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The Official Equine Hospital

& Veterinary Partner


of the

FORMULARY
OF MEDICATIONS IN USE
and

LABORATORY
MANUAL
ROOD & RIDDLE EQUINE HOSPITAL
P.O. BOX 12070
LEXINGTON, KY 40580

859-233-0371
www.roodandriddle.com

ROOD & RIDDLE VETERINARY PHARMACY


P.O. BOX 12150
LEXINGTON, KY 40581

859-246-0112
Fax 859-246-1760
www.roodandriddlevetpharm.com

ROOD & RIDDLE VETERINARY LABORATORY


2150 GEORGETOWN RD.
LEXINGTON, KY 40511

859-233-0371
email: lab@roodandriddle.com
ROOD & RIDDLE EQUINE HOSPITAL 2007
DISCLAIMER
ROOD & RIDDLE EQUINE HOSPITAL MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES, AND DISCLAIMS
ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, CONCERNING THE CONTENTS OR USE OF THE FORMULARY AND
LABORATORY MANUAL. WITHOUT LIMITING THE GENERALITY OF THE FOREGOING, ROOD & RIDDLE
EQUINE HOSPITAL HEREBY DISCLAIMS ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE FORMULARY AND
LABORATORY MANUAL, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABIL-
ITY, FITNESS FOR A PURPOSE, AESTHETICS, OR NON-INFRINGEMENT.

FURTHER, ROOD & RIDDLE EQUINE HOSPITAL MAKES NO WARRANTY CONCERNING THE ACCURA-
CY OF THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THE FORMULARY AND LABORATORY MANUAL. THE USE OF
INFORMATION FROM THE FORMULARY AND LABORATORY MANUAL IS THE SOLE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE
PRACTITIONER DIRECTING THE CARE OF THE PATIENT.

IN NO EVENT SHALL ROOD & RIDDLE EQUINE HOSPITAL HAVE LIABILITY OF ANY KIND INCLUDING
ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, EXEMPLARY OR PUNITIVE LOSSES OR DAMAGES,
EVEN IF ROOD & RIDDLE EQUINE HOSPITAL KNEW OR SHOULD HAVE KNOWN OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
POTENTIAL LOSSES OR DAMAGES RESULTING FROM INFORMATION CONTAINED IN OR USE OF THE FORMU-
LARY AND LABORATORY MANUAL.
ROOD & RIDDLE EQUINE HOSPITAL
FORMULARY OF MEDICATIONS IN USE
The Rood and Riddle Equine Hospital Formulary of Medications in Use contains medications and
dosages in use in our practice. This guide is intended as an aide to practitioners, but should not be viewed
as a recommendation for the use of any medication, nor should it be viewed as a complete or comprehensive
listing of all uses, indications, or adverse effects. Please note that the use of many medications is extra-label
or off-label. Drugs are listed by generic names, followed by the trade name in some cases.

The following people contributed to the formulary:

Bryan Waldridge, D.V.M.


Lori Bidwell, D.V.M.
Claire Latimer, D.V.M.
Michelle LeBlanc, D.V.M.
Pete Sheerin, D.V.M.
Steve Reed, D.V.M.
Tom Riddle, D.V.M.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
FORMULARY page 1
General Formulary page 1
Ophthalmology page 7
Anesthesia page 11
Theriogenology page 13

LABORATORY MANUAL page 15


Available tests page 16
Normal Values page 19
References page 24
Referral Laboratories page 25
GENERAL FORMULARY
MEDICATION DOSAGE INDICATIONS
Acepromazine (10 mg/ml) 0.044-0.66 mg/kg, IV or IM Sedation, vasodilation, promote lactation
Acetazolamide 2 mg/kg, PO, q8-12h Treatment and prevention of HYPP attacks
Acetylcysteine 8g with 20g NaHCO3 in 200 ml water Retention enema for meconium impaction
Albuterol 360-720 g, q3-12h, via Aeromask*or Equinehaler* Bronchodilator; give 15 minutes before inhaled steroids
*Available from Milburn
Altrenogest (2.2 mg/ml) 0.044-0.088 mg/kg, PO, q24h Maintain pregnancy; suppress estrus
Amikacin (250 mg/ml) 25 mg/kg, IV, q24h Gram negative aerobes predominantly,
some Gram positives
Aminocaproic acid (250 mg/ml) 20 g in 1 L IV fluids bolus, Inhibits fibrinolysis, stabilizes blood clots;
then 10 g, IV, in fluids q6h hemoabdomen
Ampicillin sodium foals: 20 (11-30) mg/kg, IV or IM, q6-8h Gram positive aerobes, some anaerobes
adults: 10-50 mg/kg, IV or IM, q6-8h and Gram negatives
Aspirin 10-100 mg/kg, PO, q24h Antithrombotic, anti-platelet effects
Atropine (15 mg/ml) 0.02 mg/kg, IV, once Rescue bronchodilation for heaves; observe for colic
Azithromycin 10 mg/kg, PO, q24h R. equi, Gram positives and some Gram
(after 5 doses, can be given q48h) negative aerobes
Beclomethasone 500-3500 g, q12h, via Aeromask*or Equinehaler* Heaves, inflammatory airway disease
*Available from Milburn
Bethanechol 0.3-0.4 mg/kg, PO, q6-8h Increase gastric emptying and bladder contractility
0.025-0.1 mg/kg, SC, q6-8h
Bismuth subsalicylate foals: 2-4 oz, PO, q6-8h GI protectant, antidiarrheal. anti-prostaglandin effects;
adults: 0.5 gal/454 kg, PO, q4-6h weak antibacterial
N-butylscopolammonium 0.3 mg/kg, IV Antispasmodic; colic and rectal relaxation
bromide [Buscopan] (20 mg/ml) during palpation
Butorphanol (10 mg/ml) 0.01-0.02 mg/kg, IV Analgesic, sedative
0.2 mg/kg/hr, IV, CRI Can be administered with lidocaine CRI
Caffeine 10 mg/kg, PO (loading dose), then Respiratory stimulant
2.5-3.0 mg/kg, PO, q12h
Carbamazepine 4-8 mg/kg, PO, q6-8h Photic headshaking, may be combined with
cyproheptadine
Cefazolin foals: 11-20 mg/kg, IV, q8- 12h Gram positives, most anaerobes except Bacteroides fragilis;
variable to poor activity against Gram negatives
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MEDICATION DOSAGE INDICATIONS
Ceftazadime [Fortaz] (200 mg/ml) 25-50 mg/kg, IV, q6-12h Gram positives and negatives, most P. aeruginosa
Ceftiofur [Naxcel] (50 mg/ml) label: 2.2-4.4 mg/kg, IM, q24h Gram positives and negatives
foals: 2.2-5.0 mg/kg, IM or IV, q12-24h
Ceftriaxone [Rocephin] (100 mg/ml) 20-50 mg/kg, IV or IM, q12h Gram positives and negatives, some anaerobes;
meningitis
Chloramphenicol 50 mg/kg, PO, q6h Human health risk (aplastic anemia) Gram positives
20-50 mg/kg, IV, q4-8h and negatives, many anaerobes, Lawsonia intracellularis
Cimetidine (150 mg/ml) 12-20 mg/kg, PO, q8h; 18 mg/kg, PO, q12h H2 blocker, reduces gastric acid production
6.6 mg/kg, IV, q4-6h; 4 mg/kg, IV, q12h Faster onset of action than proton pump inhibitors
2.5 mg/kg, PO, q8h Melanoma immunotherapy (suppresses suppressor T cells)
Clarithromycin 7.5 mg/kg, PO, q12h R. equi, Gram positives and some Gram
negative aerobes
Clenbuterol (72.5 g/ml) 0.8-3.2 g/kg, PO, q12h Bronchodilator, promotes sweating, possible tocolytic
Cyproheptadine 0.2-0.6 mg/kg, PO, q12h Photic headshaking (monotherapy)
0.2-0.5 mg/kg, PO, q 12-24h Administered with carbamazepine for photic headshakers
0.6-1.2 mg/kg, PO, q24h Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction; appetite stimulant
Detomidine (10 mg/ml) 0.01-0.04 mg/kg, IV or IM 2 agonist sedative, analgesic
Dexamethasone 0.05-0.2 mg/kg, IV, IM, or PO, q12-24h Dexamethasone suppression test- 0.04 mg/kg, IM,
at 5:00 PM, post dexamethasone sample 19 hours later
Diazepam (5 mg/ml) 0.05-0.4 mg/kg, IV Anticonvulsant or sedation
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) 90% 0.1-1.0 g/kg, IV or via NG tube, q12-24h Hemolytic if given at greater than a 10% solution
Diphenhydramine 1 mg/kg, IV or IM Antihistamine, fluphenazine toxicity
Domperidone 1.1 mg/kg, PO, q24h Dopamine antagonist, tall fescue toxicity agalactia
Dopamine 2-5 g/kg/min, IV, CRI Increase perfusion, urine production, blood pressure
Doxapram (20 mg/ml) 0.5 mg/kg, IV Respiratory stimulant
Doxycycline 10 mg/kg, PO, q12h Variable Gram positive and negative spectrum, some
anaerobes, Lawsonia intracelluaris
Enrofloxacin 7.5 mg/kg, PO, q24h; 4 mg/kg, PO, q12h Gram negative aerobes, variable Gram positive spectrum,
poor activity against Streptococci; possible arthropathy
5.5 mg/kg, IV, q24h in foals
Epinephrine (1 mg/ml or 1:1000) 0.01-0.02 mg/kg, IV 4.5-9 ml/450 kg; 0.5-1.0 ml/50 kg
Erythromycin lactobionate 2.2 mg/kg, IV, CRI over 30-60 mins, q6h Prokinetic
Erythromycin phosphate 37.5 mg/kg, PO, q12h R. equi, L. intracellularis, Gram positives, some
Gram negatives
MEDICATION DOSAGE INDICATIONS
Fenbendazole 5 mg/kg, PO Dewormer- pinworms, large and small strongyles
10 mg/kg, PO, q24h, for 5 days Larvicidal encysted L3 small strongyles; some
antiulcer effects
Fluconazole 14 mg/kg, PO (loading dose), then Plasma and body fluid concentrations above
5 mg/kg, PO, q24h MIC for most equine fungal pathogens
Flunixin meglumine (50 mg/ml) 1.1 mg/kg, IV or PO, q12-24h NSAID, analgesic
0.25 mg/kg, IV, q6-8h anti-endotoxic dose lowers possibility of
GI or renal toxicity
Fluphenazine 0.05-0.08 mg/kg, IM Human anti-psychotic, severe extrapyramidal
effects possible
Fluticasone 2000 g, q12h, via Aeromask*or Equinehaler* Heaves; inflammatory airway disease
*Available from Milburn
Furosemide (50 mg/ml) 0.5-2.0 mg/kg, IV or IM, q12-24h 250 mg, IV (pre-race, 4 hours before post,
check state regulations)
Gentamicin (100 mg/ml) 6.6 mg/kg, IV or IM, q24h Predominantly Gram negative aerobes, some
Gram positives
Glycopyrrolate (0.2 mg/ml) 0.007 mg/kg, IV Heaves, bronchodilation, less colic risk
0.0022 mg/kg, IV, q8h Interstitial pneumonia, bronchodilation
Heparin (1000 U and 10,000 U/ml) 40 U/kg, IV or SC, q8h Monitor PCV- may cause anemia, agglutination of RBC
66 U/kg, IV, q12h for 3 days Post operatively for adhesion prevention
Hetastarch 6% in 10 ml/kg, IV, prn Colloid fluid to treat shock; may interfere with
0.9% sodium chloride injection clotting function
4 ml/kg, IV Used in combination with plasma for hypoproteinemia
(e.g. Lawsonia)
Hyaluronic acid [Legend] 40 mg/horse, IV; 20 mg/horse, IA, q7d Anti-inflammatory for synovitis; adhesion prevention (IV)
Hydroxyzine 0.5-1.0 mg/kg, PO, q12h Antihistamine
Hypertonic saline (7%) 5 ml/kg, IV, rapid infusion Rapid blood volume expansion; follow with isotonic fluids
Hypertonic saline (3%) 3-5 L/500kg to effect Head trauma
Imipenem 10 mg/kg, IV, q6-12h Multiple resistant infections; some Pseudomonas resistance
Interferon 50-150 U, PO, q24h, for 5-10 days Inflammatory airway disease
Iodide (EDDI or KI) 1-2 mg/kg, PO, q12-24h, for one week, then Antifungal, antibacterial; observe for signs of iodinism;
0.5-1.0 mg/kg, PO, prn Dose same for organic or inorganic iodides
Isoxsuprine 0.66-1.32 mg/kg, PO, q12h Rheologic, variable bioavailability, high first-pass
hepatic uptake
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MEDICATION DOSAGE INDICATIONS
Itraconazole 3 mg/kg, PO, q12h Antifungal; Aspergillus sp.
Ketamine (100 mg/ml) 2.2 mg/kg [1.1 mg/lb], IV Dissociative anesthetic, sedate with xylazine pre-op
0.02 mg/kg/min, IV CRI(after loading dose) Hypoxic, ischemic encephalopathy, seizure control
Ketoprofen (100 mg/ml) 2.2 mg/kg, IV, q12-24h NSAID, lower risk of toxicity compared to other NSAIDs
Lidocaine 2% (20 mg/ml) 1.3 mg/kg loading dose, then 0.05 mg/kg/min, IV, CRI Prokinetic, give loading dose again if infusion is stopped
(450 ml in 3 l LRS at 500 ml/hr in a 500 kg horse)
Magnesium sulfate 4-16 mg/kg, IV CRI, per 5 L bag Treatment for hypomagnesemia
2 mg/kg/min, IV bolus Ventricular tachycardia (up to a total dose of 50 mg/kg)
50 mg/kg, IV CRI for 1 hour, then 25mg/kg/hr, IV, CRI Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy
Mannitol 20% (200 mg/ml) 0.25-2 g/kg, IV, q6h (over 30 minutes) CNS edema
Meclofenamic acid 2.2 mg/kg, PO, q12-24h Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
Methocarbamol (100 mg/ml) 25-75 mg/kg, PO, q12h Central acting muscle relaxant
5-55 mg/kg, IV slow, q6h
Metronidazole (5 mg/ml) 15 mg/kg, IV, q6h Anaerobes, antiprotozoal, may have some GI
15-25 mg/kg, PO, q8-12h anti-inflammatory effects, can cause anorexia PO
25 mg/kg, per rectum, q6-8h
Metoclopramide (5 mg/ml) 0.1-0.25 mg/kg/hr, IV, CRI Prokinetic- upper GI tract
foals: 0.02-0.1 mg/kg, IM or IV, q6-8h Can cause CNS excitement, colic
Misoprostol 2 g/kg, PO, q8h Synthetic PGE1; right dorsal colitis, GI mucosal protectant
Morphine 0.1 mg/kg, IV or IM, q4-6h May also give detomidine IM to avoid excitement
Naloxone 8-10 mg/horse, IV Hemorrhagic shock, hemoabdomen
0.1 mg/kg, IV Hypoxic/ischemic encephalopathy (can be repeated prn)
Naproxen 10 mg/kg, PO, q12-24h Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
Omeprazole 4 mg/kg, PO, q24h Treatment of gastric ulcers, proton pump inhibitor
1 mg/kg, PO, q24h Prevention of gastric ulcers
Oxytetracycline (200 mg/ml) 6.6-10 mg/kg, IV, q12-24h Variable Gram positive and negative spectrum,
some anaerobes
10 mg/kg, IV, q24h Equine monocytic ehrlichiosis (PHF), L. intracellularis
2-3 g/foal, IV in 1 l NaCl, q24h,for 1-3 days Flexural contracture in foals
Oxytocin (20 U/ml) 10-20 IU IV or IM every 4-12 hours Post breeding endometritis
10-20 IU IV or IM every 4 hours Retained placenta, metritis
20-60 IU in 1 L fluids IV (Administer slowly over 1 hour) Retained placenta
0.11-0.22 U/kg, IV Choke- males or open mares only
Pentoxiphylline 8.5 mg/kg, PO, q12h Rheologic, anti-endotoxic, theoretically improves circulation
MEDICATION DOSAGE INDICATIONS
Pergolide 0.002-0.01 mg/kg, PO, q24h (1-5 mg/500kg) Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction
Phenazopyridine 4-5 mg/kg, PO, q8-24h Urinary antispasmodic, anesthetic
Phenobarbital foals: 5-25 mg/kg, IV Anticonvulsant
2-10 mg/kg, PO, q12h Maintenance therapy; increase dose 20% q2wk, prn
Phenylbutazone (200 mg/ml) 4.4-8.8 mg/kg, IV or PO, q12-24h Anti-inflammatory, analgesic
Phenylephrine (10 mg/ml) 3 g/kg/min, IV, CRI over 15 mins Splenic contraction for nephrosplenic entrapment, jog after
Physostigmine 0.06-0.08 mg/kg, IV, slowly Narcolepsy stimulation test
Piroxicam 0.3 mg/kg or 80-100 mg/horse, PO, q24h Adjunctive therapy for transitional or squamous cell
carcinoma
Polymyxin B 3,000-6,000 U/kg in 1 L fluids, IV, q8-12h Binds endotoxin
Polysulfated glycosaminoglycan 500 mg, IM, q4d, for 28 days Articular anti-inflammatory, inhibits proteolysis
[Adequan] 250 mg, IA, q7d, for 5 weeks and PG production
Ponazuril 5 mg/kg, PO, q 24h for 28 days EPM, 10 mg/kg for first week achieves higher blood levels
Potassium bromide 25 mg/kg, PO, q24h Anticonvulsant phenobarbital; increase dose
20% q2wk, prn;
Requires 3-5 weeks to reach steady state
Potassium penicillin (500,000 U/ml) 22,000-44,000 U/kg, IV, q6h Gram positives and anaerobes
Potassium chloride (2 mEq/ml) 20-40 mEq/l, IV, CRI in fluids Electrolyte supplement, promotes GI motility
0.1 g/kg, PO, prn (lite salt)
Prednisolone 0.25-1.0 mg/kg, PO, q12-24h Anti-inflammatory
Prednisolone sodium succinate 0.25-2.5 mg/kg, IV, q6h-prn Shock, CNS trauma, anaphylaxis, interstitial pneumonia
[Solu-Delta-Cortef] 30 mg/kg, IV, followed by 5 mg/kg as CRI for 8 hours Acute spinal cord trauma
Procaine penicillin G (300,000U/ml) 22,000 U/kg, IM, q12h Gram positives and anaerobes
Pyrimethamine 1 mg/kg, PO, q24h Administer with sulfonamide for EPM
Ranitidine 6.6-7.5 mg/kg, PO,q8h; H2 blocker, reduces gastric acid production,
11.3mg/kg,PO,q12h Faster onset of action than proton pump inhibitors
1.5 mg/kg, IV, q8h;
1.3 mg/kg, IV, q12h
Reserpine 2-5 mg/horse, PO, q24h Sedative effects, promotes lactation,
can cause loose manure
Rifampin 5 mg/kg, PO, q12h R. equi, L. intracellularis, give with other antibiotics
to prevent resistance
Selenium (with Vitamin E) [E-Se] 1 ml/100 lbs, IM White muscle disease;
dysphagia in foals
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MEDICATION DOSAGE INDICATIONS
Sodium bicarbonate (1 mEq/ml) isotonic: 150 mEq/ 1 L sterile water, IV, prn Replace 1/2 deficit after rehydrating, then recheck
A/B status
50-150 g/day, up to q8h, PO (baking soda) 1 ml of baking soda 1 g 12 mEq HCO3-
Sodium penicillin (500,000 U/ml) 22,000-44,000 U/kg, IV, q6h Gram positives and anaerobes
Sucralfate 1-2 g/100 lbs, PO, q6h Binds to ulcerated submucosa: gastric ulcers;
right dorsal colitis
Sulfadiazine 20 mg/kg, PO, q12-24h Administer with pyrimethamine for EPM
Thiamine 10 mg/kg, IV in fluids, q12-24h Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, polioencephalomalacia
Ticarcillin 50 mg/kg, IV or IM, q6-8h Gram positives, Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacteriaceae
Tolazoline (100 mg/ml) 4 mg/kg, IV, slowly (1 ml/sec) Reversal 2 agonist sedation; higher receptor affinity
than yohimbine
Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole 15-30 mg/kg, PO, q12h Gram positive and Gram negative aerobes;
Streptococcal resistance fairly common
21.3 mg/kg, IV, q24h Do not give with 2 agonists
Tripelennamine (20 mg/ml) 1.1 mg/kg, IM, q6-12h Antihistamine, must be given IM only (CNS excitement)
Vancomycin (50 mg/ml) 6 mg/kg, IV, q8h Aerobic Gram positives, MRSA, C. difficile
Vitamin C 30-50 mg/kg, IV, q12h, in fluids Antioxidant (red maple toxicity)
Vitamin E (Natural) 6000 U/horse, PO, q24h Antioxidant, CNS anti-inflammatory; EPM; motor neuron
disease; equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy
Xylazine (100 mg/ml) 0.5-1.1 mg/kg [0.25-0.55 mg/lb], IV 2 agonist sedative, analgesic; higher dose pre-op
with ketamine
Yohimbine 0.075 mg/kg, IV slowly 2 antagonist; reversal of 2 agonist sedation
OPHTHALMOLOGY FORMULARY
MEDICATION DOSAGE INDICATIONS
AKWA Tears Ointment and Solution PRN Tear replacement/augmentation.
Alomide (lodoxamide tromethamine) Ophthalmic q6-12h; Tolerance may be Mast cell stabilizer. May relieve inflammation
Solution 0.1% (1.78 mg lodoxamide tromethamine improved by mixing with associated with eosinophilic keratoconjunctivitis.
equivalent to 1 mg lodoxamide) artificial tear solution May burn on instillation.
Atropine Sulfate Ophthalmic Ointment 1%, q12h Uses and contraindications
(10mg/gram of ointment) same as for Ophthalmic Solution.
Atropine Sulfate Ophthalmic Solution 1%, (10mg/ml) q12h Mydriatic and cycloplegic.
Relieves ciliary body spasm due to 1 or 2 anterior uveitis.
Can cause ileus and decrease tear production.
Chloramphenicol Ophthalmic Ointment 1%, q3-8h Broad spectrum, bacteriostatic antibiotic.
(10mg/gram of ointment) Good ocular penetration. Pseudomonas usually resistant.
Often active against E. coli, Staph and Strep.
Ciloxan (ciprofloxacin hydrochloride) Ophthalmic q3-4h Corneal ulcers.
Ointment 0.3%, (3.33 mg/gram of ointment, Broad spectrum, bactericidal agent
equivalent to 3 mg base) used following culture and sensitivity.
Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution 0.3% q2-4h Used through subpalpebral lavage system.
(3.5 mg equivalent to 3 mg/ml) Indications as for ointment.
Crolom (cromolyn sodium) q8-12h. Often mixed with Inhibits degranulation of mast cells. No intrinsic
Ophthalmic Solution 4%, (40mg/ml) artificial tear solution or gel antihistamine or anti-inflammatory activity.
May relieve symptoms of eosinophilic
keratoconjunctivitis.
Dexamethasone Ophthalmic Ointment 0.1% q6-12h Uveitis. Contraindicated in corneal ulceration
(compounded) and/or infection. May cause corneal degeneration.
Diclofenac Ophthalmic Ointment 0.1% (compounded) q8-12h NSAID for non infectious keratitis and uveitis.
Erythromycin Ophthalmic Ointment 0.5%, q4-8h Treatment of conjunctival or corneal bacterial
(5mg/gram of ointment) infections. Bacteriostatic. May be bactericidal
at higher concentrations.
Flurbiprofen Sodium Ophthalmic Solution 0.03%, q8-12h NSAID for non-infectious keratitis
(0.3 mg/ml) or uveitis.
Gentamicin Sulfate Ophthalmic Ointment, q3-8h Bactericidal.
(3mg/gram of ointment) Treatment of ocular bacterial infections.
Often good for Pseudomonas.
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MEDICATION DOSAGE INDICATIONS
Gentamicin Sulfate Ophthalmic Solution 0.3%, q2-6h Treatment of sensitive bacterial infections
3mg/ml via subpalpebral lavage system
Itraconazole 1.0% / DMSO 30% Ophthalmic Ointment q4-6h Antifungal. DMSO may have additional
(compounded) anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties.
Lid Paint Contains Dexamethasone (2mg/ml) q12-24h on skin overlying Topical application. Lacrimal gland adenitis associated
and DOMOSO Solution in equal volumes lacrimal gland with eosinophilic keratoconjunctivitis.
Miconazole Ophthalmic Ointment 2% (compounded) q4-6h Antifungal.
Miconazole Ophthalmic Solution 1% (compounded) q3-4h Antifungal via subpalpebral lavage system.
Mucomyst 20% (acetylcysteine) 20% solution q2-4h diluted to 5% Anti-collagenase via lavage for malacic ulcers.
Mydriacyl (tropicamide) Ophthalmic Solution 1% Single application Short duration parasympatholytic to induce mydriasis
(10mg/ml) for intraocular examination.
Natacyn (natamycin) Ophthalmic Solution 5% q2-6h Fungal keratitis.
(50mg/ml)
Neobacimyx - H Ophthalmic Ointment (400 units q8-12h Acute bacterial conjunctivitis.
bacitracin zinc, 3.5mg neomycin base, 10,000 units Contraindications:
polymixin B sulfate, and 10 mg hydrocortisone acetate Corneal ulcers; fungal or viral infections.
per gram)
Neobacimyx Ophthalmic Ointment q3-q6h Good combination of bactericidal drugs
(400 units bacitracin zinc, 3.5mg neomycin base, useful for initial treatment of infection.
and 10,000 units polymixin B sulfate
per gram)
Neo-Poly-Bac Ophthalmic Ointment q3-q6h Same as Neobacimyx.
NeoPolyDex Ophthalmic Ointment (3.5mg neomycin q8-12h Bacterial conjunctivitis.
base, and 10,000 units polymixin B sulfate, Decreases edema and inflammation
and 1mg dexamethasone per gram) Contraindications: Corneal ulcers;
Viral, bacterial, or fungal disease.
NeoPolyDex Ophthalmic Solution q8-12h Decreases edema and inflammation
(3.5mg neomycin base, and 10,000 after nasolacrimal duct flush.
units polymixin B sulfate, and 1 mg Contraindications: Corneal ulcers;
Dexamethasone per ml) Viral, bacterial, or fungal disease.
Optimmune (cyclosporine) Ophthalmic Ointment q8-12h Local immunomodulator. Management of
0.2% (2mg/gram of ointment) keratoconjunctivitis sicca and chronic superficial
keratitis. Safety in face of fungal or viral infections
is unknown.
MEDICATION DOSAGE INDICATIONS
Phenylephrine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution, Used pre-operatively Ophthalmic decongestant, vasoconstrictor,
25mg/ml (KEEP REFRIGERATED) and mydriatic.
Pred Forte (prednisolone acetate) q6-12h Glucocorticoid. Anti-inflammatory for treatment of
Ophthalmic Solution 1% steroid responsive inflammation of the conjunctiva,
cornea and anterior segment of the globe.
Contraindication: infection.
Proparacaine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution 5%, Single application Topical anesthesia to facilitate ophthalmic exam.
(5mg/ml) (KEEP REFRIGERATED) May be mixed with fluorescein stain prior to instillation.
Sodium Chloride Ophthalmic Ointment 5% q6-8h Decreases corneal epithelial edema and
(50mg NaCl/gm) supports healing when stromal bullae are present.
Tacrolimus Ophthalmic Ointment 0.3% q8-12h Immunomodulator used like cyclosporine.
(compounded) May have some benefit for uveitis.
Tears Again (carboxymethyl cellulose sodium) PRN Tear replacement/augmentation.
gel 1% or 1.5%
Terramycin Ophthalmic Ointment (oxytetracycline q4-8h Broad spectrum antibiotic combination
HCl equivalent to 5mg for bacterial conjunctivitis or keratitis.
oxytetracycline and 10,000 units
polymyxin B sulfate per gram)
Timolol Maleate Ophthalmic Solution 0.5%, (6.8 mg q8-12h Treatment of elevated intraocular pressure; beta blocker.
timolol maleate or 5mg timolol per ml)
Tobradex Ophthalmic Ointment and Ophthalmic q8h Bacterial conjunctivitis resistant to less expensive
Solution (Tobramycin 0.3% and Dexamethasone 0.1%) alternatives. Contraindication: bacterial infection
with resistant organisms, viral and
fungal infections.
Tobramycin Ophthalmic Solution 0.3% (3mg/ml) q2-6h Same as Ophthalmic Ointment.
Tobrex (tobramycin) Ophthalmic Ointment 0.3%, q3-8h Treatment of bacterial infection
(3mg/gm) following culture and sensitivity.
Trifluridine Ophthalmic Solution 1%, (10mg/ml) q2h initially tapering to QID Treatment of primary keratoconjunctivitis and
(KEEP REFRIGERATED) recurrent epithelial keratitis d/t presumed
viral infection. Ointment (compounded) is preferred
due to increased contact time.
Trusopt (dorzolamide hydrochloride) Ophthalmic q8-12h Treatment of elevated intraocular pressure.
Solution 2%, (22.3mg/ml dorzolamide hydrochloride Warning: This is a Sulfonamide, therefore can have
or 20mg dorzolamide per ml) similar reactions. Often combined with Timolol.
9
10
MEDICATION DOSAGE INDICATIONS
Vfend (voriconazole) 10mg/ml q2-6h topically Via subpalpebral lavage and intracameral
(reconstituted injectable solution) Single dose intracameral for fungal keratitis.
Voltaren (diclofenac sodium) q8-12h NSAID for non-infectious keratitis and uveitis.
Ophthalmic Solution 0.1% (1mg/ml) Compounded ointment is available.
ANESTHESIA & PAIN MANAGEMENT FORMULARY
MEDICATION DOSAGE INDICATIONS
EMERGENCY DRUGS:
Atropine 0.02mg/kg IV (0.01mg/lb) Anticholinergic - for bradycardia.
Calcium gluconate 500ml in 5L LRS or drip to effect Positive inotrope.
Dobutamine 5ml dobutamine (12.5mg/ml) in 250ml NaCl or Positive inotrope,
3ml in 150ml NaCl or LRS. Use a microdrip set: chronotrope at high doses.
1 drop per 3-4 seconds for foals, 1 drop every other
second for adults (dose is 1-5ug/kg/min)
Ephedrine 12.5mg to 25mg IV (0.25ml to 0.5ml) Causes the release of norepinephrine.
dose is 0.03-0.07mg/kg IV
Epinephrine (1mg/ml) Foals: 0.5 - 1ml initially, if no response, then Cardiac arrest.
every 3 - 5 minutes; Adults: 1 - 3ml initially,
can give up to 10ml in large horses, repeat every
3 - 5 minutes if no response
Glycopyrrolate 0.005 mg/kg IV (0.0025 mg/lb) Anticholinergic.
HCO3- Isotonic solution 1mEq/kg IV, give over 20 minutes then re-evaluate Metabolic acidosis.
(150 mEq/1 L sterile water) HCO3 levels (8.4% sodium bicarbonate has 1mEq/ml) Adequate lung function required.
mEq to correct deficit =(wgt. in kg x 0.3 x base excess
for adults); (wgt. in kg x 0.4 x base excess for foals)
Heparinized Saline 0.125-0.25ml of 10,000 IU/ml heparin combined Catheter flush.
with 250ml Saline (0.9%)
Lidocaine (20mg/ml) (0.5 - 1 mg/lb) ~250lb foal: 125 - 250mg = 6 - 12 ml Ventricular fibrillation/ventricular premature
~1000lb horse: 500 - 1000 mg = 25 - 50 ml contractions.
PAIN MANAGEMENT:
Amantadine 2.2 - 2.4mg/kg PO q12 - 24h Anti-viral agent, used for chronic pain, anxiety.
Amitriptiline 25 - 75mg once daily PO q8 - 12h Look for toxicity signs similar to use of an anticholinergic
(dilated pupils, decreased GI activity, etc.).
Butorphanol 0.1 - 0.2 mg/kg/hr CRI Analgesic, sedative.
Fentanyl 2 ug/kg loading dose followed by 5-10 ug/kg/hr Concurrent use of butorphanol can antagonize fentanyl
IV CRI at mu receptors.
Gabapentin 2.5mg/kg PO BID; Can be increased to a Anti-epileptic medication,
maximum dose of 10mg/kg BID used for chronic pain.
Hydromorphone CRI bolus 0.02 mg/kg then CRI 0.02 mg/kg/hr Analgesia - orthopedic/laminitis.
11
12
MEDICATION DOSAGE INDICATIONS
Hydromorphone/lidocaine Syringe pump 10ml 2% lidocaine and 1.5ml hydromor- Analgesia - orthopedic/laminitis.
phone; Administer 1ml/hr for each 30 lb body weight
Ketamine 2-10 ug/kg/min CRI Analgesia - neuropathic/orthopedic/laminitis.
Lidocaine 1.0 mg/kg bolus followed by CRI Analgesia; GI motility.
at 0.004 - 0.1 mg/kg/min in conjunction with
other pain relief techniques
Lidocaine + Ketamine 1 gram lidocaine (50ml) + 1 gram ketamine (10ml) Analgesia - neuropathic/orthopedic/laminitis.
(drip to effect)
Lidocaine CRI 1 gram lidocaine (50ml) in 1liter NaCl or LRS Analgesia - soft tissue, colics, orthopedic, neuropathic.
(drip to effect)
Methadone 0.1 - 0.2mg/kg PO BID Mu and MNDA receptor activity.
Morphine/Lidocaine/Ketamine 60mg morphine + 60mg ketamine + 500mg lidocaine Analgesia - neuropathic/orthopedic/laminitis.
in 500ml saline or LRS. Administer at 0.5 ml/kg/hr CRI
Morphine 0.1mg/kg IV or IM, q8-12h For mild sedation; to avoid excitement administer
with 2 agonist.
0.16mg/kg loading dose, then 0.1mg/kg/h IV
Morphine intra-articular 0.1mg/kg Orthopedic analgesia.
Morphine/Ketamine 60mg morphine + 60mg ketamine in 500 ml saline Analgesia - orthopedic/laminitis.
or LRS. Administer at 0.5 ml/kg/hr CRI
Propofol 0.05-0.1 mg/kg/min CRI Analgesia - patient on ventilator or seizuring.
Tramadol 2 - 5mg/kg PO BID Cross between an opioid and NSAID.
PRE-ANESTHETICS:
Acepromazine 0.02 - 0.04mg/kg IV (0.01-0.02mg/lb) Sedation, anti-anxiety.
Butorphanol 0.02 - 0.1mg/kg IV (0.01-0.05mg/lb) Short duration analgesia.
Detomidine 0.002-0.01mg/kg IV (0.001-0.005mg/lb), Pre-anesthetic for excited horses.
0.01-0.02mg/lb IM
Diazepam 1-1.1mg/kg IV (0.04mg/lb) combined with ketamine Pre-anesthetic for foals.
for induction Muscle relaxant for induction combined with Ketamine.
Xylazine 1mg/kg IV for pre-op (0.4mg/lb) Pre-anesthetic.
DRUG INDUCTION:
Ketamine 2-2.2mg/kg IV for induction after sedation Short-acting general anesthetic.
with Xylazine or Diazepam
Triple Drip (GKX) 500mg xylazine + 1g ketamine + 1L 5% guiafenesin. Total intravenous anesthetic.
Give as a bolus to effect
THERIOGENOLOGY FORMULARY
MEDICATION DOSAGE INDICATIONS
Altrenogest [Regumate] 0.044mg/kg PO q24h Estrus suppression/Maintain pregnancy.
0.088mg/kg PO q24h Placentitis/Pregnancy maintenance during stress.
Cloprostenol [Estrumate] (250ug/ml) 125 - 250ug IM Lysis of CL.
Uterine contraction/Cervical relaxation.
Deslorelin (1mg/ml) 1-1.5mg IM Induces ovulation.
Estradiol 17B, (3.33mg/ml) 10mg IM Used in ovariectomized or anestrus mares to induce
signs of estrus; relatively quick onset, short duration,
repeated as needed.
Estradiol Cypionate [ECP] (2mg/ml) 4mg IM Used in ovariectomized or anestrus mares to induce
signs of estrus; slower onset, longer duration, repeated
as needed.
Follicle Stimulating Hormone 6.5mg IM BID Induces follicular development (anestrus);
[eFSH] Follicles > 25mm.
12.5 mg IM BID Superovulation; Begin 4 - 5 d after ovulation when
follicles > 25mm. Stop when follicles reach 35mm.
Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone 500 micrograms IM BID Follicular development.
(250 micrograms/ml)
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin 1500 - 3000 IU IV or IM Induces ovulation.
Imipramine (50mg tablets) 1 - 2mg/kg PO 2 hours before semen collection Decreases ejaculatory threshold.
Long Acting Progesterone 1500mg IM q7d Estrus suppression/Maintain pregnancy.
(150mg/ml)
Long Acting Progesterone / 1500/50mg IM q7d Estrus suppression/Estrus synchronization/
Estradiol (LA P&E) (150mg/5mg/ml) Maintain pregnancy.
Misoprostol PGE Massage small amount on and into cervix Cervical relaxation
(2000 micrograms/tube) 2 - 4 hours before breeding
Oxytocin 10-20 IU IV or IM every 4 hrs Post breeding endometritis.
10-20 IU IV or IM every 4 hrs Retained placenta, metritis.
20-60 IU in 1 L fluids IV Retained placenta.
(Administer slowly over 1 hour)
Progesterone (100mg/ml) 150mg to 300mg IM Estrus suppression/Maintain pregnancy..
Progesterone / Estradiol [P&E] 150mg/10mg IM (3ml) Estrus suppression/Estrus synchronization/
(50 mg/3.3mg/ml) Maintain pregnancy.

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MEDICATION DOSAGE INDICATIONS
Prostaglandin F2 [Lutalyse] 7.5 - 10mg IM Lysis of CL.
(5mg/ml)
Sulpiride 400mg IM SID for 10-16d Enhance follicular development.

INTRA-UTERINE TREATMENTS:
DMSO (90%) 50ml DMSO /L (900mg/ml = 4.5% solution) Decrease mucus.
followed by 1 liter saline or LRS only
Titratable iodine 1.0% 15cc Povidone Solution/L (1.5% solution) Disinfectant.
[Povidone Solution] followed by 1 liter saline or LRS only
Vinegar (white vinegar) 100 ml vinegar/L Saline; Lavage until fluid clears Yeast infections.
Mannose Add 500ml sterile water to 25 g; Infuse 100 ml Streptococcus or E. coli endometritis.
into uterus, wait 30 minutes, then lavage with
saline/LRS
Add 333ml sterile water to 25 g (75mg/ml) solution); Pseudomonas endometritis.
Infuse 100ml into uterus, wait 30 minutes, then
lavage with saline/LRS
INTRA-UTERINE ANTIBIOTICS
(qs to 60 ml with saline or
sterile water)
Amikacin (250mg/ml) 2g, Buffer with 35ml of 8.4% Bicarb
Ampicillin (250mg/ml) 2g
Ceftiofur (Naxcel) 1-2 g
Gentamicin (100mg/ml) 2g, Buffer with 35ml of 8.4% Bicarb
Polymyxin B (500,000 U/vial) 1,000,000 units
Potassium Penicillin 10 million units
Ticarcillin and clavulanate [Timentin] 3.1-6.2g
VETERINARY LABORATORY MANUAL

ROOD & RIDDLE EQUINE HOSPITAL


VETERINARY LABORATORY
2150 Georgetown Road
Lexington, KY 40511

859-233-0371
Fax 859-280-3489
lab@roodandriddle.com

The following people contributed to the Laboratory Manual:


Bonnie Barr, V.M.D.
Marianne Swintosky, MT
Steve Reed, D.V.M.
Tom Riddle, D.V.M.

Renowned for their prompt turnaround of reliable test results,


ROOD & RIDDLE EQUINE HOSPITAL VETERINARY LABORATORY
offers same day service for many of your laboratory needs (see individual tests for result time).
In addition to fax and paper printouts, the Laboratory offers email of all results.

ROOD & RIDDLE EQUINE HOSPITAL VETERINARY LABORATORY


accepts specimens from local and out-of-state veterinarians.
Please call 859-233-0331 for information on mailing specimens.

PHYSICAL ADDRESS:
2150 Georgetown Road Lexington, KY 40511

U.S. POSTAL SERVICE ADDRESS:


P.O.Box 12070 Lexington, KY 40580

LEGEND
RED Top No additive
PURPLE Top EDTA
GREEN Top Heparin
BLUE Top Sodium citrate
YELLOW Top ACD

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16
VETERINARY LABORATORY AVAILABLE TESTS
TEST SAMPLE REQUIRED COMMENTS
Hematology - same day results
Complete CBC Purple and Red top Includes differential and fibrinogen
CBC Pre-surgery Purple and Red top Includes a fibrinogen
CBC Purple top No differential or fibrinogen
Fluid Analysis Purple top Includes WBC, RBC, TP
CSF Analysis Purple and Red top Includes WBC, RBC, MTP

Chemistry - same day results


BUN Red top or Green top
Creatinine Red top or Green top
SGOT/AST Red top or Green top
T. Bili Red top or Green top
D. Bili Red top or Green top
ALP/SAP Red top or Green top
LDH Red top or Green top
CPK/CK Red top or Green top
SDH Red top or Green top For best results, keep cool and submit within 3 hours
GGT Red top or Green top
Albumin Red top or Green top
Calcium Red top or Green top
Phosphorous Red top or Green top
Glucose Red top or Green top
Electrolytes Red top or Green top Includes Na, K, Cl, HCO3
Master Panel Red top or Green top Includes all the above chemistries
Basic Panel Red top or Green top All of the above chemistries excluding electrolytes
Foal Profile Red top Includes BUN, Creatinine, and IgG
Bile Acids Red top
Lipase Red top
Amylase Red top
Triglycerides Red top
Cholesterol Red top
Ammonia Green top Keep on ice; submit sample within 30 min
TEST SAMPLE REQUIRED COMMENTS

Chemistry - same day results (continued)


Magnesium Red top or Green top
IgG Red top
Blood Gases Heparanized syringe Submit sample within 10 min
Milk Electrolytes Sterile container Includes Na, K, Ionized and total calcium
Colostrum IgG Sterile container
Immunophoresis Red top Includes IgG, IgA, IgM, and IgG(t)

Coagulation - same day results


PT Blue top
PTT Blue top
Platelet Count Blue top or Purple top
Clotting Profile Blue top Includes PT, and PTT

Hormone Assays - same day results


Progesterone Red top
Testosterone Red top
T4 Red top
TT3 Red top
Cortisol Red top
Insulin Red top

NI Screening - results available in 1-3 days


Blood Type Yellow top
Antibody Screen Red top Collect and submit sample 3 weeks prior to foaling

Immunohematology - same day results


Coombs Purple top
Jaundice Foal Agglutination Colostrum in a sterile container and
foals blood in a Purple top
Transfusion Crossmatch Purple top of donor and each recipient

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TEST SAMPLE REQUIRED COMMENTS

Serology
AGID Coggins 24 hours* Red top Set up at 3PM and available the following day at 3PM
ELISA Coggins 2 hours* Red top Upon submission, notify lab technician
*Online EIA results are also available via GlobalVetLink

Microbiology
*****Results are not finalized until 72 hours after submission
*****All samples with positive preliminary results are called to the doctor each morning
Culture / Sensitivity Amies media, sterile container, or swab Label the sample with patient, Dr, site
Salmonella Specimen in sterile container or swab 48 hours before preliminary results
ARD Culture Fluid sample in sterile container Antibiotic Removal Device
Anaerobic Amies media, sterile container, or swab
Mycology/Fungal Amies media, sterile container, or swab Results may take 3-21 days

Cytology - same day results


Uterine cytology Pre-prepared slide
Fluid cytology Fluid sample in sterile container or EDTA Identify source

Fecal Testing - same day results


Rotavirus Fecal specimen in sterile container
Clostridium difficile toxin Fecal specimen in sterile container Sample must be submitted before 2 pm each day
Clostridium perfringens toxin Fecal specimen in sterile container Sample must be submitted before 2 pm each day
Fecal Egg Count Fecal specimen in sterile container
Fecal Occult Blood Fecal specimen in sterile container
Cultures (See Microbiology)

Miscellaneous Testing - same day results


Antibiotic Levels Red top Peak or trough for Amikacin and Gentamicin
Urinalysis Sterile container
NORMAL LABORATORY VALUES
Please note that normal values include values from RREH laboratory standards, as well as normal values from reference papers
(references are listed following the data and complete references are given at the end).

ADULT VALUES
UNITS RREH LAB THOROUGHBRED STANDARDBRED MINIATURE HORSE DRAFT
HgB g/dl 11-14 10.9-18.8 11.3-17.9 9-16 8-14
PCV % 30-42 29-53 31-48 23.7-42.7 24-42
RBC 106/ ul 8-10 6.5-11.6 6.9-10.7 4.27-10.3 5.5-9.5
MCV fl 39-49 40-49 38-60.5
MCHC g/dl 337-386 350-410 327-397
WBC 103/ ul 7,000-12,000 5,300-11,000 6,900-10,700 6,100-12,490 6,000-12,000
SEG 103/ ul 3500-8400 (50-70 %) 1855-7480(35-68%) 2277-6741(33-63%) 1638-6745 (22-54%) 2100-9000 (35-75%)
STAB 103/ ul 0-240 (0-2%) 0-220 (0-2%) 0-535 (0-5%) 0-375 (0-3%) 0-240 (0-2%)
LYMPH 103/ ul 1400-4800 (20-40%) 1378-6270 (26-57%) 1932-5992 (28-56%) 3149-9617 (41-77%) 120-1200 (2-10%)
MONO 103/ ul 0-360 (0-3%) 0-660 (0-6%) 0-535 (0-5%) 0-500 (0/4%) 120-1440 (2-12%)
EOS 103/ ul 0-120 (0-1%) 0-800 (0-7%) 0-700 (0-6%) 0-874 (0-7%) 0-360 (0-3%)
Bands 103/ ul rare 0-110 (0-1%) 0-214 (0-2%) 0-460 (0-4%) 0-222 (0-2%)
TP g/dl 5.8-7.6 6.0-7.5 5.4-7.5 5.2-7.9 6.4-8.
BUN mg/dl 8-26. 11-24 8-14 15.2-32.5 11.3-17.7
CREAT mg/dl .08-2 .9-2.1 .9-1.7 0.7-1.4 1.4-2.0
SGOT(AST) U/l 80-240 141-330 123-789 140-306 71.5-396.9
FIB mg/dl 200-400 150-380
T. BILI mg/dl .8-2 .9-2.6 .9-2.9 .7-1.7
IND. BILI mg/dl .3-1.7 .6-2.5
D. BILI mg/dl .2-1 .2-.8 .2-.7
SAP U/l 50-150 26-92 24-67 81-304 55.7-127.1
LDH U/l 52-240 81-225 74-206
CPK (CK) U/l 50-250
SDH U/l 0.8-4.2
GGT U/l 6-24. 6-29
ALBUMIN g/dl 2.4-5 2.9-3.6 2.7-3.4 3.1-4.1
Ca mg/dl 9-12.5 10.7-12.4 10.9-12.9 10.16-12.56 10.8-13
P mg/dl 3-6. 1.1-4.4 2.2-4.2 2.81-6.75 2.8-4.2
GLU mg/dl 60-110 69-150 63-101 68-126 56.7-95.1
Na mmol/l 136-144 134-142 137-143 132-140 131.9-142.3
K mmol 3.6-5 2.1-4.2 29.-4.4 3.66-5.32 3.1-4.1
Cl mmol/l 92-102 94-106 96-102 97.3-106.5
HCO3 mmol/l 21-28 21.4-27.2
Mg mEq/l 1.8-2.3 .53-.84
Lumsden, Rowe, Mullen 1980 Harvey, et al 1984 Gelser, et al 1984
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20

FOAL VALUES
UNITS F<12HR F-1DY F-1WK F-1MO F-3MO F-6MO F-12MO
HgB g/dl 12.6-17.4 12-16.6 10.7-15.8 10.9-15.3 11.7-15.3 10.8-15.4 11-15.4
PCV % 37-49 32-46 28-43 29-41 32-42 29-41 31-42
RBC x106/ ul 9-12 8.2-11 7.4-10.6 7.9-11.1 9.2-12 7.9-11.6 7.7-10.9
MCV fl 36-45 36-46 35-44 33-40 31-38 32-39 35-44
MCHC g/L 320-400 320-400 350-400 340-400 340-400 330-400 340-400
WBC x103/ ul 6.9-14.4 4.9-11.7 6.3-13.6 5.3-12.2 6.7-16.8 7.8-11.6 6.5-11.8
SEG x103/ ul 5.55-12.38 3.36-9.57 4.35-10.55 2.76-9.27 3.92-10.35 2.89-5.56 2.66-5.9
LYMPH x10 / ul
3
.46-2.54 .67-2.12 1.43-2.28 1.73-4.85 2.88-7.15 3.2-6.01 2.01-6.53
MONO x103/ ul .04-.43 .07-.39 .03-.54 .05-.63 .12-.76 .04-.45 .04-.44
EOS x10 / ul
3
0 0.-.02 0-.09 0-.12 0-.55 0-.55 0-.78
BASO x10 / ul
3
0-.02 0-.03 0-.18 0-.08 0-.07 0-.06 0-.09
TP(plasma) g/dl 5.1-7.6 5.2-8. 5.2-7.5 5.1-7.1 5.5-7.1 5.9-7.1 5.4-7
BUN mg/dl 12.-27 9-40 4-20 6-21 7-20 15-30 15-24
CREAT mg/dl 1.7-4.2 1.2-4.3 1-1.7 1.1-1.8 .7-2.2 1.2-2.1 1.3-2.1
SGOT(AST) U/l 97-315 146-340 237-620 252-440 282-480 300-620 283-720
FIB mg/dl 100-350 100-400 150-450 200-550 100-550 200-550 200-550
T. BILI mg/dl .9-2.8 1.3-4.5 .8-3 .5-1.7 .4-2 .3-1.3 .4-1.4
IND. BILI mg/dl .8-2.5 1.-3.8 .5-2.3 .4-1.2 .4-1.4 .1-.6 .2-.6
D. BILI mg/dl .3-.6 .3-.7 .3-.7 .1-.6 .1-.7 .1-.7 .1-1
SAP U/l 152-2835 861-2671 137-1169 210-866 206-458 155-226
CPK (CK) U/l 65-380 40-909 52-143 81-585 57-204 97-396
SDH U/l .2-4.8 .6-4.6 .8-8.2 1.2-5.9 1.1-3.9 .3-3.3
GGT U/l 13-39 18-43 14-164 17-99 0-27 0-26
ALBUMIN g/dl 2.7-3.9 2.5-3.6 2.7-3.4 2.7-3.4 2.8-3.5 3.-3.5 3.1-3.8
Ca mg/dl 10.8-14.8 9.7-13.7 11.3-13.7 11-13.4 11.2-13.2 10.2-13.4 11.3-14.1
P mg/dl 3.1-6.3 3.8-7.4 5.4-9.4 4.9-9.3 6.3-8.3 4.8-7.6 5.2-6.8
GLU mg/dl 108-190 121-233 121-192 130-216 88-179 110-210 105-165
Na mmol/l 133-163 123-159 130-154 136-154 140-156 133-153 134-158
K mmol 3.4-5.4 3.6-5.6 3.8-5.8 3.8-5.4 3.4-5.8 2.8-5.6 2.2-5.4
Cl mmol/l 93-117 93-117 94-110 97-109 102-110 98-112 99-109
CO2 mEq/l 20-30 24-32 22-32 23-31 22-30 27-31
Mg2+ mg/dl .7-2.3 .6-4.2 1.4-2.6 1-3 1.6-2.8 1.7-3.1
Harvey et al (1984) and Bauer et al (1984)
MISCELLANEOUS DIAGNOSTIC TESTS
TEST NORMAL VALUES

Clotting Tests
Prothrombin time 8-13 seconds
PTT 30-60 seconds
Platelet count 100,000-350,000 (Jain, 1986)
***from RREH lab and Jain (1986)

Urinalysis
Color pale yellow to brown
Viscosity viscous (mucoid)
Transparency slightly turbid
Specific gravity 1.008-1.042 (foal 1.001-1.027)

Dipstick Chemistries
pH 7.0-9.0 (acidic urine is normal in foals)
protein none to possible trace
glucose none
ketones none
bilirubin none
blood none

Sediment Findings (microscopy)


Casts rare
RBC (hpf) 0-8
WBC (hpf) 0-8
Bacteria rare
Epithelial cells/hpf rare
Crystals moderate (primarily calcium carbonate,
occasional triple phosphate and calcium oxalate)
***from Kohn and Chew (1987)

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TEST NORMAL VALUES

Peritoneal fluid analysis


Total nucleated cell count <10,000 /ul
Neutrophils 24-62%
Lymphocytes 0-35%
Large mononuclear cells 5-60%
Eosinophils 0-5%
Basophils 0-1%
Total protein <2.5 g/dl

Synovial fluid analysis


Total nucleated cell count <500/ul
Neutrophils <10%
Total protein 0.5-2.2 g/dl
Total red blood cells <1400/ul
Color Clear
Viscosity High
*** from Tew 1983

T3 0.5-6.0 ng/ml
T4 9.0-36.0 ng/ml

Progesterone Pre-ovulation <0.5 ng/ml


Post-ovulation >1.0 ng/ml
Sufficient to maintain pregnancy >3.0 - 4.0 ng/ml

Testosterone Stallion 40-210 ng/dl


Mares (nonpregnant) <50 pg/ml

Cortisol 1.9-9.2 ug/dl

Bile Acids <10 mol/l


Gentamicin peak 32-40 ug/ml (30 minutes post drug administration)
(with once a day dosing)
TEST NORMAL VALUES
Amikacin peak 50-60 ug/ml (30 minutes post drug administration)
(with once a day dosing)
***from RREH lab
Insulin <5-20 uIU/ml ***Anderson 1997

Urinary fractional excretion of electrolytes


Formula:
Electrolyte Plasma (creat) Urine (Z)
Fractional excretion = ------------------ X ------------- X 100
Urine (creat) Plasma (Z)
Z= Na or K (each individual electrolyte)
Adults (%) Foals (%)
Sodium 0-0.46 0.13-0.49
Potassium 23.9-75.1 8.77-17.75
Chloride 0.48-1.64 0.1-0.74
Phosphorus 0.04-0.16
Calcium 6.0-15.0
Magnesium 7.8-22.5
****Kohn 1986 ***Brewer et al 1991

Blood gas values Arterial Venous


pH 7.36-7.44 7.33-7.41
PCO2 (mmHg) 34-49 46-64
PO2 (mmHg) 73-115 ---
HCO3 (mEq/L) 20-34 25-35
Base excess (mmol/L) --- -1 to 7
***Aguilera-Tejero et al 1980 ***Soma et al 1996

Reference for converting conventional units to SI units:


http://www.unc.edu/~rowlett/units/scales/clinical_data.html

http://www.globalrph.com/conv_si.htm

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REFERENCES FOR NORMAL LABORATORY VALUES

Aguilera-Tejero E, Estepa JC, Lopez I, et al. Arterial blood gases and acid-base balance in healthy young and aged horses. Equine Vet
Journal 1998; 30(4):352-354.

Bauer JE, Asquith RL, Kivipelto J. Serum biochemical indicators of liver function in neonatal foals. Am J Vet Res 1989; 50(12): 2037-
2041.

Bauer JE, Harvey JW, Asquith RL, et al. Clinical chemistry reference values of foals during the first year of life. Equine Vet. Journal
1984; 16(4): 361-363.

Brewer BD, Clement SF, et al. Renal Clearance, Urinary Excretion of Endogenous Substances, and Urinary Diagnostic Indices in
Healthy Neonatal Foals. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 1991; 5 (1): 28-33.

Gelser DR, Goble DO, Held JP. Normal Hematology and Serology of the Clydesdale Draft Horse. Equine Practice 1984; 6(10): 7-11.

Harvey JW, Asquith RL, McNulty PK, et al. Haematology of foals up to one year old. Equine Vet Journal 1984; 16(4): 347-353.

Harvey RB, Hambright MB, Rowe LD. Clinical biochemical and hematologic values of the American Miniature Horse: Reference
values. Am J Vet Res 1984;(5): 987-990.

Jain NC. The horse: normal hematology with comments on response to disease. In Schalms Veterinary Hematology, 4th edition,
1986, Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger.

Kohn CW, Chew DJ. Laboratory diagnosis and characterization of renal diseases in horses. Vet Clinics North America Equine Pract.
1987; 3:585-615.

Kohn CW, Strasser SL. 24-hour renal clearance and excretion of endogenous substances in the mare. Am J Vet Res. 1986;
47(6):1332-1337.

Lumsden JH, Rowe R, Mullen K. Hematology and Biochemistry Reference Values for the Light Horse. Can. J. Med 1980; 44(1): 32-42.

Nelson AW. Analysis of equine peritoneal fluid. Vet Clinics North America Large Animal Practice 1979; 1:267-274.

Ralston SL, Baile CA. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations and feeding behavior in ponies. J Animal Sci 1982; 54(6): 1132-
1137.

Soma LR, Uboh CE, Nann L, et al. Prerace venous blood acid-base values in Standardbred horses. Equine Vet Journal 1996;
28(5):390-396.

Tew WP Synovial fluid analysis: applications in equine joint injury and disease. Proceedings of the 28th Annual Meeting of the
American Association of Equine Practitioners. 1983; 121-122.
LABORATORY TESTS SENT TO REFERRAL LABORATORIES

Some laboratory tests are not performed at Rood & Riddle Veterinary Laboratory and should be sent directly to referral laboratories.
A list of these tests and the name of the laboratory that performs each test for Rood & Riddle Equine Hospital is listed following the test.
These tests and the names of laboratories are included to aid practitioners; please note that there are likely other laboratories performing
these tests, and in some cases, you may be required to send specimens to a laboratory in your state.
Please call the laboratory before sending a specimen to:
1. Confirm the type of sample needed;
2. Give shipping instructions;
3. Set up an account for billing.

TEST LAB SPECIMEN REQUIRED


ACTH IDEXX Purple top tube
BET Red top tube
Allergy testing Biomedical Red top tube
Anaerobic culture UKLDDC Feces, aspirate, transtracheal wash fluid -
Sterile container with sealed lid
Blastomycosis serology AGID UKLDDC Red top tube
Bone Marrow Aspirate PENN Slide
Auburn Slide
Cardiac Troponin I New Bolton Center Green top tube (frozen)
CEM culture UKLDDC Amies /charcoal tube (2 or 3 sites)
CEM-CF test UKLDDC Red top tube
Clostridium Perfringens PCR UKLDDC Culture plate
Cryptosporidia (acidfast) UKLDDC Feces
Drug Tests Screens Cornell Green top tube (10 - 12 mls)
Dxylose absorption series UC Davis Green top tube
Ehrlichiosis (Erlichia equi) IFA OSU Red top tube
Electrophoresis UKLDDC Red top tube
Limestone Red top tube
EPM Profile I: (Western Blot) IDEXX Red top tube, cerebral spinal fluid
Western Blot (CSF) IDEXX Cerebral spinal fluid
Western Blot (serum) IDEXX Red top tube
Estrogen assay/Total Estrogens BET Red top tube
EVA titer UKLDDC Red top tube
Murray Red top tube
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TEST LAB SPECIMEN REQUIRED
Fluid Analysis HPA Aspirate, joint fluid, etc.
Follicle Stimulating Hormone BET Red top tube
Fungal culture UKLDDC Aspirate, transtracheal wash fluid, etc.
Fungal sensitivity Cornell Fungal culture plate
Granulosa Cell Tumor Panel UC Davis Red top tube (6 ml serum)
Herpes 1 PCR UKLDDC Nasal swab and/or buffy coat (Purple top tube x4)
Herpes 4 PCR UKLDDC Nasal swab and/or buffy coat (Purple top tube x4)
Herpes titer (EHV serology)SN UKLDDC Red top tube
Histoplasmosis AGID UKKLDDC Red top tube
HYPP (hairs only) Vet Gen Tail or mane hair
Immunophenotyping
of bone marrow aspirate KSU Slide of bone marrow (minimum 2 slides)
of peripheral blood KSU Purple top tube
Influenza A Directigen test UKLDDC Nasal swab
Influenza I,2(HI) serum UKLDDC Red top tube
Inhibin assay UC Davis Red top tube (6ml serum)
Karyotyping Gluck 2 Green top heparinized tubes + 1 ACD tube
(keep cool do not freeze)
Lawsonia intracellularis PCR UKLDDC Feces
titer UMINN Red top tube
Leptospirosis titer UKLDDC Red top tube
Leptospirosis UKLDDC Urine
Lethal White Overo Test Vet Gen Tail or mane hairs (25 - 30 hairs)
Lyme Disease K-ELISA Murray Red top tube serum (1ml)
Western Blot w/K-ELISA Cornell Red top tube serum (2 ml)
Muscle biopsy (tie-up) UMINN Muscle biopsy (call lab for specifics)
Paratythroid MSU Red top tube serum (1ml)
Piroplasmosis NVSL Red top tube serum (2ml)
Platelet Surface Antibody KSU Purple top tube x4 (immunology)
Potomac Horse Fever
PCR (Neorickettsia risticci) UKLDDC Purple top tube
titer / IFA UKLDDC Red top tube
Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin BET Red top tube
Prepurchase drug screen Cornell Green top tube (10ml)
TEST LAB SPECIMEN REQUIRED
Reserpine Cornell Green top tube (10ml)
Rotavirus Electron Microscopy UKLDDC Feces/ice
Salmonella PCR IDEXX Feces
Selenium level Cornell Purple top tube/ice
Strep. equi PCR IDEXX Nasal/pharyngeal/guttural pouch wash
Titer IDEXX Red top tube (M-Protein)
Testosterone BET Red top tube
Vesticular Stomatitis UKLDDC Red top tube
Murray Red top tube
Virus isolation (Influenza & EHV) UKLDDC Tracheal wash fluid, pharyngeal lavage sample, nasal swab
Vitamin D MSU Red top tube on ice
Vitamin E Cornell Red top tube on ice
MSU Red top tube on ice
West Nile Virus IgM UKLDDC Red top tube

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LEGEND

AUBURN - Auburn University, Department of Pathobiology, Clinical Pathology Laboratory, 166 Greene Hall, Auburn University, AL 36849 (334) 844-2653

BET- BET, Inc. - 1501 Bull Lea Road, Suite 102, Lexington, KY 40511 (859) 273-3036

BIOMEDICAL - Bio-Medical Services, P.O. Box 26600, Austin, TX (800) 444-2370

CORNELL - Cornell University, Animal Health Diagnostic Center, Upper Tower Road, Ithaca, NY 14853 (607) 253-3900

GLUCK - Gluck Equine Research Center, 1400 Nicholasville Road, Lexington, KY 40546 (859) 257-4757

IDEXX - Equine Biodiagnostics, 1501 Bull Lea Road, Suite 104, Lexington, KY 40511 (800) 621-8378

HPA - HPA Laboratories Inc., 10338 Stony Run Lane, Ashland, VA 23005 (800) 730-0095

KSU - Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, 1800 Denison Avenue A-117, Manhattan, KS 66506 (785) 532-5650

LIMESTONE - Limestone Veterinary Laboratory, 1033 N. Limestone Street, Lexington, KY 40505 (859) 252-0415

MSU - Michigan State University, Diagnostic Center, 4125 Beaumont Road, Lansing, MI 48910 (517) 353-1683

MURRAY - Breathitt Veterinary Center, Murray State University, 715 North Drive, P.O. Box 2000, Hopkinsville, KY 42241 (270) 886-3959

NVSL - National Vet Services Laboratories, 1800 Dayton Avenue, Ames, IA 50010 (515) 663-7563

NEW BOLTON CENTER - University of Pennsylvania, 382 West Street Road, Kennett Square, PA 19348 (610) 444-5800

OSU - The Ohio State University, College Of Veterinary Medicine, 1925 Coffey Road, Columbus, OH 43210 (614) 688-4687

PENN - University of Pennsylvania, Clinical Pathology Laboratory, 3950 Delancey Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (215) 898-7874

UC DAVIS - UC Davis-VMTH, Building VMTH Room 1017, 1 Garrod Drive, Davis, CA 95616 (530) 752-7380

UKLDDC - University of Kentucky Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, 1429 Newtown Pike, Lexington, KY 40511 (859) 253-0571

UMINN - University of Minnesota, Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, 1333 Gortner Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108 (612) 625-8787

VetGen - Veterinary Genetics Lab, UC Davis, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616-8744 (530) 752-9780