipment lroups of tasks.
for rest6ration to service, reintegrating the system' ano
System Status Determination
balancing generation and they 3[e brought' m a
back to their noniral level'
""nt "tt"??tanner, The maenitude and actual requirements of system status deter-
Restoration strategies determine the manner in which ;il.i'i'"fi;il I a"p"ra r"ty mirch. on.this
the circirmstances and -e-x-
task involves identiff -
i6;;;C t*[t ii" """rdinatea, and the sequence in ;:";iih; 61."t'"ut-'hi'glnirat'
i#ril;;;e;;; iieigizd .*d gathering informa-
which theY are executed. ii"t":; fffi*rti*t "f*J ,6tt"ges within eri"grgi.zed aleas',the
status of eeilerating plants, equipment overloads ano trouDle'
This discussion pertains to restoration of the bulk power gen- ;;i-i;d'"-il;;.6?"[ b, iirdci tripping or under-frequencv
- -ko"*["age
;;ii;;A trandmission system. Distributionwhlch system restora-
shoulo oe i"ia'.["aaire. of thb' sta--rus of stored .energ]i
tion has its own problems and solutions, [&#;;d fit, t]"tt"ti*t)?equired for remote switching can
studied and planned for separately' Le criticd.
approwed SCADA svstem capabilities may be -use{ to. the extent pos-
93 IJII 204-8 PWRS A PaPer recommended-and
Com'lttee of .iUte to asiess the status of breakers, but In the absence ot er-
by the IEEE Power sy=t"ro Englneerlng
-octety for Presentatlon i;il";;6*"ti" a"tm pto"osing, this l4ay bP infeasible
the IEEE Power ungl-neerlng due to alarm saturation. The overall quantltres o[ alaffns
rn a
fdgl WftttEr l{eetlnS' Columbus' OH' be very high' 9f.1h:
31 - February 5, 1993' Hanuscrlpt subuLtted
rt"ti"*" *a t .t"oii"" -enario-cari ln a
;;"t"ty iO-OOO or more two-state and multi-state measurements
;;;;:r7, t992; nadl avallable for prlntlng ;;iJ"i i,itiii'i"tidr' ;;#i thousand r-nav enter the alarm
November 30, 1992' :'tl#t"J'il;;t"}"i';s;;i;;; on gin'rating units' lines' and
loads [4].

Most..major distlrbances are iniriated by transient faults Network Enersization
(usually cleared irnmediatelr,1.. misoperaiion of pioteclive
equlpment, or operator error: in such cases. fault lbcation is Reintegration of the skeleton of the bulk power svstem rn_
not a concern o['restoration. but rather of post_disturbance volves tlme-consuming switching operations'. Many'ohen._=_
[alf,si;. ,However. if rhe disturbance was initiated by .ui_ ena rarely seen during normal slystim operation -ri^;"ilt.;
talned tault. and/or occurrcd during a maior ^
storm. attemots countered during resi-oration. Energiz.ition
to restore a faulted line or equipmeit coul"d aggra,,.ate the dis_ hieh' r11,...
turbance and extend the time'required for iEstoratio;- l;
unes. may lncur sustalned power frequency "f overvoltas:-.-
swrtchtng translents, and harmonic resonance. The fin: is
such cases. knowledge.that major transmission paths aie un_ due to reactive power generation (chareing current) ot. _::_
avarlable would affect the restoiation process. loaded I i n es. esf ec i aliy-t V' ii;;i ";".
;f ';;;J.i..:i
Plant Preparation
".;-EH -pip.'
cable (oil-fi lled br h i 96 p'e#ur" rvp"l".' 5;rl;ilf ';;i:
lpttages may,overexcrte transfcrrners, generating harmr-j.:
dlstortlons and overheating, and may calse generitor uncir_
For restorinp predominantl-v thermal power systems, excitation. or even sel f-exI i ration -
i rriiuiri ir-.' s* ii"i,-,-.j"
operators- need to consider ti me-cri t ical boi ler_turbi ne-start_uD transients on lo^ng HV lines, although ^ria of shoriEurati"rlEli
characteristics. These include a maximum time intervil cause arrestor tarlures, particularly if coupled with sustrir:i
beyond which a unit with a drum boiler cannot safelv be overvoltage conditions. Harm6nic res'onance on Iist:ir
hot restarted. and the minimum time interval after whi6h a loaded lines may result in very high voltages that
super-critica.l.._once-through unit tan safely Ue restarted. a,mpllned by.translormer overexcitation [10.l. In anv ei--.rr.
urum type borlers have a rnaximum elapsed-time to hot re_ lne react I ve absorpt lon. (under_exc.i tation) capabil i ty of gen. ra
start of about l/2 hour beyond which th'ey are not available tors to be synchronized is of considerable import. - " _

until cold restart four to siX hours tater. Suplr-criticaL once_

th^rough boilers have a minimum elapsed timi after a trio_out
of several hours before they can bj restarted. Other'con_ Maintenance of stability of black-start and peakins coml:i-rs_
tion.turbines. during the time *hen ttrey clnsiii;i"-;"i.-;
strained intervals include hot start rime to ,yn.tionLti"n, poruon oI generatron and may be feedin.g into a weak ;jr_
time from-synchronization to minimum load,'and time from worK, may
mrnrmum load to full load (rate of load pick_up). all of which
a_drftrcult problem. Combustion turbines in
partrcular otten
are based on temperature related phencimena ii,t ii""i ir'i[" do not have the reactive absorbins caoabi,in
pnysrcal construction of the boiler-rurbine_generator complex
r^equipd to operate into a long, unloaded
Anorner baslc tasl( rs maintenance
t)J. of active and reac:!r:
power balance as generation is restored tt t, iZ, tA.-
Many.thermal plant control systems, desiened for normal Data necess.ary to quantifo these phenomena, and the non_ are not operationa.l duri_ng starl-up. or at low lrnear models necessary- to uralyze the data, are not normill\
\:Z57o) Ioad.. Also, protecrive relays on a i-rnit could in_ available wirh even rhdbest equ-ipped EMS.'
ltrate an undeslrable voltage regulator response or generator
trip: .e.g. out-of-step, under-eicitation, i"i aist"ni;';;l;;; System Rebuildins
:g-!Ld 9p"r,qlg
during,electric power swings or transients [5].
such condrtlons make heavy demands -on manpower 'fdr If being restored by building up islanded subsvs_
mgrq"l. operation, and neiessitate carefi,rlly cbordinaieJ Ierns rn, paral lel,. rnterconnection of generati ng stations u. i i.rr-i n
scheduhng. eacn subsystem-rs camed out after generatinf units attain rbe
Network Preparation Ixnlmqp.spqgrtred generation, but prior to restoration of ;ull
road.wrthrn the subsystem. However. certain industrial 3nJ
munlctpal loads such- as traffic lights are time critical. t
r\ruilB ytJ!.fpt
wrrn planr p.reparfllion,
preparatlon, the netwo
nerwork must be prepared
tor reener.gization [6].
Ior reenergrT.atron :Tl-:!?:I.t"moneftant must be responsible for keepins rhe
[6J. De-enersized bu,
openrng of all breakers"
Global op-ening
buses must be'cl&red. rrequency near 6U Hertz.
breakers following
followiing loss of voltzge
simpli fi es' and. hay speed up the restoiati,oi r;;;r;: #';i; [.oad restoration^and generator loading must be coordinared.
exhaust some local supplies of stored enerey: The aiternativ'e
consTenng the trequency response of prime movers to sud_
ot selected^breaker operation will require6ore data and oath oen toad rmposltlon and cold load pickup characterisrics_
t-rn many,systems, in the case of widespread
outs,. lt rs nearly always advantageous to sectionalize blick- rne lofiner rs a cntrcal consideration.- In riormal operarion.
a sys_ plant operators.are able to synchronize a-generator ana ute
subsystems to.allow parallel restorarion of islanils, tne urrt through. the above start_up phases with little or no
:e-qr ^llnro
and thus reduce restoration duration.
coorornatton wrth the power system_operators; the incoming
During.the initial stages of restoration, when the svstem ils i;;;"d; d;;-*i *.-
uni t. shares I oad w i th th e o ther' paralt.f
prlmarlly under manual conlrol wider fhqn nnm.t rj-^,,--^ Pu
to 1,1S_ 19rt9..ati t# pi-*;; L;;
on, however, th'e vari o u; ; rp
fl ',i"3:ly-:{=}PYt:::'I9rr-yjd"jli,"t.,e;;lr;"i;;;",
and vo I tage vari at i ons mus t be i"t" **fu .il.Td;-;;i"ia
be coordlnated with load pick_up, thereforl
ihe actiriw
tions, aut*omatically switch"a ."p""iioir' coordination between power ilant,'pir*.. .vi["-,;J'ii:i-d
anl' inder_fr
JrD artu unqer-Irequencv gperators becomes very important.-Closing
relays responsivel6^smaller pertirrbatiions may hinder t6e rej- in on bloclt_s of
toration process [7,8]. load larger than can be abSorbed Uy g"n"i?t".s on line ca-n
cause untt tnps and set-back the restoration process.
A. feasible start-up sequence for .qenerating units reouires The amount of latent real and reactive load
schedullng and provision of remote iranking-power, witlr demand varies
sideratioriof th'e effects oi con_ with the Slaprgd time after an outage. Gads restored after
awareness of the importance "r"r!iri"g
rj"ifiJrl- lid-iliti; some penod.ot outae may be considerably greater than thev
of r6active'abso.Ui"e
;"r.Uliiirl were ar rhe tlme ot rntemrption (which
1no ol prckrng up_cold loads [33]. High preisurd unae'.l load pickup"). Numeroui srud'i"s
is ieferred to as "coli
cable ts subject to loss ol insulat-ion n"*
toss ot pressure-, requiring rapid restorationinteeritv
Fround uoon "oincil
of"oo'wei io ffi i'{ilJ"-l?Tff 'f{r".f; '#t.lJty,"f J""ihr;,#:
R:f,|''*',"3lll3li,lilr#i",iit"ifo"t?Ifi i:"1??":rffi.1?L
accommodated. All of lnv"fu"
these requiremenis
ot remote power and in turn ,"qui.Jid"nlifi.iii",i ;;lir";
#ffi ""ff
,S' ilil,n 5#:?,::[" ;x,;#"y,'i;.ffi i,
manual or automatic dis_c-o_nnection irf-t,"ra L"iil;;i*r;; "o.
lntervening transmission paths.' t-p"rf""[ "f
,"iL[li during a faiture [8]. ftur,-i""a7ii;;;#;Iff""i
work status implies in rurn n"ra i'"-p.Lria;;il;;;; resultant "cold load oickup', malnituaes -6.-.yrr"-il
plans. " #t'h specific and difficult to'predict. "*
One concern involved in closing line breakers within a
tially reestablished networt< is"thai-
"T;-;;;;i"" ;
ansle difference across the breaker. Closure across such a Formation of a Planning Tq4!0
;;.Enaine ohase anslen difference could shock the system and
oossiblv'ciuse instibility or equipment damage. The mag- The first step toward development of an e-ffective plan is for-
hituae bf such phase angle differ-ences that .can be tolerated mation of a ieam to provide the combined exPerlence oI per-
deoends on the'svstem Voltage: with tolerable angles being
.;;;i' r"-iri"i- *ittt'production, protection, gPerations, in-
griater at lower rihere electrical impedances are strumentation. systeri analysis' and communtcattons' Be-
greater. ;;il-;ath; ,nutuul system conditions and phenomena that
;;; G'";;;rni"i"J a#irg the restoration prbcess, proposed
Once subsvstems have been synchronized' the system will be actions will have to be simulated ln order to en-
olaced under flat frequencv oi tie-line/frequency-bias control, rri"'ti,it system will not inadvertently be thrown back
ieoendins on circumstanies. Full restoration of load and i"t. ..ii"o.". 'This requires the participation of knowledge-
eeileratio"n may proceed in successive steps, with care that no ;bj; ;tJ;.""rvttt.' Operatorianalydt cooperative efforts
fr"ilitit" ""."iatJ modeling and interactive si-nrulation of the
Bio.t uf load 6e'picked up at any stage that exceeds the avail-
able generation absorption capability. i."i'iu.i"* t" ptouia" fa#turn-around analysis of alternate
restor'ation stepi suggested by the operators'
Review of Svstem Characteristics
lmplementation of the above eroups of tasks requires close
and continual coordination between power system' power Characteristics of power systems relevant to restoration may
b;;i"iI;J i;io two functional groups: those related to sys-
olant. and field operators [9]' The plant and network prepara- system.control dynamrcs'
iion tasks oroceeit in parallel' and are mutually dependent tn tem structure, and those related- -to
manv resp6cts. Unit r'estart scheduling, for instance' depends Strucrural characteristics may differ according to system. stze
n"i onlv bn coordination of manpowei within plants,. but also (load and eeneration), the type of servtce .terrltory
of transmission piths to provide cranking and imetropolitin or rural, -compact . or extenslve' or
.t"ti"n r"*iEe to non-black-start units. Also and impor-
""-r.tJa"ii"g combinltions), generation' mix, triensmission voltage levels'
tvne(s) of di3triEution networks, types and slzes oI loaos'
i*i -ittt"
ir"tir. wider and longer the disrurbance, the more impor-
is that neighboiing utilities, . tocal governmental ;JtA;'" ieeuiation practices,
' and ava'ilability of interconnec-
w i dely in th e i r
iii', e"ii lii"d"' ii iit f Fti "," mover types. d i ffer.dlstnbutlon
authorities, and cus'[omers Le kept as informed as possible .
about cause and extent of the distulbance,. and the progress of black-start capabilities or restart restnctlons;
ihe restoration process. Thus communication policies and ;;;i ;;;ii;;;"ti"i,i ,ri*i the degree of control-that may be
facilities are critical and must be coordinated and used as et: effected ov5r the size of load blocks to be picked. upi Yoltag
fectively as possible [6]. control capabilities are an important tactor tn malntarnlng vl-
able systein conditions during the restoratton process'
In a widespread disturbance, or one accompanied by severe
storm damiee. public communication facilities may be tm- Dynamic characteristics affect reactive and -real iower
oaired. or'inac'cessible due to overload caused by public Uitarrc". and protection and control systems [!7J' Charac-
hemand. and the utiliry will have to depend heavily on tts i#.ti"s ."latei to reactive power balance include:.(a) glnera-
;;;;d ;il"h.onor. condensers' reactive capabililies (over-
own cofiImunication ficilities. Nevertheless, publtc com-
munication facilities must be used to the exteot they a-re avarl- ;e ;J";f"*itationl under(b) different system- configurations
shunt capac-ltor and reactor
able in order to minirnr-e the demand on comPany (lntemal) and ooeratins conditions;
;;.I;;;ii;;s. voltaee levelsand modei of control; .(c) uq-
communication facilities. Back-up battery systems and/or
senerators are usually the limiting thctors ot- company^ dersiound cable voltaEe levels, charging currents and maxl-
ieleohone networks and emergency radio systems, in terms oJ *uil suttainable voltlges, (d) transfo-rmer reac-tances'. taP
HV overhead
how long these systems will-be ar'ailable upon loss of AC ffi;;.';d;"ait of c-ontrois; (e) EHV and
power [16]. ii"i". curr"nts, number of sections per line, and num-
ber of"f,"iri*
cirduit! per line; etc.
Criteria for requesting interconnection a system
being tlrm,and Characteristics related to real power balance-include: (a) num-
-[orestored include (a) the adjacent system
ber and sizes of low voltage AC network loads unclef Pp15
tie<i other systems and having adequate reactive absorbmg
caoabiliN. or lb) the svstem being restored not havmg black and lieht load conditions; (b) generator ffilxrmum and mlnl-
riiri A crit.rion forlroviding assistance to the ;;;'Ailts under nonirai'aid emergency conditions;. (c)
tt;i"'^ is (") whether th'e systern-- being restored- is
;Ji"";;i tim" conttr"ints, frequendy.rpsponse to sudden
firrn and staUitizea. Once a tie is closed, the interconnectton Ii"*L" tpes (drum, supeririticdl. .oncethrough'
is ilsponsible for controlling the tie flow and the system &.- Wii.,- nuttefii, pu",p.d stbrage);- ^(d).
being}elped should control its frequency. *ilUitiii*;' (e) cold load pi6kup of ridial feeders and net-
w6rk loads; etc'
Retum to Normal
Characteristics related to protection and in-
clude: (a) number and siz-es of feeders with unde-rtrequency
The restoration process is considered completed when the
final confieurati6n of the target power system has been iira i*ii6h.l capacitor relays and their settings; (b) number
,"[4""a. "Economic Dispatch*mai be reiistituted and the sizes and locati6ns of low frequency-isolatlon- schemes;..(c)
t".a oick-up incremeit will b6 based on considerations number and locations of synchronizing tactlttles (at otner
other thaniechnifal requirements of bulk power restoration' than seneratine plants); (d) number ?4d locatlons or rre-
;,F"&--irJ;-.iie' ;"inG;' (Q interlocking schemes which
Development of a Restoration Plan ].JrJit (f) numbei and locations of
breakers "..otieffie'deua'uuie3;
witli- syndhrocheck relays; etc'
Considerine the scope' diversiW' and unusual nature of the
tasfi invotVea in res'toration, and all the things that might go Formulation of AssumPtions
development oI
wrong, oevelopment go(ru plan
of a good Plalr is uvurrr
ls a considerable under-
t"iirEiI7f ough p"f"r
tn--.- Although
t kilEiI7f Alttt"uph
Aftt ponier svitem
oovier syitem
syitem.characteristics dif
characteristics under dif- Restoration plans are usually developed in consideration of a
iJtinitb".i levils anE o'peratin{ conditions requr-rlng differert ;;;';;-J;n"ti" r".. mijor powdr systep disturbance and
gase ot t-!l:_.Tf:
iondition under which
ti;;;;T;..b"ui! tooa and Len6rating important
restoration plans, it is important f9rfor the
[he ease
It ii (for training
ii;6 irv.'io-io r". as pbssible, to develop one rnaster plan ;;;;AIt"-.b;;"-"n;h, ocEur- that rqstoratlon-Plans..De as
or several iirnittf
strrular plans.'Maior
3i*it"t p@l.'
plans. Majol in-the procedure are
elements in-the
Major ele as well as for implementation)
discussed in the fo'llowing sections. uniform as possible across differing system.load condrtrons'
"*rtii"itii affecting -reitoration - may ..differ
markedly, not only between peak and light load condltrons'

but under other circumstances. all requiring some variations 'all-open" to simpli$, determination of network
in ,restoration .plans, or ..r.en separafe pla"ns [17]. U"a.i .strategy)
Iight-load conditions. critical activities include itari-uo ofcv-
status and lmplementatlon of the restoration process. Other
utilities, parricularly in cold climares, folfow a ,'selecred
cline stearn units. Under peali-load conditions, critic'al tas(s operation" strategy. opening and closing breakers as needed
usually include the coordination of network load oick-un
with generation response. and consideration of possible risk's
!tI heth.elatter
restoratlon process in order to conserve stored energv.
tbr svstem freouencv decline beyond prime mover recovery requires exact knowledge of the status of break?"rs
ano olsconnect swltches.
Development of a restoration plan from a point of comDlete
Conditions for black-start of a system may be more difficult collapse and. without interconn'ection assistance may be iela-
during a weekend at tirne of syitern rninimum load than on tively straightforward. Often. however, due to emersencv
peak. Many stations that rvould be suitable for hot-restari control acttons, a system disturbance maV be arrested ofror ti,
may not have been on-line at the time of the blackout. On- r'.orrrplete collapse. Furthcrmorc, some jevel of interlonnec
Irne generators will be primaril_v basc units; cyclins and peak_ tlon assistance ofien will be available. It is thus desirable for
rng units will be cold. with nir hot re-start iapab.-ilitv ivail_ a_ restoration plan to cover different system operatins condi-
able lbr 4 or rnore hours. Reliance u.ill be on hydro (lf avail_ trons and various degrees of system tipset. After iriitial as_
a.ble) or on combustion turbines having limited ieal and reac- sessment ot the system status. a proper entry into the olan
tive power capabilities. pay ge made, and the appropriate |roiedure si:lected and'fol_
lorved to a successfr:l restoration.
Nevertheless, the occasion often considered is a complete col-
lapse under a given year's off,-peali load. From rtie annual The basic strategic choice is between a "build-down,, strategv
load duratlon curve, the level of load with the lonsest dura_ of reenergizing the bulk power network before resynchonil_
tion (houis per year), and the qeneratine units seirins that rng -most generators, or a "build-up" strateEv of restorins is_
Ioad can be determined. This Ior exami-le could be ai oFf_ lands that *'ill then be mutually iriterconnti6ted. In com"par_
peak load clp{itio^n.of about 90% of the annual peak load ing the two strategies,_it initial[y appears thar the Uuita-a5*n
over about 9O% of the time, or 7000 hours per yelr. Next strategy rs. srmpler. However. upon closer examination, it
the worst scenario for a ma;or power system 'dirtrrrb".rc" becomes clear that restoration of partial outages and reliance
should be determined using tlie pdwer sys[em oDerators' ex- on the interconnection necessitatis assessme"nts of both the
perience and judgment- flris. for examfle could be splitting system being restored and the interconnection status. These
of the power system into subsystems.' The power -svsteri assessments use critical time and make the build-down
may either break tasking. On the other hand, while simul-
^into the subsyitems as the resirlt of a inaior
cllsturbance, or atter
strategy more
a complete blackout be sectionalized-bv Ianeous restoration of service in subsystems under the build_
the operator into the subsysiems for parallel restoration. up strategy can appreciably reduce the duration of an outage.
the extent of' sectionalization is limited by availability "of
Establishment of Goals resources, including the number of operating teams as *.ill as
the communications available to pe;mit eflective and effi_
Despite thephysical.similarity of utility systems, local condi- cient coordination of their efforts. '
tlons, whether specrfrc-generation mixes, uncommon loads,
or. perhaps- contractual obligations. may mandate estab_ The build-down strateey. The build-down restoration
llshment ot system specific goals for the restoration plan.
Strateglc,. system specific, priority restoration goals are cru_ @;gization Lf t["'trff. power nerwork
as a first step, is followed by balanced, step-tjy-step restora_
clal to achlevtng a restoration that is optimal w-ith respect to tron of loads and generation I I I ,20]. A maior itiffiiulW with
maxlmum restored energy and minimum elapsed time. ' ttus strategy is the reactive power produceil by the unloaded
tugh voltage transmission pfant, which often dxceeds the ab_
In each power system there are certain immediate obiectives sorptio-n capability of the generators that are energizins the
to be achieved, after which the remaining restorat'ion be_ network, and which at the same time results in unicceoitable
comes a more generic.(i.e. less system-sp&ific) operation. over-voltages at remote locations [10,201. This stratisv is
Depenolng on the local system characteristics and 6oeratine usually more appropriate for smaller syitems without "fons
conditions, these objectives could be reenersizine th" bulE high voltage linas [21], for predominintly hydro svsterni
power network, .or reaching a certain level of -generation wrth high reactive absoqption chpability, or Tor large sistems
(reactive power absorbing or-real power) capabiliful ;, ;i;E wrth--very compact service territories. On other wstdms. it
lnq up.a.downtown network load, or supplying time_critical usu.a-lly_ is selected only when interconnection asjishnce is
lnousrnat loacls, or energizing extra high voltage lines to a avarlable, or- after a partial outage. One utili$ with a laree
l"l"gl",and large.generaiing. Init. Mo"re specifi. ;;;pl"; amnount of t-ry$.ro generation studied a "low voltage,, varii_
nlglr p9: p.rovldlng cranking power to drum type uhits tion on the build-down strategy, wherein the netilork was
wltnrn JU.rrunutes; restoration of the high voltage'tiansmis_ reenergized at a minimum peilnit voltage, rninlmizine Uoth
sron lrnes to large units such as super-critical onci_throush or the amount of reactive produced and the"magnitude
nuclear units within 3 hours; r6storation of 9O% of"load ofovli-
voltages [22].
within 6 hours.
Beyond the earliest attainment of such critical obiectives- a
h^ *y case, the build-down slrategy includes: (a) assessment
good restoratio4 plan will be based on a strateqy id mi;i;i;
of power system status (breaker -aird disconnect oositions).
power plant conditions (hot, bottled, cyclins, cold 3tart. peali-
the total amount of unserved energy as well as'[he duration of ing, and base load), and local enersy dtoraei status: (bj 6ner-
the restoration. gizStion of HV or EHV lines avoidi'ng sus6ined ori,*6ltrs",
and harmonic resonances; (c) supplf of cranking po*"iio
Development of Strateey and Tactics non-black-start plants, and/ or .r'p'pli of stuti,on-"s"Irvi;;- fo.
tne hot restart ot drum type boilers before elapse of the rraxi_
Development of a c_oherent, practicable restoration plan re_ mum critical.time; (d)-synchronization of ,hits;-th, G_
qu-rres postulatron of one or more collapse scenarios t6 be con_ come avallable tor service; and (e) full restoration of load
and choice of a basic ."it5."ti* .irategy reheci-
il*f{ [tSl,
rnp local system- constraints and characteristics. Ailocation
and return to normal operation.
or resources and coordination of activities to ensure en or_
derly sequence of actions to successftrl co-pi"tion of restora_ Pg!+t9:gp+trg!qtty:
tron stratery f17,23,24) .-The more common build-up .restora-
Ilon tn a nunrmum of time is an important cbnsideration. is usually selected rn contunctron
wltn a scenano rnvolvrng a complete system
aTy interconnectio-n assi stahce.'I1,i -ii."t"gy'f* Gi;
colla'pse and
$*"+tggteS. In preparing the network for restoration, l1|llg
srtuatron lncludes: (a) assessment of power system'ltatus (as
most uttlrtres open all breakerd after a system collapse (an above); (b) sectionalization of the sysiem into subsyste.., ,o

that each subsystem contains at least one drum type boiler freouencv isolation, controlled islanding,. under-freque.ncl'
and one unit with black-start capabilityl (c) supply ol crank- load sheilding capabilities, lelay blocklng/transrer.IrrpPrng'
r""d"d to permit im-plementation of res-
ins Dower to non-black-start plants, and/or-supply oI statlon and shunt reactors
sefoice for the hot restart of drum type botlers betore elapse toration in a timelY"t"
tt"-*.il*um critical time; d) iriGrconnection of genera-
ting stations within each subsystem (after generators attaln Validation
rriiirnrrn eineration but prioi to.res-toration of full load In order to develop a restoration.plan' it is necessary- to
;iii;;; ti;; itutvit.rl; (e; dl nchronization of and
model the steady siate and dynarnic behavtor oI tne Power
load pick up to-stabilize all units; (f) start-up. and syrchrontza-
svstem by representing the physical and operatlonal oata
tion 6f larde super-critical once through unlts; and (g) clos- (More than one
inp of ties"with the interconnection when adequate reacttve ;'";;; *1,." Intl.""tiv"e comiruling-systems'
of the wide range
abtorbing capabilitY is rea:hed. ;;i;i il;ftoiirtw"y. nectissary-b6cause.
phenomen-a that must be considered')
Soecial considerations and tactics. Development of a restora-
ffiation of the probable effects Durine the restoration process' abnormally wide swings ,in
freoue"ncv and voltage aird other transtent phenomena may De
action on the system and on subsequent restoratlon
"f "jCt It is importarit both system resPonse to in"5unt"'r"a (may elen be prominent) that..are not germane
-"utu."t. 'and to consider
operator interections at the control ;;;il;;;;ii'oi,eration Ib,2s]. This. will require
the .in-
control actions, forme? use of a variery of system analysts and slmulatron
center. senerating planti and the load centers, .recognlztng -
i;;[. includine the c5ncurr6nt use of and. steady state power
*i C6oFainuting"ciitical time intervals. . Fspecially .dunng
h-"*i. ii*.ieni and dynamic stability-, electromagnetrc
stages"of restoration. firm capability should be em-
the early -co'nsiderine the ieastbtltty and secunty
;ir;tir"a. firm transmissi6n in the interconnec- transient simulations, io validate
fi;;; ;;t*;;;";rd.y;ds. and firm generation capacitv in ofproposed actions-
each subsystem.
Transmission line loadings, reactive power balance' over-
[ions, generltor loadings'
under-voltage condifions,
and loadings' trans-
Deactivation of automatic load shedding and automatic tap posltlons'
former taD positions, shunt capaclror and
rt caoacitor
caPac antr-sllulrL r@rur'
rsaurv! starus'
shunt reactor
;it;i;"a ;;;acitors mav be necessary during the initial stages phasti dngle.differences betw
of restorati6n, when frequency and voltage excurslons may ;;:1;il&"r*t"a uy means of power.flows'
tors'can be ivaluated by power.tlows' ,qq"dl
b; ;id;; than'in norma-l .ip"tu[io.,. An alt-emative.approach' ohase angles may appear across oPen- swltches wnlcn wlll
in order to avoid the need-for global deactivatlon,ls to.avoto
["*-t" U? closed to'ftrm up transmission paths,-or to c,om-
;;"";;-f;;!E"ipp.a with slch devices, but this obviouslv
imooses severe rb3trictions on the restoration .process' ;i# ;t#i;i"fiti.,-"r..,ilL
;r"o i.i*a. n"auc[ion of such phase
it ..iti""tii i *pott*t task that
Dvhamic and transient stability (as the system is betng re-
#;i"i b"i#'.Sii.n "
st6red and impedances between generators arc lmge) may De ma] require optimal load flow analysis'
;;ril;;dtth'a"ing each station Eupply nearby loads' Trans ient vol tages caused .by. energizinq. 1rg," t"CT:1Jt,.:^1 1

with the in- tiansmission svltem, and the harmonic di-sturbances prooucecl
Load pickup capability of the system
'Initialincreases illi;;#siie " *d transformer magnetizing cuffents whrch
crease in system e"n'.t"iioo- restoration of loads -overvoltages'
;h;;[ uL i', t*"tl-increments; restoration of smaller and H";";;.; Ji-"ei"s resonance. be
I ne tlme
and- Iow voltage Ac evaluated by electro-magnetic transient -slmulatlon' -can..
iiiiiir"^it it oirra pt.""*" ttrat br larger *ti"-n-"frt;;v-G 6"ght on line, the rates .at which gen-
;;;;;k l,rJ.. *nii" *^intaining a ieasonably.constant load
plcx- "i
irators can be loided, mismatch between load plcK-up.ana
to reactive power ratio. As restoration Proceeds'
ir""'Ji",ira 6" in-"t i"tge increments as i:ossible without the *;,u:lir"m;";,f"TF:;,Hff !"s,i:T&"t?#1"",:t1;
ritt of dangerous frequEncy decline' means dynamit simulation' This simulation is
of long-term
i"#il,ri""ir" iEJJt"'"vatuat" tne plck-Yp of low voltage AC
Reactive balance may be improved by energi4ng hetwork l<iads equipped with group breakers'
onlv one circuit of dbuble circuit underground transnxsslon
ii'"J.." een..ators under-eicited to the extent Simulations require careful preparation of load data' genera-
"*"iiaEtu-tions allow. System voltages .may be
iiiri"iuuirir" --*a-Jth".
po*"r systeim characteristics. Data neces-
maintained'within acceptable bounds (e'g' pl-us and mlnus iiliii-,i"6.
5%\ bv such means as keeping generato-rs- at the low enoand or
ffi,f#?*,li*:,:u:i*,',l:ff r*"1",fr,'B'J*i#$J1:
it1lL i,i,r"tJg;;s;;;t-&a! itag". of the restoration,
-to appropri ate. positions' obtain.
adi usti n e ivstem- transio-rmer'taps
T'lie sen-eral suide used by some operators rs to.PlcK-uP loao
wherisystem-frequency is high and raise generatton when sys- Iteration
tem frequencY is low. one
Restoration planning involve! two iterative Processes' and
between Dower svstem-mldeling and model ialidation'
In view of the importance of commu-nic-align dqring extensive ;;;';;;.'b"t*;;;it"t"sv andand factics' The Podels have to
i"stoiation. and ihe potential unavailabiliry of normal com- iil""Jiiit.J i;;i".t;t":ilred
iirii"?tli-# r*iitiii.r,'pi^iis will be needed for the
"*"Pt!1rg *P
and use of company- owned or other alternate facllltles' obtained frorn-the control comPuter-sJstem''lhrs lteratlve
for com- i."*J-i. "d"tin""a until an aiceptabfe degree of agreement
Mo."o,r.r, "ompiany' spokesmen w.ilf b.9 neededthe L';b-t^i""d between the models and the achral power system
il;i""ti"; with'loJal iovernmental bodies and public'ot an adequate outputs.
All these arrangements are necessary elements
restoration plan. After a stratesy for restoration is formulated, and a candidate
General nrinciples- It is essential that the syslem restoration
;:i;..itilon;-iffi ?ti"li"ii i. a"teloped, tle restoration planano is
adainst' the initial strategy tbr contormtty
ffi;==fiter!-;o-5-asi c restorati on princ i p I es' St rate gt es must "n"ct"a ip case of si gni.fican-. t- departure, the strategt
illow for chance events during the- r-estoration process'.rncluo- i*.-iluititvl-*[
and/or pfan may have to be modified [l7J'
ins the probability of unsuccessful ope-ratton or eacn rasK'
;;fiJ# IriJ"riiri:iip tirrbi?e, energization of
"i, "Lnt*Jtion
of a power circuit breaker' Provr- The above iterative procedures entail careful consideration of
;ii;;-.;t1d, Lr c\osing ,#-"?""U.[r. 6m*Gli*Jn restoration step on the rest of the
sion should Ue made-Foi-aitEmate-tr"nsmission paths for systLm and on planned zubsequent measures'
remote cranking power' to accommodate line outages'

Durins development of a restoration plan it may- become ap-

parent" that ndw facilities or capabilities' such as unoer-

Documentation Audits and Updates
Another important element in restoration plannine is effec_ A functional. system r-estoration plan is necessarilv comoler-
ttve documentation. Three levels of documentati"on are re_ and desp.rte the best ot care and discipline in its de-veloprhenr.
quired: .for reference, for trainine. and for ui. Ju.ing1"t"uf rnere wlil be a nsk of overlooking some essential opbration
restoration. or condition.. The penalty for an]- ,rctr
senous. As rs natural,.because of the close priximity and
$"Ir'.1"nra means a complete record. not iust of the olan as involvemenr of project team to thJ-iystdm
Itnally appro.r"{ ,rq adopted. but also of ihe development of .the restoiatien
ptan, no matter how experienced they may-be, certain flau i
rne plan. rnclud-tng tull documentation of rhe simulaiion test_
mal escape their detecrion. Theref<ire ttie tajt< ofi;;h;;.ri
tng and rts- results, showing control actions that u,ere re-iected audrtrng should be assigned to a quarified person outside rhe
because of.adverse system*response as well as control a'ctions
that were rncorporated in the plan. Completeness of this
relerence documentatron will greatl_r lacilitaie Iater revisions Fven an audited restoration plan, to be valid, must be uo-ro-
of the plan. date. The documents must 6e regularly .*iJ"J-i;'.;fl.;i ;;-
current pouer system physical characleristics and operatins
Training documentation shorrld be developed to incoroorate condrtrons.. lhe plan should be updated on the occision o?
not only the plan itsell, but peda_eogicallll .ff.ctir" iili"irl cnanges rn.the system. changes in the EMS/SCADA installa_
tron or,maJor plant controls, changes in other available tools.
ano ar teast annually.
Cgnyenjggt use during.
ltcrual restoration implies
ment ol the plan. in.guidelines
lor operarors. 'These should Conclusions and Future Needs
aostract the pran.ltser,t in such form as to be readilv accessible
to operators during the restoration process. Most operating companies mainLain restoration plans
procedures against t!,d plp without"n"Uiine-th";-i"
fi'aving to on thelr restoration obj.ectives, operating philoiophiesbased
search lfrerr
:h-ec.{ through one or more encyclopjdic volumes. anJ
practices.; and familiafr ty with tde chai?c[eilrii.r"'iii"tfi:_ii
power plant restart capabilities and their power svstem rein_
A system. restoration plan should be readily accessible and tegratlon peculranties. While these proceilures ha've success_
easlly understood.;-its final effectiveness requires that the in_
tormatton and guidance it provides be readily and easilv avail_ l,]I poyel systems in the past, rhey can be im_
prqv9d srgruhcantly by of steady slate, transient
able to those who will need to make use of-it during the res_ :rno ^simulations
process. This imposes requirementein turn"upon-thl _oynamlc behavlor of- the power system under various res_
191tion rorarlve operatmg condltions, and by engineering and operat_
map9l rn.whrch.the.plq_is documented, stored, anil made tngJuogmeDt reilecttng many f-actors not readily modeled.
avallabte tor retrieval [26]. It should be stored in a con_
venient media for quick-aciess, and possibly i, o. Mos.t power systgm.i have certain characteristics in common
complementary media. It would be-converiient ^tt".nriiu"
to be able to ano Dehave rn a srmrlar manner during restoration process.
access urgg!?tly needed information by a light pen on the It
operator's EMS display. j.s.thepfolq possible to-establish t g'"r;;;l
llsr or. guldelrnes to enhance rapid restoratibn.
ptan, qowever, has to. be
A detailed
At all .three levels, the restoration plan needs to be docu_ {eveloped..specifically
'indiviau"i- p"*".to meet the
mented with utmost care. It should be written clearlv usins ELrticular. requirements of an svstem.
l,hus,.tt.ts. lmportant to determine and recoid the relevant
prec i se terms. for e.as_e
9 t unders tand i n g, ;;-
rncorporared ln a detlnltive glossary or dictionary. Further_
cnnractenstlcs ot each power system.
more, tt should be rllustrated with familiar diaerams and An on-line restoration guidance system, capable of euidine
charts. The documents shoutd ue organiiJ i; i;Ei;;l-".d;;
"'--' the operator in, making tecisions at to *hut'.t"p; t. dk;;e
so that specific information can be lo"cated
lri;f "l;-"'--' when to t3ke th^e1n-, would go a long way toward minimizine
Trainine me duratron ot blackouts, and consoquently their imoaci
Preliminary. resutts with some
schemes has mdicated a possibility of"."iairiita""il,.tii#t]"ii
substantial reduction in
ll".f*f,ig,l^plan il comptete until it has been incorporared
even the reflexes of the operators who
unserved l.oad.d.uring Slackout-[l]. Th" nutu." of ini
wrII pu^t it into action under stressful circumstances. prootem, . rnvolvlng- as it- does incomplete information and
many amDlguous alternatives, suggests a need for an in_
I tus requrres etfective, and ongoing, training
tzj ,291. tegrated tool, consisting of both in'expert iystem and ao-
ql?pri"t"" analytical togt^i. 1s^3 platform t5 d"rl'i"p i'eiiJ"r5"
l_*,,.d:,ylt :ty of techniques are available,for operator train_ sXstem tor.rastoratio.n lZ9-321. Such a tool would sefue as an
!:q -L: , l , slmp.te rnstruction manuals or audio-visual tapes for t?.?.1!g to the on-line environment many of the iooG
rnoependent,r!Hdy, cl3s91o9p instruction, interactivi pCs, 19Y,T.
and caDabrlttle.s olanners and operators use in planning 6s1
::*fj:: int"..";ri;;' o;;;i;i
"' ;.inins
'Sffii: whili it will stiiibe'*bfii tl"ip"rutor approval
simulators 1:l!r_ 3nI ]righly
augmented r"F ,:".t"iaiion' ;iil;;. resto.ration,
of all major decisions.
f:!?$ ,syc! p independent
-sych 3s study are mosi-.piropri#f;;
most ap"proprirt.
P 6;
- -- ---:-o "fact;' about'system
fgilg .Jr Jtwrrr ri"it6..ti",;
srruurrvu uar uE very,usetul
very useruI for
eJ.ur arlult r UUIIID
ror tnculcatlng
inculcating undersLandins
uriderstanaing of
gooo rools Ior dnll and_prLctice
!3:'i.?,:i:'fj'.d.tfi *f slmDIe
of well_defined
well-dr scenarios;
l. PES Task Force Report: power System Restoration
the Second Task Force Report; inFE-iiiaNi,t.FnrRs_

high fiileliry simularors are
,r" extremely
i*t."rn"lv use-
u"il 3, n.l, 1988, pp.lt8-126.'
1l! syste-fi--operat5rs to i"rfood-t;1ffi1tf;i
emergency srtuations.
2. M.M.Adibi: Discu:lion of D.S.Kirschen, T.L.Volk_
mann; power
fteslsrine a System witt ,n'Eip;.t'dy:_
tem; IEEE rnqfirs. i.z, is;i;p:5;s.
ili{fl'="i,"ti"ijiHl';::.r'it,i."t?1**,f, ""'""":"#"J-:Ft
ji'Ji,"'"i,i'#ll 3. ".o
i::p:.:p":ld^thiFi".";;;r'i;;#fri rf()olem solvlng capaDtlltles
L.-H.Fink: Power Sl:qgp- _Operation and Control;
lffi iotrf; ffi ,'Ji:,',H:"+H,i,:i'f*,::.1[ii:]rti[,*:
lng- sesslons not only enable A.H.ElAbiad), McGraw Hilt, l98l, pp. f Sd_SO.
operators to
rv understand
uuucfs.:tno rne
execution, but also provide'an
plan ani
the ptan diil; proficient
and become iriri"ilirii',ili"
in its
?1Tu1,:", opportunity'f6i
opportunitytry f6i
lur tlem
lnem Io
th"rrr to sug-
sus_ 4. C.J.Andrews: Excessive Alarms During Restoration (in
gest alternative .t;p.'6i'til;'l
restdration steps
resto^ration iirr..r".-*i"^r"if-
for the rmprovement of the
Qroup-: Speciat a.;ie;iili*r"i, p"*"i
restoration procedure PES Working
system Kestoratron; 92WM 106_5PWRS)

E.J.Simbureer, F.J.Hubert: [-ow Volqge B.ulkvPouer
5.P.J.Clelland:TheRoleofPlantControlsystem(Part22. i;,i;;;'fr-;'i;.ltan sirutation; IEEE 7RlNs. PAS-
ilii'iir*i'ts"t^;i''F;ici R"gort'- Po*rer Svstem
n.l 1, l98l . pp.4419'84-
Restoration) ; I E E i" iufii''' i'-Sns-z n' 2'
Mav'l 987' 160
pp.27l-77. E.Mariani er al.'- Field Experience in Reenergization
Ei*'fr ili' Ni"t';;'i;'irom' Thermal and- Hvd ro U ni t s :
6. -(il PEi
T.A.Volkmann: S* itching During. Restoration Ti1i'lMni. u.Fes-tor n-7 , 1e84, pp' 1707-13'
Workine Group Report: Spegi4! ^Cqqsrcleratlons ln
P;;;; s?'ti*il".to.ition; e2wM lo6-sPwRS) 24. J.Gutierrez et al-'-
Policies for Restoration
--r.pwnS-2 of a Pou'er
's;"'i#,'"/ECE n'2, Mav le87'
't. M.M.Adibi: lssues and Problems in Power Svstem pp.*e-+2.
i.i"iif''iiiil pEs r*r Force Report: System onerations
" t"
"iri7"rn"iits.'"I.iwils+ re8?'
of Overvoltages Caused bv
25. S.Nishida et al.: Analysis
pp. I l8-26. 3;ii:il;Lii.n-'in ut SA;;i"J Fo*"'-sv'tem
te6 Shunt Capacitance: IEEE
J.Feinstein: discussion of PES Task lorgg-Report:
Svs- #;;"-;;J"unI
'rili'rts.i. sI t se+, pp'2et5 -42'
8. i'pwnS-: Fnsrto: n.
tem operations Chaueriges iieiE' inalus'
n. l. 1987, pp. I 18-16. Plans: Revis-e, Rewritq or Leave
26. S.Mullen: Emergency
fii;;fi;"r Julv lee I' I 7
woRLD, P'
I N Wmbel: Underground Transmission System Con-
PES Working Group: Bulk Power -$Lslem Restoration
ir*.'t'ir,rt*:"',t'srt,*'n.1"???'t;'tbrTifi il!3e- 2'1.
Tiltiil i;E"iqu"t'; 92\t'IM S t 47 -9PWR
28. J.P.Smith et al.: Development o-f Opertor Training
10. M.M.Adibi et al.: Ovewoltage Control During Restora- t;#;"-il utire'il," t struttional Systems iDevelooment
tion: 92WM107-3PWRS X;ffilli'"" ffiil-frirts"';3,,iS:ib?- rz' 're85'
in Srvg{gq and Txoerience pp.l++0-SZ.
e;;J "'ii.,"' Restoration
R.Kearslev: -
i-r," er,Iil.,ii' r s8i'
-1E r e 7n'lrvs'
"T" 29. Y.Koiima, et al-: Development of a TGuidance Method
t.2, 198'1, PP'422-24' f-'i3,*H sv.t"- R":i;;;ii""; IEEE ra.NS' v'PWRS-
of 4 n.3, 1989i PP-1219-27 '
12. R.D.Shultz, G.A.Mason: Blackstart Utilization
Analvsis and
ii;;;; c;uu.iioo-IEEE Tr*'bi;"i {alv-ti9{ o's' Y.Koiima et al.: The Development of Power Svstem
i:i.;ii'i;;J;'" ?xr*/is.-',-ie's-ro: re84' 30.
i;i;fiffi; i'Glo-"d !;;; :- lEE
J; ;ffikTechniques
pp.2l86-91. i;;'6;H!" Engin"'ring
euigust le{e, pp' 1228-3s'
IV'l in'PES ;:F'il;RS-,i;.?,
J.G.Raine: Reactive Power Balance (Part
p"*"i Svstem Res-t9rat1gn): IEEE 31. D.S.Kirschen, T.L.Volkmann: Guiding a.PowerTRANS'
in irus. i.z. Mav'1e87, pp.21 1 -17' with gy*tryi
an"i'ifr; IEEE
".i'nvfls-z Restoration
Adaptation of the Simplex Algorithm
,.PWnS-S n-2, MaY l99l' PP'S)u-bo'
t4. M.H.Yolcu et al-:
il lti;a;iir-'"iC"ia liad Pickup-o-fir Iergg Secondary 32. C-C.Liu er al-: Genetation Capab-ility Disnatch for Bulk
iY"i;;;k"ffi ;'iu,ti"o*sliiJ,i'-lsEi;-nfiNs'v'PAs- Power Svste- R;;;;;i[t' Ap-
lO2 n.7, 1983, PP'2064-68' proach; dzw]ia t os- t PWRS
C-Y.Chone, R.P'Malhami: Statistical' Synthesis 33
Fr,.l.iiiiir' BL.J' i;,Jil;;i
s witn appLi:aiion
to col d
1# UIle' %"Hr'ffi::1fficdl"s'?.fl$y'i's,?,^?!"!,
iil',il"Fi',ir.,ip' lfiE-
inets v'PnS:io3 le84'
C"""tla"".itibot- io Power* System Restoratron;
pp.t621-28. 92WM1O6-5PWRS)
C3nabif -
16. F. Arsani ani, M. W. I-anier : Telecommunication
iti;;';tr L'iilt ti"".1in PES working
S;;i.l -Con;i,i;tutio"i in Power System
Restoratton; H#++tr'JY -if ftiit
ioauttry exlerience includes
Xiii'".irir"ri.' r sfof "tititv
s#$",t':xici;*rt ;5}:ru, ?lil':id ffi{tr:L:i
17. 'ET"["i'".T:[['''&D^riii]'dii:] j ;;;.I";;i Eb^r"o.' nt lgM, as a Program Maneger' he ''"'3s
Lif "ff :,;:fii,,fl
r.pas-too n'8, ie8l, pp'3703-13' ii$ffi fbili.iiiJ;"rlri'i"";i.r;,;$"i;'*Sll',:;";m":$,"fr ;
iEti nii'Nsi
Power System-3?storation'
18. PES Task
i,i'.i. irf
Force Report:
"pi*Li syttL*
cs; l EEE TRA N S' i:#sfi+#,$"#tj"*,$i['*b.,,'*].#i
several gtilitig:' H" is a mem-
,.P[rns'-2" .2, Miy 1987, PP.21l-71'
;;";i";A;storaiion P6;1"'
il;;iih"th'.;i;;;Sv;t5- Ir"li;.,.ing c"--ittee' and chair-
Force Report: Power Syste4- Restoration' ;;; f i;*it3v tt.. Re"storati oi wo rkin g G roup'
19. PES Task -iV.:,
i,;.tr iI. tstoi"gi")a IEEE lnat'ts- v'PWRS-2
pp-ztr:tt ' L. H. Fink (M'51,,SM-'f8,f'17?,1-F:'o) *:** y^TY;fY
;.i:-M;y y"u1ffi ffi .'?ilda;i;fi ;'ir""tii"co6e31.:1";:f
intlerconnected *1"-"#
a Maior '"ffi#Ij#J i;;;;;'.i"; "od oo ;*J"-
20. G.Morin: Service Restoration Following
F;iii#:; ir,J nia.i,-Q[edi,i"F.;;;' st'i;a; (86wM #;,%;;"d"ri;;;;;'t"iltior
(1a Yhtih
areas he h-:lf
U,S. Energy
holds 3
l(esearctr oc
183-8) (T&D) {i",*:::i{^kru'litgyti;;xp',ffi ilf ,*
J."ttopine and"managing the

21. D.Scheurer: Sequential vs' Parallel R?storation (Part rr,;$t?b^r"u,""ffii".lfffi
Iratru,4r vrvFre"'.'ii"-;"a
ln sP
and thirteen Years
nap aid consrrltil'g involv-
Regort: Power Svstem
i-V]i"ii'-i;E5-'r;;f-F"rce i''lth{ -t conirol- securitv and voltage Ph:l-"-T:li'
hl!i"'"ii""l 1 r Ez" iil 3-z n' 2' M av ea7'
fi s'--"' ru;&;;
tausht power system englneeflng
has taught
H5 6as at three
enginqering a-t u,rYsrJrrr.-'
LnrEE g"lY9t*IlT:
pp.27l-71 .
ii; ffi il!'-u""t "rsy.i.-
Sv.stem Engineering
Conrol c.,,l.nnmriittee
Subcommittee' and several
d"rit*itii*l- tttl
Working GrouPs.

93 WM 202-2 PWRS


A report
-- by the Pohrer System Restoration Working Group'
--'--- ctiairman: tl- M.- Adibi, IRD Corporation
outage, assu[ing they have not been discomected dring
Abstr*t: This paper is one of a series presented on be-
irr"-ir["g". Lofos tfiat sritch to backr'p porer drring the
hatf of the Sysiem Operation SLbcdnittee rith the intent outage autonaticatty reconnectd to the systen
oi-toi*ins industry attention on Porer systemever "ttd "re of the vottige voutd atso fatI into this
issues. Today's poHer systeilB are more than wlnera- "p"n-i""to."tion
;i; t" p"i;;ii"i *jot disturbances, dictatinsa renened ard
ctoser attention to restoration fottoring Partiat or rodeting Aproaches
*it"p*. This paper, the- secord rePort by-the
PoHer system iestoration uorking Group. addresses four
"orpiut" Tno approaches have been considered for modeting the
oro." i""u"" nhich require speciat consideration' U"tr"riT. of the toad during restoration heuristic and
physicat ty-base nodet ing:
Heuristic modeting characterizes the I'oad behavior based
u. U- Price & S. Ihara, GE lrdustrial & Porer system ;=xperience and reasoning regardi ng the- overal I behavior
;; i;"; on typicat feedeis, sr+Portd by neasured data
In oerforming sttrdies of system restoration, it - is during system incidents'
n"""-""".i to i"r" matheflEtical nrodets that can be used to or the r'nder [y-
ritt be various tocations
;ili;i ihe toad thatvariation Phys i ca t t v- based rpde t i nE deve t ops. node I s f
Ln thu The of the toad as a fr'rnction of @gether Hith data on the cutPosi-
itr" i"nsth of time that it has been disconnected and other tion of the [oad.
i".t".tl i".t as Heather and vottage, must be considered'
The heuristic approach is usefut for conceptuat consider-
Load Categories ot toad behavior. hit it is timited in practicat use
"iiont..t of sufficieni
[V'" experience and.nreasureddata' The
In generat, Ioads can be categorized as: thernostaticatty- i.uristic modeting does not readity tend itsetf to
conirotted' toads, manuatty-restarted Ioads, and fixed uJir"t*"nt" catted for by varying toad corpostions ard
Loads. anrbient conditions.

Thermostaticattv-controtted tgads inc-ttrde space heating The phys i ca t ty-based modet i ng, rh i t e- requi.ri ng si gni f icant
ffiirigeration, and sone indus- a"rJi"'p*nt ind d"t" cottection, has the Potentiatto94 to
il;"r p.o"-"!ses, is a major concern for cotd toad pickup p.Jt"L reasonabty accurate nodel's for varyingroutd
becausl it tenas to increase as the duration of the outage [o,rpotition" and conditions- Such an approach
increases. This increase is not due to the increase in invotve the fotloring:
DoHer consunotion of individuaL toad devices, but rather
[. itr" increase in the nunber of devices that Hitt be in 1. Ctassification of toads on each feeder by toad
an rronrt state fottouing an outage. co{nPonents, such as residentiat space heating'
tighting, etc. The variation in load conPosition
tlanuaItv-restarted Ioads inctude industriat t:,".dt ard other
tiiitl tide ol day, season, Heather, character-
:hi:! factors rrust be determined in order to
rritt tripofaupon toss of system vottage and Hll'l onty be
restarted nnnuatty once vottage is restored' During ize the fractionat corposition of the toad at the
system restoration, the absence of these toads ritt time of an outage. This type of load charac-
represent a decrease in pouer, partiatty.offsetting the terization based on coilPosition is simitar to
increase due to thermosiaticatty-controtted Ioads' A that required to devetop vottage-sensitive toad
retated category is toads that sHitch over to a backup rnodets for toad ftox ard stabitity anatysis' The
poru. .or.""- dlring the system outage ard are onty EPRI LOADSYII program tl,2J has been devetoped to
returned to the system nranuatty after service is restored' sinptifY this Process.
Fixed Loads such as tighting, cofiputer/etectronic equi- 2- Each toad coflponent m.rst be charactecized by its
pr*nt, u"a to*e mechanical drive loads, nitt be essentiat- response to I system outage- A first -st:P !3utd
iy the sanre ducing restoration as they Here prior to the be io ctassify each ccrponent a$ one of the three
tvoes discussed above: thermostatic, manuat ty-re-
siirtuA, or fixed. The irpact of manuatty-re-
93 tiM 202-2 PI.iRS A paper recoomended and approved started ard fixed Ioads are readity apParent'
ihe thernrostatic Load, rhich ney be a sdrstantia[
by the IEEE Povrer Systen Engineerlng Conmlttee of portion of the toad, requires further nrodeling,
the IEEE Power Englneerlng Soclety for presentatlon as discussed betoH.
at the IEEE/PES 1993 Wlnter l'leetlng, CoL:mbus, OH,
January 3l - February 5, 1993. Manuscript submitced Thermstatic Load l{odet ire
AugusE 12, L992; made available for printing
December 14, 1992. The modeting of therrnostaticatty-controtled Ioads has
paper 93 WM 204-8 PWRS, presented at received sorlre attention by researchers' The fottoxing
information is based on reference 3. figure 1 shons a
IEEE 1993 WPM Columbus OH Jan 31- schenntic btock diagram of a residentiat space heating
Feb 5, 1993
load- Ihe fottoring sirpte first order dynamic nrodet ras Figrrres 5 & 4 shoH the simltated response of the heating
shoHn to produce accurate resutts of Figure 2, for an load (represented by B) for 10,000 honres. Figure 3 the
irdividuaI house: response fottoring a 30 mirute outage for three different
initiat vatues of B. Figure 4 shors the response for a
Dt/dt = -<1/.rt<I-Il -trtc), specific initiat I for three different outage dratiors.

T mean telperature of house,

r effective thermaI time constant,

Tr tefiperature house Hitl approach xith heater off,
tetperature gain over T, attainabte Hith heater on
indefinitety, and

tJ thernostat status ('l or 0).

fl T tfil
LIFESTYLE Figure 3. Cotd Ioad pickup af ter a 30 mirutes
oPEN,/CLOSE oOORS outage effect of initiat rr8.. = actuat
l,ll,/instatLed ill, - (1) 8=0.7, (2) 8=0-5,
(3) 8=0-2

Figure l- Space heater denrand modet

rr lfl clxuTts

Figure 4- Cotd toad pickr-p - effect of outage

duration - (1) 50 minutes, (2) j0 min-
utes, (3) I0 nirutes.
This type of rodeting coutd potentiatty be used to devetop
aggregate npdets for the behavior of feeder toads fottoyl
ing an outage. The data for such modets does not neces-
sarity require detaited of buitding thermat
characteristics, but can be obtained from systen diversi-
fied demand data ard sinpte nreasurements of the on ard off
cyctes of thermostats, as descr-ibed in reference 3.
AdditionaI data on the curposition of the toad, as
discussed above, xoutd atso be required.
Figure 2- Corparison of nrodel and test resutts fon
roo{n teflperature vs. time. (NormaI ther- Research lleeds
nrcstat cycte; 80 minimun outage,. .l1O
minim.m outage) The basic toad characteristics that affect cotd toad
pickup response a.e quite rett understood. Hoxever,
The representation of a large nuber of houses or other additional research is needed to devetop rrcasureflEnt and
therrnostat.ic Ioads requires anatysis of the probabitity data cottection methods to determine parameters, particu-
(B) of a given thernnstat being on at the time of the outl Iarty thermostat on-off cycte statistics for particutar
age. tor a large nurber of toads, B is equivatent to the feeders at particutar tifires ol day, seasons, etc. lrith
actual load at a particular time divided by the rraxinrrn such data, simrtation studies coutd be jerforned to
toad if att thermostats Here on (instatted capacity). characterize the col.d toad pickup response of particutar
feeders or typicaI feeders. The resutts of these str.rdies

coutd assist in form.rtating restoration strategies that defipnstrate hori these considerations can significantty
property accountd for the probable or Horst-case nngni- inpact on cotd toad Pick-uP.
ttdes of the [oad.
short Duratisr lrrcifuit
THo tou vottage netrorks emanating froor a singte slbsta-
COLD LOAD PICK.UP outage- Since there rere no over-
tion, experienced an
Loadi. fautts or darnaged equiFnent the netrorks rere re-
LOW VOLTAGE NETWORK LOADS energized Hithin 35 minutes- Due to the nature of a
n"tr6"t, att feeders are energized simlttaneousty, therebY
Chartes Uetiky, Consolidated Edison Co restoring att the custoflErs to service- This irrcident
occurred on a hot sunner day and the netraorks Here
Over the years a great deal of effort has been experded in exoeriencing peak toad conditions due to the use of air-
concisety forecasting, measuring, and Preparing for toad
Therefore, based upon nonnal cotd-toad
oi"t -rp foricasts, the theoreticat exPectation Houtd be
in-rush fottoxing custoflEr outages- HoHever, another
criticat consideration fottoxing initiat restoration is !n inciease in toid. tn fact. xhat ras experienced ras a
the effect of rrCold Load Pick-Uprt rrlrich is a sustained in- ."duction in toad. This seeming inconsistency is a resutt
crease in toad due to the reduction of the nonmt diversi- of the nature of the toad. These netr.orks inctude mny ard
ty in the toad being served due to the Passage of time' t".g" "p".trr*nt h.ritdings, connrerciaI businesses,
Recent experience has denronstrated the iflPortance of being iarie lispitats. l'lany of these custorers have stan&y
abte to knor approximatety the anount of real ard reactive g"ni."toti rhich Hitt be activated to suppty essential
toads rrlrich xitt be picked-up at any time foltoHing an ioad. ln addition, soop of these customers have motors
outage ard atso some excePtions to the general rute in the rith ton vottage protection nhich require manuat resetting
case of torer vottage netHorks. orior to rettaiti'r,g. Atso, att etevators mJst be rnaruralty
iestarted as required by housing codes. Another exarpte-
tEol.f Cotd Load Pick-up oi-inl pot"nt i a t' f or detlyed t oad pi ck-up .i s .an ai r-condi
iioned'apactrnent ehich is r.noccupied arrC the air condi-
A drarnatic exanpte of consequences of cotd toad pick-up iioner requires a manuat reset- These factors conrbined
occurred during the extrenrety cotd veather during christ- Hith high aHareness by the custofiErs for the need to
nras of 1989- Atthough, in some areas precautions had been
ieduce [oad, ted to a reduction in the toad picked-up
taken to timit etecied notating interruptions to 15 irnndiateLY after restoration-
minutes, rhich had been catcutated to be naxim.rn tirne to
avoid tLss of toad diversity, this time uas exceeded in Large corytex Re-Errrgizatisr
hundreds of cases due to forced outages resutting from the
yery high overtoads. As a resutt, cotd load pick-up This incident de{rpnstrates the dramatic variations xhich
increased ard restoration becarne very difficutt and re- can be experienced xith very targe-toad custorers Hho have
sutted in further damage to equignent froat overtoading arrJ ioad control.capabitities. Due to a serious probtem in a
exterded customer outages- The speciat nature of the toad substation, it uas decided to de-energize it for a short
in this case is of inteiest. ExtreflEty cotd reather in a period. this station is unusual since it suppties only
nornratty rarm ctimate area vitI cause more significant in- Ln"*"" uith npre than '100 HH of toad. Before the
creases in toad ard greater opportunities for cotd load shutdoun, the custoflter ras notified ard ras therefore abte
pick-up probtens. This greater than nornra[ [oss of to anticipate the toss of poxer ard to start on-site
iiversjti occurs for the fottoxing reasons: heating is
atrnost att resistive, insutation and h.ritding designs
(residentiat homes on stabs), the tack of atternative Once the originaI probtem in the substation ras etectri-
heating such as fireptaces, and poor preparation of the catty isotated, it xas imediatety re-energized' Horever,
poputaiion to handte cotd xeather (avaitabitity of rarm xhen the breakers xere ctosed it ras observed that there
ctothing etc.). These corditions att cotbine to increase *u" t-,o toad being suppl'ied- The custo'ner strategy had
toad due to the cotd ard reduce the probabitity that been to corptetel.y isoiate f rom the br.rtk porer system and
customers xitI turn off heating Hhen .equested' to suppty essentiaI toad vith on-site generators'
Los Yoltage Xetrorks Load Has then graduatty .estored by the custoflrer' tlad
ihere been probl,ems due to toss of diversity these coutd
LoH vottage netrorks consist of m.rttipte high vottage (13 have been managed by coordination nith the customer'
or 27 Kv) distribution feeders supptying transformers The high densiiy of the load in an urban center cornbined
uhich connect to a toH vottage grid (2401120 vott) feeding rith tfie netrori design arri custoopr control capabitities
the customers. These netlorks provide a great deat of significantty nrodifies cotd toad pick-up concerns' HoHev-
redundancy and provide for the most retiabte suppty of er, utiLities supptying these types of toads mlst ensure
etectriciiy in the united States- Hoxever, the nature of thit these mitigating effects are property managed to
these netHorks, Hith aLt distributions feeders emanating optimize their vatue.
from one substition, means that in the very rane case of
a substation shutdorn, the tength of restoration may be
extended. In tight of these extended outages, the poten-
tiat for cotd toad pick-up corptications seefils tothis in-
crease. HoHever, experience does not reftect tong
hypothesis. Experience has demonstrated that
duration outages ril,t not necessarity resutt in greater PSE&G'S BESTORAT!ON PLAN
toad pick-up. Son refrigeration, hea-ting and air cordi-
tioning toai requires ranuat intervention to be restarted' S. A. Janes & J. |1. t'frubet, PSE&G Co'
I portion of cofiIerciat ard irdustriat toad atso requires
manual intervention to start or Hitt be ceptaced by on- The current PSE&G restoration ptan anrd phitosophy vas
back-up d'iesets' Based on experience devetoped by a Task Force in 1985' The major drivers for
major area shutdouns, it can be assuned that the PJ'{'.our
the pian r.ere the guidetines devetope'd byinterded
toad ihat-xitt be re-energiied ritt be about 80x of the .eslohut pouer poot. These guidetines.Here to
toad prior to the shutdoxn. The fottoring tro scenarlos priviae consistency among menber conpanies and facititate

^l ,.^. ,.r,ts le,lJ sPeol si ,(lo6alel PalelaJ

easier integration of th:,poot fol'toring

bance. In i985, our a msjof.distur- can be fairty tength (g to 24 hours).
prace {or rrla ueen-in
"pp,oii".-.1;:", ;:::::"ll*fl""i
:;:L::"ffi '**qixiririu$;r*'tr*;r.*
dom in.1957 and syste{
us in 1965 at l9TT. *'ilt -.rf itixti*irr*ll,:.'"::ffi
rhere perswnet are not famitiar or l,ack urp..i"n""
ii, tf,u
Orrcnt Qeratian Process.
The mst signif icant.:!?ry".in-pSEtG,s past tests have confirmed.tiat our
s)rstem is that of targer GTs can be btack
generation sr4loty. startd and held in stand-by mode, ari
.^ixcept arring-pea[ ilo perioo, rnost
of our fossil generating as needed- "ri"_";h_;;;";
onty of targe nrclear Git""qripr""; il'-i shutdorn.
plant arc.normail,y or.tine. IJ'i"Jiiilrr"
- "L""r"coat-fired General
rr,J-ttl-.l,i.r"of our load is
frH*"",or." ix;::*,_,r- tocatJ lii.iiv-"-.a uri ts, l{ost of our GTs are tocatedl sith other fossit units. This
!i,"ui.G"-i,iii,ilr,H_:1.,::X""#i","i.."r*;'i; ri tt
adequate rEnporrer for restari ing
at atmost a[ [
these units are ouick_si""f-<t"=l-ti"n"io ,irrrt.") tImes-
boot-strappabt e.
"rd CqEerrE
Restoratiat ptnr
Stat i ons
PSE&G,s current restoration pl,an is designed
this current node of to address Not at.[ generating stations have smau
."p"*ti*."-ti".,fri""i}, ' tocat cTs rhich can
leaknesses in our equignena ".-*"-tT'I" any inherent provide. I ight and poper
are -for.sta.t-,+. ia'iilr mits, nfrictr
The ptan reties on the-strength of ".."nn"*na.
our gas turbines-_their
ava i I ab I e, may c"u.e_s,os"q, i on prob_
tocations and capabi I ttles. past testing erperienced gained
test during fossit unit
restarts confirmed
A key factor frequency and toad contro[; *p""i"iiv controtting
to our ptan is, approach. One *i"n
the guidetines ras to.assureatirat of loads such as fans p."io. -1-i-"lJrtT=*'*ted 1,".g"
tisht our ptii couta pr.ovide is good practice "r,a it
and poHerto J"."i"ii.;",:;i'; Hithin txo to stirt the t;;;st motor first,
hours. As a result of"rr
the.-earii-er'""r"iil'"I*oorns, smatI if possibre, bv ,oto." ii-alii."",ns
GTs rere instatted tocatty-ai I:llord,
st ze. order of
Other, large groupings of GT
s have Lreen instatted atong the transmission System
ternal to the steam porer. ptants. ff,u." system ex_
atlor the restoration- of thi ir""*i."ii. larget units One significant ftar ras discovered
in earty ptan tests of
sarp time that the fossiL units;;"-;;.g systeo at the equipnent Has that tnLoaded crs coutl'no-i
ie parail.el.ted.
They atso provide redundancy i..-tigi,i restarting. This necessitated that the- ptan
if-tocat crs at any generating sources ;;;r;;; Jir smatt toad
blocks tocated near each-malor cr a;;t;;;,
start. =tition"na*'por",
fait to appl.ied guickty to provide to"o rol.
*tich coula be

Strengths In addition, att of our.GTs are eqr.ripped

po,er factor setting, vo-ltage rith automatic
Generatinq Stations feature during restoration, ""grtltJl. io defeat this
"".h-il;;i m.r.t ue pr.rt in
As statd eartier, smatt (ig-l{u) -nanuaI vot tase controt',,,"d;
as- instructed Lg'i estagt isnea
GIs by system-operations.' ii-i"-n"."t,
tocal [y at nost fossi t stations. - have been instatted not provide as m.rch ."ns:.11 vottage GTs do
capabi t i ty and. requi re-mi n imai-irit.r, ts at I have
uli tess vAR absorpt ion ."grt-.iion, and m.rch
vrde start-up poper. i ng to pro_ ""piui
t I ty,- ri"# *'i a".
..Each station--a""a. their unit
rnnthty to assure ..:9in::: Another major concern is.the unproven
Typicatty, each station y.iLt ;;- G;.;; fami t iarity. frequency conmol caoabirities
load regutation and
';"* rerr
_atso ;";;
unit start-up usins thejr ii"i".J'li'on"" a futI steam they share the toad ,, it..pi.rJ ;;:: Hiu,
Another key designation feature i"-it"'"Oiiity " y"..- unit test starts, no .""I a..t "pr''d,i"i than fossiI
Ep".',.'in'.e is easi ty
station to synchronize its isoiaij-fiiiii Ij poHer system of each yithout puttins- tirm custo#f1'oJ'-".
aevetopins transmis"ion
thought on the subject .i"f r One
13^1-!1 .yri*.-'iii.-"t Iors fossi t
restarts to proceed in paraliet ,iii only the largesl single L_
a_t-11 g""a-p."llr:"1 uoutd
-iltr) have
and the remainins GTs set to rroia ; ;;"q;.""y controt
::::t:^ ir," transmis_ GT (125
sron restoration, thereby not iosing
,"iu"it" ,i*. under these conditions, the system ;;^;;;; ilH outtrrt.
Svstem coord i na te the add i t i on_or. d;;;';"rtd-at," have to
t"rn J*[r.,a* ri at
and_ toadins * .li
Large groupings of GTs (> 400 ltU,s) "v" .*ia;;;r-to'maint"in synch ro _

are tocated in four

locations atong the transmission .V.t*. 1!zati91
Large GI in its safe operating ."ng".-' tn"
vrde pSE&G the abitity to rapidty;;;;;;" ihese Gts pro-
core path. These units.proria" a transmission Fihatty, the toad rrblocksn
stations not equipped .t".t-rr-**". fo, those that are used to devetop our
riih to;;t-;i.'olr*il." subsequent
transmission core do not at present
f,"r" underfreq-
synchronization routd I old. shedd i ne :to assuie
:reate : proOtem. as'x-et I as.a IeveI
of redundancy for the.generatins _,t:?:y Hould
unrt be protect-ed
th;i- th i ;;"Ii
"^orgf,.r," r
setected nodutes at ttiese ror. L;J. 'i;";jor" tocat crs- prevent another cot Iapse. rhis
"' ".n"r.
sheddins to
start tested ar-e btack def icrjerrc-y-lvotved based
every trcnth. on the poHer pool treour er{ulr'nDt of onty 302 toad
ttr.""-r[z ri6'.wt shedding in
This appioaclu, both in.transmission
Grs provides psE&c Hith-th" restoration and use of
Genera I
cant nutter of mesaxatts or. -"uilitv;;;;''up a sienifi_
crst-ili loli.e".ty,
steam units are being ytrite llunerous generat itens-of
Dasetoad units and units r..t".l-li*s for Iarge the formutation of concern about GTs arose during
previ-orsty-on' ."."."u our present pf"n in.i,raing:
shutdorn conditions battery
at crs,. tack of o_.- t-*i"t".r;;;* **.
6urleag areds lelluaplsal e
e sioqs t aJrSlJ -! atuaJalar uo pasegItolq
1o ure.r6erp f,!tauaq3s
sl uorleuJolur -rs uBr Ho snqurnroc
6u!nollol eql .sJaqcJpasal xq uo!luelle ou,os pa^laraJ palueserd ,su^\d gr0z
seq sPeol palloJluoo-Illsr!lelsourJaql ,o Eu!lapour eql
I^Ltl 96 nded

5u! l+ox peol rrlelseraql Bu11u1 r d .r oJ ar qE r r p ?.tlu "roHii$

parrT&qns 3d1rcsnue11 ^, "o,;' r'T. i
O6I .S .(:".r:qJj-- 19 ,{.renuep
'Ho 'snqunloc ,auTlaai{ raluTll geof
ssa,/sgi1 .i
'6ur lepou, JaqrJn, s..r rnbe.r,*r'if;;"iii!.,:; uolle3uasard :oJ dlaTcos g"f:.""ij"a-;;;.a "q. aql
le!luelscrls e aq Aal qc!qlr ,peol 3!telsouJar{} aql Jo aatfluuog 8uy:aau1?ug ,1a:rCs ,.ro4 g3g1 aqr dq
'tualedde 11 1pea.r eJe speol pax!t ue patJels paao.rdde puB papuarrwocer reded
-eJ-l(llenueu ;o lcedur ag1 .pex!, Jo ,pal.re1s
, ,Xrfl a_l,OZ Hl\ t6
-al -41 1 enual' c lelsanuaql : aloqe passn3s p sad,(1
1 1
aaJql aql lo auo se luauodrcc qcea llrsselc o1 aq
plnor dals lsJll V -a6elno urals^s e ol asuodsa.r aql ol .,rot-rd ala;,(aql se uolleJolsal 6ulJnp anes aql ,(1
sl! Iq pazlJa]3eJeqr eq lsru, ]uauodrpc peol qre3 .Z -le.lluassa aq I I ltt 'speo1 aarlp le3rueqf,a! anrcs ,luaurd
-rnbe o.ruo.rlcela/Jatrduo3,6ur1qOi1 se qrns sFEdi-}-axjl
'paJolsal sr afl^Jas la11e ,(llenueuj uals/(s aql ol psuJnlal
o1 padolaaap uaas seq rz, ri',i3]ijja"ill.fli.'fr::
aql 'slsl(leue l(f!llqets riol,r peol ro, slapo{u Iluo aJe pue a6elno uJalsls aql 6urJnp aoJnos lanod
peol aAr]!suas-a6ellol dolaaap o1 pa.rrnba.r 1eq1 dnlceq e ol JaAo q3llr,ts leqt speol si ,(ro6aleo palelaJ
ol Jelluts sl uolllsodnoc uo pseq uo!lez!Jal v 'speol pelloJluo3-,(llef,!telsouuegl o] enp sseaJsut
-reJeqt peol lo adi(1 s1q1 .a6plno ue jo erll aqt 6ur]tas,1o ,lanod ur aseaJ3ap e luasa.rdaj
aq] le peol eql ,o uolllsodroc leuoltrEJl eql azt ll!i speol asaql ,o a3uasqe oq] ,uorleJolsal uelsAs
-JalfeJBq, ol JapJo ur psrJlu,Jalep ag lsru sJolce, 6u!JnO .poJolsal sr a6elloA a3uo Illenueu, palJefsaJ
ag Iluo Il!n pue a6ellol urelsi(s ro ssol uodn,t1o d1,rr
raqlo pue 'Jaqlean 'uosees ,Aeg p erll qllr{ qf,lqrr speol lelJlsnp{.lr apn.}trur 11rn
uoSlgsoduoc ppol ul uo!]errel aql .cra ,6u!1116il ffi
'6ur1eaq a:eds lelluaprseJ se qcns ,sluauodrcc 'e6elno ue 6urnollo] elels ilrJor ue
peol ,(q Japaa, qrea uo speol ;'o uolls3rlrssel3 .l
u! 3q lllr reql s3rr^ap lo Jeqmu aql u! esealsu.r aql ol
JeqleJ ]nq 'sac.rrrap peol lenprlrp.rr 1o uorldrnsuoc ..rarod
:6urnollo, aql aAlo^u! ut aseaJ3ut at{} o} anp }ou sl esesJcut srqi .sase3Jcut
plnol qceoldde ue qons -suortrpuoJ pre suorlrsodrcc
peol 6uIIJEA Jo' slapo{r aleJn3re Ilqeuoseal aonpo.rd ?6"f"9 aql ,o uolleJnp aql se aseaJou-t of sBlaf ]! asneraq
ol letruild aql seq ,uoglcalloc etep pue luaurdolaaap dnlc1d ppol plof Jol uJa:uof Jofafl e sr ,sassaro.rd letl1
luer ! l !u6 ! s 6u r.r rnbe.r el I qn, paseq_I I 1 eo lslqd aq1
-snpur allos pre 'uo11ela6r.rlal ,6u31eaq Jaleil ,6ur.too3 pue
6u I I apou,
Eulteaq a:eds apnl:ur @
'suo!lrPJo3 lualqre
pue suorlsodlor peol sur/(Jp^ Aq .ro1 palleJ slueolsnfpe 'speol
ol ,lasl! Frel A1 rpeal tou saop 6urlapour J!}s!Jnaq pax!l pue 'speo1 pal.relsal-A1lenual ,speo1 pa1lo.r1uoc
aql 'elEp poJnseeur pre a:trerladxa tuarcrlrns 1o 1:e1 e Iq -I1e3!lelsouJaql :se pzrJo6alef aq uea speol ,1e.raua6 u1
esn lecrlce.rd ul pallutS s! ]l rnq ,Jor^eqaq peol lo uolle
-Japrsuo, 1en1da:uoc Jo, lnrasn sr qceo.rdde JllslJnaq ar{l sarJo6afef, peo'I
'paJaplsuoJ aq ]srx! 'a6etlo^ FxJe JaqleaA se qfns ,s.ro3ce1
-lsodmc eql uo erep ql!r Jaqla'or ,"rr*fi&'rt":i.i"r.":,:l Jaqlo pue Paltauuorsrp uaaq seq ]! leq] au!] ]o qtEuel arll
-Alrapun aql Jot slepout sdolaaap SuiT@q:f;nE3Tslqa ,o uolurn, e se peo! aql lo uo!]erJe^ aql .u,ols^s aql uo
suo!lefol six)rrel 1e luasald aq ll!n ler{l peol aqt lJlpaJd
ol pasn aq uet ]eqt slapox lecrleuaqlax e^eq ot AJessaoau
elep parnsear peuod*,s,.r#l;"1ilffir"nffi'13 s! ft'uotleJolsal uials^s lo sarpnls 6urm.rollad u1
^qaq1 6urple6al 6uruoseal pue aruarladxa uo
Jol^eqeg lleJe^o
uplsAs Jalrod ? lelJtsnput fg ,eJeql .S ? a3tJd .n .n
paseq Jo!^Eqeq peol eqr sazrJal3eJeqc ffilTffiEIffiEli

:6ur lapou aseq-41 lealslqd cNt]3(Ioht - dn)3ld ovo-r o-ro3

BJe 3llslJnaq uolleJolsirJ 6ulJnp peol aql +o Jo.t^eqaq
aql 6u!loporo Jo, paJaplslro3 uaaq aleq saqfeoJdde on1 'uollEJaprsuoc lelcads alSnbal qJrqil sanssl aJou
Jnol sass3Jppe '&ro.rg EullJon uo!lBJolsau upls,(S .raxod
sapeo.ddy tultapof aqf Aq lrodal procas eql ,Jeded slrll .asdelloc alaldmc
ro lellled e 6uriollo, uo!leJolseJ ol uo!]ualle Jesolr
'i(.roSElec pue patraual 6u!tet3!p ,saoueqJnlslp Jofarr le!lualod o1 alq
s!ql otur lle, oslB plno; agello^ aq] ,o uoltelolsal uodn -eJaulnl JaAs ueql aJou eJe sualsls lanod srAepog .sanssr
ualsls aql ol pelJourlooal i(11ecr1ann1ne aJE plJB a6elno rrollEJolseJ ulels^s lenod uo uolfuslte i(l1snpl1 oulsnfol ,o
eql EulJnp larcd ckrlceq of q3t!ils leql speol -e6elno aql luirlu! aql qlrn aallltruocqrg uolleladg urirlsAs aqr ,ro lleq
6ulJrp polratxo3slp uaaq lou areq laqt 6ulunsse ,a6elno -oq uo peluasald sarlas e1.o auo sl.raded stql:lJeJlsU

uoTlprodfoc our ,TqTpv .r{ -I!t :ueurrrer{c

'dno.rg 6u1>1:o1,1 uoTlerolsau uralsdg :ano6 aqa z(q 1:oda.r v
NorJ\ruor$ru r4lflrsas ufl/I{od NI Norr\tufl(IrsNof, TyrJsds

SU/hd Z-Z0Z hllyt E6


s3!pnls esaql ,o sllnsal aql 'sJspaal lestd^] Jo sJapsa, '(Atlrde3 Pallelsu!) uo araH slelsouJaql llE 1r! Peol
Jelnr!lJd lo asuodsal dnlctd peol Ploc eql a2!JalseJeqf ur*1i* aqr Aq papl^lp ar!t relns!].red e- le peol lenlre
ol paruolJad aq Plnol setPnls uo!lelnx!s 'e1ep qcns aqt ol tuale^rnba s1 I 'sPeol ,o Jaqrnu a6le1 e lo1 'a6e
qllrl 'cia 'suoseas 'Aep ,o sar!l lein:1lled le sJopaal artll aql 1e uo 6utaq lelsourJaq] ual!6 e ,o (s) alcAc,lo-uo lelsou'laql A1le1
Jo, sr!]sllels -lno aqt +o
-nf!lJed 's.ialaueJed euluJalap ol sPoqlax uoll3allof elep ,(ltl arll lo s!sAleue sa.ltnba: sPeol 3!letsouuail]
Jeqlo Jo sasnoq ]o .raqrnu a6le1 e lo uolleluasaldal aql
Ftre luaqeJnsean dolaaap ol paPeeu st qsJeasal leuo!]lPpe
'La,ta;op 'poolsJapun 11an a11nb a:e asuodse'r dnlctd (a6elno utrurutul
peol plor ]fa,le ]eq] sf,!lslralfeJeq? peol ltseq aql
Ott ,laEelno uru,!ulur 08 lalc,(c lelsottl
spaail qf,JeasaI -Jaqr letuJoN) 'aur!l 'sA a.rnle.radua] uoo.-t
Jo, sllnsal lsal pue lapour )o uost.reduof, 'Z aJn6!,
'pellnbe.r aq osle plnox 'airoqe pessn3s!P ozt G 0
se'peol erlt 1o uollrsodms aq] uo eleP leuo!l!ppv sllDri xt ,ru
'f afuaJa+al ut paq!JcsaP se'slelsolJaql lo sal3lo
llo pue uo ar{1 }o s}uauitJnseau a1dl1s pue elep pueulap pet}
-rsJaA!p ualsi(s u,oJ, Psurelqo aq ue3 lnq 's3!tslJa]leJeq3
larraqi 6ulpllnq ,o 6u!lsPorx P3llelap altnbal A1lles
-sa3au lou saoP slaPo{l qsns Jo} e}eP aql 'a6elno ue 6ut
-rtollol speol Jap33, ,o rot^eqaq aq] Jol slspou ale6aJ66e
aotiiap ol pasn eq 111e1luarod plnoc 6ullaPoiu 1o adAl s1q1
'salnu!u O! (!) 'sarn
-u!u,0! (z) 'salnu!u, 0s (l) - to!lernp '? arn6!l
a6etno lo loa,la - &t1:1d Peol Pl03

lepou p(reill3p Jaleaq aseds 'l aJn6-tj

Z'O=s (t)
's'o=g (z) 'z'o=g (!) - nH Pallelsu!/nll
lgnloe = trg{ le!}!u! Io ]3arla a6elno 'f arn6lj
safnu!u 0E e Jslle dnl:gd peol pl03 n rvsx lvNu3lNl


'(0 Jo l) snlels lelsorrrJaql

uo Jeleaq qtlrr elqeulelle 'l JaAo ule6 alnle:adml

',lo Jeleaq qggr qceo.rdde llln asnoq alnleladuel 'l

: aJaqn

'suo!lsrrp a6elno tuaJalltP eaJql Jo, s l"ll]u! r!,lrads '(orn- 't-l)(r/L)- = tP/to
e .roj esuodsal aql snoqs t aJn6lJ '8-,o sanlel letllu!
:asnoq lsnP!^!ptl!
1ua.ri;11p aaJql Jo, eoelno alnulut O! e 6ulrrollol asuodsa't
ar{l E arn6lJ 'sarcq OOO'otr .ro} (8 ,(q paluasaldar) peol ue Jo, 'Z aJn6lJ ,o sllnseJ aleJnf,fe aonpo.rd ol utrot{s
oritre5q aqr ;o asuodia-r parelruils aql |roqs ? I E saJn6lJ sen lapout llueu^p JapJo ]sJ!,t a1du1s 6u1no11o; aql 'Peol
alpl ! I !lel pue sa luedrp3 Jaqreu, 6uole Aruals rsuoc ap rno.rd
ol papretu! aJaA saurlaprn6 esaql '1ood larod leuol6oJ sorJeuars ofil Eulrrol10] 3ql 'ulroplnqs aql o] JolJd peol
Jno 'Xld ,(q padolanap seurlaprn6 eq] aJarr ueld aql aq] +o Z0g lnoqe aq ll!il pazr6Jaua-al aq lllx lei{l peol
Jo,t sra^tJp Jofeu aql '586! ul arJol Isel e i(q padolaaap aql leql paunsse aq ue3 l! 'suroPlnqs eaJe Joteuj EurJnp
sen i(qdoso 1 ! qd pe ue ld uo1 terotsal g?jsd tuaJJnr 3qI a:uar.radxa uo peseg 'slasa!p dn-1ceq pauxo-Jaxotsnf a]!s
-uo lq paceldeJ aq lltr{ Jo lJe}s o} uollualJatu! lenueur
'of, D?:ISd 'laqnrn 'N 'f ? sauet 'V 'S sarrnbeL osle peol lelJlsnpu! FxJe lel3Jauuoc 1o uo11.rod V
'palJEl.sal aq ol uollualJalut lenueu saJlnboJ peol 6uruo.r]
-lprlof, Jle pue 6u!]eaq 'uo11ela61:1al aung 'dn-logd peol
NV'Id NOITVUOIS3U S,OBSSd JatBsJE u! llnsal Illressacau lou llrlr sa6elno uorleJnp
6uol ]eql paleJlsuoxap seq aouarladx3 's!saqlodAq
Nl S:lNlsUnI SV9 JO 31OU 3HI s!il] ]f,allal lou saop acuat.radxa '.raaarop 'aseeJ3
-u! o] sueas suolte3!l&ror dn-1:1d peol plot Jol lell
-ualod aql 'sa6elno p3pualxe asaqt ,o lq6!l uI .pepualxe
aq uolteJofsal ,o qtEuel aql 'ur,roplnqs uo!telsqns e
^eu alel,r aqt u! leql suea$ 'uollelsqns auo utoJl
+o oseo
'enleA J!eqt azrulldo 6urleuetua sJepea+ suollnq!Jls!p lle qllr 'slJoxlau asaql
ol pa6euax i(1lado.rd ale sl3a,]a 6u!te6!llrx asaqt leq] ,o aJnleu aql '.ra,raxog 'salels pallun aq1 ut r(lrrrJl]ala
3rnsua ]sru speol ,o sadAt asaql 6u1A1ddns sagl111]n 'la 1o llddns alqellal ]sour aql .lo1 aptaord pre lcuepunpa.r
-Aanog 'suJaouoc dr-1crd peol pl03 se!+!ponr Ilrueo!,!u6!s ,o leop leaJ6 e apraotd slJo,{fau aseql 'sJauo}sno atl}
saglllgqede: loJtuo3 Janr,lsnr pup u6lsap 1ro,rlau aqt qllrr 6urpaa; (llo^ 0Ztlo?Z) plJ6 e6e]lo^ nol e ol lraurotr q3lqx
Psulqrof J3fua3 ueqJn ue u! Peol aql ,o ,(llsuap q6!q 3ql sJarrolsueJ] 6u1I1ddns sJapaal uo!lnq!Jts!p ( ) /Z Jo
aql qt!n uo!leu!pJoo3 Aq pa6euru uaaq e^eq
'Janrclsn3 !!) e6ello^ q6gq aldgflnu,o ]srsuor slJoltlau a6ello^ Hol
PlnoJ asaql lo ssol ol anp suelqord uaaq araq]
peH 'Janplsn3
eqf lq paJolsal ll1enper6 uaq] sen peo'I slJoi]af, a6llo^ rol
'sJolEJaua6 a]!s-uo r{l!n peol le!}uossa ,(1ddns o1 'pagsanbar uaqn 6urleaq llo uJn] lllx sJauolsn3
pre uelsi(s larod >11rq aq] uoJl alelost ,(lalaldlor ol uaaq leq1 ,(lr11qeqord aql asnpal pue plor aql ol anp peoI
peq i6alerls Jauplsn3 aql 'pa11ddns 6u!eq peol ou sex aseaJJur ot aulcluot lle suorllprjo3 asaql '('3ta 6ulrllolc
aJaql leql Pe^Jasqo sEn t! pssolf aJe'l sJaleaJq 3q1 uaqlr uJex ]o Arllgqelrele) raqlean plof, altrleg o1 uotlelndod
'.raaaroq 'pozl6Jaue-aJ Alalelpatur sen 11 'pe1e1os1 ,(11ec atlt ,o uo1]e.rede.rd tood 'saceldalti se qtns Eulleaq
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su6rsap 6ulpllnq pue uorlelnsur 'aaltsgsal lle lsoule
'sJoleJaua6 s! 6u!leaq :suoseal 6urnollo+ aq] Jo, sJnJro AlrsJaArp
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o] axlt urrurxetu aq ol. paleln3leo uaeq peq qJlqr ,salnuru
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peol-ploo leuuou rroch paseq 'eJoraJaql '6uluo!l!pro3 peol Jol Eurledald pue ,6u.tJnseai ,6ulfsBfaJo, Ilastctroo
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aJai slJonlau aql pue lep rams loq e uo paJJnJJo
]uop!3t ! sltll 'eJlAJas ol sJanolsn3 aql lle 6ulJolsaJ oJ uoslpf Flefep!losuo3 ,r(Man selJBqJ
IqaJaql ',(lsnoauellruls paz!6Jaua aJe sJapoal 11e '1.ron1au
B lo aJnlBU eq] ol ano 'salnulut St ulLllli pazr6Jaua sovo't xHoA 39vlton rno'l
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]uaPrarl rD!lBrno fJoqs
'peol aql lo sapnt
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Jo sdrd 6urpJeiJol lanl l-p ]o lrel is19 1e suorlrpuoJ unoplnqs alresal uo AlsnollaJd slgun pue sllun peolaseq
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6utJnp esoJe slg tnoqe uJa3uol ,o suFl! leJaua6 snoJounil altqn 'i(1lea peol Jaurolsn3 lo sllelte6anl lo Jaqmu lue3
-111u69s e dn I3rd ol ir!llqe eql {r};92rta sapliro.rd s19
IEJEUa$ lo asn pue uo!leJolsal uolssrusueJl ul qlog ,qceo:dde srql
.dess -qluou, AJaAa palsal lJels
29g aa.rqt
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paseq pa^lola Acuelcllap srql .asde11o: Jaqloue ]ueaE.rd '913 lesol rll!|i suotlels 6u!leJaue6 aq] Jol fuuep.rnpa.r ;.o
ot 6urppeqs peol tuarfr,lns iq patralo.rd aq plnoi llun lalal e'se 11ai se 'uralqo.rd e aleaJc plnor uorlezluo.rqrur{s
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lno dolaaap ol pasn aJe leql ,sltolq, peol aql ,r(lleqlJ uorssrulsuer] e erolseJ llpldel ot Il!llqe aq] g?lsd apl^
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aqt uleluleu ol sl5 JallEtxs aql,o Eutpeol pue uollezlu ute-rTs
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aleq plnoi aoglceld poo6 leqt s! lralqns aql uo tq6noql
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ll!n llan ltoll 'sID Jno lo sa!I1!qde3 loJluo: {cuanball 'IltJe!lrue;. .rolelado pue ssaurpeal aJnsse ol Ilriluo{l
p.te uorleln6al peol uaaoldun aql s! uJafuoJ Jofanl Jaq]ouy t!un J!q] slsat uo!lels qfe3 'lanod dn-l.rels ap! ol 6u!rplrris learulur a.rrnbar Fxre Il!tgqede: de.rlslooq
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q3rurpue 'uot1e1n6al a6e11oa ur a6ue.r qf,rrlt se aptlold 1ou pallersul uaaq a^eq stg (nH gI) llairs 'larllea petels sV
op slg '1elaua6 u1 'suorleladg uels^S Iq pal3nJlsul sE
poqsllqelsa sa6ello^ pue apout loJluo3 a6etlo^ lenueu aql suo-TtEIfE- 15U55
u! lnd aq lsru aurqfeu q:ea 'uotlelolsal GutJnp aJnlea,
stql lealap oI 'sJoleln6al a6e31oa '6ugl]as lo1ce1 lexod sqtaJ3JlS
3lleunlne qfli pddlnba aJe slg Jno lo lle 'uo11gppe u1
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l3ueparnpar aprro.rd
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-xa utelsi(s uorssrursueJl aql Suole pallersu! rraaq a^eq s
Fisrs 19 lo s6urdnoJ6 a6Jel'Jeqto
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l! leqt palou eq plnoqs lt 'sdrd gre sue, se qrns speol lo eug 'qceo.rdde 1a11ered e sg ueld Jno ol jolcel Aal y
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s6Iffi trld r.ElleJolsau

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slrll 'slltrl llssol Jaqlo ql!n PsleJol eJe slg Jno lo lsoH
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s! peo1 Jno ,o .orreleq 3qt .aull-rro llleuou .JE lueld
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.unoplnqs s^JasirJ uo sr luandrnba 6u11e.raua6
11sso1 .rm ;o
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PezluoJqruls-olne puB ',apou Iq-BEls ul plsq pue pelrels 1to leql s3 uraSsls srgit3Sd u! e6ueqc 1uecrlru61s lsqr aql
ItBlq aq uer slC JaOJel Jno lpql pauJlluor aAEq slssl lsed
eill u! alJirlJedxa 1ce1 Jo Je!l!tlE, lou eJ8 lailt,osJd eJaqi 'u6l wa 996l u! sn
lualsls aql u! slulod lE raqlaool sPuels! lleus azluorq?uls ot luerBfpe pJJno3o peq su,loplnqs ualsls puB /96t'ul t4rop
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lJels ol sr ueld lJelsal uotsstll,sljEJ